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Burdens & Current Transformer

Requirements of MiCOM Relays

Application Notes

B&CT/EN AP/D11
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -1

CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION TO CURRENT TRANSFORMERS 12
1.1 Current transformer magnetization 12
1.2 Limiting secondary voltage (Vk) 12
1.3 Rated accuracy limit factor 12
1.4 Primary winding current rating 12
1.5 Secondary winding current rating 13

2 CURRENT TRANSFORMER STANDARDS AND CLASSES 14


2.1 Types 14
2.2 IEC 60044-1 standard 14
2.2.1 Class P CTs 14
2.2.2 Class PX 15
2.3 IEC 60044-6 standard 15
2.3.1 Class TPS 15
2.3.2 Class TPX 15
2.3.3 Class TPY 16
2.3.4 Class TPZ 16

3 OVERCURRENT AND FEEDER MANAGEMENT PROTECTION 17


3.1 P111 17
3.1.1 Burdens 17
3.1.2 Current Transformer Requirements 17
3.1.3 Protection 17
3.2 P115 and P114D 18
3.2.1 Burdens 19
3.2.2 Current Transformer requirements 20
3.2.3 Protection 21
3.3 P120 - P123, P125 - P127 22
3.3.1 Burdens 22
3.3.2 Current Transformer requirements 23
3.3.3 Protection 23
3.3.3.1 High impedance REF protection 24
3.3.3.2 High impedance differential protection 24
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -2

3.4 P124 25
3.4.1 Burdens 25
3.4.2 Current Transformer requirements 25
3.5 P130C, P132, P138, P139 25
3.5.1 Burdens 26
3.5.2 Current Transformer requirements 26
3.5.3 Protection 27
3.6 P141 - P145 28
3.6.1 Burdens 28
3.6.2 Current Transformer requirements 29
3.6.3 Protection 29
3.6.3.1 REF protection 30
3.6.3.2 High impedance differential protection 31

4 MOTOR PROTECTION RELAYS 32


4.1 P210, P211 32
4.1.1 Burdens 32
4.1.2 Current Transformer Requirements 32
4.2 P220, P225, P226C 33
4.2.1 Burdens 33
4.2.2 Current transformer requirements 34
4.3 P241 - P243 35
4.3.1 Burdens 35
4.3.2 Current Transformer requirements 35
4.3.3 Protection 36
4.3.3.1 Biased differential protection (P243 only) 37
4.3.3.2 High impedance differential protection (P243 only) 37

5 INTERCONNECTION AND GENERATOR PROTECTION RELAYS 38


5.1 P341 38
5.1.1 Burdens 38
5.1.2 Current Transformer requirements 38
5.1.3 Protection 39
5.2 P342 – P345 40
5.2.1 Burdens 40
5.2.2 Protection 41
5.2.2.1 Biased differential protection 41
5.2.2.2 High impedance differential protection 42
5.2.2.3 Voltage dependent overcurrent, field failure and negative phase sequence protection 42
5.2.2.4 Sensitive directional earth fault protection 42
5.2.2.5 Stator earth fault protection 43
5.2.2.6 Restricted earth fault protetion 43
5.2.2.7 Reverse and low forward power protection 44
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -3

6 DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS 45


6.1 P430C, P432, P433, P435 – P439 45
6.2 Burdens 45
6.2.1 Current Transformer requirements 45
6.2.2 Protection 46
6.3 P441, P442, P444 47
6.3.1 Burdens 47
6.3.2 Current Transformer requirements 47
6.3.3 Protection 47
6.4 P443, P445 (MiCOMho) 48
6.4.1 Burdens 48
6.4.2 Current Transformer requirements 49
6.4.3 Protection 49

7 CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION RELAYS 50


7.1 P521 50
7.1.1 Burdens 50
7.1.2 Curent Transformer requirements 50
7.1.3 Protection 50
7.1.3.1 Current differential protection 50
7.1.3.2 SEF protection 51
7.2 P541 - P546 51
7.2.1 Burdens 51
7.2.2 Current Transformer requirements 52
7.2.3 Protection 52
7.2.3.1 Current differential protection 52
7.2.3.2 Distance protection 53
7.3 P547 54
7.3.1 Burdens 54
7.3.2 Current Transformer requirements 54
7.3.3 Protection 54
7.3.3.1 Phase comparison protection 54
7.3.3.2 Distance protection 55

8 TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION RELAYS 56


8.1 P630C, P631 - P634, P638 56
8.1.1 Burdens 56
8.1.2 Current Transformer requirements 56
8.1.3 Protection 56
8.1.3.1 Differential protection 56
8.1.3.2 REF protection 58
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -4

8.2 P642 – P645 59


8.2.1 Burdens 59
8.2.2 Current Transformer requirements 59
8.2.3 Protection 59
8.2.3.1 Differential protection 59
8.2.3.2 Low impedance REF protection 61
8.2.3.3 One breaker application 62
8.2.3.4 One and a half breaker application 62

