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OML 58 Upgrade Phase 1 Document Number :

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021
Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
Document Type : PRC System / Subsystem : hold Zone : 00 Rev. Date : 14-Jan-2010
Page 1 of 17

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION


PROCEDURE

ORIGINAL SIGNED
Rev. Status Rev. Date Revision Memo Issued by Checked by Approved by

D0 IFA 14 Jan 2010 Issue for Approval S. Stamuli S. Stamuli T. Rodriguez

C0 IFR 19 Nov 2009 Issue for Review S. Stamuli S. Stamuli T. Rodriguez

This document has been generated by an Electronic Document System. When printed it is considered as a for information only copy. The” controlled copy” is the
screen version and it is the holder’s responsibility that he/she holds the latest valid version.

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021_D0.doc
OML 58 Upgrade Phase 1 Document Number :

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021
Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
Document Type : PRC System / Subsystem : hold Zone : 00 Rev. Date : 14-Jan-2010
Page 2 of 17

REVISION DESCRIPTION

Rev. index Revision Description


C0 Issue for Review

D0 Issue for Approval – Company comments included

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021_D0.doc
OML 58 Upgrade Phase 1 Document Number :

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021
Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
Document Type : PRC System / Subsystem : hold Zone : 00 Rev. Date : 14-Jan-2010
Page 3 of 17

INDEX

INDEX...........................................................................................................................................................................................3

1. SCOPE AND PURPOSE.....................................................................................................................................................5


1.1. GENERAL .......................................................................................................................................................................5
1.2. OBJECTIVES ...................................................................................................................................................................5
1.3. DEFINITIONS ..................................................................................................................................................................5
1.4. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS ...............................................................................................................................................6
1.4.1. Contractor documents..........................................................................................................................................6
1.4.2. Company documents ............................................................................................................................................6
1.4.3. Codes and Standards ...........................................................................................................................................6
2. DOCUMENTS TO BE DELIVERED................................................................................................................................8

3. EXCAVATION....................................................................................................................................................................9
3.1. DEFINITION OF EXCAVATION TYPES ...............................................................................................................................9
3.1.1. Topsoil removal....................................................................................................................................................9
3.1.2. General excavation ..............................................................................................................................................9
3.1.3. Limited section excavation...................................................................................................................................9
3.2. DEFINITION OF EXCAVATION ACCORDING TO THE SOIL NATURE .....................................................................................9
3.2.1. Hearth excavation ................................................................................................................................................9
3.2.2. Soft rock excavation .............................................................................................................................................9
3.2.3. Hard rock excavation...........................................................................................................................................9
3.2.4. Excavation in water .............................................................................................................................................9
3.3. METHODS OF EXCAVATION ..........................................................................................................................................10
3.3.1. Requirements......................................................................................................................................................10
3.3.2. Tolerances..........................................................................................................................................................10
3.4. WORK PROCEDURES .............................................................................................................................................10
3.4.1. Company’s requirements and obligations..........................................................................................................10
3.4.2. Contractor’s obligations ....................................................................................................................................11
3.4.3. Activities subjected to approval .........................................................................................................................11
3.4.4. Use of excavation materials ...............................................................................................................................11
4. BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION ..........................................................................................................................12
4.1. CLASSIFICATION OF FILL..............................................................................................................................................12
4.1.1. Material from excavation...................................................................................................................................12
4.1.2. Material from borrow pits..................................................................................................................................12
4.2. FILL ACCORDING TO DESTINATION ..............................................................................................................................12
4.2.1. Structural fill for general filling of areas and for embankments........................................................................12
4.2.2. Structural fill for general filling of areas with existing works ...........................................................................12
4.2.3. Structural fill for tank foundations.....................................................................................................................12
4.2.4. Non-structural filling for bund walls .................................................................................................................12
4.2.5. Non-structural filling for areas ..........................................................................................................................12
4.2.6. Non-structural backfilling of trench excavation ................................................................................................13
4.2.7. Replacing unsuitable material ...........................................................................................................................13
4.2.8. Foundations for concrete pavement...................................................................................................................13
4.3. MATERIAL ...................................................................................................................................................................13
4.3.1. General requirements.........................................................................................................................................13
4.3.2. Special requirements for material from borrow pit ...........................................................................................13
4.3.3. Material for tank foundations ............................................................................................................................13
4.3.4. Material for bund walls, non-structural backfilling and filling .........................................................................14

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021_D0.doc
OML 58 Upgrade Phase 1 Document Number :

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021
Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
Document Type : PRC System / Subsystem : hold Zone : 00 Rev. Date : 14-Jan-2010
Page 4 of 17

