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Gas Insulated Switchgear

July 16, 2010


Kerala State Electricity Board, Kozhikode

Name : Ankur Aggarwal Division : EPD Category : General 1


Contents
ƒ Introduction
ƒ Why only SF6 Gas
ƒ Main Drivers for GIS Application
ƒ Product Development Cycle
ƒ Characteristics of Gas Insulated Switchgears
ƒ Main Parts of GIS
ƒ Primary Components
ƒ Gas Compartments
ƒ Sealing System of GIS
ƒ Pressure Levels
ƒ Earthing System
ƒ Secondary Control System
ƒ Delivery & Storage
ƒ Erection of GIS
ƒ Commissioning of GIS
ƒ GIS Testing at Site
ƒ Inspection & Maintenance of GIS
ƒ Hybrid Sub Station
ƒ Comparison of AIS & GIS
ƒ Life Cycle Cost Analysis
ƒ Safety & Security Issues
ƒ Partial Discharge
ƒ Maintenance (Typical)

2
INTRODUCTION

3
INTRODUCTION

ƒ What is GIS????
ƒ GIS stands for GAS INSULATED SWITCHGEAR
ƒ A metal enclosed switchgear in which the insulation is
obtained, at least partly, by an insulating gas other than air
at atmospheric pressure (IEC 62271-203)
ƒ This term generally applies to High Voltage Switchgears
ƒ The gas used is generally SF6 or SF6 mixtures
ƒ Considering that the basic aspect of substation design i.e.
installation, operation, maintenance and extension is possible
with a maximum of one circuit and one section of bus bar
out of service simultaneously.

4
INTRODUCTION

ƒ GIS using SF6 is now a well


established technology and have
been in service since the 1960’s.
ƒ GIS Technology is typically of
modular design and filled with a
minimum quantity of SF6.
ƒ GIS can have low life cycle cost
compared to AIS and can be
used for indoor as well as
outdoor applications.
ƒ There has been a rapid growth in
the application of this technology
with an estimated 80,000 bays
now in service and increasing at
a rate of over 6,000 bays per
year.
(Source CIGRE Working Group B3.17 report 381
June 2009)

5
INTRODUCTION

ƒ The Gas Insulated Switchgear has got hermetically sealed cast


aluminum enclosures, flanges, covers and aluminum castings.

ƒ The GIS is built up from modular units which are designed not
to burn through in the event of an internal arcing in the time
limited by the recommendation of IEC 62271-203.

ƒ The modules join to each other with flanges.

ƒ The live parts are supported by epoxy resin based insulator


discs which always can be found between flanges of the
neighbor modular units.

6
INTRODUCTION

ƒ The key advantages that GIS can offer of compactness,


immunity from environmental conditions and reliability are
well understood and documented.

ƒ In today’s environment where assessments of capital projects


are made on a total life time basis; there GIS can be the most
cost effective solution in comparison with AIS.

ƒ Life Cycle Cost (LCC) assessments are enabling the one


perceived disadvantages of GIS, i.e. its higher initial cost, to be
overcome.

ƒ With this background, GIS technology is expected to become


the preferred choice of many users in the future.

7
WHY ONLY SF6 GAS

8
WHY ONLY SF6 GAS

ƒ SF6 Gas is a colorless, odourless, non-toxic, non-flammable


synthetic gas.
ƒ SF6 Gas is around 5 times heavier than air and is among one
of the heaviest known gases.
ƒ Under normal conditions SF6 gas is chemically inert & stable;
its reactivity is among the lowest of all substances.
ƒ The excellent insulating properties of SF6 are resulting from to
the strong electron affinity (electro-negativity) of the molecule.
ƒ This is based on two mechanisms a) resonance capture and b)
dissociative attachment of electrons, in accordance with the
equations:

9
WHY ONLY SF6 GAS
ƒ SF6 Gas break down is possible only at relatively high field
strengths.

ƒ The breakdown voltage at 50Hz & 1 Bar in a homogenous field is


around 2.5 to 3 times higher than the corresponding values of air
or nitrogen.