9 BUSBAR PROTECTION RELAYS 63


9.1 P742 - P743 63
9.1.1 Burdens 63
9.1.2 Current Transformer requirements 63
9.1.3 Protection 64
9.1.3.1 Differential protection 64
9.2 P746 64
9.2.1 Burdens 64
9.2.2 Current Transformer requirements 64
9.2.3 Protection 65
9.2.3.1 The knee-point voltage of the CT should comply with the minimum requirements of the
formulae shown below. 65

10 CIRCUIT BREAKER FAIL PROTECTION RELAYS 66


10.1 P821 66
10.1.1 Burdens 66
10.1.2 Protection 66

11 VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY PROTECTION RELAYS 67


11.1 P921 - P923 67
11.1.1 Burdens 67
11.2 P941 - P943 67
11.2.1 Burdens 67

APPENDIX A: CONVERTING TO A LIMITING SECONDARY VOLTAGE 69


APPENDIX B: CONVERTING TO IEEE STANDARD VOLTAGE RATING 70
APPENDIX C: USE OF METROSIL NON-LINEAR RESISTORS 71
APPENDIX D: FUSE RATING OF AUXILIARY SUPPLY 73
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -5

FIGURES
Figure 1: Dimensioning factor, for definite time overcurrent protection (fn = 50Hz) 27
Figure 2: Dimensioning factor, for definite time overcurrent protection (fn = 50Hz) 28
Figure 3: Dimensioning factor, k, for distance protection (fn = 50Hz) 46
Figure 4: REF operating times 58

TABLES
Table 1: Errors v accuracy class for class P CTs 15
Table 2: Current circuit for P111 17
Table 3: Auxiliary supply for P111 17
Table 4: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P111 17
Table 5: CT Specification for P111 17
Table 6: Knee-point voltages for P111 18
Table 7: Current input resistance for P115/P114D 19
Table 8: Auxiliary supply for P115/P114D 19
Table 9: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P115/P114D 19
Table 10: Opto-inputs for P115/P114D 20
Table 11: Current circuit for P120 – P123, P125 – P127 22
Table 12: Voltage circuit for P120 – P123, P125 – P127 22
Table 13: Auxiliary supply for P120 – P123, P125 – P127 23
Table 14: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P120 – P123, P125 – P127 23
Table 15: CT Specification for P120 – P123, P125 – P127 23
Table 16: Knee-point voltages for P120 – P123, P125 – P127 24
Table 17: Current circuit for P124 25
Table 18: Auxiliary supply for P124 25
Table 19: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P124 25
Table 20: Opto-inputs for P124 25
Table 21: Current circuit for P130C, P132, P138, P139 26
Table 22: Voltage circuit for P130C, P132, P138, P139 26
Table 23: Auxiliary supply for P130C, P132, P138, P139 26
Table 24: Auxiliary supply for P130C, P132, P138, P139 26
Table 25: CT specification for P130C, P132, P138, P139 26
Table 26: Knee-point voltages for P130C, P132, P138, P139 27
Table 27: Current circuit for P141 - 145 28
Table 28: Voltage circuit for P141 - 145 28
Table 29: Auxiliary supply for P141 – P145 28
Table 30: Additional burden for P141 – P145 29
Table 31: Opto-inputs for P141 – P145 29
Table 32: CT specification for P141 – P145 29
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -6

Table 33: Knee-point voltages for P141 – P145 30


Table 34: REF protection for P141 – P145 30
Table 35: Current circuit for P210, 211 32
Table 36: Auxiliary supply for P210, 211 32
Table 37: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P210, 211 32
Table 38: Recommended CT types for P210, P211 32
Table 39: IEC 60044-1 specifications for circuit breaking 33
Table 40: Current circuit for P220, P225, P226C 33
Table 41: Voltage circuit for P220, P225, P226C 33
Table 42: Auxiliary supply for P220, P225, P226C 33
Table 43: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P220, P225, P226C 34
Table 44: Recommended CT types for P220, P225, P226C 34
Table 45: IEC 60044-1 specifications for circuit breaking 34
Table 46: Current circuit for P241 - P243 35
Table 47: Voltage circuit for P241 - P243 35
Table 48: Voltage circuit for P241 - P243 35
Table 49: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P241 - P243 35
Table 50: Opto-inputs for P241 - P243 35
Table 51: CT specification for P241 - P243 36
Table 52: Knee-point voltages for P241 - P243 36
Table 53: Conditions for P243 knee-point voltage calculations 37
Table 54: Knee-point calculations for P243 – biased differential protection 37
Table 55: Current circuit for P341 38
Table 56: Voltage circuit for P341 38
Table 57: Auxiliary supply for P341 38
Table 58: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P341 38
Table 59: Opto-inputs for P341 38
Table 60: CT specification for P341 39
Table 61: Knee-point voltages for P341 – P345 40
Table 62: Current circuit for P342 – P345 40
Table 63: Voltage circuit for P342 – P345 40
Table 64: Auxiliary supply for P342 – P345 41
Table 65: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P342 – P345 41
Table 66: Opto-inputs for P342 – P345 41
Table 67: Conditions for P342 – P345 knee-point voltage calculations 41
Table 68: Knee-point calculations for P342-345 – biased differential protection 41
Table 69: Knee-point calculations for P342 – P345 – biased differential protection 42
Table 70: Stator earth fault protection for P342 – P345 43
Table 71: Low impedance REF protection for P342 – P345 43
Table 72: Power settings v. measuring class 44
Table 73: Current circuit for P430C, P432, P433, P435 – P439 45
Table 74: Voltage circuit for P430C, P432, P433, P435 – P439 45
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -7

