OCTOBER 1991 83 I
I. INTRODUCTION
r
R32 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION A N D MEASUREMENT, VOL. 40, NO. 5 . OCTOBER 1991
and
1
Fig. 3 . Equivalent representation of interleaved A / D structure used in the
error analysis.
fs(e,) = %, o I e, I2n (13)
A 

1
c akcos ( z k )
Ml
k=O
+ j M1 Mk  =’ ax
~
sin (5,) obtained as a particular case of (9) and (10) when the in
put is a dc signal. Accordingly, the output spectrum en
compasses spectral lines located at 2wk/M, for k = 0, 1,
. . . , M  I , as we show briefly. Let us assume that the
(1 1)
analog input signal is zero, i.e., u ( t ) = 0, V t . In this case
f o r l = 1, 2, . . , M  1. Again, assuming that the uk’s the only input to each digital upsampler is the offset in
are uncorrelated Gaussian random variables and identi troduced by the preceding A/D converter. In other words,
cally distributed with variances ai, both real and imagi a sequence of constant sample values, bk, is the input of
nary parts in (1 1) are thus zero mean Gaussian random the kth digital upsampler. As a result, the output of the
834 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT. VOL. 40. NO. 5, OCTOBER 1991
Fig. 4. Model for the kth A I D subconverter used in the simulations. IV. SIGNALTONOISE RATIO(SNR)
In the previous section we obtained the spectrum of the
signal resulting from an array of subconverters having gain
and offset mismatches. Many dynamic parameters have
been defined in the literature to specify, in the frequency
domain, the performance of an AID converter [2]. In this
section we evaluate the ratio between the energy of the
input signal and the energy contained in the error signal
formed by the aliased terms due to gain mismatches and
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 the spectral lines resulting from offset mismatches. This
0 ~ " " " " ' " " ' ~ " " ~ ""1
3 M=4
error can be obtained from (8) as the difference between
9 bits  the output and the desired signal:
P)
a u,=o.o02 
2
.A
50   E(z) = z ~  I Y ( z 
) U(Z). (17)
4
2
4100
Thus the signaltonoise ratio (SNR) is given by
;;.... ...
... 3 Z 
I
l
of the performance parameters often specified by the man
ufacturers.
Neglecting quantization errors and assuming that offset
and gain errors are uncorrelated, we can calculate the con
tribution of gain and offset errors separately and then add
them to obtain the overall signal error energy. So, if 4, is
the energy of the error signal E,(eJ") due to gain errors
U tT+ only, then (8)(10) and (17) give, on the unit circle:
Fig. 6 . Distortion introduced by offset errors alone M 1
~ , ( ~ j "=) c A/U(ejb+2Tl/W).
/=0
(21)
timeinterleaved converter is periodic with a period of M
samples (as shown in Fig. 6), whose Fourier transform Using the definition in (20) and Parseval's relation, it can
can be written as [lo] be shown [12] that the energy contained in the signal
e,(nT) is given by
4, = &,, (22)
meaning that the aliasing noise due to gain mismatches is
where 6 ( * ) is the Dirac delta function and B, is the lth proportional to the energy of the input analog signal, and
coefficient of the discrete Fourier series of the output, i.e. independent of the number of subconverters M . If now we
PETRAGLIA A N D MITRA: ANALYSIS OF MISMATCH EFFECTS AMONG AID CONVERTERS 835
consider offset errors alone, then a procedure similar to ated. After fitting a straight line to the transfer character
the one adopted above for the derivation of [,, gives istic of each subconverter, gain and offset errors have been
defined to characterize such mismatches. As a conse
Eh = 2xa;. (23)
quence of gain errors, aliased terms appear at the digital
The total signal error energy 4, is obtained by adding (22) output. Offset errors, on the other hand, are independent
and (23), and finally, from (18), the signaltonoise ratio: of the input signal and have a smaller contribution to the
2nu; aliasing distortion than gain errors. A signaltonoise ra
SNR =  10 log,, (U: +
7). (24) tio, defined as the ratio between the energy of the input
\ 41, /
analog signal and the energy of the error signal due ex
Once U , and U,, are known for a specific technology, the clusively to these mismatches, has been obtained. The
above equation can be used to predict the error introduced analysis has shown that the above distortion is compara
in a timeinterleaved A/D converter by mismatches among ble to the one generated by nonuniform sample timing in
the subconverters. In general, the energy of the input sig the analog demultiplexer when converting a single high
nal is relatively large, so that, in (24), the term corre speed signal into several lowspeed sampledandheld sig
sponding to gain error predominates as the most important nals. The results of the analysis can be used to specify the
factor for the aliasing noise. degree of precision to be achieved in an actual monolithic
implementation.
A . Sinusoidal Input
Due to the fact that sine waves can be generated with REFERENCES
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W . C . Black, Jr. and D. A. Hodges. “Time interleaved converter
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1980.
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(26) 1987.
In order to compare this result with the ones reported in L. E. Larson, “Highspeed analogtodigital conversion with GaAs
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”
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