ƒ On account of its thermal properties and low ionisation


temperature SF6 exhibits outstanding characteristics for
extinguishing the electric arcs.

ƒ The arc quenching time using SF6 gas is around 100 times less
than that using the air.

10
MAIN DRIVERS FOR GIS APPLICATION

11
MAIN DRIVERS

™ Short Planning, Delivery & Installation Requirements


™ High Level of Reliability & Availability
™ Minimal Maintenance Efforts
™ High Degree of Safety for Operating Personnel
™ Long Operating Life > 50 Years
™ Factory Pre Assembled and Tested Units
™ Protection from Environmental Conditions
™ Customer Tailored Solution due to modular designs
™ Extension of AIS under operation or restricted space
availability
™ Simple construction
™ Restricted Space Availability
™ High Land Acquisition Costs

12
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CYCLE

13
GIS PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CYCLE

CIGRE Report on GIS Product Development Cycle

14
CHARACTERISTICS OF GIS

15
CHARACTERISTICS OF GIS

ƒ Compact space saving design with uncomplicated


foundations.

ƒ Minimal weight by light weight construction through the use


of aluminum housings and use of computer aided design
tools to optimize the shape and size.

ƒ Complete safety to the personnel under all operating and


fault conditions based on new manufacturing methods and
quality control procedures.
• Environmental compatibility enables no restrictions on
choice of location by means of minimum space requirement,
low noise emission and effective gas tightness using sealing
systems with guaranteed leakage rates < 0.5% p.a. per gas
compartment.

16
CHARACTERISTICS OF GIS
ƒ Economical transport of several bays connected together as
maximum possible shipping unit.

ƒ Minimal operating cost of practically maintenance free


equipment, designed for extremely long service life up to 50
years. This ensures that first inspection will not be necessary
until after 25 years of operation, however depending upon the
status of the switchgear.

ƒ Highest reliability by a product concept which includes most


modern design tools, development programs and appropriate
quality control measures.

ƒ Easy and efficient installation and commissioning with


transport units already fully assembled and tested in the
factory, pre-filled with SF6 gas at reduced pressure.

17
CHARACTERISTIC OF GIS

Technology Insulation Insulating Enclosure


Design Medium

AIS External Air, SF6 Gas Live Porcelain


Technology Insulation Or
Composite Insulators
GIS Gas SF6 or SF6 Metal Enclosures
Technology Insulation Mixtures (Aluminum) effectively
earthed
Hybrid Mixed SF6 or Sf6 Permutation &
Technology Insulation Mixtures and Combination of all
Air

18
MAIN PARTS OF GIS

19
PRIMARY COMPONENTS

20
PRIMARY COMPONENTS

CB PT

Bus Bar

Isolator
CT

21
PRIMARY COMPONENTS

22
PRIMARY COMPONENTS

23
PRIMARY COMPONENTS

24
PRIMARY COMPONENTS

25
PRIMARY COMPONENTS

1-Phase Bus Bar with Connecting Element

26
PRIMARY COMPONENTS

27
PRIMARY COMPONENTS

28
PRIMARY COMPONENTS

29
PRIMARY COMPONENTS

30
GAS COMPARTMENTS

31
GAS COMPARTMENTS

ƒ GIS contains several independent gas compartments.

ƒ The internal barriers between the gas compartments are


provided by solid insulator discs.

ƒ The system gives possibility

ƒ For decreasing gas losses

ƒ For restriction of damages caused by fault arc

ƒ For reducing the time of gas manipulations

ƒ Different gas compartments contains usually different gas


volumes

32
GAS COMPARTMENTS

33
GAS COMPARTMENTS

ƒ All the gas compartments include the following


basic parts:

ƒ A Metal Rupture disc assembly with deflector


cover (as PRD)

ƒ A temperature compensated contact


manometer for continuous monitoring of
internal gas pressure

ƒ A set of gas connection valves

ƒ A set of gas filters

ƒ These basic parts basically act as safety and


security devices for satisfactory performance of
GIS during actual site conditions.

