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Presented by: Gadjali, Rowena M.

Course and Year: BEED – II

Name of Subject: GE 12 – Great Books (World Literature)


Title Ramayana
Date of its Original The Ramayana is an ancient Indian epic, composed some
Publication time in the 5th century BCE, about the exile and then
return of Rama, prince of Ayodhya..

Author’s Name Vilmiki

Genre Epic of Poem:

The epic, traditionally ascribed to the Maharishi Valmiki,

narrates the life of Rama, the legendary prince of the Kosala
Kingdom. It follows his fourteen-year exile to the forest by
his father King Dasharatha, on request of his step-mother
Kaikeyi. His travels across forests in India with his wife Sita
and brother Lakshmana, the kidnapping of his wife by
Ravana, the great king of Lanka, resulting in a war with
him, and Ram's eventual return to Ayodhya to be crowned
king. This is the culmination point of the epic. It is the most
sacred book, and is read by millions of people every year.
There have been many attempts to unravel the epic's
historical growth and compositional layers; various recent
scholars' estimates for the earliest stage of the text range
from the 7th to 4th centuries BCE, with later stages
extending up to the 3rd century CE.[5]
The Ramayana is one of the largest ancient epics in world
literature. It consists of nearly 24,000 verses (mostly set in
the Shloka/Anustubh meter), divided into six Kands (Adi
(Bala) Kand, Ayodhya Kand, Aranya Kand, Kishkindha
Kand, Sundara Kand, Lanka Kand) and about 500 sargas
(chapters). Uttar kand which is also read today in ramayan is
a part of kakbhusundi garud samvad and is not a part of
original valkimi ramayan [6]. In Hindu tradition, it is
considered to be the Adi-kavya (first poem). It depicts the
duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the
ideal father, the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal
husband and the ideal king. Ramayana was an important
influence on later Sanskrit poetry and Hindu life and
culture. Like Mahabharata, Ramayana presents the
teachings of ancient Hindu sages in narrative allegory,
interspersing philosophical and ethical elements. The
characters Rama, Sita, Lakshmana, Bharata, Hanuman, and
Ravana are all fundamental to the cultural consciousness of
the South Asian nations of India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and the
South-East Asian countries of Thailand, Cambodia,
Malaysia, and Indonesia.
There are many versions of Ramayana in Indian languages,
besides Buddhist, Sikh, and Jain adaptations. There are also
Cambodian, Indonesian, Filipino, Thai, Lao, Burmese, and
Malaysian versions of the tale.

Basic Background Ramayana, originally written by Valmiki, consists of 24,000

of the Author shlokas and seven cantos (kaṇḍas)[5] Ramayana is
composed of about 480,002 words, being a quarter of the
length of the full text of the Mahabharata or about four
times the length of the Iliad. The Ramayana tells the story
of a prince, Rama of the city of Ayodhya in the Kingdom of
Kosala, whose wife Sita is abducted by Ravana, the demon-
king (Rakshasa) of Lanka. The Valmiki Ramayana is dated
variously from 500 BCE to 100 BCE[6] or about co-eval with
early versions of the Mahabharata.[7] As with many
traditional epics, it has gone through a process of
interpolations and redactions, making it impossible to date
accurately. British satirist Aubrey Menen says that Valmiki
was, "recognized as a literary genius," and thus was
considered, "an outlaw," presumably because of his,
"philosophic scepticism,"[8] as part of an "Indian
Enlightenment" period.[9] Valmiki is also quoted to be the
contemporary of Rama. Menen claims Valmiki is, "the first
author in all history to bring himself into his own
Background of the The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic which follows Prince
Literary Work Rama's quest to rescue his beloved wife Sita from the clutches
of Ravana with the help of an army of monkeys. It is traditionally
attributed to the authorship of the sage Valmiki and dated to
around 500 BCE to 100 BCE.

Comprising 24,000 verses in seven cantos, the epic contains

the teachings of the very ancient Hindu sages. One of the most
important literary works of ancient India, it has greatly
influenced art and culture in the Indian subcontinent and South
East Asia, with versions of the story also appearing in the
Buddhist canon from a very early date. The story of Rama has
constantly been retold in poetic and dramatic versions by some
of India's greatest writers and also in narrative sculptures on
temple walls. It is one of the staples of later dramatic traditions,
re-enacted in dance-dramas, village theatre, shadow-puppet
theatre and the annual Ram-lila (Rama-play).

