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J. Construct. Steel Res. Vol. 38, No. 3, pp.

201-217, 1996
Copyright © 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd
Printed in Great Britain. All fights reserved
Pn: S01413-974X(96)~025-9 0143-974X/96 $15.00 + 0.00
ELSEVIER

Slenderness Limit of Class 3 I Cross-sections Made of


High Strength Steel

D. Beg a & L. Hladnild'


~Faculty for Civil Engineering and Geodesy, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
blnstitute for Metal Structures, Ljubljana, Slovenia

(Received 23 June 1995; revised version received 7 March 1996; accepted 9 May 1996)

ABSTRACT

In this paper an attempt is made to establish a more accurate slenderness


limit for Class 3 cross-section welded I beams made of high strength steel.
For this purpose experimental and nonlinear numerical analysis of the local
stability was performed. Ten beams with different flange slenderness were
tested up to failure load. The influence of other parameters, particularly web
slenderness, was analysed using finite element nonlinear numerical analysis.
According to the obtained results and method proposed by B. Kato (J. Con-
struct. Steel Res. 17 (1990) 33-94) the analytical expression for demarcation
between: slender and semicompact I cross-sections taking into account the
flange web interaction was derived. Further research work is needed to con-
sider also the influence of the flange to web thickness ratio. Copyright ©
1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

NOTATION

a Weld thickness
b = 2c Flange width
d Web thickness
E Modulus of elasticity of steel
fycange(web)
Compressive yield stress of a flange (web)
ange(web)
Tensile yield stress of a flange (web)
fu Ultimate tensile strength
hw Web depth
hwe Effective depth of a web for compressed cross-section
P~ Ultimate (failure) load of a test beam
P~ Applied force that corresponds to My
M~ Ultimate (failure) bending moment

201
202 D. Beg, L. Hladnik

Elastic resistance moment


t Flange thickness
Elastic section modulus of the full cross-section

O~f Flange stiffness


O~w Web stiffness
(235/fy) °'5
% PdPy = MdMy ~ non-dimensional ultimate carrying capacity
of the cross-section

1 INTRODUCTION

Because of the favorable ratio between high load capacity and price, micro-
alloyed high strength steel is being used increasingly in the construction of
steel structures. Some research reports I predict even a possibility of the appli-
cation of plastic analysis of such structures. In any case, an interesting question
is how to determine more precisely the slenderness limit between slender
cross-sections (Class 4) and semicompact cross-sections (Class 3). Because
elements made of high strength steel are exploited in the presence of very
high strains and stresses, demands for compactness of cross-sections are very
strict and more exact knowledge of those criteria can contribute to more econ-
omical design.
Previous research in connection with the local stability and the compactness
limit for the third class cross-sections of high strength steel2--8 applies in gen-
eral to stub column tests of columns with box, cruciform and I cross-sections.
Results of Rasmussen & Hancock, 8 for example, show that the slenderness
which demarcates a slender and semicompact flange of compressed cross-
sections is the same for mild structural steel and high strength steel and
amounts to ( d O l e = 15 [e = (235/fy)°'5], in accordance with provisions of EVN
1993-1-1 (EUROCODE 3---EC39).
For I beams in bending it is expected that the limiting slenderness will be
slightly higher, especially when more compact webs are used. In order to take
into consideration this effect in the analysis of the cross-section local stability,
it is necessary to consider the interaction between the stability of the web and
the flange. Technical regulations or standards, with the exception of Japan, ~°
presently do not take this interaction into account.
In the paper, an experimental and numerical analysis of the local stability
of welded I beams made of micro-alloyed high strength steel with a yield
stress around 800 MPa was presented.
Ten beams loaded in bending with different slenderness of flanges were
tested up to failure load. The influence of web slenderness was also analysed
S,Ienderness limit of Class 3 I cross-sections made of high strength steel 203

using additional numerical analysis. Based on the obtained results, the limit
between sle;nder and semicompact cross-sections was constructed at which the
interaction between flange and web was taken into consideration in a way
similar to that suggested by Kato. n