34
SEALING SYSTEM OF GIS

35
SEALING SYSTEM OF GIS

ƒ GIS represents closed pressure system

ƒ Gas leakage rates are < 0.5% p.a. i.e. a undisturbed life
of 20 years is guaranteed for GIS before the gas has to
be replenished.

ƒ GIS is built in modular units (for single phase design)


which are joined with each other through flanges.

ƒ Epoxy resin insulator discs are placed between the


flanges of the neighboring units to support the live
parts.

ƒ To ensure static gas tight sealing ethylene-propylene


rubber rings are placed.

36
SEALING SYSTEM OF GIS

37
PRESSURE LEVELS

38
PRESSURE LEVELS

ƒ GIS uses SF6 gas as insulation & arc quenching


material.

ƒ Therefore pressure in puffer type circuit breaker is high


because of better arc quenching properties.

ƒ The figure shown below depicts the various pressure


levels and their relationship as specified and governed
by various IEC and IN Standards.

ƒ However, the exact pressure values are not fixed and


vary from manufacturer to manufacturer and
specifically design wise orientation in pressure values
is also more or less applicable.

39
PRESSURE LEVELS (IEC 62271-203)

40
PRESSURE LEVELS GAI3 245 kV

41
PRESSURE LEVELS GT01 145 kV

42
PRESSURE LEVELS

• Design Pressure:
– Abstract value used at determining the wall
thickness of enclosure elements.
– It is valid at the design temperature which is the
average of the permissible temperatures of the
active parts and the enclosures.
– According to IEC 62271- 1, the maximum
temperature for silver coated contacts in SF6 is 105
deg C and for accessible parts expected to be
touched in normal operation is 70 deg C.
– Therefore the design temperature shall be (105+70)/2
= 87.5 deg C

43
PRESSURE LEVELS

• Rated Filling Pressure:


– This is the actual working value on which the
equipment is filled up under normal conditions.
– It is valid at 20 deg C gas temperature
– Some Type Tests are performed at rated gas
pressure like gas tightness test, mechanical
endurance test, internal arc test and inductive
current breaking capacity test.

• Alarm Pressure:
– This value is approximately 90% of the rated value.
– This is basically the setting level for the first step of
gas protection
– At this value the gas monitoring device and relay
gives alarm signal for refilling.

44
PRESSURE LEVELS

• Minimum Functional/ Lock Out Pressure:


– The minimum permissible pressure of the equipment.
– Dielectric Test, Switching Test & Temperature rise test
are performed at this value.
– If the pressure falls under this value the second level of
gas protection has to provide the electrical isolation of
the defected gas compartment.

• Routine Test & Bursting Test Pressure:


– RTP = k x Design Pressure
– Where k = 1.3 for welded and 2 for cast aluminum
enclosures
– This is dominated by IEC 62271-203.
– BTP = m x Design Pressure
– Where m = 3 for welded and 5 for cast aluminum casing

45
EARTHING SYSTEM

46
EARTHING SYSTEM

ƒ GIS Earthing System is designed according to IEEE Guide for safety


in AC Substation grounding (IEEE Std 80).

ƒ Earthing eliminates all the hazardous potential differences caused by:

ƒ Fault Situation (Short Circuit) or

ƒ Return Currents (electromagnetically induced among the phases


during normal operation)

ƒ Earthing also protects the personnel from shock hazard voltage by


maintaining low touch/ step voltage among the different parts of
switchgear.

ƒ Earthing of GIS is established by using two different types of earthing


conductors i.e. interconnecting earthing bars among the phases and
earthing conductors between the enclosure and Earth Mat.

ƒ From Safety point of view, LCC and Structural elements are also
earthed.

47
EARTHING SYSTEM

48
SECONDARY CONTROL SYSTEM

49
SECONDARY CONTROL SYSTEM

ƒ Secondary Cables: For Controlling, power supply of drives, and GIS


signaling.

ƒ LCC (Local Control Cubicle): Connection between substation control


system and GIS.

ƒ LCC gives possibilities to check the service conditions and


healthiness of switches and devices. Position signal of all the
switches appear in mimic diagram of LCC.

