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# Boardwork

## Energy Balance_Closed System

Four moles of nitrogen at 200C is contained in a
piston-cylinder arrangement. How much heat
is extracted from this system, which is kept at
constant pressure, to cool it to 40C if the heat
capacity of the piston and cylinder is
neglected?
Cv=20.8 J/mol-C, Cp=29.1 J/mol-C
Three lbmol of nitrogen at 70F, contained in a
rigid vessel, is heated to 350F. How much heat
is required if the vessel has a negligible heat
capacity? If it weighs 200 lbm and has a
capacity of 0.12 Btu/lbm-F, how much heat is
required? Cv=5 Btu/lbmol-F, Cp=7 Btu/lbmol-F
One mole of an ideal gas with Cp=(7/2)R and
Cv=(5/2)R expands from P1=8 bar and
T1=600K to P2=1 bar by each of the following
paths:
(a)Constant volume
(b)constant temperature
Assuming mechanical reversibility, calculate
W,Q, ΔU and ΔH for each process. Sketch each
path on a single PV diagram.
An ideal gas initially at 600K and 10 bar undergoes a
four-step mechanically reversible cycle in a closed
system. In step 12, the pressure decreases
isothermally to 3bar; in step 23, pressure
decreases at constant volume to 2 bar; in step 34,
volume decreases at constant pressure; and in
step 41, the gas returns adiabatically to its initial
state. Take Cp=(7/2)R and Cv=(5/2)R.
(a) Sketch the cycle on a PV diagram.
(b) Determine (where unknown) both T and P for
states 1,2,3 and 4.
(c) Calculate W,Q, ΔU and ΔH for each step of the
cycle.
An ideal gas, Cp=(5/2)R and Cv=(3/2)R, is changed from
P=1bar and V1=12 m3 to P2=12 bar and V2=1 m3 by
the following mechanically reversible processes.
(a)Isothermal compression
(b)Adiabatic compression followed by cooling at constant
pressure.
(c)Adiabatic compression followed by cooling at constant
volume.
(d)Heating at constant volume followed by cooling at
constant pressure
(e)Cooling at constant pressure followed by heating at
constant volume.
Calculate W,Q, ΔU and ΔH for each step of the cycle and
sketch it on a single PV diagram.
An ideal gas, initially at 30C and 100 kPa, undergoes the
following cyclic processes in a closed system:
(a)In mechanically reversible processes, it is first
compressed adiabatically to 500 kPa, then cooled at a
constant pressure of 500 kPa to 30C, and finally
expanded isothermally to its original state.
(b)The cycle traverses exactly the same changes of state,
but each step is irreversible with an efficiency of 80%
compared with the corresponding mechanically
reversible process. Note: The initial step can no longer
Calculate W,Q, ΔU and ΔH for each step of the process
and for the cycle. Take Cp=(7/2)R and Cv=(5/2)R.
One cubic meter of an ideal gas at 600K and 1,000
kPa expands to five times its initial volume as
follows:
(a)By a mechanically reversible, isothermal process
(b)By a mechanically reversible, adiabatic process
For each case calculate the final temperature,
pressure and work done by the gas. Cp=21 J/mol-
K.
One mole of air, initially at 150C and 8 bar,
undergoes the following mechanically
reversible changes. It expands isothermally to
a pressure such that when it is cooled at
constant volume to 50C its final pressure is 3
bar. Assuming air as an ideal gas for which
Cp=(7/2)R and Cv=(5/2)R, calculate W,Q, ΔU
and ΔH.
One mole of an ideal gas, initially at 30C and
1bar, undergoes the following mechanically
reversible changes. It is compressed
isothermally to a point such that when it is
heated at constant volume to 120C its final
pressure is 12 bar. Calculate W,Q, ΔU and ΔH
for the process. Take Cp=(7/2)R and
Cv=(5/2)R.
A process consists of two steps: (1)One mole of air
at T=800K and P=4bar is cooled at constant
volume to T=350K. (2) The air is then heated at
constant pressure until its temperature reaches
800K. If this two-step process is replaced by a
single isothermal expansion of the air from 800K
and 4 bar to some final pressure P, what is the
value of P that makes the work of the two
processes the same? Assume mechanical
reversibility and treat air as an ideal gas with
Cp=(7/2)R and Cv=(5/2)R.
An ideal gas, initially at 25C and 1bar, undergoes
the following cyclic processes in a closed
system.:
(a)In mechanically reversible processes, it is first
compressed adiabatically to 5bar, then cooled
at a constant pressure of 5bar to 25C, and
finally expanded isothermally to its original
pressure.
(b)The cycle is