Table 75: Auxiliary supply for P430C, P432, P433, P435 – P439 45
Table 76: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P430C, P432, P433, P435 – P439 45
Table 77: Current circuit for P441, P442, P444 47
Table 78: Voltage circuit for P441, P442, P444 47
Table 79: Auxiliary supply for P441, P442, P444 47
Table 80: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P441, P442, P444 47
Table 81: Opto-inputs for P441, P442, P444 47
Table 82: Knee-points for distance protection P441, P442, P444 48
Table 83: Current circuit for P443, P445 48
Table 84: Voltage circuit for P443, P445 48
Table 85: Auxiliary supply for P443, P445 48
Table 86: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P441, P442, P444 48
Table 87: Opto-inputs for P443, P445 48
Table 88: Knee-point voltages for P443, P445 49
Table 89: Current circuit for P521 50
Table 90: Auxiliary supply for P521 50
Table 91: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P521 50
Table 92: Calculation of ks 51
Table 93: Calculation of Kt 51
Table 94: Current circuit for P541 - 546 51
Table 95: Voltage circuit for P541 - 546 52
Table 96: Auxiliary supply for P541 - 546 52
Table 97: Auxiliary burdens on auxiliary supply for P541 - 546 52
Table 98: Opto-inputs for P541 - 546 52
Table 99: Calculation of K 53
Table 100: Current circuit for P547 54
Table 101: Auxiliary supply for P547 54
Table 102: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P547 54
Table 103: Opto-inputs for P547 54
Table 104: Calculation of K 55
Table 105: Current circuit for P630C, P631 – P634, P638 56
Table 106: Voltage circuit for P630C, P631 – P634, P638 56
Table 107: Auxiliary supply for P630C, P631 – P634, P638 56
Table 108: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P630C, P631 – P634, P638 56
Table 109: Conditions for P630C, P631 – P634, P638 calculations 57
Table 110: Knee-point voltages for P630C, P631 – P634, P638 57
Table 111: Calculation of K for phase and earth faults 57
Table 112: Current circuit for P642 – P645 59
Table 113: Voltage circuit for P642 – P645 59
Table 114: Auxiliary supply for P642 – P645 59
Table 115: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P642 – P645 59
Table 116: Conditions for P642 – P645 calculations 60
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -8

Table 117: K requirements for P642 – P645 61


Table 118: K requirements for P642 – P645 (one-breaker application) 62
Table 119: K requirements for P642 – P645 (one and a half breaker application) 62
Table 120: Current circuit for P742 – P743 63
Table 121: Auxiliary supply for P742 – P743 63
Table 122: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P742 – P743 63
Table 123: Opto-inputs for P742 – P743 63
Table 124: Current circuit for P746 64
Table 125: Auxiliary supply for P746 64
Table 126: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P746 64
Table 127: Opto-inputs for P746 64
Table 128: Current circuit for P821 66
Table 129: Auxiliary supply for P821 66
Table 130: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P821 66
Table 131: Current transformer requirements for P821 66
Table 132: Voltage circuit for P921 – P923 67
Table 133: Auxiliary supply for P921 – P923 67
Table 134: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P921 – P923 67
Table 135: Voltage circuit for P941 – P943 67
Table 136: Auxiliary supply for P941 – P943 67
Table 137: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P941 – P943 68
Table 138: Opto-inputs for P941 – P943 68
Table 139: C57.13 ratings 70
Table 140: Metrosil units 72
Table 141: Metrosil units for 5A CTs 72
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -9

GLOSSARY OF TERMS
The following abbreviations are used in this document:

Symbol Description
ALF Accuracy Limit Factor
ANSI American National Standards Institute
C IEEE standard C57.13 "C" classification
CT Current Transformer
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung (German standards body)
DT Definite Time
E/F Earth Fault
IDMT Inverse Definite Minimum Time
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
MCB Mini Circuit Breaker
Metrosil Brand of non-linear resistor produced by M&I Materials Ltd.
O/C Overcurrent
ph Phase
REF Restricted Earth Fault
rms Root mean square
SEF Sensitive Earth Fault
SIR Source Impedance Ratio
VA Current transformer rated burden
VT Voltage Transformer

The following terms are used in the equations in this document:

Symbol Description Units


< As well as the usual “less than”, this symbol also depicts undercurrent N/A
> As well as the usual “greater than”, this symbol also depicts overcurrent N/A
ω system angular frequency rad

f min Minimum required operating frequency Hz

f max Minimum required operating frequency Hz

fn Nominal operating frequency Hz

I' f Maximum internal secondary fault current (may also be expressed as a multiple of In) A

I >> Second stage current setting of short circuit element (overcurrent) In

I diff Current setting of first stage biased differential A

If Maximum secondary through fault current A

I f max Maximum secondary fault current (same for all feeders) A

I f max int Maximum secondary contribution from a feeder to an internal fault A

I fZ 1 Maximum secondary phase fault current at Zone 1 reach point A


Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -10

Symbol Description Units

I fe Maximum secondary through fault earth current A

I feZ 1 Maximum secondary earth fault current at Zone 1 reach point A

I fn Maximum prospective secondary earth fault current A

I fp Maximum prospective secondary phase fault current A

In Current transformer nominal secondary current A

I0 Earth fault current setting A

I Rm 2 Second knee-point bias current threshold setting of P63x biased differential element A

I ref Reference current of P63x calculated from the reference power and nominal voltage A

Is Value of stabilizing current A

IS1 Differential current pick-up setting of biased differential element A

IS2 Bias current threshold setting of biased differential element A

I sn Rated secondary current (I secondary nominal) A

I sp Stage 2 and 3 setting A

I st Motor start up current referred to CT secondary side A

K Dimensioning factor None

K1 Lower bias slope setting of biased differential element %

K2 Higher bias slope setting of biased differential element %

Ke Dimensioning factor for earth fault None

K max Maximum dimensioning factor None

K rpa Dimensioning factor for reach point accuracy None

Ks Dimensioning factor dependent upon through fault current None

K ssc Short circuit current coefficient or ALF None

Kt Dimensioning factor dependent upon operating time None

m1 Lower bias slope setting of P63x biased differential element None

m2 Higher bias slope setting of P63x biased differential element None

Pn Rotating plant rated single phase power W

Rct Secondary winding resistance Ω

Rl Resistance of single lead from relay to current transformer Ω

Rr Resistance of any other protective relays sharing the current transformer Ω

Rrn Resistance of relay neutral current input at 30In Ω

Rrp Resistance of relay phase current input at 30In Ω


Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -11

Symbol Description Units

Rs Value of stabilizing resistor Ω

t' Duration of first current flow during auto-reclose cycle s

T1 Primary system time constant s

t fr Auto-reclose dead time s

t IDiff Current differential operating time s

Ts Secondary system time constant s

Vf Theoretical maximum voltage produced if CT saturation did not occur V

Vin Input voltage e.g. to an opto-input V

Vn Nominal voltage V

Vk Required CT knee-point voltage V

Vs Value of stabilizing voltage V

X
Primary system reactance/resistance ratio None
R
Xe
Primary system reactance/resistance ratio for earth loop None
Re
Xt Transformer reactance (per unit) p.u.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -12

1 INTRODUCTION TO CURRENT TRANSFORMERS


The role of current transformers in the transmission and distribution of electrical energy is
extremely important. They are used to enable accurate metering and effective protection of
transmission and distribution circuits.
Current transformers isolate the secondary circuits, which are used for relaying and
metering, from the primary circuit, which carries the power. They also provide quantities in
the secondary which are proportional to those in the primary. The role of current
transformers in protective relaying is not as specific as for metering and instrumentation.
The role of a measuring transformer is to deliver from its secondary winding a voltage or
current waveform that accurately represents that of the primary side. The role of a protecting
transformer, however, varies depending on the type of protection it is designed to offer.
There is no major difference between a protective voltage transformer and a measuring
voltage transformer, the difference being only in the nature of the voltage transformed.
Normally the same transformer can serve both purposes. This cannot be said for current
transformers, however, as the requirements for protective current transformers are often
radically different from those of measuring current transformers. Occasionally the same
transformer may serve both purposes but in modern practice this is rare. The main
difference is that a measuring current transformer must be accurate over the normal range of
load currents, whereas a protective current transformer must be capable of providing an
adequate output over a wide range of fault conditions, from a fraction of full load to many
times full load.