ƒ Operation of switches is possible either from control room or locally


through LCC.

ƒ In normal service the LOCAL/ REMOTE Selector switch are in


REMOTE control position to operate the GIS from Control room. If the
selector switch is turned to LOCAL position, the switches of the
concerned bay can be operated from LCC.

50
SECONDARY CONTROL SYSTEM

51
DELIVERY & STORAGE

52
DELIVERY & STORAGE

53
Delivery & Storage
• Packing:
– GIS Unit and all other parts and materials required for
erection & operation are seaworthy packed in wooden cases
&
– Packing is provided with signs for transport & storage as well
as instructions for proper handling.

• Storage of Shipping Units:


– If GIS is not planned to assemble immediately after delivery it
is recommended to leave the shipping units in weatherproof
transport packing.
– Wooden cases can be stored either in open air or in ware
houses.
– To safeguard the packing unit from ground moisture and for
better ventilation, the unit is raised on planks and covered
with waterproof sheets.
– The temperature of storage shall be in the range of -15 deg C
to +25 deg C and humidity shall be < 50%
– SF6 gas cylinders shall be handled and stored carefully in a
cool, dry and away from flames and sunlight.

54
DELIVERY & STORAGE

55
ERECTION OF GIS

56
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR ERECTION

ƒ To prevent accidents, fire hazards, shocks the utility operator


to ensure that:
ƒ A responsible person and supervisor caries out the erection

ƒ Only qualified and trained personnel are designated for the work

ƒ Installation and operation manual (manufacturer specific) shall be


strictly followed.

ƒ Tools, tackles and other devices for installation are available

ƒ Only manufacturer approved lubricants, materials, fillers,


degassers etc are used.

ƒ Death, severe injuries and considerable damage to property


and environmental damages may result if the safety and
erection procedures are not followed.

57
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR ERECTION

58
PREPERATORY WORK FOR ERECTION

ƒ Since for GIS erection an absolute cleanliness is required,


no installation work of any kind may be carried out at the
same time.

ƒ The following aspects are substantial:


ƒ Foundations and Earthing System

ƒ Cables and Cable Ducts

ƒ Transport Routes & Lifting arrangements

ƒ Tools, devices and consumables

ƒ Lighting, power & water supplies

ƒ Civil Works

59
COMMISSIONING OF GIS

60
COMMISSIONING OF GIS

ƒ GIS Commissioning should not commence before:


ƒ GIS erection is complete

ƒ Auxiliary and control cables have been connected

ƒ All auxiliary and control voltages are available at the


switches

ƒ SF6 gas filling has been completed

ƒ GIS is connected to earthing system.

61
COMMISSIONING OF GIS

ƒ Checks and Verifications:


ƒ Switchgear conformity with manufacturer drawings and
instructions

ƒ Conformity of secondary control & protection circuits

ƒ Conformity of earthing system

ƒ Sealing of all enclosure flanges and tightness of bolts &


connections

ƒ Proper functioning of AC & DC auxiliary supply systems

ƒ Proper operation, alarm and position indication of each drive

ƒ Proper function of electrical interlocks between LCC & GIS

ƒ Proper filling pressure of each gas compartment

62
GIS Testing at Site

63
GIS Testing at Site

ƒ Before putting into service the GIS shall be tested to


check the correct operation and dielectric strength of the
equipment.

ƒ These tests comprise:


ƒ Dielectric tests on auxiliary circuits

ƒ Measurement of the resistance of the main circuits

ƒ Measurement of gas condition

ƒ Gas Tightness Test

ƒ Checking the ratio and polarity of the CT

ƒ High Voltage AC Test on Main Circuits

64
GIS Testing at Site

ƒ Dielectric Test on Auxiliary Circuits:


ƒ After the site erection is completed, the auxiliary
cables that were not tested in the factory have to be
tested for checking the correct wiring.