4.3.5. Material for replacing unsuitable material and for concrete-pavement foundations ........................................14
4.4. FILLING WORKS ...........................................................................................................................................................14
4.4.1. Setting out ..........................................................................................................................................................14
4.4.2. Preparation of subgrade ....................................................................................................................................14
4.4.3. Methods of construction.....................................................................................................................................14
4.4.4. Tolerances..........................................................................................................................................................16
4.5. SURFACE FINISHING .....................................................................................................................................................17
4.5.1. Topsoiling ..........................................................................................................................................................17
4.5.2. Placing of gravel layer.......................................................................................................................................17

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021_D0.doc
OML 58 Upgrade Phase 1 Document Number :

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021
Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
Document Type : PRC System / Subsystem : hold Zone : 00 Rev. Date : 14-Jan-2010
Page 5 of 17

1. SCOPE AND PURPOSE


1.1. GENERAL

OML58 Block, operated by TOTAL E&P Nigeria Ltd, is located in Nigeria, at some 75km North-West from
Port Harcourt, close to the villages of OBITE and OGBOGU.
The project is composed of five main parts:

• OGBOGU FS (Flow Station), which is an existing oil treatment plant,


• OBITE TC Treatment Center which is an existing gas treatment plant
• OGBOGU CLUSTER (Production Center), which is an existing gas production cluster,
• IPP-GSU (Gas Supply Unit for the Integrated Power Plant), which is a new unit (grass root)
dedicated to the future IPP (not in Contractor SOW)],
• Interconnecting pipelines and cables.
In addition to the process parts, there are:
• OBAGI Global Restricted Area (OBAGI GRA)
• OBITE Global Restricted Area (OBITE GRA)

TOTAL E&P Nigeria Ltd, intend to upgrade the OML 58 facilities and mainly increase the gas export capacity
from 9.5 to 15.65 MMSCMD (Million Metric Standard Cubic Meter per Day) of marketable gas.

1.2. OBJECTIVES

This procedure defines the types, methods and procedures of excavation, backfilling and compaction.
Excavation by means of explosives is not covered by this General Specification.
This procedure applies to topsoil removal, general excavation, limited section excavation, made in soil, soft
or hard rock, whether in the presence of water or not.

1.3. DEFINITIONS

COMPANY TOTAL E&P NIGERIA LIMITED

CONTRACTOR The Consortium made of SAIPON SNC, SCNL, PNL & DESICON
Engineering

PROJECT OML 58 UPGRADE PHASE 1

Construction Team SCNL and/or PNL personnel, who will be in charge of self-performed
CONTRACTOR’s activities

Home Office SAIPON’s head office (Paris, France and/or Port Harcourt, Nigeria)

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021_D0.doc
OML 58 Upgrade Phase 1 Document Number :

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021
Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
Document Type : PRC System / Subsystem : hold Zone : 00 Rev. Date : 14-Jan-2010
Page 6 of 17

1.4. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

This procedure shall be used in conjunction with the Contract documentation, any special requirements, and
the documents listed below.

1.4.1. Contractor documents

NG22-280-CIV-SPD-000027 Earthworks and site preparation specification


NG22-280-CST-SPD-006006 Excavation safety

1.4.2. Company documents


-
GS EP CIV 102 Dredging and filling up
GS EP CIV 201 Design and construction of roads and stabilised areas
GS EP GEO 102 Onshore geotechnical soil survey
GS EP GEO 303 Onshore land surveying and positioning works

1.4.3. Codes and Standards

International Standards
ISO 9862 Geosynthetics Sampling and preparation of test specimens
Geosynthetics - Determination of Thickness at Specified Pressures - Part
ISO 9863-1
1: Single layers
Geotextiles and Geotextile-Related Products - Determination of Thickness
ISO 9863-2 at Specified Pressures Part 2: Procedure for Determination of Thickness of
Single Layers of Multilayer Products
Geotextiles and Geotextile-Related Products - Determination of Thickness
ISO 9864 at Specified Pressures Part 2: Procedure for Determination of Thickness of
Single Layers of Multilayer Products
ISO 10321 Geotextiles - Tensile Test for Joints/Seams by Wide-Width Method
Geotextiles and Geotextile-Related Products - Determination of Water
ISO 11058
Permeability Characteristics Normal to the Plane, without Load
Geotextiles and Geotextile-Related Products - Determination of the
ISO 12956
Characteristic Opening Size
Geosynthetics Determination of friction characteristics Part 1: Direct shear
ISO 12957-1
test
Geosynthetics Determination of friction characteristics Part 2: Inclined
ISO 12957-2
plane test
Geotextiles and Geotextile-Related Products - Determination of Water
ISO 12958
Flow Capacity in Their Plane-CORR 16433: June 2006
Geotextiles and geotextile-related products Strength of internal structural
ISO 13426-1
junctions Part 1: Geocells
Geotextiles and geotextile-related products Strength of internal structural
ISO 13426-2
junctions Part 2: Geocomposites
Geotextiles and Geotextile-Related Products - Determination of Tensile
ISO 13431
Creep and Creep Rupture Behaviour
American standards
Practice for Dry preparation of Soil Samples for Particle-size. Analysis and
ASTM D 421
Determination of Soil Constant

