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PainT¡NG

DEFINITION OF PAINTING
It is the art process of applying pigment or medium to
a surface to creative a ingenious effects involving
forms or colors.

It is a mode of expression that may serve to manifest


the conceptual intention of the practitioner upon a
certain subject using different kinds of techniques.

According to Sanchez (2011), painting is the art of


creating meaningful effects on a flat surface by the
use of pigments.
DEFINITION OF PAINTING

But according to Pablo Picasso, “Painting is


just another way of keeping a diary.”

According to Balthasar Klossowski de Rola,


painting what I experience, translating what I
feel, is like a great liberation.
HISTORY OF PAINTING

Pre-Historic Period

Paintings in this period are illustrated by


images, petroglyphs engraved and painted in
cave walls. Basically, cave paintings portrays
animal images, human figures and nature.
HISTORY OF PAINTING
During this time, artists
usually used red ochre
and black pigments. The
technique used was
probably spitting or
blowing the pigments
onto the rock.

The paintings are quite


naturalistic, though
stylized.
This is example of Cave Painting found in the
cave of France. This Painting is entitled, the
BULL and Horse
HISTORY OF PAINTING
According to some assumptions by art
historians, pre-historic men painted these cave
paintings because:

1. To catch the souls of the animals they want


to hunt easily.
2. They have a basic need of expression that
is innate to human beings; or,
3. They could have been for the transmission
of practical information.
HISTORY OF PAINTING
Egyptian Painting

Ancient Egyptian art aimed at preserving


order and stability, or the prevailing relationships
between the king, people, and the gods.

Additionally, ancient Egyptian art was heavily


influenced by religion, specifically the belief in life
after death so that ancient Egyptian artists
developed funeral art to an amazing degree.
HISTORY OF PAINTING
Egyptian Painting

In this time, paintings are made as well to


record their everyday living. However, sometimes
these are more symbolic than realistic.

Pharaohs are painted with bigger scales and


colorful styles than normal people which is
signifying superiority.
Painting of Queen Nefertiti playing a game.
c. 1320-1200 BCE
A wall painting from the tomb of an official named
Inherka. Seated at left, Inherka and his wife are
surrounded by their young grandchildren, who
play and hold birds in their hands.
A tomb painting that shows craftsmen in the
workshop of the Pharaoh Amenhotep III.
A tomb painting showing people of
several social classes during a grain
harvest. At the top, winnowers toss
the grain with wooden scoops to
separate the kernels from the chaff,
and a laborer presents samples of the
cleaned grain to the master for
inspection. In the middle, laborers pull
nets full of grain heads, and two girls
pull each other's hair as they compete
to pick up grain that has fallen to the
ground. At the bottom, inspectors use
rope to measure the crop and
determine how much grain the
government should receive. This
painting comes from the New
Kingdom tomb of Mennah at Thebes.
HISTORY OF PAINTING

Early Christian Painting

For most art historians, Early


Christian visual arts gave focus Christian
on spiritual ideas (namely biblical figures
and events) rather than physical
accuracy.
HISTORY OF PAINTING

Early Christian Painting

The subject matter during this phase


was symbols like cross, fish, lambs, doves,
grapes, peacocks and human figures like
Christ, Virgin Mary, Saints and the Christian
Martyrs. Moreover, Early Christian paintings
were preserved in the Catacombs of Rome.
Samson and the Lion
Early Christian Painting
Wall-painting, c. 350-400.
Mid 4th century AD, Rome
HISTORY OF PAINTING
Byzantine Painting

The Byzantine Empire was a religious state. The emperor


was not only the ruler of his people but God's representative on
earth. The ceremonies of the church and of the court were
meant to show the emperor's sacred character. His magnificent
jewels, robes, and crown were intended to give him a majestic
and saintly appearance.

The purpose of Byzantine art was to glorify the Christian


religion and to express its mystery. All of Byzantine art is filled
with a kind of spiritual symbolism--things on earth are meant to
stand for the order of heaven. Another characteristic of the art of
this rich empire is a love of majesty.
HISTORY OF PAINTING

Byzantine Painting

Furthermore, most of the time, artists don’t focus on


perspective during this period. Instead, they usually make
a pictures that are flattened---to raise the main figure
above the level of the mundane.

