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International Journal of Educational

Science and Research (IJESR)


ISSN (P): 2249–6947; ISSN (E): 2249–8052
Vol. 10, Issue 2, Apr 2020, 43–48
© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

SKILL AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN ASSAM AND THE ROLE


OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES

Dr. MOYURI SARMA


Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Gauhati University, Assam, India
ABSTRACT

Skill development is a prime focus, with an effort to do appropriate manpower planning and for answering the vital
question of employability and promoting entrepreneurship. The greatest challenge of the existing higher educational
institutions is to prepare the young minds competent enough to face the challenges of a volatile and market driven
economy. The current research is an effort to enquire the status of the Skill Development Programmes offered by the
Community Colleges functioning under the Directorate of Technical Education, Assam. For this purpose, the primary
data was gathered from the Principals of the select community. From the study, it has been found that skill development
courses are offered by 6 community colleges functioning under the Directorate of Technical Education, Assam. Through
the wide range of courses provided by the community colleges, the learners are provided with an opportunity to proceed
directly to the employment sector and to promote in economic progress.

Original Article
KEYWORDS: Skill Development, Community Colleges, Higher Education & Employability

Received: Feb 21, 2020; Accepted: Mar 11, 2020; Published: Apr 24, 2020; Paper Id.: IJESRAPR20205

INTRODUCTION

Skill development has become a buzz word these days in all educational, vocational/professional institutions and
universities. Both public and private sector institutions are now making special efforts to engage their students in
skill development activities and courses. India having a rich demographic dividend and the large human resource at
its stock still struggles to tap the youth potentialities. Hence, skill development is a prime focus in our effort to
develop human resources for various sectors as well as in promoting entrepreneurship. The primary focus of
education is a must to establish a complete human being. For that, skills need to be developed in all the domains to
live happy, productive and peaceful life. Hard skills are the key skills that are needed for innovation, creation,
construction and production in several areas like Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Biology, Engineering, and
Technology, Arts, Commerce, etc. Together with the Hard skills, there lies the significance of the soft skills too
which helps in our everyday living. The soft skills help us in communicating, engaging in dialogue, giving
feedback, cooperating as a team member, resolving conflict, etc. To be successful in one’s profession, there is a
requirement of a combination of both these skills which should be incorporated through a well balanced education
system.

The greatest challenge in molding the young minds after (10+2) standard lies in providing them with the
knowledge, skills and values for meaningful participation in a market driven economy. The skills, innovations and
creativity are the three planks which can strengthen the pace of economic growth by conforming to environment
friendly norms and emphasizing on optimum utilization of resources, both natural and human. In our country, about
one third of the students are enrolled in the Arts stream, 18.7% in science , 17.6% in Commerce/Management,

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44 Dr. Moyuri Sarma

16.1% in Engineering and Technology, 3.5% in Medicine & Education, 1.8% in Law and only 0.5% and 0.1% are pursuing
education in Agriculture and Allied and Veterinary Sciences.

As such, a shift is necessitated in the Indian education sector in general and the Higher Education sector in
particular to ensure a major influence of the Indian human resource within and outside the country. Skill development is a
mean to train the human resources in various sectors and in promoting entrepreneurship. While addressing these crucial
issues, the Skill Development Mission, a flagship programme of the present government was launched by the Hon’ble
Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 15July, 2015 on the occasion of World Youth Skills Day with much fanfare and aplomb.
Sachin Tendulkar, cricketer and youth icon is made the brand ambassador of the same. Providing youths with skill
development opportunities, for example through quality Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is
critical to give them future perspectives. TVET has direct links to the labour market and therefore helps mitigate structural
unemployment by providing training programmes that match current and future labour market needs. This also includes
promoting entrepreneurial and innovative skills for self-employment. TVET also contributes to personal development and
empower individuals to become active citizens.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of the study:

 To enquire the challenges of Skill development in India.

 To find out the UGC and AICTE Model of Community Colleges.

 To study the present status of the community colleges in Skill development in Assam.