List of Characters Characters of the Ramayana

with brief
 Rama – The son of King Dasaratha and Queen
description of each Kausalya, Rama is the prince of Ayodya. He is an
avatara of Vishnu, the Blue God and the sustainer of
worlds. He is also a virtuous, strong, and just man in his
own right. He is married to Sita, whom he loves deeply.
He has a strong bond with his brother Lakshmana as

 Sita – Sita's father, King Janak, found her lying in a

furrow on sanctified ground and decided to raise her as
his daughter. She marries Rama, and loves him so much
that she follows him into exile. She is famed for her virtue
and beauty, and is regarded as an avatara of the
goddess Lakshmi, Vishnu's consort.

 Ravana – Ravana is a rakshasa who performed penance

for the God Siva for many years, and in return received a
great blessing from the God: he cannot be killed by any
God, demon, or other divine being. His arrogance
combined, with great intelligence and power, has led him
to rule over much of the earth, spreading terrible evil
everywhere he goes.

 Lakshmana – Son of King Dasaratha, and brother of

Rama. He is deeply devoted to his brother, whom he
follows through many dangerous adventures and quests.
He is married to Sita's younger sister, Urmila.

 King Dasaratha – King of Ayodhya, father of Rama,

Lakshmana, Bharata, and Shatrughna. Of all his three
sons, he loves Rama most deeply, and tries to shelter
the boy from any danger. He is a good king: kind, just
and well-liked by his people.

 Viswamitra – Viswamitra is a great sage and wise man

who was once a king. Through long meditation, he
gained a number of magical powers. He takes Rama on
a quest to defeat a demon and to lift the bow of Siva, the
first step in the future king's great journey.

 Ganga – Ganga is a goddess, the daughter of Himavan.

Because of her incomparable beauty, she was given to
the Devas, and she became the Milky Way. Later, Siva
brought her down to earth and she became the river

 Siva – Siva is part of the great trinity in Hindusim, along

with Vishnu and Brahma. He is a great ascetic, and often
sits in meditation. He is able to tame the power of other
gods, devas, and supernatural beings, and he often
grants blessings and wishes to those who sit in
dedication meditation ('tapasya'). His wife is Parvati.

 Lava – Along with Kusha, one of the youths to whom

Valmiki taught the Ramayana that he received from
Narada. He is one of the sons of Rama, but he does not
know this.

 Kusha – Along with Lava, one of the youths to whom

Valmiki taught the Ramayana that he received from
Narada. He is one of the sons of Rama, but he does not
know this.

 Vasishta – Guru to King Dasaratha, he offers religious

advice to the king and the royal family.

 Rishyaringa – A great rishi; he presides over the

sacrifice that King Dasaratha offers in order to get a son.
He is sometimes depicted as a combination of a deer
and a man.

 Tataka – A beautiful woman who was transformed into a

demon (rakshasi) when she tried to seduce the rishi
Agastya. As a demon, she drinks the blood of living
creatures and kills anything she can see. In one of his
first great acts, Rama breaks her curse by slaying her.

 Kaikeyi – The third and youngest wife of King

Dasaratha, and mother of Bharata. She is famed for her
beauty. After she saved the life of Dasaratha in battle, he
offered to grant anything she would ask of him. She later
calls in this favor to have Bharata crowned king and
Rama sent into the forest, inspired by the worlds of her
maid, Manthara.

 Sumitra – Second wife of Dasaratha. She is the mother

of Lakshmana and Shatrughna.

 Kausalya – The first wife of Dasaratha and mother of

Rama. She is the oldest wife, and very kind and wise.
She does not have a close relationship with her husband,
but she loves her son Rama very deeply.

 Manthara – An old maid of Kaikeyi's. She is a wicked

woman, and gives Kaikeyi the idea to ask Dasaratha to
exile Rama and crown Bharata king instead.

 Guha – King of the hunters, he rules near the wilderness

in Shringiberapura. He is fiercely loyal to Rama.

 Kausalya – Wife of Dasaratha, mother of Rama. She is

wise and kind, but she is not close with her husband; the
greatest joy in her life is Rama.

 Bharata – Son of King Dasaratha and Queen Kaikeyi, he

is half-brother to Rama, Lakshmana, and Shatrughna.
He is devoted to his brother Rama, and he tries
desperately to undo the damage committed by his
mother Kaikeyi.