1.1 Current transformer magnetization


The primary current contains two components:
1. The secondary current referred to the primary
2. The excitation current, which supplies the core magnetization, eddy currents and
hysteresis losses.
The excitation current flows in the primary winding only and is therefore the cause of
transformer errors. The amount of excitation current drawn by a current transformer
depends on the core material and the amount of flux that must be developed in the core to
satisfy the burden requirements of the current transformer.
It is, therefore, not sufficient to assume a value of secondary current and to work backwards
to determine the value of primary current by using the constant ampere-turns rule, since this
approach does not take into account the excitation current. When the core saturates, a
disproportionate amount of primary current is required to magnetize the core and the
secondary current does not accurately reflect the primary current.

1.2 Limiting secondary voltage (Vk)


IEC 60044 defines the limiting secondary voltage of the excitation characteristic as the point
at which a 10% increase in secondary voltage requires a 50% increase in excitation current.
This is also commonly referred to as the knee-point voltage. The knee-point may be
regarded as the practical limit beyond which a specified current ratio may not be maintained,
as the current transformer enters saturation. Since the shunt admittance is not linear in this
region, both the excitation and secondary currents depart from their sinusoidal form. ANSI
and IEEE have a different definition of the knee-point voltage.

1.3 Rated accuracy limit factor


A current transformer is designed to maintain its ratio within specified limits up to a certain
value of primary current, expressed as a multiple of its rated primary current. This multiple is
known as the current transformer’s rated accuracy limit factor (ALF).

1.4 Primary winding current rating


The current transformer primary rating is usually chosen to be equal to or greater than the
normal full load current of the protected circuit. This avoids overloading and consequent
overheating of the CT. Standard primary ratings are specified in IEC 60044-1. The
maximum ratio of current transformers is typically limited to 3000:1 for two reasons:
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

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1. Size limitation of the current transformer


3. Maximum safe open circuit voltage
Some transformers, like large turbo alternators, have very high primary ratings (e.g. 5000A).
In such cases it is standard practice to use a cascade arrangement. For example a
5000:20A in series with a 20:1A interposing auxiliary current transformer.

1.5 Secondary winding current rating


The total secondary burden of a current transformer includes the internal impedance of the
secondary winding, the impedance of the connected instruments and relays and the
impedance of the secondary leads. A typical value of rated secondary current is 5A,
provided that the length of the leads between the current transformers and the connected
apparatus does not exceed 25 meters. Up to this length the lead resistance is small in
relation to the total output of the transformer. In installations with longer lead lengths,
transformers with 1A secondary windings are used to keep the lead losses within reasonable
limits. Power losses vary as the square of the current, thus losses in 1A windings are 1/25th
of losses in 5A windings.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

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2 CURRENT TRANSFORMER STANDARDS AND CLASSES

2.1 Types
Generally, there are three different types of CT:
1. High-remanence
2. Low-remanence
3. Non-remanence
Remanence is the magnetization left behind in a medium after an external magnetic field is
removed. In our case, the amount of residual magnetization left in the core.

High-remanence CT
The high-remanence type has no given limit for the remanent flux. The CT has a magnetic
core without any air gaps and the remanent flux is very high. The remanent flux can be up to
70-80% of the saturation flux. Examples of high-remanent type CTs are:

• IEC 60044-1 classes P, PX


• IEC 60044-6 classes TPS and TPX

Low-remanence CT
The low-remanence type has a specified limit for the remanent flux. The magnetic core is
provided with small air gaps to reduce the remanent flux to a level that does not exceed 10%
of the saturation flux. Examples of low-remanent type CTs are:

• IEC 60044-1 class PR


• IEC 60044-6 class TPY

Non-remanence CT
The non-remanence type has a negligible level of remanent flux. The magnetic core has
relatively large air gaps, which reduce the remanent flux to practically zero level. An
example of a non-remanent type CT is:

• IEC 60044-6 class TPZ


IEC 60044-1 and IEEE C57.13 specify the behavior of inductive current transformers for
steady state symmetrical AC currents. The more recent standard IEC 60044-6 specifies the
performance of inductive current transformers (classes TPX, TPY and TPZ) for currents
containing exponentially decaying DC components.

2.2 IEC 60044-1 standard


The IEC 6044-1 standard defines class P and class PX current transformers.