ƒ The test is performed with HV AC Test Equipment

ƒ 1 kV AC Voltage shall be applied between the


terminal blocks and the earth points for 1 sec with
neutral points of the circuit to be removed during
testing

65
GIS Testing at Site

ƒ Measurement of Resistance of Main Circuit:


ƒ During the erection the resultant resistance of all
bays between the bus bar and the outgoing terminal
shall be checked.

ƒ The resistance shall be calculated from the voltage


drop measured at min 100 A DC loading current.

66
GIS Testing at Site

ƒ Measurement of Gas Condition:


ƒ The moisture content of SF6 gas should be
measured with dew point measuring device

ƒ Similarly the gas percentage measurement shall


also be carried out using gas measuring device.
SF6 percentage should be > 95%.

67
GIS Testing at Site

ƒ Gas Tightness Test:


ƒ Generally gas leakage test with gas leak detector is
being done at site to ensure that there is practically
no gas leakage after erection and commissioning of
GIS and before putting it into service.

ƒ CT Ratio & Polarity Test:


ƒ The ratio and polarity of the current transformer is
checked using primary current injection method.

68
GIS Testing at Site

ƒ High Voltage Test of GIS (AC Test):


ƒ This test is carried out to ensure the dielectric
strength of the switchgear which if unhealthy can
lead to an internal fault in future thereby leading to
Partial Discharges.

ƒ The test voltage to be applied as per IEC 62271-203


is 380 kV rms for 1 minute.

69
INSPECTION & MAINTENANCE OF GIS

70
INSPECTION OF GIS

ƒ GIS Life Cycle is ~ 50 years. There is a small risk of failure which


can often be avoided by proper monitoring and inspection of GIS

71
MAINTENANCE OF GIS

ƒ GIS is hermetically closed system.

ƒ Primary contacts and conductors are under protective gas


atmosphere and therefore no corrosion may occur due to
humidity

ƒ No internal or external parts are designed to be replaced within


the life cycle of GIS.

ƒ Practically GIS is maintenance free since the same is tested for


higher number of operations viz 10000 for circuit breakers.

ƒ However, within the scope of general overhauling only checking


and replacing of contacts, nozzles etc is carried out till the time
GIS operations are in prescribed limit of the IEC
recommendations and Type Test Certifications.

72
HYBRID SUB STATION

73
HYBRID SUB STATION

ƒ A sub station of which the bays are made from a mix of GIS and AIS
technology components and interconnections, i.e. a sub station that
consists of bays where some of the bays are made of a mix of AIS
and GIS technology components or some of bays are made of GIS
technology components and their interconnections only are
considered as HYBRID SUB STATIONS.

ƒ There are two exceptions from this rule:

ƒ If the only one component in AIS technology is the HV connection


(bushing, box) to O/H line, cable or transformer then the S/s is
considered as GIS S/s.

ƒ AIS where only one component is in GIS technology or where


additional elements have a mixture of Air & Gas Insulation but the
primary insulation to earth is still air (as in dead tank) they are
still considered as AIS S/s.

74
COMPARISON AIS & GIS

75
COMPARISON AIS & GIS

ƒ LAND

ƒ Less as compared to AIS.

ƒ App. 70% Land Reduction for a 400 kV GIS S/s wrt AIS

ƒ ENGINEERING

ƒ Less Engineering Required for GIS wrt AIS.

ƒ Engineering Standardization is a continuous process.

ƒ Project Specific influence (Cabling, Connections, Soil)

ƒ CIVIL WORKS

ƒ Involved in both, however, substantial reduction for GIS

ƒ AIS requires Equipment and Tower Foundations, cable trenches etc

ƒ GIS required GIS Room.

76
COMPARISON AIS & GIS

ƒ EQUIPMENT

ƒ Equipment Cost AIS viz a viz GIS is nearly double.

ƒ With Auxiliaries GIS cost is 1.2 to 1.5 times of AIS

ƒ AUXILIARIES (EARTHING, LIGHTING, FIRE FIGHTING etc)

ƒ AIS has more area means more requirement

ƒ More Fencing, More Earthing, More Lighting

ƒ More Cables required for AIS since HV equipments are a


distance apart and therefore the distances are longer.