2 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS

2.1 Description of test beams and testing equipment

Ten welded steel beams with I c r o s s - s e ~ t i o n 12,13 w e r e tested. They were made
of fine grahaed micro-alloyedhigh strength steel NIONICRAL 70 with the
nominal yield stress fy = 700 MPa, a product of the Steel-Mill Jesenice-Acroni
in Slovenia, which corresponds to StE 690. The MAG welding process using
the flux-cored electrode FILTUB 32B (1.4 mm diam., fy = 690 MPa) and pre-
heating to 150-175°C was applied. The chosen nominal dimensions and static
scheme of tested beams are illustrated in Fig. 1. The test beams were loaded
with concentrate forces at two points 1.2 m apart so that in the span between
these two points the bending moment was constant. Arrangement of lateral
and torsional supports assured safety from lateral buckling, except for the
beam with the narrowest flange where numerical analysis predicted approxi-
mately simultaneous occurrence of the local buckling of compressed flange
and lateral buckling of the middle part of the beam. The test beams have
been divided into five groups from A to E with two beams of equal nominal
dimensions. Individual groups differ only in the width or slenderness of flange.
They were chosen in the area of slender and semicompact flanges. In all cases
the webs meet the requirements for the first class of compactness.
The actual cross-section dimensions are illustrated in Table 1 and present
the average,, value of three measurements made along the middle part of the
beams.
Introduction of forces has been accomplished with a pair of hydraulic actu-
ators. The :input force was measured using load cells. With the help of dis-
placement l~ransducers and strain gauges the characteristic vertical and lateral
displacement of a cross-section, as well as the deformation of a cross-section
in the middle of a span and at the point of force application were measured
(Fig. 2).

2.2 Mechanical properties of material, geometrical imperfections and


residual stresses

The basic mechanical properties were defined using the standard tensile test
(proportional test specimens) and compression test (small cylindrical
204 D. Beg, L. Hladnik

test I
beamI b(mm)
A 1300
X- lateral supports~P ~P B
c
] 270
1250
D 1220
,~ E 1200
~a=5

100 1800 1200 1800 100


! I I I

Fig. 1. Static scheme and nominal dimensions (mm) of test beams.

Cross-section in Cross-section at the


the mid-span aplication point o f the force

compression sd s9 s]o LC 1(2)

flange DT 3
o,I,
s6 [ sl2

tensile ss
I[ std ~ DT 6
flange ~ ~ " ~1s(2) ~ s74o)
10 10 10 | 10
H H H DTI(2) H

DT - displacement transducer
LC - load cell
Si - strain gauge i
Fig. 2. Measuring points.

specimens), and are given in Table 1. Yield stresses were defined at the perma-
nent deformation of 0.2%.
The greatest geometrical imperfections of the cross-section (Fig. 3) in the
middle of the span are collected in Table 2 and in general do not surpass
ordinary allowed tolerance. 14
The arrangement of compressive residual stresses was also measured in
flanges of test beams from groups B and D (Fig. 4). The average value of
compressive residual stresses for cross-section B amounted to 73 MPa
(0.09fy), and for cross-section D it was 123 MPa (0.14fy), which is in accord-
Slenderness limit of Class 3 I cross-sections made of high strength steel 205

TABLE 1
Actual Dimensions (mm) and Yield Stresses (MPa) of Test Beams

Test b=2c t hw d a Flange Web


beam (ram) (mm) (mm) (ram) (ram)
f,~ L, fu Lc L, L
(MPa)(MPa)(MPa) (MPa)(MPa)(MPa)

A1 300.2 12.5 221.7 10-4 6.5 843 873 883 845 775 814
A2 298-7 12.4 220.9 10.4 6.3 843 873 883 845 775 814
B1 271-0 12.4 222.7 10-4 5.5 817 797 808 845 775 814
B2 269-3 12.5 221.0 10-4 5.0 817 797 808 845 775 814
C1 251-0 12.6 221.3 10-4 6.5 776 776 808 845 775 814
C2 250-8 12.7 222.3 10-4 5.9 776 776 808 845 775 814
D1 220-8 12.4 220.9 10.4 5.6 843 873 883 887 830 864
D2 220-4 12.4 221.4 10.4 5.5 843 873 883 887 830 864
E1 198.8 12.6 220.7 10.4 5.1 817 797 808 887 830 864
E2 199.0 12.6 222.6 10.4 6.0 817 797 808 887 830 864

I b I I v
Fig. 3. Typical local geometrical imperfections.

a n c e with l~he results o f our p r e v i o u s research, 15 w h e r e the a v e r a g e c o m p r e s s -


ive residual stresses in flanges a m o u n t e d to a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 M P a ( 0 . 1 2 -
0.18fy).

