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SPECIFICATIONS

MICROPROCESSOR: MOS TECHNOLOGY 6502

Microprocessor Clock Frequency: 1.023 MHz

Effective Cycle Frequency: 0.960 MHz


(Including Ref r e sh Waits)

VIDEO OUTPUT: Composite positive video, 75 ohms,


l e v e l adjustable between z e r o a n d -15Vpp.

Line Rate:

F r a m e Rate:

Format:
40 c h a r a c t e r s / l i n e , 24 lines;
with automatic scrolling

Display Memory:
Dynamic shift r e g i s t e r s (1K x 7)

C h a r a c t e r Matrix:

RAM MEMORY: 16-pin, 4K Dynamic, type 4096 (2104)

On-board RAM Capacity: 8K bytes (4K supplied)

POWER S U P P L E S : +5 Volts @ 3 amps, +/- 1 2 Volts @0.5 amp


and -5 Volts @ 0.5 a m p s

Input Power Requirements: 8 t o 10 Volts AC (RMS) @ 3 a m p s ,

26 t o 28 Volts AC (RMS) Center-Tapped, 1A.

Recommended T r a n s f o r m e r s : Stancor # P-8380 o r T r i a d F31-X

Stancor # P-8667 o r T r i a d F40-X

A P P L E COMPUTER COMPANY

770 Welch Road, Suite 154

P a l o Alto, California 94304

Phone: (415) 326-4248

The Apple Computer i s a complete micro- plied), although static m e m o r y m a y a l s o be used.


'~,ocessorsystem, consisting of a Mos Technology All refreshing of dynamic memory,' including a l l
2 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r and support hardware, in- -
" off board" expansion memory, i s done auto-
Jral video display electronics, dynamic m e m o r y matically. The e n t i r e s y s t e m timing, including
and r e f r e s h hardware, and fully regulated power the m i c r o p r o c e s s o r clock and a l l video signals,
supplies. It contains resident s y s t e m monitor originates in a single c r y s t a l oscillator.
software, enabling the u s e r , via the keyboard
and display, t o write, examine, debug, and run F u r t h e r , the printed circuit board contains
p r o g r a m s efficiently; thus being a n educational a "breadboard area", in which the u s e r can add
tool f o r the learning of m i c r o p r o c e s s o r program- -
additional " on board " h a r d w a r e ( f o r example,
ming, and a n aid in the development of software. e x t r a P I A f s , ACIAfs, EROMfs, and s o on).

The integral video display section and the This manual i s divided into t h r e e Sections:
keyboard interface r e n d e r s unnecessary the need
f o r a n external teletype. The display section con- Section I GETTING THE SYSTEM RUNNING.
t a i n s i t s ownmemory, leaving a l l of RAM for u s e r Section I1 USING THE SYSTEM MONITOR.
p r o g r a m s , and the outputformat i s 40 c h a r a c t e r s / (listing included)
line, 24 lines /page, with auto scrolling. Almost Section I11 EXPANDING THE SYSTEM.
any ASCII encoded keyboard will interface directly
with the Apple system. P l e a s e r e a d s e c t i o n I thoroughly, before at-
tempting t o "power-up" your system, and study
The board h a s sockets f o r upto 8K bytes Section I11 carefully before attempting t o expand
of the 16 pin, 4K type, RAM, and the system i s your system. In addition to this manual, Apple
fully expandable t o 65K via the edge connector. "Tech Notes" a r e available which contain exam-
The system u s e s dynamic m e m o r y (4K bytes sup- ple s of expansion hardware and technique s .