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021_D0.doc
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EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021
Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
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ASTM D 422 Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils


ASTM D 854 Test Method for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer
Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Sand Cone
ASTM D 1556
Method
Test Method for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using
ASTM D 1557
Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 Kn-m/m3))
Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of Laboratory-Compacted
ASTM D 1883
Soils
Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by Rubber
ASTM D 2167
Balloon Method
Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of
ASTM D 2216
Soil and Rock by Mass
Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification
ASTM D 2487
System)
Test Methods for Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate in Place by Nuclear
ASTM D 2922
Methods (Shallow Depth)
ASTM D 2937 Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
Test Method for Water Content of Soil and Rock in Place by Nuclear
ASTM D 3017
Methods (Shallow Depth)
Standard Classification of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway
ASTM D 3282
Construction Purposes
ASTM D 4318 Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils
Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a
ASTM D 4253
Vibratory Table
Test Method for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and
ASTM D 4254
Calculation of Relative Density
Standard Test Method for Deterioration of Geotextiles by Exposure to
ASTM D 4355
Light, Moisture and Heat in a Xenon Arc Type Apparatus
ASTM D 4429 Standard Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of soil in place.
Standard Test Methods for Water Permeability of Geotextiles by
ASTM D 4491
Permittivity
ASTM D 4533 Standard Test Method for Trapezoid Tearing Strength of Geotextiles
Standard Practice for Determining the Integrity of Factory Seams Used in
ASTM D 4545
Joining Manufactured Flexible Sheet Geomembranes
Standard Test Method for Effects of Temperature on Stability of
ASTM D 4594
Geotextiles
Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Geotextiles by the Wide-
ASTM D 4595
Width Strip Method
Standard Test Method for Grab Breaking Load and Elongation of
ASTM D 4632
Geotextiles
Standard Test Method for Index Puncture Resistance of Geotextiles,
ASTM D 4833
Geomembranes, and Related Products
British standards and codes
BS 5906 Waste management in buildings code of practice
BS 6031 Code of Practice for Earthworks
BS 6068 Series Water Quality

Moreover, the legislation in force in the country where the works are performed has to be followed.

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021_D0.doc
OML 58 Upgrade Phase 1 Document Number :

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021
Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
Document Type : PRC System / Subsystem : hold Zone : 00 Rev. Date : 14-Jan-2010
Page 8 of 17

2. DOCUMENTS TO BE DELIVERED
Before starting the demolition, site preparation works, foundation excavation or base course works, the
following documents shall be established by SUB CONTRACTOR and approved by CONTRACTOR and
COMPANY:
(1) Soil transportation plan,
(2) Temporary facilities (roads, drainage, storage, etc.) plan,
(3) List of construction equipment to be used (type, capacity, number, etc.),
(4) Detailed list of laboratory equipment and mobilized personnel for performance of scheduled
tests,
(5) Earthwork method to be employed,
(6) Compaction trial test methodology for type 1 and type 2 backfilling,
(7) “Settlement follow up system” installation methodology and material description,
(8) Work schedule,
(9) Quality control plan,
(10) All necessary documents for the control of the construction phases,
(11) Testing methods to be employed,
(12) Test and Inspection plan,
(13) Safety analysis plan (including Job Method Statement and Job Safety Analysis),
(14) Health and Environmental Plan (including Waste Management and supervision),
(15) List of human resources mobilized for the works (including control testing).

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021_D0.doc
OML 58 Upgrade Phase 1 Document Number :

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021
Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
Document Type : PRC System / Subsystem : hold Zone : 00 Rev. Date : 14-Jan-2010
Page 9 of 17

3. EXCAVATION

3.1. DEFINITION OF EXCAVATION TYPES

3.1.1. Topsoil removal


Topsoil removal means the excavation made along the ground profile to an average depth of 0.50 m below
ground level, in soils of any nature and consistency excluding rock, to remove the superficial soil layer.
Topsoil removal also includes clearing of bush, grass, shrubs, and other unsuitable material (for example
debris); this material shall be removed using the same mechanical equipment as for topsoil removal (for
example bulldozer, payloader, etc.).

