Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

# Traffic Characterization

## Dr. Antonis Michael

Frederick University

## Notes Courtesy of Dr. Christos Drakos,

University of Florida

## Topic 4 – Traffic Characterization

1. Introduction
Traffic is the most important factor in pavement design;
thickness is based
1.1 Traffic Characterization Procedures
a. Fixed Traffic:
• Thickness governed by single-wheel load (

## • Used for heavy load / low volume pavements (i.e.

b. Fixed Vehicle Traffic:
• Thickness governed by # of

## • Convert all traffic to 18-kip single axle loads

c. Variable Traffic and Vehicle:
• Loads are divided into groups (

## • More appropriate for mechanistic design methods

Topic 4 – Traffic Characterization
Fixed Vehicle Traffic
• Design is based on the total number of passes of the standard

## • Covert all traffic to the standard axle load (ESAL)

Nd = 1.365 × 10 −9 ( εc )
−4.477

Nf = 0.0796 ( εt ) (E1 )
−3.291 −0.854

Basic premise:
Must determine how many 18-kip single axle loads would cause
the same damage as one X-kip load

## Topic 4 – Traffic Characterization

1.2 Equivalent Axle Load Factor (EALF) a.k.a. (LEF)
• Defines the damage per pass to pavement by the axle in
question relative to the damage per pass of a standard 18-k
axle
Load Equivalence Factor (LEF) Depends on:
• Type
• Thickness
• Terminal conditions (definition of failure)

• Theoretical analysis Nf(18)/Nf(X)
• Based on experience (AASHO Road Test)
– Table 6.4 (flexible pavements)
– Table 6.7 (rigid pavements)
Topic 4 – Traffic Characterization
1.3 Theoretical Analysis to get LEF (Mechanistic)
24-kip 18-kip
AC AC
For the same structure
BASE BASE apply 24- & 18-kip load

∞ ∞

• KENLAYER:

• So, we can get an equivalent damage factor
− Nf(18)/Nf(24) = 2.59
• It would take

LEF =

## Issues with theoretical analysis:

• Does the LEF change if we modify structural configuration
(thickness, modulus, etc.)?
• Which one is more critical – fatigue cracking or rutting
analysis?
Topic 4 – Traffic Characterization
1.3 AASHTO Equivalent Factors (Empirical)

Wx  L18 + L 2s 
4.79 10G βx  W18
=  G [L 2 x ]4.33 EALF =
W18  L x + L 2 x   β18  Wx
10 
Where:
Wx = axle applications inverse of equivalency factors
W18 = No of 18kip single axle loads
Lx =
L18 = 18 (
L2s = code for standard axle = 1 (single axle)
L2x = code for axle load being evaluated
L2x = 1 for
L2x = 2 for
L2x = 3 for

## Topic 4 – Traffic Characterization

1.3 AASHTO Equivalent Factors (Empirical)

Wx  L18 + L 2s 
4.79 10G βx  W18
=  G [L 2 x ]4.33 EALF =
W18  L x + L 2 x  10 β18  Wx
 
Where:
pt = "terminal" serviceability index (point at which the
pavement is considered to be at the end of its useful life)

##  4 .2 − p t  function of the ratio of loss in serviceability at time, t, to

G = Log 
 4.2 − 1.5 
the potential loss taken at a point where pt = 1.5

##  0.081(L x + L 2 x )3.23  function which determines the relationship

β = 0 .4 +  3.23 
 (SN + 1) L 2 x
5.19 between serviceability and axle load applications

Topic 4 – Traffic Characterization
2. Computation of Design ESALs
ESAL =
ESALs = Cumulative ESALs for all vehicles over the entire design
period (we can also calculate ESAL for specific vehicle type)

• Where:
– ADT0 = Initial Average Daily Traffic
– T =
– TF =
– G = Growth Factor
– Y =
– L =
– D = Directional Distribution Factor (decimal)

## Topic 4 – Traffic Characterization

2. Computation of Design ESALs
Design ESALs:
m
ESALs = ∑ ESAL (i) m = vehicle types Must calculate ESALs for
each vehicle type
i=1

ESAL(i) = (
New terms:
Ti = Distribution of
TFi = Truck factor for

## 2.1 Average Daily Traffic (ADT)

Unless otherwise stated, ADT is in
• Cars
• Single-unit trucks & buses
• Multiple-unit trucks
Topic 4 – Traffic Characterization
2.2 Average Daily Truck Traffic (ADTT) or (T)
• Minimum traffic information

## • Very important in pavement design

– Effort to collect actual data
– Table 6.9; guide to

2.2.1 Example:
• 4000 ADT ; 20% Trucks; Rural System/Principal
• Find the # of 2-axle, 4-tire trucks

## Topic 4 – Traffic Characterization

Topic 4 – Traffic Characterization
2.3 Truck Factor (TF)
Sum of ESALs divided

## • Single TF can be applied to all trucks (weighed average); or

separate for each truck type if the growth rates are different
• Table 6.10 (Truck Factors)
– If we use all trucks,

## Topic 4 – Traffic Characterization

Topic 4 – Traffic Characterization

## 2.4 Directional Distribution (D)

• Usually assume D = 0.5
Where could that be different?

## 2.5 Lane Distribution (L)

• Function of ADT & # of lanes (Table 6.14)
Outer traffic
Center traffic • We design for
Inner traffic
• Inner Lane

## 2.6 Growth Rate Factor (G)

• Assuming a yearly rate of growth (r)

G=
1
2
[
× 1 + (1 + r )
Y
]
• Asphalt Institute (Table 6.13); (G)(Y) combined