2.3 Test results

All 10 b e a m s w e r e l o a d e d to the failure load. U l t i m a t e t o a d factors are s u m m a -


rized in T,tble 3. F i g u r e 5 presents the n o n - d i m e n s i o n a l l o a d - d e f l e c t i o n diag-
rams. Py is; the f o r c e that c a u s e s at m i d - s p a n the e m e r g e n c e o f yield m o m e n t
( M = My = uz ,, el7¢rl~gea
y¢ j, and Wy is the pertaining deflection. T h e d i a g r a m s s h o w
206 D. Beg, L. Hladnik

TABLE 2
Measured Geometrical Imperfections (mm)

Test beam A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 D1 D2 E1 E2

W 2.6 3.3 1.9 2-3 3.6 2.7 1.6 3.2 1-4 4.1
w/b 0-0087 0-0110 0.0070 0-0085 0.0143 0-0107 0.0072 0.0145 0-0070 0.0206
emax 1-5 0.9 4-2 0.6 3.3 4-2 6.5 5.0 0-5 1.3
e~/b 0.0050 0.0030 0-0155 0.0022 0-0131 0-0167 0.0294 0-0226 0.0025 0.0065
1.7 O-1 2.7 0.5 3.0 2.4 7-9 3.3 0.6 1.2
v/h~ 0.0077 0-0005 0.0121 0.0022 0-0135 0-0108 0.0357 0-0149 0-0027 0.0054

50.0 I
mm mm
MPa °'° t" 14a 220 MPa °'°' tt 3o 1i0 i~lo '//270
-100.0]

,0001,/ -2011.01

D -'- outside B

inside
average

50.13
MPa o.c ~ -
6O
MPa o.o o0I mm
I10 190 270
-100.0 -100.0, * / ' " ~ " ~

.200.0

°300.0

Fig. 4. Measured residual stresses.

that with increasing slenderness of flanges due to local buckling of compressed


flanges (Fig. 6), the non-dimensional carrying capacity and ductility o f
beams decrease.
Figure7 illustrates non-dimensional ultimate carrying capacity ~xp.
= P J P y = M J M y of all 10 test beams depending on the slenderness of flanges
(blt)/e. To calculate the coefficient e, the yield stress of flanges f~y~g= from
Table 1 has been used. For reasons of comparison, ultimate carrying capacities
are given which were obtained by previous numerical analysis 12.13 (Section 3).
Slenderness limit of Class 3 I cross-sections made of high strength steel 207

TABLE 3
Ultimate Loads P~ and Load Factors % of
Test Beams

Test beam Py P. y~. y~y'.


(kN) (kN) P,/Py eqn (2)

AI 427 389 0.91 0.89


A2 420 389 0.92 0.89
B1 376 391 1.04 0.95
B2 373 386 1.03 0.96
CI 335 359 1.07 1.02
C2 339 356 1.05 1.02
D1 320 358 1.12 1-05
D2 320 356 1.I1 1.05
E1 286 311 1.08 1.11
E2 289 308 1-06 1.10

1.20

0.9(I
0.80 - /

0.70 -
/
r~ry 0.6o -
0.50
0.40

0.30 1
0.20
0.I0

0.00 4 I I ~ ~ I ',

0.00 0.50 1.00 !.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

W/WT

Fig. 5. Measured deflection beneath the load point.

The experimental results correlate very well with those obtained through
numerical analysis.
From the diagram on Fig. 7 a limit slenderness of flanges (blt)l~40, which
divides slender and semicompact welded I cross-sections from high strength
steel, loaded in bending, can be obtained. The determined limit is much more
208 D. Beg, L. Hladnik

Fig. 6. Test beam D1 after the failure -- the local buckling of compressed flange.

favorable than the limit for flanges (b/t)/~30, in accordance with EC 3. The
average slenderness of webs in test samples amounted to (hw/d)/e~40.
The collapse of tested beams resulted from the local buckling of compressed
flange (Fig. 6) with the exception of test beams E1 and E2, where apart from
local buckling, also the lateral buckling of beams 12A3 influenced the ultimate
carrying capacity. This was confirmed by the measured local deflections of
compressed flange and lateral movements of compessed and tension flange,
as well as measured deformations in the middle of the span. Figure 8 illustrates
the measured local deflections of the outer edge of compressed flange and
lateral displacements of compressed and tension flange of test beam A2.