Painting during this time were also elongated and the


focus on curved body. Floating of figures (not standing
on the ground) frontal of figures, and centrally located,
were dominant.
St. Francis Altarpiece Pescia by Madonna Enthroned by Cimabue
Bonaventura Berlinghieri Florence, Uffizi
San Francesco 1235 c. 1280-1290
HISTORY OF PAINTING
Romanesque Painting

In this period, illuminated manuscript


paintings started be known. The typical
focus of Romanesque illumination were
the Bible. As influenced by the early
Christian and Byzantine period, the
murals’ scheme and figures remained as
divine and holy as it was.
HISTORY OF PAINTING

Romanesque Painting

Furthermore, subject during this time


has a strong religious content through
gestural representation. Yet, it uses bright and
intense colors.
HISTORY OF PAINTING
Renaissance Painting

The Renaissance is said by many to be the golden


age of painting. Roughly spanning the 14th through
the mid-17th century.

The development of perspective was part of a wider


trend towards realism/naturalism in the arts. To that
end, painters also developed other techniques,
studying emotion, light, shadow, and, famously in
the case of Leonardo da Vinci, human anatomy
HISTORY OF PAINTING

Shadows and light. Artists were


interested in playing with the way light
hits objects and creates shadows. The
shadows and light could be used to
draw the viewer’s eye to a particular
point in the painting.
Mona Lisa is a half-
length portrait and
depicts a woman
whose expression
is often described
as enigmatic.
HISTORY OF PAINTING

Emotion. Renaissance artists wanted the


viewer to feel something while looking at
their work, to have an emotional
experience from it. It was a form of visual
rhetoric, where the viewer felt inspired in
their faith or encouraged to be a better
citizen.
Madonna del Cardellino, by Raphael, 1506.
HISTORY OF PAINTING
Realism and naturalism. In addition to
perspective, artists sought to make objects,
especially people, look more realistic. They
studied human anatomy, measuring
proportions and seeking the ideal human
form. People looked solid and displayed real
emotions, allowing the viewer to connect with
what the depicted persons were thinking and
feeling.
Madonna of the
Rocks
By Leonardo da Vinci
1493
HISTORY OF PAINTING
Perspective. To add three-
dimensional depth and
space to their work,

Renaissance artists
rediscovered and greatly
expanded on the ideas of
linear perspective, horizon
line, and vanishing point.
The Last Supper, by Leonardo da Vinci, 1498. An example of the way
in which Renaissance artists wished to draw the viewer into the
painting by depicting a vibrant scene filled with real psychology and
emotion. All the apostles have different reactions to Christ revealing
that one will betray him.
The Creation of Adam, by Michelangelo, 1511. In this most famous
section of the Sistine Chapel, the personal nature of faith, the divine
potential of man, and the idea of man being co-creator with God is
vividly depicted. So is the Renaissance interest in anatomy; God is
resting on the outline of the human brain.
School of Athens, by Raphael, 1510. This painting, which depicts all the great
philosophers of ancient Greece and Rome, serves as an example of the way in
which Renaissance artists were inspired by and hearkened back to the days of
antiquity. The perspective lines draw the viewer to the center of the painting and
the vanishing point where history’s two greatest philosophers, Plato and Aristotle,
stand. In line with their philosophies, Plato points to the heavens and the realm of
Forms, while Aristotle points to the earth and the realm of things.
HISTORY OF PAINTING
Baroque Painting
• Images are direct, obvious, and dramatic.
• Tries to draw the viewer in to participate in the
scene.
• Depictions feel physically and psychologically
real. Emotionally intense.
• Extravagant settings and ornamentation.
• Dramatic use of color.
• Dramatic contrasts between light and dark, light
and shadow.
The Crucifixion of Saint
Peter, by Caravaggio, 1601
GENERAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF
PAINTING

Generally, painting can be classified into two (2):


These are:

1. Mural Painting. Those which are painted in the


walls.

2. Easel Painting. Those which are painted in a


certain canvass or board.
TYPES OF PAINTING
1. A portrait is a painting,
drawing or photograph of
a person. Usually the
head and shoulders. It can
also be just the head or
the whole body.

Besides showing what


someone looks like, a
Portrait often captures a
mood or personality.
TYPES OF PAINTING
2. A Still Life is a painting,
drawing or photograph
of a group of inanimate
objects, a bowl of fruit,
flowers usually on a table.

A Still-Life reveals an
Artist's skill in painting
shapes, light and shadow.
TYPES OF PAINTING
3. A Landscape is a
painting, drawing or
photograph of the land.
A view or an outdoor
scene.