3.1.2. General excavation


General excavation means excavation made at any depth, with a horizontal surface area greater than 150 m²
and a minimum width of 3.50 m. As an example, general excavation includes, but is not limited to, excavation
for grading and levelling of plant or construction areas, for cutting of embankments, for construction of yards,
roads, channels, buildings, pipe ways, foundations of storage tanks, prilling and cooling towers, etc.

3.1.3. Limited section excavation


• Excavation for foundation works: this means limited section excavation made for footings, continuous
foundations, foundations for machinery, equipment and steel structures, pits, walls, concrete
trenches, etc.
• Trench excavation: Trench excavation means limited section excavation for laying of sewers,
aqueducts, pipes and ducts in general, electric and instrument cables, etc. Trench excavation also
covers excavation for making openings in tank earth dikes for the passage of pipes, cables and/or
equipment, as well as excavation for construction of ditches.

3.2. DEFINITION OF EXCAVATION ACCORDING TO THE SOIL NATURE

3.2.1. Earth excavation


Earth excavation means any excavation in soil of any nature and consistency, which can be carried out
without the use of a ripper, even in the presence of stones provided the volume of individual stones does not
exceed 0.5 m3.

3.2.2. Soft rock excavation


Soft rock excavation means any excavation in soft rock with uniaxial compressive strength less than 25 MPa;
these rocks can normally be broken by suitable mechanical equipment and/or by ripper single cut.

3.2.3. Hard rock excavation


Hard rock excavation means any excavation in compact rock with uniaxial compressive strength 25 MPa or
greater; these rocks can normally be broken only by mechanic methods and/or pneumatic jack hammer.
Removal of individual stones with volume not less than 0.50 m3 during earth or soft rock excavation shall be
regarded as excavation in hard rock.

3.2.4. Excavation in water


Excavation in water means any part of excavation made below the level of the water table and in the
constant presence of groundwater such as to require the installation and continuous use of drainage systems
and/or equipment.

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021_D0.doc
OML 58 Upgrade Phase 1 Document Number :

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021
Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
Document Type : PRC System / Subsystem : hold Zone : 00 Rev. Date : 14-Jan-2010
Page 10 of 17

3.3. METHODS OF EXCAVATION

3.3.1. Requirements
The requirements in this procedure shall apply whichever the geological soil nature may be and in the
presence or not of water.
All excavations shall comply with the sizes and elevations indicated in the Drawings and/or required by the
Company.
With reference to the bench marks established by the Company, the Contractor shall set out the works in
accordance with the elevations and alignments indicated on construction drawings.
The bottoms of foundation excavations shall be made perfectly horizontal and/or levelled to the specified
elevation.
The surfacing soil turned by mechanical equipment shall be removed or compacted.
To avoid collapse, the Contractor shall carry out any temporary works required for supporting the sides of
limited section excavations using shoring props, supports and reinforcement of any kind and size, including
steel sheet piles or equivalent.
The use of explosives is forbidden.
Drainage of water from excavations, if required, must be carried out using suitable equipment such as, for
example, motor driven suction pumps, submersible pumps, or well-point systems. The drainage operations
shall continue until the Works are completed, unless otherwise agreed with Company.
Dumped materials resulting from excavations shall not be prejudicial to the works, to the free drainage of
surface water, or to existing structures.
Roots, shrubs, debris, plants, etc. from topsoil removal must always be transported to dump areas.

3.3.2. Tolerances
Tolerances on finished excavation, for dimensions, elevations and positioning specified on design drawings,
shall be as follows:

TOLERANCES

excavation bottom elevation: +20/-50 mm

slope and/or deviation of excavation


bottom surface referred to the level
required and/or determined by the 30 mm
excavation bottom level tolerance

slope position (referred to excavation center line) +150/-10 mm

excavation center line (for limited section excavation) + 40/-40 mm

The specified slopes shall be complied with, notwithstanding the application of the tolerances mentioned
above.

3.4. WORK PROCEDURES

3.4.1. Company’s requirements and obligations


Levels and coordinates shall be referred to the bench marks indicated by the Company.
The Contractor may require part of the limited section excavation to be carried out during plant erection, by
means of any kind of excavators, provided these machines are of a size suitable for the locations and
sections of excavation within the plant areas.

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
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OML 58 Upgrade Phase 1 Document Number :

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021
Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
Document Type : PRC System / Subsystem : hold Zone : 00 Rev. Date : 14-Jan-2010
Page 11 of 17

3.4.2. Contractor’s obligations


The Contractor shall make his considerations, based on the information concerning the sub-soil, for the best
development of slopes, slope stability, and selection of the most suitable systems and equipment that are
necessary for excavation of any type and size.
The Contractor shall not commence excavation before agreeing with the Company on the elevations of the
ground before excavation.
No construction shall be started before the Company has checked and approved the excavation levels and
formation.
If the excavation bottom is of unsuitable soil the Contractor shall inform the Company and wait for
instructions before carrying out further works.