2.2.1 Class P CTs


Class P CTs are high remanence types, typically used for general applications, such as
overcurrent protection. What happens after the relay has been tripped is of no
consequence, so there is no point in having a secondary accuracy limit greatly in excess of
the value needed to cause relay operation. A rated accuracy limit of 5 is therefore usually
adequate (Secondary current accurately reflects primary current for primary currents of 5
times greater than its rating).
When relays (such as instantaneous ‘high set’ overcurrent relays) are set to operate at high
values of overcurrent (say 5 to 15 times the rated current of the transformer), the accuracy
limit factor must be at least as high as the value of the setting current used in order to ensure
fast relay operation.
Rated output burdens higher than 15 VA and rated accuracy limit factors higher than 10 are
not recommended for general purposes. It is possible, however, to combine a higher rated
accuracy limit factor with a lower rated output and vice versa. When the product of these
two exceeds 150, the resulting current transformer may be uneconomical or unduly large.
Class P CTs are defined such that the current, phase and composite errors do not exceed
the values given in Table 1, at the rated frequency and burden.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -15

Current Error at Composite Error at


Accuracy Phase Displacement at Rated
Rated Primary Rated Accuracy Limit
Class Primary Current
Current Primary Current
5P ±1% ±60 minutes (±0.018 radians) 5%
10P ±3% ±60 minutes (±0.018 radians) 10%

Table 1: Errors v accuracy class for class P CTs

2.2.2 Class PX
Class PX CTs are typically used for high impedance circulating current protection. They are
also suitable for most other protection applications.
Class PX CTs have high remanence and low leakage reactance. To assess their
performance in relation to the protective relay system in which they are to be used, you only
need knowledge of:

• the transformer secondary excitation characteristic


• the secondary winding resistance
• the secondary burden resistance
• the turns ratio
Class PX is the IEC 60044-1 definition for quasi-transient current transformers, formerly
covered by BS 3938 class X.

2.3 IEC 60044-6 standard


The IEC 60044-6 standard defines current transformers in the classes TPS, TPX, TPY and
TPZ.

2.3.1 Class TPS


Class TPS CTs are high remanence types. They are typically used for high impedance
circulating current protection, and are generally applied to unit systems where the balancing
of outputs from each end of the protected plant is vital.
This balance, or stability during through-fault conditions, is essentially of a transient nature
and thus the extent of the unsaturated (or linear) zones is of paramount importance. Using
heavy current test results, it is normal to derive a formula stating the lowest permissible
value of Vk for stable operation to be guaranteed.
IEC 60044-6 defines the performance of low secondary reactance, TPS class current
transformers for transient performance. They are specified in terms of each of the following
characteristics:

• Rated primary current


• Turns ratio (the error in turns ratio cannot exceed ±0.25%)
• Secondary limiting voltage
• Resistance of secondary winding

2.3.2 Class TPX


The basic characteristics for class TPX current transformers are generally similar to those of
class TPS current transformers except for the different error limits prescribed and possible
influencing effects which may necessitate a physically larger construction. Class TPX CTs
have no air gaps in the core and therefore a high remanence factor (70-80% remanent flux).
The accuracy limit is defined by the peak instantaneous error during the specified transient
duty cycle.
Class TPX CTs are typically used for line protection.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -16

2.3.3 Class TPY


Class TPY CTs have a specified limit for the remanent flux. The magnetic core is provided
with small air gaps to reduce the remanent flux to a level that does not exceed 10% of the
saturation flux. They have a higher error in current measurement than TPX during
unsaturated operation and the accuracy limit is defined by peak instantaneous error during
the specified transient duty cycle.
Class TPY CTs are typically used for line protection with auto-reclose function.

2.3.4 Class TPZ


For class TPZ CTs the remanent flux is negligible due to large air gaps in the core. These
air gaps also minimize the influence of the DC component from the primary fault current, but
reduce the measuring accuracy in the unsaturated (linear) region of operation. The accuracy
limit is defined by the peak instantaneous alternating current component error during a single
excitation, with maximum DC offset at a specified secondary loop time constant.
Class TPZ CTs are typically used for special applications such as differential protection of
large generators.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -17

3 OVERCURRENT AND FEEDER MANAGEMENT PROTECTION


The range of Overcurrent and Feeder protection relays consists of the following devices:
P111, P120 - P123, P124, P125 - P127, P130C, P132, P138, P139 and P141 - P145.
Their burdens and current transformer requirements are detailed in the following sections.

3.1 P111
The P111 is used in LV and MV networks to protect MV/LV transformers, incoming and
outgoing lines.

3.1.1 Burdens
CT Input In CT Burden
Phase 1A < 0.03VA at In
Earth 1A < 0.05VA at 0.1In
Phase 5A < 0.1VA at In
Earth 5A < 0.15VA at 0.1In
Table 2: Current circuit for P111

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden*


35mm DIN rail
P111 4.5VA
or flush mount
Table 3: Auxiliary supply for P111

* Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.

Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden


Energized opto-input 48V 0.7VA
Energized opto-input 230V 0.6VA
Table 4: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P111

3.1.2 Current Transformer Requirements


The CT requirements are based on a maximum fault current of 50In and the relay having an
instantaneous setting of 25In. These CT requirements are designed to provide operation of
all protection elements.