3 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

With the experimental analysis on 10 beams, the effect of flange slenderness


on the carrying capacity of the beams was defined. In order to determine the
effect of other parameters, in the first place the slenderness of the web, nonlin-
ear numerical analysis was used (computer program U L N A S 16 - - shells
finite elements).
The calculation considers the nominal dimensions and the static scheme
Slenderness limit of Class 3 I cross-sections made of high strength steel 209

1.2 7-

l l
I = , =,,

.
Ii
. . . . .
DI,D2

. . . . .
_
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.8
0.7 • test results
0.6 ---0 numerical results
U
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0,1
0 I I I i I I I i
28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46

(bit)/6

Fig. 7. Non-.dimensional ultimate carrying capacity of test beams y. in relation to the slender-
ness of flange (b/t)/e.

from Fig. 1 and initial geometrical imperfection, material and residual stresses
from Fig. 9. Residual stresses were taken from the results of our previous
research work. 15 First the analysis of the influence of flange slenderness on
limit carrying capacity was done. The results are illustrated in Fig. 7. An
agreement with the experimental results is good. Then the effect of web slen-
derness on limit carrying capacity was analysed. Support beams from groups
B, D and E were calculated at five different web depths (hw = 220, 350, 500,
700, 900 rnm). Other dimensions remained unchanged. Webs with depths of
700 and 990 m m are classified according to EC 3 as slender (hwld > 124 e).
The obtained ultimate load factors are illustrated in Fig. 10 depending on
web slenderness.
The results show that when web slenderness is increased, the limit carrying
capacity is decreased. Cross-section D with the flange (b/t)/e = 33.6 can be
classified among semicompact cross-sections up to web slenderness of
(hw/d)le = 82, but the cross-section with more slender web must be classified
as slender. Stability interaction between the flange and the web is therefore
present after all and influences the ultimate carrying capacity of a cross-
section.
210 D. Beg, L. Hladnik

DT6 4OO.OO(;DT5
350.00 :: w=DT3 -DT4

300.00
250.00
P (IN)
200.00
150.00 I
100.00
50.00
[ ntua
~J.vv

-0.005 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030

UlrrSf6~ w/L (L=I20 cm)


Fig. 8. The localdeflectionof compressed flange and lateraldisplacement of compressed and
tension flange of testbeam A2.

4 THE SLENDERNESS LIMIT BETWEEN SLENDER AND


SEMICOMPACT I SECTIONS IN BENDING

The relation between ultimate load factor and flange or web slenderness may
be defined as suggested by Kato H for ultimate carrying capacity obtained by
stub column tests:

~yt.

:'~- P, - My' ~ ' - ~ o ~ ' ~w =~:---~ hw " (i)


The coefficients A, B, and C were determined using linear regression analy-
sis from the results of the numerical analysis presented in Table 4. We
arrived at

- - ~yt. - 0.7353 + 0.6439 ( 1 ) + 0.0072 (~w).


3¢u (2)

Figure 11 illustrates the deviation of ultimate load factors arrived at by


Slenderness limit of Class 3 I cross-sect/onsmade of high strength steel 211

/Wo/Vo

- i tsoo I 1

%=d+(2a)°.5

t~ = 230 MPa
ff-:790 MPa flu" = -100 MPa
fa~ = 460 MPa
~w- = -50MPa

it I I .4-

c, - from the
hw equilibrium
of stresses
4-
+ I ;c,/2
wo=O.O17b :tt
vo=hJ250 I b , I

Fig. 9. Geometricalimperfectionsand residual stressses consideredin numerical analysis.

eqn (2) from the results of nonlinear numerical analysis. The correlation factor
amounts to 0.993 and confirms the suitability of eqn (2) for the range
0.8<%<1.1.
Equation (2) was verified by experimental results (Fig. 12). Our test results
are marked with black circles. Omitted, however, have been the results for
the beams of group E where apart from the local buckling of compressed
flange the lateral buckling of the beams influenced the ultimate carrying
capacity. The correlation coefficient amounts to 0.963. McDermott's exper-
imental results 5 are marked with black triangles and refer to the determination
of bending ductility of cross-sections. Among others he also tested five rolled
I sections loaded in bending and made of high strength steel with an average
yield stress of 857 MPa. The collapse of these beams occurred because of the
local buckling of compressed flange.
212 D, Beg, L. Hladnik