3.4.3. Activities subjected to approval


The Contractor may for his own reasons extend the excavation beyond the required design dimensions only
with the prior written approval of the Company.
In such a case, the additional excavation performed shall not be included in the bill of quantities for payment;
the Contractor shall provide at his expense the backfilling of the greater volume of excavation and perform
the relevant compaction, using suitable material in accordance with the present specification.
The choice of the system/equipment to be used for the removal of groundwater shall be agreed and
approved by the Company, after careful evaluation of the documents produced by Contractor to support the
proposed system/equipment, either before the commencement of the works or when groundwater is
encountered during excavation.
The use (installation, activation, deactivation and removal) of the system/equipment mentioned under
previous paragraph shall normally be agreed and approved by the Company.
If access and/or operation with mechanical equipment is impossible from any location, or if excavation is
close to existing underground networks (pipes, cables) or foundations, excavation may be performed by hand
or by jack hammer only after verification and written approval by the Company.

3.4.4. Use of excavation materials


The materials resulting from excavation of any kind shall remain the property of the Company.
The material from excavation, if considered suitable, in the quantity/volume necessary for backfilling, after
completing the excavation works shall normally be spread near the excavation, after the Contractor has
verified that all the safety requirements concerning minimum distances from the excavation edge are strictly
complied with.
If the material from excavation is not used immediately for backfilling, it shall be stock piled in a proper area
approved by the Company inside the plant area and/or construction site, for later use.
The materials which cannot be re-used or are considered unsuitable for other works shall be dumped in an
area agreed with the Company either inside or outside the plant area and/or construction site.
If the Contractor has to find the dumping areas outside the plant area and/or construction site boundaries, the
Contractor shall submit to the Company a list of these areas and their relevant distances. The Company can
either choose one of the solutions proposed by the Contractor or other solutions considered more
appropriate.

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021_D0.doc
OML 58 Upgrade Phase 1 Document Number :

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021
Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
Document Type : PRC System / Subsystem : hold Zone : 00 Rev. Date : 14-Jan-2010
Page 12 of 17

4. BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION


4.1. CLASSIFICATION OF FILL

4.1.1. Material from excavation


Material coming from stock piles located in the site area and/or coming directly from excavation operations.

4.1.2. Material from borrow pits


Material supplied from borrow pits located inside and/or outside the plant and/or construction site area.

4.2. FILL ACCORDING TO DESTINATION

4.2.1. Structural fill for general filling of areas and for embankments
This fill is to be used for general filling to design elevations in areas to be subsequently used as support of
the following:
- reinforced concrete foundations (footing, raft, etc.)
- buildings
- reinforced concrete basins and trenches
- storage tanks
- subbase and base courses for roads, parking areas, operating areas for trucks, cranes, etc.
- local replacing of unsuitable material
- paved areas
- pipeway.

4.2.2. Structural fill for general filling of areas with existing works
This structural fill and/or backfill is to fill to design elevations the areas to be subsequently used as support of
the works listed at paragraph 4.2.1 above, and is carried out in the presence of existing foundations and/or
above-mentioned works (isolated or in blocks). Filling and backfilling are eventually carried out manually
when the limited space does not allow the use of mechanical equipment.

4.2.3. Structural fill for tank foundations


Tank pad
This structural fill can be used on the whole bearing surface the tank load, or inside a reinforced concrete or
crushed-stone ring; depending on requirements, the filling material may be:
a) soil-aggregate mixture
b) granular material
c) sand

Ring
This structural fill made of crushed stone is used to form the trapezoidal section ring, which shall bear the
load transmitted by the tank shell.

4.2.4. Non-structural filling for bund walls


This fill is to be used for non-structural embankments, for example retaining walls for storage tanks, basins,
evaporation ponds, etc.

4.2.5. Non-structural filling for areas


This is to fill to design elevations the areas not to be subsequently used as support of the works listed at
paragraph 4.2.1 above, gravelled areas, and open areas where filling is required only to reach design
elevations.

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021_D0.doc
OML 58 Upgrade Phase 1 Document Number :

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021
Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
Document Type : PRC System / Subsystem : hold Zone : 00 Rev. Date : 14-Jan-2010
Page 13 of 17

4.2.6. Non-structural backfilling of trench excavation


This backfilling is to be carried out after laying buried cables and/or pipes in areas not to be used as support
of the works listed at paragraph 4.2.1 above.

4.2.7. Replacing unsuitable material


This fill is to replace the existing soil (if unsuitable) with a better material.