Accuracy Limit Limiting Lead


Nominal Rating Nominal Output Accuracy Class
Factor (ALF) Resistance
1A 2.5VA 10P 20 1.30Ω
5A 7.5VA 10P 20 0.11Ω
Table 5: CT Specification for P111

Where the criteria for a specific application are in excess of those detailed above, or the lead
resistance exceeds the limiting values, the CT requirements may need to be increased
according to the formulae in the following sections. For specific applications such as SEF
protection, refer to the sections below for CT accuracy class and knee-point voltage
requirements as appropriate.

3.1.3 Protection
Protection type Knee-point voltage
Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT overcurrent and earth fault protection

Time-delayed phase overcurrent Vk ≥


I fp
(R ct + Rl + Rrp )
2
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -18

Protection type Knee-point voltage

Time-delayed earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional instantaneous overcurrent and earth fault protection

Instantaneous phase overcurrent Vk ≥ I sp (Rct + Rl + Rrp )

Instantaneous earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥ I sn (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )


Directional instantaneous overcurrent and earth fault protection

Instantaneous phase overcurrent Vk ≥


I fp
(R ct + Rl + Rrp )
2

Instantaneous earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT SEF protection - residual CT connection

Non-directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2

Directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥ I sn (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )

Directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT SEF protection - core-balance CT connection
Core-balance current transformers of metering class accuracy are required and should have a limiting
secondary voltage satisfying the formulae given below:

I fn
Non-directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥ (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )
2
I fn
Directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥ (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )
2
Non-directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥ I sn (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )
I fn
Directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥ (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )
2
Table 6: Knee-point voltages for P111

Note:: The phase error of the applied core balance current transformer must be
less than 90 minutes at 10% of rated current and less than 150 minutes at
1% of rated current.

3.2 P115 and P114D


MiCOM P115/P114D are numerical relays designed to offer overcurrent and earth fault
protection without requiring any external auxiliary supply.
The relays are available in two hardware option:
1. Self-powered - powered by > 0.2In secondary current, or;
2. Dual-powered - powered by either > 0.2In secondary current or an auxiliary supply.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -19

3.2.1 Burdens
Rrp (Rrn)
for a single current input
I In=1 A In=5 A (In=1 A)+WA25
In Ohms
0.2 28.9 1.0 21.9
0.3 11.5 0.36 16.7
0.4 6.6 0.27 6.8
0.5 3.8 0.22 3.8
1 0.63 0.12 2.5
10 0.28 0.056 2.2
20 0.28 0.056 2.2
40 0.28 0.056 2.2
Table 7: Current input resistance for P115/P114D

Auxiliary supply
Note:
ƒ 1. Initial position: no output nor LED energized.
ƒ 2. Active position: all outputs and LEDs energized.

Input range Vx Initial Position of S Active position of S


24-48Vac 24 3.1VA 5.5VA
24-48Vac 48 2.4VA 6.0VA
60-240Vac 48 2.6VA 5.5VA
60-240Vac 60 2.7VA 5.2VA
60-240Vac 100/110 3.1VA 5.7VA
60-240Vac 220/230 5.1VA 7.4VA
60-240Vac 264 6.1VA 8.4VA
24-48Vdc 24 1.5W 3.7W
24-48Vdc 48 1.5W 3.7W
Table 8: Auxiliary supply for P115/P114D

Additional Burden Relay Auxiliary Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input (for P115/P114D) 24 to 48 V dc/ac 5,5 kΩ ±5%
60 to 250 V dc
Per energized opto-input (for P115/P114D) 100 kΩ ±5%
60 to 240 V ac
Table 9: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P115/P114D

For example:

For 220 Vdc and a one binary input: (220 Vdc)2 x 100 kΩ±5% = 0.484 W±5%
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -20

Nominal pick-up and reset thresholds


Energizing Voltage Nominal pick-up and reset thresholds
Pick-up: approx. 12 Vdc
24 to 48 V dc
Reset: approx. 11 Vdc
Pick-up: approx. 21 Vdc
60 to 240 V dc
Reset: approx. 20 Vdc
Pick-up: approx. 16 Vac
24 to 48 V ac
Reset: approx. 11 Vac
Pick-up: approx. 26 Vac
60 to 240 V ac
Reset: approx. 19 Vac
Table 10: Opto-inputs for P115/P114D

3.2.2 Current Transformer requirements


It is not possible to recommend any CT without detailed information. The decision needs to
be based on calculation.
The following parameters have to be considered:

• Type of CT (nominal power, nominal current and current ratio, internal resistance,
nominal accuracy limit factor, class and construction),
• Resistance of wiring (length, cross section, specific resistance of material),
• Resistance of P115/P114D current inputs (as per table 7).

Two critical cases have to be checked for different types of faults:

• The lowest set current threshold value at which the relay has to operate (minimum
current).
• The highest possible short-circuit current, which depends on the maximum short-circuit
power on the busbar of the substation (maximum current).