*
SECTION I

GETTING THE SYSTEM RUNNING

The Apple Computer i s fully assembled, ST ROBE line, and two normally-open pushbutton

tested, and burned in. The only external devices switches, used f o r RESET ( e n t e r monitor), and

n e c e s s a r y f o r operation of the s y s t e m are: An CLEAR SCREEN ( s e e schematic diagram, sheet

ASCII encoded keyboard, a video display monitor, 3 of 3 , f o r exact circuitry). T h i s keyboard con-

and AC power s o u r c e s of 8 to 10 Volts (RMS) @ 3 nector a l s o supplies t h r e e voltages, (+5V, +12V,

a m p s and 28Volts (RMS)@1amp. The following three and-12V) of which one o r m o r e m a y be n e c e s s a r y

a r t i c l e s describe the attachment of these devices to operate the keyboard. P i n 15 of the keyboard

in detail. connector (B4) m u s t be tied t o +5V (pin 16) f o r

normal operation.

Keyboard:
Any ASCII encoded keyboard, with positive NOTE: The s y s t e m monitor accepts only upper-
DATA outputs, interfaces directly with the Apple c a s e alpha (A-F, R).
s y s t e m via a "DIP" connector. If your keyboard It i s therefore convenient, though i t ' s not
h a s negative logic DATA outputs ( r a r e ) , you can essential, tohave a keyboard equipped with upper-
install i n v e r t e r s (7404) in the breadboard a r e a . c a s e a l p h a l o c k (usuallyintheelectronics). E i t h e r
The strobe can be either positive o r negative, of of the following suggested c i r c u i t s m a y be used
long o r s h o r t duration. The "DIP" keyboard con- t o provide alpha lock capability, if needed, and
nector (B4) h a s inputs f o r seven DATA lines, one can be built in the breadboard a r e a .

87
1

FROM
Bp-wB
Vcc(+S)

l5
14
00
13 T O KBD

CONNECTOR
KBD 184)
Display: equivalent ( 28VCT a t 1 a m p ) .
Simply w i r e the
The Apple Computer outputs a composite secondaries to the mating six-pin Molex connector
video signal (composite of sync and video infor- supplied, and w i r e the p r i m a r i e s i n parallel, as -

mation) which can be applied t o any standard shown in the schematic diagram (power s u p d
raster-scan type video display monitor. The out-
put l e v e l is adjustable with the potentiometer
located n e a r the video output Molex connector, J 2 .
T h e additional two outside pins on the Molex con-
nector supply $5 andi-12 volts, to be used in future
section, Dwg. No. 00101, s h e e t 3 of 3.

TEST PROGRAM
After attaching the keyboard, display, and
AC power sources, you can t r y a simple p r o g r a m
&
Apple a c c e s s o r i e s . The composite video signal to t e s t if your s y s t e m and the attachments a r e
can a l s o be modulated a t the p r o p e r RFfrequency, functioning together properly. While i t does not
with a n inexpensive commercially available device , t e s t many possible a r e a s of the m i c r o p r o c e s s o r
and applied to the antenna t e r m i n a l s of a home system, the t e s t p r o g r a m will t e s t f o r the c o r r e c t
television r e c e i v e r . Since the c h a r a c t e r f o r m a t attachment of the keyboard, display, and power
i s 40 c h a r a c t e r s / l i n e , all television r e c e i v e r s supplies.
will have the n e c e s s a r y bandwidth t o display the
e n t i r e 40 c h a r a c t e r s . Two l a r g e manufacturers FIRST:

of video display monitors, which connect directly Hit the RESET button t o e n t e r the s y s t e m

with the Apple Computer, a r e Motorola and Ball. monitor. A backslash should be displayed,

The mating four-pin Molex connector i s provided. and the c u r s o r should drop t o the next line.

-
AC P o w e r Sources: SECOND: 4Y

Two incoming AC power s o u r c e s a r e re- Type- 0 : A9 b 0 b AA b 20 b E F b FF b

quired f o r operation: 8 t o 10 VAC (RMS) a t 3 amps, E 8 b 8A b 4C b'2 b i b - ( R E ~ )

and 28VAC (RMS) Center-Tapped a t 1amp. These ( 0 i s a z e r o , NOT a n alpha "0"; b m e a n s

AC supplies enter the s y s t e m a t the Molex con- blank o r space; and (RET) h i t the "return"

nector, J l . The 8 to10 volts AC provides the raw key on the keyboard)

AC f o r the +5 volt supply, while the 28 VCT sup-


plies the r a w AC f o r the +12 and -12 volt supplies, THIRD:

and t h e -5V supply is derived f r o m the -1 2V reg- Type- .