ƒ Site preparation, mobilization cost, earth leveling, fencing and


roads cost are more in AIS compared to GIS.

77
COMPARISON AIS & GIS
ƒ ERECTION & COMMISSIONING

ƒ Assemblies pre tested at factory and dispatched as single unit


in form of complete bays

ƒ Time required is < 40% of the time required for erection &
commissioning of AIS

ƒ Very few cable requirement i.e. between LCC to GIS and


between GIS to CRP.

ƒ OPERATION & MAINTENANCE

ƒ Time for AIS O&M > 2 x Time for GIS O&M

ƒ GIS O&M requires only some preliminary checks.

ƒ No Environmental Issues

ƒ GIS Room and floor are always kept clean.

78
COMPARISON AIS & GIS
ƒ ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

ƒ No Pollution, Moisture or Temperature Difference Issues.

ƒ Less Ecological disturbances since land used is less

ƒ Sealed System with optimum earthing, thus no EMF emission

ƒ No RIV Interference due to sealed system

ƒ ASTHETIC VALUES

ƒ GIS is better compared to AIS

ƒ All housed beautifully in a room

ƒ High profile appearance.

ƒ No acoustic load on environment

ƒ Less corona discharges

79
COMPARISON AIS & GIS (145 kV)

80
LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS

81
LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS

82
LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS

83
LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS
ƒ Life Cycle costing is a process to determine the sum of all the
costs associated with an asset or a part thereof including
acquisition, installation, operation & maintenance, refurbishment
and disposal costs.

ƒ LCC = Acq. Cost + Ownership Cost + O&M Cost + Disposal Cost

ƒ GIS Primary Hardware (Acquisition Cost)


ƒ When comparing the equivalent primary HV components, GIS is more
expensive than AIS. However if the prices of the gantries, supports,
conductors, earthing, illumination, fire fighting for AIS s/s are included
in the comparison, the difference between GIS and AIS can be
significantly reduced, because they are already included in the GIS
System. Comparison including the cost of land, installation, building
etc as well as the cost of secondary control & protection and
monitoring equipment is also very important and can lead to more cost
attractive solution for GIS in any circumstances.

84
LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS
ƒ Maintenance (Ownership Cost)

ƒ In comparison of the failure rate, GIS has better features than


AIS. In general, failure rate of GIS components are 0.25 times
that of AIS components (viz. CB, CT, CVT, ISO) and especially
0.10 times in case of bus bar. Thus, GIS needs less repair
maintenance cost through out its lifetime. The cost of
preventive and predictive maintenance are well reduced,
because of less possibility of failure.

ƒ Operation Cost (Ownership Cost)

ƒ Operating cost including the maintenance cost of GIS shall be


substantially low as compared to AIS. However, the cost of
training, spare holding for new GIS installation is high as
compared to AIS.

85
LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS
ƒ Outage Cost (Operating Cost)

ƒ Since failure rate of GIS components is lower than that of AIS


and therefore, outage cost of AIS including the possible loss of
revenue by the outage shall be bigger.

ƒ However, it shall also be considered that the outage time for


GIS can be longer than that of AIS, in case of certain failures.

ƒ Disposal Cost

ƒ Cost of decommissioning and disposal after use and after


subtracting earnings which can be received by selling the
reusable materials like aluminum, copper etc have to be
capitalized. Now a days CIGRE is studying the feasibility on re
usage of SF6 gas up to 99%.

86
LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS

87
LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS

88
LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS

89
LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS

90
LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS

91
SAFETY & SECURITY ISSUES

92
SAFETY & SECURITY ISSUES
ƒ Substation Security has always been important factor.

ƒ Importance of a secure and uninterrupted electricity supply


continues to increase.

ƒ Outages and failures due to insufficient substation security


becomes less and less acceptable to customers.

ƒ Substation security is important to:


ƒ Maintain the availability of the power supply

ƒ Prevent public access to the plants, for the purpose of safety of


general public, prevention of vandalism and intruders

ƒ Protect other parts and components in a S/s against violent


deterioration of high voltage equipment caused by failures.