1.1 ~ _
l - E (b/~200/12, d=10)
0.9
0.8
D (b/t=220/12, d=10)
0.7
0.6
1111iljm"0.5
A B (b/t=270/12, d=10)
0.4
0.3
.... slenderness limit for
0.2
the web from Class 3
0.1 according to EC 3
0 ~ , J i I i i !
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

0aw/d)lc
Fig. 10. The influence of web slenderness (h./d)/E on ultimate carrying capacity of a cross-
section.

TABLE 4
The Results of Numerical Analysis (fy = 790 MPa)

Cross-section dimensions Numerical Analytical


(ram) analysis eqn (2)

b = 2c t hw d

200 12 220 10 1.0955 1.0909


220 12 220 10 1.0550 1.0504
250 12 220 10 0.9833 0-9888
270 12 220 10 0.9423 0.9478
300 12 220 10 0-8953 0.8873
200 12 350 10 1.0800 1.0675
220 12 350 10 1.0305 1.0287
270 12 350 10 0.9303 0.9301
200 12 500 10 1.0510 1.0293
220 12 500 10 0.9834 0.9934
270 12 500 10 0.8934 0.9012
200 12 700 10 0.9509 0.9650
220 12 700 10 0.9148 0-9332
270 12 700 10 0.8449 0.8513
200 12 900 10 0.8924 0.8905
220 12 900 10 0-8630 0-8633
270 12 900 10 0.8057 0.7928
Slenderness limit of Class 3 I cross-sections made of high strength steel 213

1.2 /

/
/
/

1.1
a"
l
Tu~naly t.
0.9
/
¢¢ • numerical
O.S
/
analysis (t/d=l.2)
/
/

0.7 i : ; I i
0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2
~u hum-

Fig. 11. Correlation between analytical (eqn 2) and numerical (Table 4) ultimate load factors.

]L.3
~,," • Beg, Hladnik
)L.2 t
A, /
(t/d 1 2)
/

1.1 /

1.0 °'le~ • McDermott


~Q (t/d=l.2-1.5)
0.9
O.S ~
/
o Rasmussen,
~uanalyt" 0.7
/
," Hancock
/ " (t/d--1.O)
0.6 , O
¢ ," * Davids $

0.5 ," Hancock


/

0.4 /
/ , o (t/d=l O)

/
/

(3,.3 /
/

/
/

(L2
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3
~ u exP"

Fig. 12. Correlation between analytical (eqn 2) and experimental (Table 3) ultimate load
factors.
214 D. Beg, L. Hladnik

Equation (2) can be modified in such a way that will also be valid for I
sections loaded only in compression. 13 When calculating the stiffness of the
web aw, instead of using an actual depth of a web hw, the effective depth of
a web hwe is used. The effective depth hw, for compressed cross-sections is
defined under the condition that the elastic critical stress of the local buckling
is equal in both cases (Ot'~r~SSu~= tr~n'Ung). Based on these suppositions hw, is
defined with the expression (3). K,~ is the coefficient of the local buckling.9

hwo =
/ --~-~nding
hw =
~34.9
--" hw = (3)