A landscape artist uses


paint to create a land,
water, clouds and air.
4. A Cityscape is a painting, drawing
or photograph of the city.
5. A Seascape is a painting, drawing
or photograph of the sea.
6. Interior is a painting, drawing or
photograph of the inside of a room or
a building.
7. Real-Life painting captures life in action. It could
show a busy street, a beach party, a dinner gathering,
or anyplace where living goes on.
8. An Abstract is characterized by a non-
representational subject. Painting that departs from
reality.
HOW DO ARTISTS PAINT?
1. First, artists must classify what painting he wants to
pursue.
2.Secondly, they think of the Subject they would put in
their masterpiece.
3. Next, they manage to choose a good MEDIUM to
use.
4. Next, they think of the ELEMENTS they would put in
their masterpiece.
5. Know what kind of TECHNIQUE he can use to well-
utilized his medium and to ensure the craftsmanship
and creative aspect of his painting.
TECHNIQUE IN PAINTING

Generally, painting has two major techniques:

1. Alla Prima. Direct applications of medium


in a flat surface.
2. Traditional. The artist put the medium in
different level. (manipis-pakapal)
TECHNIQUE IN PAINTING
1. Assemblage. is an artistic process. In the visual
arts, it consists of making three-dimensional or two-
dimensional artistic compositions by putting
together found objects.

2. Frottage. (from French frotter, "to rub") is


a surrealist and "automatic" method of creative
production developed by Max Ernst. In frottage the
artist takes a pencil or other drawing tool and
makes a rubbing over a textured surface.
TECHNIQUE IN PAINTING
3. Collage. A collage is a technique of
composing works of art by pasting numerous
materials that may or may not usually be
associated with each other onto one surface.

4. Decalcomania. Ang hibla o sinulid ay


ibababad sa kulay o jobos at saka ididisenyo
sa isang papel at tinatakpan ng isa pa at
hinihila nang dahan-dahan.
TECHNIQUE IN PAINTING
5. Dripping. is a form
of abstract art in which
paint is dripped or
poured onto the canvas.
This style of action
painting was
experimented in the first
half of the twentieth
century by such artists
as Francis Picabia
and Max Ernst.
TECHNIQUE IN PAINTING
6. Raclage. Sa ginamit na krayola o pastel
para magpantay, numipis at kuminis
kinakailangan itong kaskasin.

7. Splashing. Technique in painting wherein


the artist just scatter (isaboy) the medium
in flat surface.
TECHNIQUE IN PAINTING
8. Pointilismo. Teknik sa pagpinta kung
saan itinutulkdok-tuldok ang brotsang
may pintura sa kambas.
FAMOUS PAINTERS IN THE
PHILIPPINES
DAMIAN DOMINGO
He is considered as the First Great Filipino
Painter. He was an active painter of
miniature portraits and religious images in
19th century.

He was known for his miniature portraits in


ivory and oil portraits in canvas. He was
likely the first Asian who used western
principle in perspective.
DAMIAN DOMINGO

In 1821, he established a school for artists


in his residence in Tondo and served as the
director of the first official Philippine art
academy. It was also likely the first in Asia to
teach the Western principles of foreground,
middle ground, and background
perspectives, among other artistic
techniques.
FABIAN DELA ROSA

Artist Fabian Cueto De La Rosa was born in


Manila on the 5th of May, 1869. He was the
second child of Marcos de la Rosa and
Gregoria Cueto. He is an outstanding painter
of women’s portrait as well everyday scenes
with women depicted as simple yet regal in
doing daily activities such as weaving, chatting,
going to church, planting rice fields and
washing clothes.
FABIAN DELA ROSA