ƒ Prevent and minimize the financial risk due to all the occurrences
mentioned above

93
SAFETY & SECURITY ISSUES
ƒ Protection Measures to obtain an adequate security level include:

ƒ Protection against intruders

ƒ Outdoor substations: Fence design (height, shape, minimum clearance to


ground, mechanical strength, reduction of height due to snow depth)

ƒ Indoor Substations: Building design (windows, doors, access control).

ƒ Protect other parts and components in S/s against violent deterioration of HV


equipment caused by failures

ƒ Outdoor parts: Fence Design, Passive protection of components by concrete


structures

ƒ Indoor parts: Quality of building material, wall thickness

ƒ GIS is inherently well placed to meet these demands and considerations in an


excellent way due to:

ƒ Small space requirements, these s/s are easier to protect.

ƒ The enclosure gives protection against access to live parts

ƒ GIS are often located indoor to give additional security compared to outdoor
substations.

94
SAFETY & SECURITY ISSUES

CIGRE Report on Power Supply Network with GIS


Technology Report 381 Working Group B3.17 Jun 2009

AIS GIS

100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Primary Space Global Acid Rain Nutrification
Energy Consumption Warming Potential Potential
Potential

95
PARTIAL DISCHARGE

96
PARTIAL DISCHARGE - AN OVERVIEW

Partial Discharge is

Localized Electrical Break down

Of a small portion of electrical insulation system

Under High Voltage Stresses

Which does not bridge the space b/w conductors

97
PARTIAL DISCHARGE – AN OVERVIEW

High Reliability

Expectations from GIS

Long Life Space Economization

Maintenance Free

98
PARTIAL DISCHARGE – AN OVERVIEW

ƒ Preventive Maintenance is required for GIS to


ensure maintenance free.

ƒ Most Important aspect of Preventive Maintenance is


to analyze the type & location of internal fault.

ƒ Internal Faults in GIS:


ƒ Insulation

ƒ Loose Particles

ƒ Arcing

ƒ Thus Partial Discharge Measurement are very much


helpful to evaluate the integrity of the equipment.

99
PARTIAL DISCHARGE – AN OVERVIEW

ƒ PD Measurement can be taken:


ƒ Continuously

ƒ Intermittently

ƒ On-Line

ƒ Off-Line

100
MAINTENANCE (TYPICAL)

101
MAINTENANCE (TYPICAL)
GIS General

ƒ General Conditions of Equipments

ƒ Support Structures

ƒ Earthing Connections

ƒ Gas Pressure Density/ Level & Trend Analysis

ƒ Calibration of Pressure Transmitter/ Transducer/ Pressure


Gauges/ Manometers

ƒ Alarm Setting & Operations

102
MAINTENANCE (TYPICAL)
CIRCUIT BREAKER

ƒ Number of Operations

ƒ Trial Operations

ƒ Contact Timing. Travel Record

ƒ Mechanism Type (i.e. Spring/ Hydraulic/ Pneumatic)

103
MAINTENANCE (TYPICAL)
DISCONNECTOR & EARTHING SWITCHES

ƒ Number of Operations

ƒ Trial Operations

ƒ Motor Operating Time & Current

ƒ Operation of position indicating valve

ƒ Condition of auxiliary switches, wiring & connections

ƒ Conditions of gears, linkages, lubrication

ƒ Interlocking operation

104
THANK YOU

105
CGL CONTACTS
For Further Information, Please Contact

Crompton Greaves Ltd.

Engineering Projects Division

3rd Floor, Tower A, DLF Cyber Greens, DLF Phase III,

Gurgaon (Haryana) – 122 002

Contact Persons:
a) Mr. Reshu Madan – Dy. General Manager (+91-9711206415) reshu.madan@cgglobal.com

b) Mr. Kapil Verma – Dy. Manager (+91-9711206425) kapil.verma@cgglobal.com

c) Mr. Ankur Aggarwal – Dy. Manager (+91-9711206437) ankur.aggarwal@cgglobal.com

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