0 A (RET)

ulated output. I ( T h i s should print out, on the display,

p r o g r a m you have just entered. )

The board, a s supplied, requires no m o r e


than 1 . 5 a m p s DC f r o m the t5V supply, while the FOURTH:

regulator is capable of supplying 3 amps. The Type- R (RET)

remaining 1.5 amps DC f r o m the t5V supply i s ( R means run the p r o g r a m . )

available f o r u s e r h a r d w a r e expansion (provided


ratings a r e employed). THE PROGRAM SHOULD THEN PRINT
OUT ON THE DISPLAY A CONTINUOUS STREAM
r c e of the raw AC voltages OF ASCII CHARACTERS. TO STOP THE PRO-
, a r e two commercially available trans- GRAM AND RETURN TO THE SYSTEM MONITOR,
, Stancor P / N P-8380 o r equivalent ( 8 t o HIT THE "RESET" BUTTON. TO RUN AGAIN,
at 3 amps), and Stancor P I N P-8667 o r TYPE : R (RET).
ifhmetic mode.

LDY #$7F M a s k f o r DSP d a t a d i r e c t i o n r e g i s t e r .


STY DSP S e t i t up.
LDA #$A7 KBD and DSP c o n t r o l r e g i s t e r mask.
FF09 8D 11 D0 STA KBD C R Enable i n t e r r u p t s , s e t CAI, CB1, f o r
FFgC 8D 13 D0 STA DSP C R positive edge s e n s e / o u t p u t m o d e .
FF0F C9 D F NOTCR C M P #$DF 11 ?
FFll F0 1 3 BEQ BACKSPACE Yes.
F F 1 3 C9 9B C M P #$9B ESC ?
F F 1 5 F0 03 BEQ ESCAPE Yes.
FF17 C8 INY Advance text index.
F F 1 8 10 0F B P L NEXTCHAR Auto ESC if > 127.
11 \ I t ,
F F l A A9 DC ESCAPE LDA #$DC *
F F l C 20 E F FF J S R ECHO Output it.
FFlF A9 8D GETLINE LDA #$8D CR.
F F 2 1 241 E F FF JSR ECHO Output it.
F F 2 4 A0 01 LDY #$a1 Initiallize text index.
F F 2 6 88 BACKSPACE DEY Back up text index.
F F 2 7 30 F 6 BMI GETLINE Beyond s t a r t of l i n e , r e i n i t i a l i z e .
F F Z ~AD 11 DQ NEXTCHAR LDA KBD CR Key r e a d y ?
FFZC 10 F B B P L NEXTCHAR Loop until ready.
FFZE AD 1 0 D 0 LDA KBD L o a d c h a r a c t e r . B7 should b e '1 I .
F F 3 1 99 00 02 STA IN, Y Add t o t e x t buffer.
F F 3 4 20 E F FF JSR ECHO Display c h a r a c t e r .
F F 3 7 C9 8 D I C M P #$8D CR?
F F 3 9 D0 D4 BNE NOTCR No.
F F 3 B A0 FF LDY #$FF R e s e t t e x t index.
F F 3 D A9 00 LDA #$a0 F o r XAM mode.
F F 3 F AA TAX
F F 4 0 4A SETSTOR ASL
F F 4 1 85 2B SETMODE STA MODE
FF43 C8 BLSKIP INY - 'Advance t e x t index.
F F 4 4 B9 09 02 NEXT ITEM LDA IN, Y Get character.
I CR?
i F F 4 7 C9 8D C M P #$8D
F F 4 9 F0 D4 BEQ GETLINE
F F 4 B C9 AE C M P #$AE
F F 4 D 90 F 4 BCC BLSKIP Skip d e l i m i t e r .
F F 4 F F g F0 BEQ SETMODE
F F 5 1 C9 BA
F F 5 3 F0 E B Yes, s e t STOR mode.
"R"?
F F 5 5 C9 D2 C M P #$D2
F F 5 7 F0 3B BEQ RUN Yes, run u s e r prbgram
l F F 5 9 86 28 STX L
! F F 5 B 86 29 STX H
F F 5 D 84 2A STY YSAV
F F 5 F B9 (40 02 NEXTHEX-. LDA IN, Y
F F 6 2 49 B0 EOR #$I30 M a p digits t o $@-9.
F F 6 4 C9 0A C M P #$@A
F F 6 6 90 06 BCC DIG
F F 6 8 69 88 ADC #$88
F F ~ A C9 F A C.MP #$FA Hex l e t t e r ?
BCC NOTHEX . No, c h a r a c t e r not hzx.