CHALLENGES OF SKILL DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION IN INDIA

It is an agony for a country like India, which is the third largest education system in the world in terms of amount, but in
terms of standard, it does not match with the global standards. Majority of the higher educational institutions suffers due to
investment in laboratories, workshops, libraries and accordingly lag late in offering standard inputs. While teaching, major
institutions go around with conventional techniques of teaching with no implementation of best techniques like experiential
learning, activity based learning, problem solving techniques, etc. From the lack of program or task based classes, the area
of understanding of our students remains just theoretical. In the highly rivalry international situation, our education
structure requires to change from knowledge centric to skill centric academic elements. However, the traditional caste
based skill oriented society had the advantage of generating artisans and craft men in various trades via conventional
family association. However, there lies a serious lacking on the part of the policy makers to put special efforts for updating
and modernizing that expertise in the background of industrial revolution. In fact, the educated youths are not concerned in
vocational classes and hence, our expertise eco structures do not enhance much in comparison to the nations like South
Korea, Taiwan and Malaysia. The school system in these countries has integrated skill development right from the
elementary level. It persuades students with a spirit of learning more during hands on sessions and this is how it is integral
into their characteristics and they never take account of studying several expertise as lesser compared to the educational
topics. Other side in our own nation, a mental obstacle was generated along with an impression which was formed by only
students. Those were moderate in academic performance or those quitted from formal education must try their hands in
skill development courses. Further, India as a nation have a huge problem ahead as it predicted that only 4.69% of the

Impact Factor (JCC): 6.7094 NAAS Rating: 4.16


Skill and Entrepreneurship Development in Assam and The Role of Community Colleges 45

entire workforce in India has completed official expertise coaching in comparison to 68% in UK, 75% in Germany, 52% in
USA, 80% in Japan and 96% in South Korea.

This present emphasis of teaching is shifting from conventional teaching to integrated teaching i.e, linking
expertise and knowledge from number of origins and experiences or imposing expertise and practice in several settings are
being combined to one’s teaching experience. In order to train students in the skill based vocational courses, this kind of
approach in an urgent necessity.

Skill Development Efforts through Community Colleges

The XII Five Year Plan document on higher education has recommended to establish community colleges in the nation to
develop workforce for various requirements, like, career oriented education and skills for students for direct entry into
workforce, contracted training and education for local placement, job oriented training for secondary graduates who are not
interested for traditional general education and specific community based education for personal development on their
interest. This community college concept is mooted for operation in two ways: to operate by the UGC through community
colleges and by the AICTE through the existing Polytechnics.

The UGC has approved about 240 Community Colleges during 2014-15 and 2015-16 while AICTE has approved
120 Community Polytechnics to introduce community courses in the country. These Community Colleges could be an
affiliated college of a university or an autonomous/constituent college. On the other hand, the AICTE proposed to cater
these community courses through the existing polytechnics.

The UGC Model of Community Colleges

The UGC model of Community Colleges covers both vocational skill development and traditional courseware so that its
products comprise of the workforce required by the market. These schemes of community college of the UGC are being
implemented initially in 200 colleges and universities. These colleges though may be established by a university or a
college will remain as a separate entity within the existing/ parent University/Colleges. These colleges may offer
community courses in modular structures, i.e., a certificate on completion of one semester, a Diploma on completion of
two semesters and Advanced Diploma on completion of four semesters. This model also provides mechanism for
monitoring, evaluation and updation of curriculum for various courses to be offered. In addition, the assessment of the skill
of the learners will be done by the National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF). This model will also allow
community colleges to offer short term certificate programs of various duration for skill enhancement in some specific
fields - especially, related to industries/work field, etc. This model also keeps in mind the empowerment of community
people of a locality with an appropriate skill development course.

Objectives of Community Colleges

 To create higher education applicable to the learner and the community.

 To combine applicable expertise into higher education system.

 To offer skill based education to students who are doing higher education presently, but actually intended to reach
the workforce at the earliest opportunity.

 To offer employable and certifiable skills based on National Occupational Standards (NOS) with necessarily

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46 Dr. Moyuri Sarma

common education to Senior Secondary School pass-outs with common education or vocational education
background.