Modified equations were verified using the experiment results of Ras-


mussens and Davids. 7 Both authors performed stub column tests of welded I
cross-sections at various values of bit and h,dd. With Rasmussen's tests the
yield stress was at 740 MPa and with David's test 411 MPa. In Fig. 12, circles
and rhombi illustrate the deviation of their experimentally determined ultimate
carrying capacities ~xp. from the ultimate carrying capacities y~yt. calculated
by using eqn (2) and effective depth hwe.
It should be mentioned that in our research, the ratio of flange thickness
and web thickness amounts to 1.2. With McDermott, Rasmussen and Davids,
this ratio was within the range 1-1.5.
If 7u=l is applied in eqn 2, the expression representing the limit between
slender and semicompact welded I cross-sections made of high strength steel
is obtained, taking into account the interaction between the flange and web.
The limits for cross-sections loaded in bending or compression obtained in
such manner are illustrated in Fig. 13 in comparison with limits according to
EC 3. The white circle illustrates our experimentally obtained limit between
slender and semicompact I cross-sections loaded in bending (Fig. 7). A slightly
more conservative position of our numerically obtained limit regarding the
experiment is most probably the consequence of the strain hardening of the
existing material and more favorable distribution of the local geometrical
imperfections along the flange of test beams in comparison with the distri-
bution applied in the numerical analysis. 13
For purposes of design a simplified limit between slender and semi-compact
welded I sections in bending made of high strength steel illustrated in Fig. 13
can be proposed. As long as the web is very compact (hJd)/E<40, the limit
slenderness between slender and semicompact flange amounts to (blt)l~=-
40>30 which is more than according to EC 3. At the web which is according
to EC 3 on the limit between slender and semi-compact, the corresponding
flange slenderness amounts to 30, which is also in accordance with EC 3 where
no flange-web interaction is considered. To extend the suggested simplified
Slenderness limit of Class 3 I cross-sections made of high strength steel 215

our tost result (t/d=l.2)


40 - - ~--o--.~ simplifiedslendernesslimit

35

30 . . . . . . . . . . .
EC 3 .-_x ~,=______
. . . . . . . .. .. ... .. .. . .. . . . . .
" - ~~< cross - section in p ure bendin g
"\ " "xF~1.(2) ;Mu=My, hwe=hw
25
(bit)Is EC 3 \x EC 3 ""',,/
20 pure 'x pure xx
compression, '~ bending x
15

I0
cross-sectionint are compression
5
Eq. (2) ; P.=Py, hwe=2.444hw
t
I I
|
0 i I ] *, I ~ I I~ ~,

20 40 60 80 1O0 120 140 160 180 200

0add)/~
Fig. 13. The limit between slender (Class 4) and semicompact (Class 3) welded cross-sections
made of high strength steel taking into account the interaction between flange and web.

limit to slender webs with (hJd)l~>124, additional experimental and numeri-


cal analysis would be needed.

5 CONCLUSION

Results of experimental and numerical analysis of local stability of welded


beams with I cross-sections made of high strength steel loaded in bending
illustrate that the ultimate carrying capacity of cross-sections is greatly influ-
enced by the flange and web interaction. According to the obtained results
and method proposed by Kato, H the analytical expression for demarcation
between shmder and semicompact I cross-sections taking into consideration
the interaction between flange and web was derived.
The achieved expression enables that, for more compact webs, more slender
flanges are used in the third class of compactness than anticipated in EVN
1993-1-1. 9 The obtained expression has been verified by experimental results
available from other authors and the compatibility was high.
In order to establish the obtained slenderness limit for Class 3 cross-sections
as a design rule further research work is needed. In the first place the influence
of the flange to web thickness ratio has to be analysed.
216 D. Beg, L. Hladnik

We analysed I cross-sections made of high strength steel, but to a high


degree, these results also relate to cross-sections made of mild structural steel.
The essential difference with regard to local stability is higher intensity of
compressive residual stresses in flanges and thus relatively lower carrying
capacity when mild structural steel is used. The numerical analysis we carried
out in relation to this proves that the difference in carrying capacity of a cross-
section in non-dimensional form is small and does not exceed 3%.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The work presented in the article originated within the project 'Development
and introduction of micro-alloyed high strength steel' which was financed by
Steel-Mill Jesenice-Acroni and the Ministry for Science and Technology of
the Republic of Slovenia.

REFERENCES

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keit von Fliel3gelenken bei der Anwendung des Fliel3gelenkverfahrens. Stahlbau
61 (1992) H.11, s.329-339.
2. Nishino, F., Ueda, Y. & Tall, L., Experimental Investigation of the Buckling
of Plates with Residual Stresses. ASTM Special Technical Publication NO419,
American Society for Testing, PA, 1967, pp. 12-30.
3. Nishino, F., Tall, L. & Okumura, T., Residual stresses and torsional buckling
strength of H and cruciform columns. Jap. Soc. Civil Engrs Trans., 160 (1968)
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4~ McDermott, J. F., Local plastic buckling of A514 steel members. J. Struct. Div.
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ASCE, 95 No. ST9 (1969) 1851-1870.
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Struct. Engng, 112 (1986) 960-975.
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