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The term science comes from the Latin scientia that means knowledge. But this
statement is too broad inside daily use. In the narrow sense of science is a scientific
discipline which consists of physical sciences (life sciences) and life sciences (biology
sciences). Included in physical sciences are the sciences of astronomy, chemistry, geology,
mineralogy, meteorology, and physics, while life science includes biology (anatomy,
physiology, zoology, cytology, embryology, microbiology).

According to PISA, scientific literacy is interpreted as "the capacity to use scientific

knowledge, to identify questions and to draw evidence-based conclusions in order to
understand and help make decisions about the natural world and the changes made to it
through human activity". Based on the exposure literacy science can be defined as the
ability to use knowledge science, identify questions, and draw conclusions based on
evidence, in order to understand as well make decisions regarding nature and changes made
to nature through human activity.

Science is not only a collection of knowledge. Cain & Evans (Nuryani Y.

Rustaman, et al. 2003: 88) states science contains four things, namely: content or products,
processes or methods, attitude and technology. If science contains these four things, then
even when studying science students need to experience these four things. In learning
science, students not only learn products, but also also have to learn aspects of the process,
attitude, and technology so students can really understand science as a whole.

In line with this thinking, learning science is something that must be done by
students is not something done in students as stated by National Educational Science
Standard (1996: 20) that "Learning science is an active process. Learning science is
something student to do, not something that is done to them ". Thus, in learning science
students are required to learn actively implied in physical or mental activities, not only
covers hands-on activities but also minds-on activities.

The purpose of science can be divided into two, namely based on cognitivism and
behaviorism. science aims at knowledge and / or about the world (the classic definition of
knowledge as a true belief that is justified). Cognitive science is a branch of science that
combines multidisciplinary science into one comprehensive narrative. Cognitive science
focuses on problems and solutions from cognitive science rather than the parts of the
disciplines that are part of it - psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, etc. Examples,
illustrations, and applications demonstrate how theory is applied to unlock the mysteries of
the human brain.

The purpose of science knowledge is for science itself. Basic motives of science
knowledge is fulfilling desire know with the aim of finding the truth. This attitude was
driven by Aristotle which was then continued by natural science scientists. Science must be
autonomous, may not be subject to outside values science such as religious values, moral
values, values social, power. If science is subject to values outside of him will not obtained
objective scientific truths and rational.

Truth (knowledge) is very valuable, for its own sake (intrinsic value). The theory of
truth is always parallel with the theory of knowledge which he built. As knowledge is seen
not in a manner comprehensive, but only from certain aspects or parts, so also the truth is
only obtained from an understanding of knowledge that is not comprehensive. Thus every
theory of truth that will be discussed, emphasizes more on one part or aspect of the process
of people working on the truth of knowledge.

Science deals with how to find out about nature systematically, so science is not just
mastery of a collection of knowledge in the form facts, concepts, or principles but it is also
a process of discovery (Ministry of National Education in Mahyuddin, 2007). Poedjiadi
said that "science is a group knowledge of objects and natural phenomena obtained from
the thought and research of scientists which is done by experimenting skills using scientific
Curiosity is one of the basic characteristics possessed by humans. These traits will
encourage humans to ask for knowledge. Every reasonable person has knowledge, whether
in the form of facts, concepts, principles, or procedures about an object. Knowledge can be
possessed thanks to experience or through interaction between humans and their
environment. Universally, there are three types of knowledge that underlie human life,
namely: (1) logic that can distinguish between right and wrong; (2) ethics that can
distinguish between good and bad; and (3) aesthetics that can distinguish between beautiful
and ugly. Senses possessed are the basic capital in obtaining such knowledge.

Behavioral science, any of various disciplines dealing with the subject

of human actions, usually including the fields of sociology, social and cultural
anthropology, psychology, and behavioral aspects of biology, economic, geography,
law, psychiatry, and political science. The term gained currency in the 1950s in the United
States; it is often used synonymously with “social sciences,” although some writers
distinguish between them. The term behavioral sciences suggests an approach that is more
experimental than that connoted by the older term social sciences.

Behavioural sciences explore the cognitive processes within organisms and the

behavioural interactions between organisms in the natural world. It involves the systematic
analysis and investigation of human and animal behavior through the study of the past,
controlled and naturalistic observation of the present, and disciplined
scientific experimentation and modeling. It attempts to accomplish legitimate, objective
conclusions through rigorous formulations and observation.[1] Examples of behavioral
sciences include psychology, psychobiology, anthropology, and cognitive science.
Generally, behavior science deals primarily with human action and often seeks to
generalize about human behavior as it relates to society.

Knowledge and truth are not sought for their own sake. Knowledge has only
instrumental value. In a more specific sense, instrumentalism denies that scientific theories
have a truth value.


Yuliati, Yuyun. 2017. Literasi Sains Dalam Pembelajaran IPA. Jurnal Cakrawala Pendas
3(2): 23.


Wahana, Paulus. 2008. Menguak Kebenaran Ilmu Pengetahuan Dan Aplikasinya Dalam
Kegiatan Perkuliahan. Jurnal Filsafat 18(3): 277.


Pratiwi, S. N., C Cari and N. S. Aminah. 2019. Pembelajaran IPA Abad 21 dengan Literasi
Sains Siswa. Jurnal Materi dan Pembelajaran Fisika (JMPF) 9(1): 37.