H e x digit .to MSD of

Shift count.
6502 HEX MONITOR LISTING (continued)
FF75 26 28 ROL L Rotate into LSD.
FF77 26 29 ROL H Rotate into MSD's.
FF79 CA DEX Done 4 shXts?
FF7A Db F 8 BNE HEXSHIFT No, loop.
FF7C C8 INY Advence text index.
FF7D DQ E Q BNE NEXTHEX Always taken. Check next c h a r a c t e r f o r he,
FF7F C4 2A CPY YSAV Check if L , H empty ( n o h e x digits).
FF81 F d 97 BEQ ESCAPE Yes, generate ESC sequence.
FF83 24 2B BIT MODE T e s t MODE byte.
FF85 50 1 0 BVC NOTSTOR B6 = 0 f o r STOR, 1 f o r XAM and BLOCK XAM
FF87 A5 28 LDA L LSD's of h e x data.
FF89 81 26 STA (STL, X) S t o r e a t c u r r e n t ' s t o r e index'.
FF8B E 6 26 INC STL Increment s t o r e index.
FF8D DQ B5 BNE NEXTITEM Get next item. (no c a r r y ) .
FF8F E 6 27 INC STH Add c a r r y t o ' s t o r e index' high o r d e r .
FF91 4C 44 FF TONEXTITEM J M P NEXTITEM Get next command i t e m .
FF94 6C 24 00 RUN JMP (XAML) Run a t c u r r e n t XAM index.
FF97 30 2B NOTSTOR BMI XAMNEXT B7 = 0 f o r XAM, 1 f o r BLOCK XAM.
FF99 A2 02 LDX #$02 Byte count.
FF9B B5 27 SETADR LDA L-1 ,X Copy h e x data t o
FF9D 95 25 STA STL-1, X ' s t o r e index'.
FF9F 95 23 STA XAML-1, X And t o 'XAM index'.
FFAl CA DEX Next of 2 bytes.
d ~ ~ A
D0 2F 7 BNE SETADR Loop u n l e s s X = 0.

L%IX; $fi,
NXTPRNT BNE PRDATA
LDA #$8D
JSR ECHO
NE m e a n s no a d d r e s s t o print.
CR.
Output it.
FFAB A5 25 LDA XAMH 'Examine index'high-order byte.
FFAD 20 DC FF JSR PRBYTE Output i t in h e x f o r m a t .
FFBQ A5 24 LDA XAML Low-order 'examine index' byte.
FFB2 20 DC FF JSR PRBYTE Output it in h e x f o r m a t .
FFB5 A9 BA LDA #$BA ,I:,#

FFB7 20 E F FF JSR ECHO Output it.