Table 1: UGC Model of Community Colleges in Assam


Sl. Intake Sanctioned
Name of College Subjects Offered University
No. Capacity Year
Diploma in (a) Hospital Administration and Gauhati
1 A. D. P College 50 2014-15
(b) Tea Plantation and Management University
(i)Diploma in Office Management & IT
Dibrugarh
2 Amguri College Application; and (ii) Advance Diploma in 50 2014-15
University
Computer
Diploma in (i) Civil Construction Dbrugarh
3 Bahona College 50 2014
Supervision; and (ii) Printing Technology University
B. H. College , Diploma in (a)Food Processing and Gauhati
4 50 2014-15
Howly Preservation; and (b) Tourism University
Diploma in (a) Health Care Nursing and (b) Gauhati
5 Chaiduar College 50 2015
Theatre& Entertainment University
Dakhin Kamrup Diploma in (a)Computer Application and IT Gauhati
6 50 2015
College and (b) Mass Communication University
Advance Diploma in (i)Pulp and Paper Gauhati
7 Jagiroad College 50 2014-15
Technology(ii)Fashion Technology University
Jengraimukh Certificate;Diploma and Advance Diploma Dibrugarh
8 50 2014
College in Food Processing and Preservation University
Diploma in (i) TeaPlantation and
Dibrugarh
9 Namrup College Management and (ii) Office Automation 50 2014
University
and E-Sevice
North Lakhimpur Advance Diploma inn (a)Sericulture, Dibrugarh
10 50 2014
College and(b)Office Automation E-Governance University
Diploma in Pisciculture and (b) Retail Gauhati
11 Raha College 50 2015
Management University
Certificate and Diploma courses in (a) Gauhati
12 Rupahi College 50 2015
Computer Application and(b) Fishery University
Gauhati
13 Tihu College Diploma in Food Processing 50 2015
University
6months Advance Certificate Course in (i)
Uttar Kampith Gauhati
14 Dress Designing & Tailoring and (ii) Beauty 50 2014-15
Mahavidyalaya University
Hair and Hair Dressing
Diploma in
(a) Retail Management Assam
15 Cachar College 50 2015
(b) Farm Management and Agriculture University
Business
Source: UGC Website-www.ugc.ac.in>pdfnews>List_Commu

Apart from the above mentioned colleges listed in the UGC website, there are few other colleges under Dibrugarh
University namely, Digboi College, Dikhowmukh College, L. T. K. College, Sibsagar Commerce College, Sibsagar Girls
College and Jorhat Kendriya Maha vidyalaya offering Skill based courses under the Community College Programme. The
curriculum has been designed in alignment with NOS (National Occupational Standard) and NSQF (National Skill
Qualification Framework)

The Community College under Assam University, Silchar started Vocational Education Programme and Training
for learners at the undergraduate level since the year 2015-16. The Community College offers one year full-time Diploma
in Photography and Video Production having an intake capacity of 50 students. Along with this the UGC sponsored
Bachelor of Vocation (B.Voc.) Degree Programme on (i) Food Processing (ii) Farm Machinery and Power Technology

Impact Factor (JCC): 6.7094 NAAS Rating: 4.16


Skill and Entrepreneurship Development in Assam and The Role of Community Colleges 47

was also started in the year 2015 with a view to impart the knowledge and technical skills needed for employment and
entrepreneurship in the commercial food and agro based industrial sector. The syllabus of the B.Voc. Programme was
established in order with the model syllabus suggested by Sector Skill Councils for several Qualifications Packs, with a
judicious mix of hands on experience, theoretical aspects, field and industry visits, National Occupational Standards,
personality development, training and internships.

The AICTE Model of Community Colleges (Polytechnics)

As per the AICTE Model, manpower need to be increased for more employment/self-employment for which the coaching
should be requirement based, and must offer employable/self-employable expertise. This will create a pool of skilled and
knowledge based human resource.

In Community Polytechnics, it is aimed that all training programmes should be based on the market requirements.
It also allows offering various short trades and short terming non-formal, modular courses of ‘3-6 months’ duration, relying
on the available domestic requirements and obtainable domestic resources. These courses are made flexible to pave the
way for self-paced open learning mode as well as can accommodate in-service/self-employed people for skill
enhancement. The AICTE Model also allows multi-skill training to make self-employment viable in the rural economy or
to meet the interest of the trainees as per the needs of domestic comprehensive industries/market/need of a specific country.