4.2.8. Foundations for concrete pavement


This fill, with thickness between 150 and 300 mm, is to adequately support concrete pavement; it is to be
properly shaped according to the pavement slope to maintain a uniform thickness of the pavement.

4.3. MATERIAL

4.3.1. General requirements


Material from excavation, which the Company considers suitable for the various kinds of filling to be done,
shall be used up completely. In any case the contractor shall request the Company’s written authorization
before using this material.
Should suitable material from excavation be insufficient for the required filling, the amounts of materials
needed shall be taken from borrow pits, provided that they meet the requirements for the various types of
filling.
The contractor shall carry out all preliminary checks and laboratory tests on material samples from borrow
pits in order to verify their suitability for the various kinds of filling. The number and type of tests shall be
agreed upon with the Company. The results of the tests shall be submitted to the Company for approval of
the materials before the commencement of the works.
All or part of the material from borrow pits or excavation may require preliminary treatment (sieving, crushing,
mixing or other treatment) before being suitable for use as fill.
The necessity to apply the above treatments, and the treatment type and methods, shall be established after
laboratory tests and analysis performed by the contractor.
For material from excavation, before approving any treatments the Company reserves the right to evaluate
their cost-effectiveness as compared with material from borrow pits.

4.3.2. Special requirements for material from borrow pit


For the fill referred to in paragraphs 4.2.1 and 4.2.2, the material shall meet the requirements of ASTM
standard D 3282 for granular materials of groups A-1, A-2-4, A-2-5 and A-3.
The use of material having maximum particle size greater than 75 mm is not allowed.

4.3.3. Material for tank foundations


Tank pad
a) Soil-aggregate mixture: for this fill the material shall meet the requirements of ASTM standard D 1241.
b) Granular material: for this fill the material shall meet the requirements of ASTM standard D 3282 for
granular material of group A-1-a.
The use of material having maximum particle size greater than 75 mm is not allowed.
c) Sand
For this fill the sand shall consist of lithoid, natural or crushed material, passing the No. 10 sieve (2.00 mm)
and retained on the No. 200 sieve (0.075 mm).
The sand shall be free from organic matter or clay, well graded, and consist of hard particles (not coming
from decomposed or gypsum rocks).
Ring
For these embankments the material shall consist of coarse/finely crushed stone of well graded sizes
between 10 and 70 mm. Crushed stone may be crushed rock or crushed pebbles. Crushed stone shall be
free of deleterious parts, have sharp edges (in any case with predominance of crushed surfaces over
rounded surfaces), and shall neither be too elongated nor too flaky.

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
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OML 58 Upgrade Phase 1 Document Number :

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


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Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
Document Type : PRC System / Subsystem : hold Zone : 00 Rev. Date : 14-Jan-2010
Page 14 of 17

The weight percent loss due to abrasion shall not exceed 50, in accordance with ASTM standards C 131 and
C 535.

4.3.4. Material for bund walls, non-structural backfilling and filling


For this fill, which is referred to in paragraphs 4.2.4, 4.2.5 and 4.2.6, the material shall meet the requirements
of ASTM standard D 3282 for granular material of groups A-1, A-2 and A-3, and for silt-clay materials of
groups A-4, A-5 and A-6.
The use of material having particles greater than 75 mm in size is not allowed.

4.3.5. Material for replacing unsuitable material and for concrete-pavement foundations
For these particular types of filling, which are referred to in paragraphs 4.2.7 and 4.2.8, unless otherwise
specified in the project documents, the materials to be used shall be in accordance with ASTM standard D
1241.

4.4. FILLING WORKS

4.4.1. Setting out


The contractor shall set out the works in accordance with the elevations and alignments specified on
construction drawings, with reference to the bench marks fixed by the employer.
The contractor shall take account of deductions from finished levels due to the thicknesses of trimming and
topsoiling layers, road subbases, etc.

4.4.2. Preparation of subgrade


The ground surface that shall support the first layer of fill shall be cleared of topsoil and vegetation through
soil stripping and removal and deforestation, if any.
Any facilities and equipment used during excavation, including propping for wall support, etc., shall be
removed from the excavation before and during backfilling.
In the event of interruption of fill construction, the work can be resumed only after removing the shrubs,
bushes and vegetation that may have grown, and after making the required furrows for connection of the new
materials with those previously employed.
If the subgrade is sloping more than 15%, stepped platforms shall be constructed, with steps about 0.30 m in
height and slope opposite to the ground slope.
After topsoil removal, the subgrade shall be compacted to at least 90% of the maximum dry unit weight
determined as per ASTM standard D 1557. The water content of the material shall range between -3% and
+5% the laboratory value. The frequency of the compaction tests shall be as specified for the layer supported
(see table 4.4.3.c).
For plastic soils (in case they are affected by groundwater) the degree of compaction of the subgrade may be
reduced up to 85% of the maximum dry unit weight determined as per ASTM standard D 1557, if soil
compaction is difficult as pointed out by the tests made.
To preserve the fill from moisture (which may seep upwards due to capillarity forces from the subgrade) and
from horizontal motion of water at the foot of the fill, if the fill consists of earth material, the employer may
request the contractor to lay on the subgrade a dry material layer having a finished thickness of 200 mm (300
mm if gravel), consisting of crushed stone or gravel (size 10-70 mm), to be completed with drains if
requested by the employer.