FFBA A9 A0 PRDATA LDA #$A0 Blank.
FFBC 20 E F FF JSR ECHO Output i t .
FFBF A1 24 LDA (XAML, X) Get data byte a t 'examine index'.
FFCl 20 DC FF JSR PRBYTE Output it in hex f o r m a t .
FFC4 86 2B XAMNEXT STX MODE 0-C MODE (XAM mode).
FFC7 A5 24 LDA XAML
FFC8 ,C5 28 CMP L Compare 'examine index' t o h e x data.
FFCA A5 25 LDA XAMH
FFCC E 5 29 SBC H
i FFCE B0 C l BCS TONEXTITEM Not l e s s , s o no m o r e data t o output.
FFDQ E 6 24 INC XAML
FFD2 D0 02 BNE MOD8CHK I n c r e m e n t 'examine index'.
FFD4 E 6 25 INC XAMH
FFD6 A5 24 MODBCHK LDA XAML Check low-order 'examine index' byte
FED8 29 07 AND #$07 F o r MOD 8' 0
FFDA 10 C8 B P L NXTPRNT Always taken.
FFDC 48 PRBYTE PHA Save A f o r LSD.
FFDD 4A LSR
FFDE 4A LSR
FFDF 4A LSR MSD t o LSD position.
FFE0 4A LSR
FFEl 20E5FF JSR PRHEX Output hex digit.
FFE4 68 P LA R e s t o r e A.
FFE5 29 0F PRHE X AND #$@F Mask LSD f o r h e x print.
FFE7 09 B0 ORA #$BQ Add "0".
FFE9 C9 BA CMP #$BA Digit?
HARDWARE NOTES

Page 0 Variables Other Variables


XAML 24 IN 200-27F
XAMH 25 KBD
STL 26 KBDCR Doll
STH 27 DSP
L 28 D S P CR DQ13
H 29
YSAV 2A
MODE 2B
SECTION I11

HOW TO EXPAND THE A P P L E SYSTEM

The Apple s y s t e m can be expanded to in- DMA:


clude m o r e m e m o r y and I 0 devices, via a 44-pin The Apple s y s t e m h a s full DMA capabli
edge connector. The s y s t e m i s fully expandable F o r DMA, the DMA control line t r i - s t a t e s ,
to 65K, with the entire data and a d d r e s s busses, a d d r e s s buss, thus allowing external devices t, '
clocks, control signals ( i. e. IRQ, NMI, DMA, control the buss. Consult MOS TECHNOLOGY
RDY, etc.), and power s o u r c e s available a t the 6502 Hardware Manual f o r details. ( F o r DMA use,
connector. All a d d r e s s lines a r e T T L buffered, the solder jumper on the board, m a r k e d "DMA",
and data lines can drive ten equivalent capacitive m u s t be broken. )
loads (one T T L load and 130pf) without external
buffers. All clock signals a r e T T L . The Apple F o r the 6502 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r , the RDY
s y s t e m runs a t approximately 1 MHz ( s e e spec line i s used to halt the p r o c e s s o r f o r single step-
sheet) and i s fully compatible with 6800/6500 style ping, o r slow ROM applications. Refer t o Apple
timing. "Tech Notes" f o r examples.

T h r e e power s o u r c e s a r e available a t the SOFTWARE CONSIDERATIONS:


edge connector: f 5 volts regulated, and raw DC The sequences listedbelow a r e the routines
(approximately +/- 14V) f o r the +12'V, -12V, and used to r e a d the keyboard o r output to the display,
-5V supplies. If +12V, -12V, o r -5V supplies a r e
required, EXTERNAL REGULATORS MUST BE Read Key f r o m KBD:
USED. An e x c e s s of 1.5 a m p s f r o m the "on- LDA KBD CR (D011)
boardu regulated f5V supply i s available f o r ex-
pansion (assuming suitable t r a n s f o r m e r ratings LDA KBD DATA ( D Q l o )
a r e employed). E x e r c i s e g r e a t c a r e in the handling
of the raw DC, a s no short-circuit protection i s Output to Display:
provided. BIT DSP (D012)

STA DSP (Do12)