 Shatrughna – Son of King Dasaratha and Queen

Sumitra (she drank two sips from the sacred cup, and
consequently had twins). His twin brother is Lakshmana,
and his half-brothers are Rama and Bharata. He follows
his brother Bharata everywhere.

 Sumantra – Chief counselor of Dasaratha. He is the one

who unwillingly brings Rama into exile.

 Surpanakha – The sister of Ravana, she is a powerful

rakshasi. She attempts to seduce Rama and kill Sita, but
the princely brothers attack her. She tries to muster the
rakshasa army against Rama.

 Maricha – A rakshasa, uncle of Ravana. Rama defeated

him with a purifying magical weapon, and he renounced
his evil ways to become a rishi.

 Khara – A rakshasa, cousin to Ravana. He rules the

area of Janasthana, near the forest of Rama's exile. He
is very powerful, and likes to kill rishis and despoil sacred

 Jatayu – A powerful golden eagle who speaks in the

voice of a human being. He was loyal to King Dasaratha,
and pledges his service to Rama. He dies defending Sita
from Ravana.

 Kabandha – A terrible rakshasa who has the form of a

body with no legs or head -- only arms and a gaping
mouth. He was transformed into this ugly shape by Indra;
formerly, he was a celestial archer. He tells the brothers
to seek Sugriva, the prince of vanaras.

 Sugriva – The rightful king of the vanaras, a race of

magical monkeys. He was usurped by his brother Vali,
and pledges his service to Rama and Lakshmana if they
can restore him to his throne.

 Hanuman – Advisor to Sugriva. He is the son of the wind

god Vayu and a vanari woman.

 Angada – Avanara youth, son of Vali and nephew of

Sugriva. He is brave and intelligent.

 Vibheeshana – Young brother of Ravana. Though he is

a rakshasa, he is wise and good. When Ravana refuses
to listen to his counsel, he joins Rama's army.
 Sampati – A great golden eagle, brother of Jatayu. His
wings were burned when he flew too close to the son.

 Jambavan – King of the Riksharaj (magical bears). He is

an ally of Sugriva and Rama. He is known for his gentle
wisdom and quiet strength.

 Indrajit – The favorite son of Ravana, and his most

powerful warrior. He earned his name after he captured
Indra, the king of the gods.

 Kumbhakarna – Ravana's brother. He is a giant with

infinite strength who sleeps for six months at a time
before waking up and eating everything he can see.

 Agastya – An elderly and extremely powerful rishi who

blesses Rama. Later when Rama is king of Ayodhya, he
comes to Rama's palace and tells him secret tales about
the people he met on his journeys.

Summary of the A brief summary of the Ramayana

Ramayana born during an age when the demon Ravana
terrorized the world, Rama is the virtuous, wise, and powerful
prince of Ayohya. As a young man, he is able to accomplish
what no other man has ever done: he lifts and strings the bow
of Siva, and by so doing her earns the right to marry the
beautiful Sita.

Just when he is about to ascend the throne of Ayodhya, his

father Dasaratha is forced to exile him for fourteen years to the
forest due to a vow made long ago. Unruffled, Rama accepts
his exile; his wife Sita and his loyal brother Lakshmana
accompany him. In the forest, the princely brothers kill many
demons and visit many wise men and women.

The evil demon Ravana hears of Sita's beauty, and kidnaps

her. He has fallen in love with her and tries to seduce her, but
she rebuffs his advances for nearly ten months.

Desperate to win her back, Rama and Lakshmana form an

alliance with the monkey king Sugriva, and invade Lanka with
an army of monkeys. After many violent battles, Rama defeats
Ravana and wins back Sita. He is concerned that she has been
unfaithful during her long captivity, and so Sita undergoes a trial
by fire to prove her chastity. Rama takes her back, and they
return to rule Ayodhya for many wonderful years.

In another version of the tale, Rama hears his people gossiping

about Sita's imagined indiscretions, and he banishes her to the
forest, where she gives birth to Rama's twin sons. Sita and the
children confront him years later; he tries to explain his harsh
actions to Sita, but she vanishes into the earth to escape him.

The important of the The importance of the Ramayana in Indian culture

Ramayana in Indian
culture The epic's poetic stature and marvellous story means that the
story of Rama has been constantly retold by some of India's
greatest writers both in Sanskrit and regional languages. It is
one of the staples of various dramatic traditions, in court drama,
dance-dramas, and in shadow-puppet theatres. In northern
India, the annual Ram-lila or 'Rama-play' is performed at the
autumn festival of Dassehra to celebrate with Rama and Sita
the eventual triumph of light over darkness.