4.4.3. Methods of construction


Placing of fills
Where groundwater is present, it shall be lowered to a level that does not affect the placing and compaction
of the layers, for at least 400 mm.
The material shall be placed in regular layers so as to avoid particle segregation, until obtaining - after
compaction and settling - the finished work in accordance with design sections and elevations.
Each layer shall have a suitable slope to permit quick removal of rain water, but in any case the slope shall
not be greater than 3%.

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
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OML 58 Upgrade Phase 1 Document Number :

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


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Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
Document Type : PRC System / Subsystem : hold Zone : 00 Rev. Date : 14-Jan-2010
Page 15 of 17

The best material available, whether from excavation or borrow pits, shall be used for the top layers. In any
case the employer reserves the right to establish the laying sequence for the various materials on a case-by-
case basis.
The larger size rock fragments shall be spread in the lower part of the fill, and the smaller size fragments in
the upper layers.
The contractor may start a new layer only after the underlying layer, finished and compacted, has been
accepted by the employer on the basis of the tests made. Any deviation from the above shall be subject to
the employer’s prior approval.
Methods and equipment for construction
On the basis of the materials properties and the analyses made, the contractor shall propose to the employer
specific methods and equipment for the required filling; details of machinery shall be attached, as well as any
results obtained from previous experience on similar materials or specific trial tests.
Compaction of fill by water flooding or jetting shall not be used without the prior specific written approval of
the employer. The required compaction degree shall be obtained using suitable equipment, and shall also be
reached in limited areas and/or adjacent to existing works or foundations. Compaction operations shall be
continuous, from the outer edges of the area to be compacted towards the centre, until the laid material has
reached the required compaction.
The moisture of the material used for each layer can be adjusted, if necessary and after obtaining the
employer’s approval, by wetting with water using a suitable sprinkler, or by drying or other treatment,
according to the results of the laboratory tests made in accordance with paragraph 4.3.1 above.
Thickness of the layers
The loose material for each layer shall be laid so that after compaction the thickness of each layer shall not
exceed the value prescribed in table 4.4.3.a.
If compaction is performed manually using suitable equipment, the maximum allowable thickness of the
compacted layer is reduced to 100 mm, unless otherwise agreed with the employer.
Compaction degrees for the various fills
The material placed shall be compacted to the degree (expressed as a percentage of the maximum dry unit
weight per ASTM standard D 1557) established by table 4.4.3.b.
In-situ compaction tests
The contractor shall carry out the necessary tests for the determination of the optimum water content and the
maximum dry unit weight in accordance with ASTM standard D 1557 and for in-situ determination of the
water content and dry unit weight in accordance with ASTM standard D 1556.
The contractor shall maintain detailed records of the tests for the various materials, a copy of which shall be
handed over to the employer within one day after the completion of the tests.
The frequency of the tests for in-situ determination of dry unit weight shall be at least as specified in Table
4.4.3.c
If in-situ dry unit weight in two successive tests carried out on the laid and compacted material is more than
105% of the dry unit weight determined by the laboratory test, the compaction degree obtained is not
acceptable and retesting is required.
The material to be compacted, during and after the compaction operations, shall have a water content
between -3% and +5% the laboratory optimum water content in accordance with ASTM standard D 1557.
Finishing of fills
Fills shall be finished with regular and flat slopes, well shaped and aligned edges. During the work, and until
work acceptance, the necessary cutting or refilling shall be performed, as well as trimming and grading of the
slopes, and cleaning of any ditches.
Special requirements for general filling in plant areas
The employer may request that placing of fill in plant areas should be performed in two stages. During the
first stage, filling is to be performed up to the level of top of foundation base slab and/or the bottom level of
the plant buried systems (this level normally ranges between -1.20 m and -0.80 m from the finished grade
level). During the second stage, after the construction of foundations and laying of buried systems, the filling
of areas with existing works is to be carried out up to the pavement resting level.
This second stage is more complex because of the presence of foundations and piping, and because its
timing is determined by the construction schedule, which the employer reserves the right to define as and
when appropriate.