REFRESH:
F o u r out of e v e r y 65 clock cycles i s dedi- PIA Internal Registers:
cated t o m e m o r y refresh. A t the s t a r t of a re-
f r e s h cycle (150 n s a f t e r leading edge of 01), R F
- KBD Data I3010
High o r d e r bit equals 1.
goes low, and remains low f o r one clock cycle.
$42 i s inhibited during a r e f r e s h cycle, and the KBD Control Reg. D o l l
p r o c e s s o r i s held in 01 ( i t ' s inactive state). Dy- High o r d e r bit indicates "key ready".
namic m e m o r i e s , which m u s t clock during r e f r e s h Reading key c l e a r s flag. Rising
cycles, should derive t h e i r clock f r o m 00, which edge of KBD s e t s flag.
i s equivalent t o 02, except that i t continues during
a r e f r e s h cycle. Devices, such a s PIA1s, will not DSP DATA D012
be affected by a r e f r e s h cycle, since they r e a c t t o Lower seven bits a r e data output,
02 only. Refer t o Apple "TechNotesl' f o r a variety high o r d e r bit is display ready"
of inte riacing examples . input (1 equals ready, 0 equals busy)

DSP Control Reg. D013


If m o r e than one s o u r c e f o r RDY RUN
u s e owen-collector gate 7401 (not '00)
CS
(Slow ROM

I
a d d r e s s decoded)
I , ' 1 STEP -1,
I Y

needed only
f o r single
INSTR mode I p o S I N G L E lNSTRUCTlON I
SINGLE CYCLE
SLOW ROM (NOTE: F e a t u r e s not needed may be omitted)

SINGLE STEP FOR 6502

ADDRESS DISPLAY

D0
Dl
D2
D3

SYNC D5 Q5
100 ,.. SYNC
The Apple Computer Company hereby w a r r a n t s each of
i t s products, and a l l components therein contained, to be f r e e
4

f r o m defects in m a t e r i a l s a n d / o r workmanship f o r a period of


thirty (30) days f r o m date of purchase. In the event of the occur-
rence of malfunction, o r other indication of f a i l u r e attributable
directly to faulty workmanship a n d / o r mate rial, then, upon re-
turn of the product to the Apple Computer Company, a t 770 Welch
Road, P a l o Alto, California, 94304 (postage prepaid), the Apple
Computer Company will, a t i t s option, r e p a i r o r replace said
products o r components the reof, t o what sve r extent Apple Com-
puter Company shall deem n e c e s s a r y , to r e s t o r e said product
to proper operating condition. All such r e p a i r s o r replacements
shall be rendered by the Apple Computer Company, without
charge t o the customer.

The responsibility for the failure of any Apple Computer


product, o r component thereof, which, a t the discretion of the
Apple Computer Company, shall have resulted e i t h e r directly o r
indirectly f r o m accident, abuse, o r misapplication of the product,
shall be assumed by the customer, andthe Apple Computer Com-
pany shall a s s u m e no liability a s a consequence of such events
under the t e r m s of this warranty.

While every effort, on the p a r t of Apple Computer Com-


pany, i s made to provide c l e a r and a c c u r a t e technical instruction
on the use, implementation, and application of i t s products, the
Apple Computer Company shall a s s u m e no liability in events which
may a r i s e f r o m the application of such technical instruction, n o r
shall the Apple Computer Company be held liable f o r the quality,
interconnection, o r application of periferal products, which may
f

have been recommended by Apple Computer Company, but which d


havenotbeensuppliedaspart oftheproduct.
k
This warranty contains and embodies the l i m i t s of re-
sponsibility of the Apple Computer Company, with r e g a r d t o i t s
products, and no other liability i s expressed, implied, o r should
be assumed by the purchaser, and in no event shall the Apple
Computer Company be held liable f o r the l o s s of time, effort,
o r transportation costs, nor f o r l o s s of potential profits o r other
consequentiallosses whichmight a r i s e f r o m the purchase, a s s e m -
bly, use, application, o r subsequent sale of the products of Apple
Computer Company, n o r f r o m any instructions a n d / o r technical
information thereto related. C
em ' a n p 1\11
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