A hugely popular television series, 'Ramayan', was aired in

India 1987-1988, drawing over 100 million viewers to become
'the world's most viewed mythological serial'. Dubbed
'Ramayan' fever by India Today magazine, it was reported that
India came to a virtual standstill as so many people who could
gain access to a television stopped whatever they were doing to
watch the small screen adventures of Rama. From January
2008, a new big-budget primetime series of the Ramayana has
been appearing on television screens across Indian.

The Ramayana The Ramayana manuscripts of Jagat Singh of Mewar

Manuscripts of
Rama was of a royal race descended from the Sun, and Rajput
Jagat Singh of clans of the Solar dynasty, among them the rulers of Mewar or
Mewar Udaipur, claimed Rama as their ancestor, making
the Ramayana something of a family history.

The Ramayana manuscripts commissioned by Rana Jagat

Singh of Mewar (1628-52) are among the most important
documents of 17th-century Indian painting. Unlike most
other Ramayana manuscripts, they have not been dispersed as
individual paintings into various collections but remain largely
intact. The huge scale of the project (with originally over 400
paintings) allowed the artists to focus on telling an epic story on
the grandest scale.

The seven books of the Ramayana are illustrated in three

different styles of Mewar painting, including two books by Sahib
Din, the greatest Mewar artist of the 17th century. Four of the
seven books and part of a fifth are in the British Library. The two
remaining books are still in India.

The British Library's four volumes were given by Rana Bhim

Singh of Mewar to Col. James Tod, the historian of the Rajputs,
who brought them back to London in 1823. Bhim Singh also
gave Tod a separate manuscript of the first book of
the Ramayana dated 1712. They were all acquired by the
British Museum in 1844, and from there came to the British
Library. thank

Connection of Religion and cultural history have been primarily affected

literary work to the by two major literary works of ancient India: The Ramayana
culture context and the Mahabharata. The Ramayana has traveled through
centuries and civilizations in the Indian origin and culture.
Its influence has been on every living being not only in
India, but also almost the whole of South-East Asia.

The epic of Ramayana is provided as a part of primary

education, also the rituals and traditions are still followed
or in other words they are being passed on from

Connection of Many great writers have been influenced by Valmiki’s

literary work to the Ramayana. Even the masterpieces by the great Kalidasa,
social context was inspired from Ramayana. Prominent impacts of
Ramayana in his works can be seen in ‘Raghuvams’,
’Meghdoot’, ‘Abhgana Shakuntala’, ‘Vikramorvasiya’ and
‘Kumarasambhava’. Not only the epic, but
also its characters were adopted in literary works by writers
and poets.

Some books or textbooks give as insight into the world. The

literary work connected to the social context because
literature give a major impact on the development of
society. It has shaped civilizations, changed political
systems and exposed injustice. Literature gives us a
detailed preview of human experiences, allowing us to
connect on basic levels of desire and emotion.
Evaluation of the The Great Indian values and heritage owes its existence to
story as a whole – Valmiki’s epic story. Even in today’s generations, the basic
P.O.V human ethics and values can be traced out back to the
Ramayana. Learning from the story of Ramayana are
inculcated into the customs and thought process of Indians
in such a way that they are remembered in every foot

The story of Ramayana talks about adventure and

friendship as well as the spiritual meaning and the wisdom.
It tells the meaning of life. And how one should learn from
this meaning and grow as a person. It also talks about love
and faithfulness to the person you love. Rama falls in love
with Sita and became so faithful to her and Rama pledged
to be married only to her. He set an example for future
generations of men as to what constitutes a sterling quality
for the respectability of a man in the society today.
He is a good man worthy. He was a good son. He honored,
followed and respect his father. Rama had the right to
question such an injustice rule out to him and he was in not
really duty-bound to honor or to obey his father’s unjust
promises. But because he loves and honor his father, Rama,
followed his father without any complain and
question.Without a trace of disappointment reflecting on
his face. He obeyed.

Rama is an example of a real men that stay faithful, they

don’t have time to look for other women because they’re
too busy looking for new ways to love their own queen.

References  https://www.ancient.eu/The_Ramayana/
 https://www.learnreligions.com/maharshi-valmiki-
 https://brainly.in/question/8339223#readmore