Status of Community Colleges in Assam

Table 2: AICTE Model of Community Colleges in Assam


Sl. Intake
Community College Hosting at Courses offered
No. capacity
100
(i)Automobile Technology (Vehicle testing)
1 Assam Engineering Institute, Guwahati
(ii) Construction(Building Technology
100
2 Girls Polytechnic, Guwahati Front Office Management Operation (FOMO) 100
100
Prince of Walse Institute, Farm Machinery and Power(Tea Factory Technician)
3
Jorhat Drilling Technical (Oil Drilling)
100
Mechanist-1 100
4 Dibrugarh Polytechnic
Electrical Equipment Maintenance and House Wiring 100
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning 100
5 Silchar Polytechnic
Automobile (2-3 Wheelers) 100
Electrical Equipment Maintenance 100
6 Bongaigaon Polytechnic
Auto electrical and electrics 100
Source: Directorate of Technical Education, Assam

Apart from the above mentioned institutions, a number of Polytechnic Institutions are coming up in all together 21
districts across the state to serve the purpose of skill oriented vocational training in the model of Community Colleges. All
training programmes are perfectly planned through graded exercises, keeping in point the market needs for several trades.
Short term non-formal, modular classes of 3-6 months period, rely upon the domestic requirements and commensurate with
the obtainable domestic resources, yet having the necessary flexibility to pave the way for self paced open learning mode.
Depending on domestic conditions in certain scenarios, Multi-Skill coaching may also be provided to create self
employment viable in rural economy.

As per the Government rule each recognized Polytechnic must carry a study for ascertaining preferential
requirements for skill training programme of a cluster of 10 to 20 villages every year. DRDA, NGOS, Voluntary Agencies,

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48 Dr. Moyuri Sarma

Village Panchayat and retired teachers, engineers and other reputed persons may be requested to be involved with this
process.

The identified Polytechnics must focus the lower and deprived sections in both urban and rural regions
particularly Women, SCs/STs, OBCs, minorities, School dropouts, Street children, physically handicapped, financially
weaker sections of the society and the under-privileged persons.

CONCLUSIONS

Vocational or Skill based education is definitely a good path to include a new view to the career for a great future. The
classes improve the employability of a student and were important as they not only support in youth empowerment, but
also help to national growth. Vocational courses specially designed by the Community Colleges must be properly managed
with effective career. To conclude, it may be stated that higher education has seen huge expansion and so has the
population. The shortage of skilled manpower worldwide especially in India needs to be addressed with a revolution in
terms of views, attitudes and a clear understanding of tremendous opportunities in a fast changing society.

REFERENCES

1. AICTE (2013), Community Colleges Scheme, AICTE (2012-13). AICTE, New Delhi.

2. Assam University website-http:www.aus.ac.in

3. Directorate of Technical Education, Assam website- www.dteassam.in

4. Ekundayo B. Babatunde & Babatunde E. Durowaiye, “The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurial
Intentions among Nigerian Undergraduates”, IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Literature
(IMPACT: IJRHAL), Vol. 2, Issue 11, pp.15-26

5. K. Kalidas & K. Mahendran, “Review Paper on Business Incubation – A Way for Sustainable Entrepreneurship
Development”, International Journal of Business and General Management (IJBGM), Vol. 5, Issue 4, pp. 25-32

6. Rajkonwar, B. A.(2015) Relevance of Skill and Entrepreneurship Development in Higher Education with Special Reference to
Dibrugarh University in University News , vol. 53 No. 48 pp.55-62.

7. R. Lavanya Kumari & J. Venkatesh, “A Case Study on Women Entrepreneurship and the Opportunity to Promote India’s
Development”, International Journal of Human Resource Management and Research (IJHRMR), Vol. 8, Issue 5, pp. 27-34

8. Saikia, R.(2015) Issues on Skill Development in India, in University News , vol. 53 No. 48 pp.30-35.

9. Towseef Mohi Ud Din, “Handicraft Entrepreneurship: Tool for Economic Development in Rural Economy”, IASET: Journal
of Humanities and Social Sciences (IASET: JHSS), Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp. 1-4

10. UGC (2011), Approach Paper on Higher Education for 12th Five year Plan, UGC, New Delhi.

11. UGC (2013), UGC Guideline for Community Colleges: Scheme of Community Colleges for Universities and Colleges (2012-
2017). UGC, New Delhi.

Impact Factor (JCC): 6.7094 NAAS Rating: 4.16