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
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OML 58 Upgrade Phase 1 Document Number :

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


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Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
Document Type : PRC System / Subsystem : hold Zone : 00 Rev. Date : 14-Jan-2010
Page 16 of 17

Special requirements for tank bund walls


As a general practice bund walls are not constructed in a single stage, considering that openings must be left
for access of materials and equipment for mechanical erection of the tanks. Completion of the bund walls
shall be performed after completion of mechanical erection.
Special requirements for borrow pits within the plant and/or site area
If the borrow pits are located inside the plant and/or site area, after obtaining the employer’s written approval,
the contractor shall be responsible for avoiding soil slips, stagnation of water, etc. during the works, and for
meeting all special regulations issued by the employer taking into account the actual circumstances.

4.4.4. Tolerances
The tolerances of finished fills in respect of the dimensions and elevations specified in the design drawings
shall be as follows:
a) positioning of embankments and slopes: -150/+0 mm
b) finished levels of embankments: -30/+30 mm
The application of the above tolerances implies that the minimum specified slopes are met.
The applicable tolerances for tank foundations before hydrotesting are as per paragraph 4.4.3 except for
finished levels of embankments: -30/+10 mm.

REFERENCED MAXIMUM THICKNESS OF


TYPE OF FILL
PARAGRAPH COMPACTED LAYER
GENERAL FILLING AND 4.2.1
150 mm
EMBANKMENTS 4.2.2
TANK FOUNDATIONS 4.2.3 150 mm
BUND WALLS 4.2.4 250 mm
4.2.5 300 mm (filling)
NON-STRUCTURAL FILLING
4.2.6 500 mm (backfilling of trench excavation)
LOCAL REPLACING 4.2.7 150 mm
PAVEMENT FOUNDATIONS 4.2.8 150 mm
Table 4.4.3.a

REFERENCED % OF MAXIMUM DRY UNIT


TYPE OF FILL
PARAGRAPH WEIGHT
GENERAL FILLING AND 4.2.1
95 %
EMBANKMENTS 4.2.2
TANK FOUNDATIONS 4.2.3 98 %
BUND WALLS 4.2.4 90 %
4.2.5
NON-STRUCTURAL FILLING 80 %
4.2.6
LOCAL REPLACING 4.2.7 95 %
PAVEMENT FOUNDATIONS 4.2.8 95 %
Table 4.4.3.b

REFERENCED NUMBER OF TESTS FOR EACH


TYPE OF FILL
PARAGRAPH LAYER
GENERAL FILLING AND 4.2.1
1 every 500 m²
EMBANKMENTS 4.2.2
TANK FOUNDATIONS 4.2.3 1 every 300 m²
BUND WALLS 4.2.4 1 every 1000 m²
4.2.5
NON-STRUCTURAL FILLING 1 every 1000 m²
4.2.6
LOCAL REPLACING 4.2.7 1 every 300 m²
PAVEMENT FOUNDATIONS 4.2.8 1 every 500 m²
Table 4.4.3.c

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
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OML 58 Upgrade Phase 1 Document Number :

EXCAVATION, BACKFILLING AND COMPACTION PROCEDURE


NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021
Revision : D0 Status : IFA Approval Class : 1
Document Type : PRC System / Subsystem : hold Zone : 00 Rev. Date : 14-Jan-2010
Page 17 of 17

4.5. SURFACE FINISHING

4.5.1. Topsoiling

General
Slopes, road shoulders, traffic islands, etc., if required by the design and/or by the employer, can be covered
with topsoil having a thickness between 150 mm and 200 mm.
Construction method
The final design elevation of embankments shall be suitably reduced to allow for subsequent placing of
topsoil, which shall be properly levelled in accordance with the design sections.
The required topsoil may be obtained from topsoil removed from the site or elsewhere: in any case it shall
ensure growing of the vegetation and shall be subject to the employer’s prior approval.
Topsoiling shall be carried out in horizontal strips to be compacted by suitable equipment so as to avoid slips.
Proper measures (e.g. use of boards fixed by steel rods, etc.) shall be taken to prevent the topsoil from
slipping down the slopes.

4.5.2. Placing of gravel layer


A gravel layer, which is a form of finishing for non paved areas to be carried out where required by the design
and/or by the employer, shall be obtained by means of a layer of fine crushed stone or gravel having a
uniform, levelled thickness of at least 50 mm.
The fine crushed stone and fine gravel shall have a particle size between 10 mm and 25 mm and shall be
good quality, perfectly clean and free from foreign matter.
Samples of the material shall be submitted to the employer for approval before use.

“This document is the property of TEP NG. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Company”.
NG22-280-CST-SPD-002021_D0.doc