De La Rosa later served as a mentor to Fernando


Amorsolo, encouraging him to pursue painting.
Notable works from this period include “Planting
Rice," which won De La Rosa the gold medal at the
International Exposition held in St. Louis, Missouri in
1904, and also "The Death of General Lawton," which
won a bronze medal in the same exposition. He also
painted the Young Filipina (1928).
HERNANDO OCAMPO
He was credited for new mode of abstraction
that exemplifies Phil flora and fauna and
portrays sunshine, stars, and rains; utilized
fantasy and science fiction by using
movement and bold colors; his art is
described as “abstract composition of
biological forms that seemed oscillate, quiver,
inflame, and multiply like mutations.”
He was awarded as the 1991 National Artist
on Visual Arts.
HERNANDO OCAMPO
Ocampo's acknowledged masterpiece Genesis
(1968) served as the basis of the curtain
design of the Cultural Center of the
Philippines Main Theater. His other major
works include Ina ng Balon, Calvary, Slum
Dwellers, Nude with Candle and Flower, Man
and Carabao, Angel's Kiss, Palayok at Kalan,
Ancestors, Isda at Mangga, The Resurrection,
Break of the Day, and Mission Accomplished
MAURO MALANG SANTOS
He is a self-taught painter who began his
career as a comic strip illustrator. His paintings
concentrates most in our beautiful landscapes,
its people (especially women) and tradition
using happy, vivid and festive colors. He was
an awarded artists as “TOYM 1963”, “Gawad
CCP”, “Artist of the Year” by the Society of
Philippine Illustrators and Cartoonists; and,
“Patnubay ng Sining at Kalinangan” from the
City of Manila.
Woman in Red Three Women
by Malang by Malang
VICENTE MANANSALA
He is Philippine cubist painter and
illustrator. His canvases were described as
masterpieces that brought the cultures of the
barrio and city together. His “Madonna of the
Slums” is a portrayal of mother and child for
the country side who became urban shanty
residents once in the city. His “Jeepney”
combined the elements of provincial folk
culture with the congestion of the city. He is
the 1981 National Artist in Visual Arts.
Jeepney Madonna of the Slums
by Vicente Manansala by Vicente Manansala
FERNANDO AMORSOLO
He was a portraitist of and a painter of
rural Philippine landscapes, people and
cultures. He painted outdoors to be able
to catch the effect of light on objects
through the use of colors. The official title
"Grand Old Man of Philippine Art" was
bestowed to Amorsolo on January 23,
1969.
FERNANDO AMORSOLO
Among others, his major works include the
following: Maiden in a Stream (1921)-GSIS
collection; El Ciego (The Blind Man) (1928)-
Central Bank of the Philippines collection;
Dalagang Bukid (1936) - Club Filipino
collection; The Mestiza (1943) - National
Museum of the Philippines collection;
Planting Rice (1946)-UCPB collection;
Sunday Morning Going to Town (1958)-
Ayala Museum Collection.
EL CIEGO
by Fernando Amorsolo
CARLOS “BOTONG” FRANCISCO
He is a muralist painter from Angono. His
other major works include the following:
Portrait of Purita, The Invasion of
Limahong, Serenade, Muslim Betrothal,
Blood Compact, First Mass at Limasawa,
The Martyrdom of Rizal, Bayanihan,
Magpupukot, Fiesta, Bayanihan sa Bukid,
Sandugo.
THE MARTYRDOM OF DR. JOSE RIZAL
by Carlos “Botong” Francisco
FIESTA
by Carlos “Botong”
Francisco
JOSE JOYA
Jose Joya is a painter and multimedia artist
who distinguished himself by creating an
authentic Filipino abstract idiom that
transcended foreign influences. Most of
Joya’s paintings of harmonious colors were
inspired by Philippine landscapes, such as
green rice paddies and golden fields of
harvest.
JOSE JOYA

Among his works are Beethoven Listening


to the Blues, and Space Transfiguration,
and other works like Hills of Nikko,
Abstraction, and Dimension of Fear
VICTOR EDADES
Victorio C. Edades emerged as the "Father of
Modern Philippine Painting". Unlike, Amorsolo's
bright, sunny, cheerful hues, Edades' colors were
dark and somber with subject matter or themes
depicting laborers, factory workers or the simple
folk in all their dirt, sweat and dirt.

In the 1930s, Edades taught at the University of


Santos Tomas and became dean of its Department
of Architecture where he stayed for three full
decades.
VICTOR EDADES

It was also the time that Edades invited


Carlos "Botong" Francisco and Galo B.
Ocampo to become professor artists for the
university. The three, who would later be
known as the formidable "Triumvirate", led
the growth of mural painting in the country.
VICTOR EDADES

Finally retiring from teaching at age 70, the


university conferred on Edades the degree
of Doctor of Fine Arts, honoris causa, for
being an outstanding "visionary, teacher and
artist". Among his works are The Artist and
the Model, Portrait of the Professor,
Japanese Girl, Mother and Daughter, The
Wrestlers, Poinsettia Girl.
REFERENCES
Sanchez Custodiosa, Introduction to Humanities,
2010
Menoy, Jesus, Introduction to Humanities:
Holistic Approach, 2009
Ramirez, Veronica, Leynes, Marirene, et.al,
Minding the Arts: Art Appreciation for College,
2008
Ortiz, Ma. A. Art Perception: Art Appreciation,
1976
Dudley, Introduction to Humanities, 2003

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