The following equation is used for dimensioning a current transformer:

I psc
Vsal = nn ⋅ I sn ⋅ (Rct + Rbn ) ≥ ⋅ (Rct + Rb )
Kn
The current transformer can be dimensioned for the minimum required secondary accuracy
limiting voltage acc. to IEC 60044-1, 2.3.4:

I psc
Vsal ≥ ⋅ (Rct + Rb )
Kn
I psc
≥ ⋅ I sn ⋅ (Rct + Rb )
I pn

Vsal ≥ K ssc ⋅ I sn ⋅ (Rct + Rb )

Alternatively, the current transformer can also be dimensioned for the minimum required
rated accuracy limit factor acc. to IEC 60044-1, 2.3.3:
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -21

I psc K n (Rct + Rb )
nn ≥ ⋅
I sn (Rct + Rbn )
I psc (Rct + Rb )
≥ ⋅
I pn (Rct + Rbn )

(Rct + Rb ) K (Pct + Pb )
n n ≥ K ssc ⋅ = ⋅
(Rct + Rbn ) ssc (Pct + Pbn )
The actual secondary connected burden Rb is given as follows:

• For phase-to-ground faults: Rb = 2 ⋅ Rl + Rrp + Rrn


• For phase-to-phase faults: Rb = Rl + Rrp
The relay’s burden Rrp and Rrn is per table 7.
The lead resistance Rl is to be calculated from wire length, cross section and specific
resistance.
The relation between secondary accuracy limiting voltage acc. to IEC 60044-1, 2.3.4 and
rated accuracy limit factor acc. to IEC 60044-1, 2.3.3 is given as follows:

⎛P ⎞
Vsal = nn ⋅ ⎜⎜ bn + I sn ⋅ Rct ⎟⎟
⎝ I sn ⎠
3.2.3 Protection

Sample calculation
The following application data are given:
CT ratio 100/1 A

CT nominal power S bn =2.5 VA (Rbn = 2.5 Ohm, assumption: Pbn = Sbn )


CT internal burden Rct = 0.5 Ohm
Lead resistance Rl = 0.01774 Ohm (2 m one way, 2.5 mm2 Cu)
Max. short-circuit current:

phase-ground I psc = 2 kA = 20 Inom: Rrel = 0.28 Ohm

phase-phase I pef = 10 kA = 100 Inom: Rrel = 0.28 Ohm

Relay minimum operating current:


IN> = 0.2 Inom: Rrel = 28.9 Ohm
I> = 1 Inom: Rrel = 0.63 Ohm
Phase-ground fault, minimum current:

IN > 0.2 I n
K ss = = = 0.2
I sn In

nn ≥ K ss ⋅
(Rct + Rb ) = 0.2 ⋅ 0.5 + 2 ⋅ (0.01774 + 28.9) = 3.9
(Rct + Rbn ) 0 .5 + 2 .5

Phase-ground fault, maximum current:


Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -22

I pef 2kA
K ssc = = = 20
I pn 100 A

nn ≥ K ssc ⋅
(Rct + Rb ) = 20 ⋅ 0.5 + 2 ⋅ (0.01774 + 0.28) = 7,3
(Rct + Rbn ) 0 .5 + 2 .5

Phase-phase fault, minimum current:

I > 1.0 I n
K ss = = = 1.0
I sn In

nn ≥ K ss ⋅
(Rct + Rb ) = 1.0 ⋅ 0.5 + 0.01774 + 0.63 = 0.38
(Rct + Rbn ) 0 .5 + 2 .5

Phase-phase fault, maximum current:

I psc 10kA
K ssc = = = 100
I pn 100 A

nn ≥ K ssc ⋅
(Rct + Rb ) = 100 ⋅ 0.5 + 0.01774 + 0.28 = 26.6
(Rct + Rbn ) 0 .5 + 2 .5

Overall, a minimum rated accuracy limit factor of 26.6 is required (maximum value for above
cases). A typical (standard) value thus would be nn = 30.

3.3 P120 - P123, P125 - P127


The MiCOM P12x range of protection relays provides comprehensive phase/earth
overcurrent protection, typically used in MV substations, to protect overhead lines,
underground cables and small transformers. In addition the MiCOM P127 offers directional,
voltage and frequency protection functions.

3.3.1 Burdens
CT Input In CT Burden
Phase 1A < 0.025 VA at In
Earth 1A < 0.008 VA at 0.1In
Phase 5A < 0.3 VA at In
Earth 5A < 0.01 VA at 0.1In
Table 11: Current circuit for P120 – P123, P125 – P127

Vn VT Burden
57 - 130 V 0.074 W at 57 V
57 - 130 V 0.38 W at 130 V
57 - 130 V 1.54 W at 260 V
220 - 480 V 0.1102 W at 220 V
220 - 480 V 0.525 W at 480 V
220 - 480 V 2.1 W at 960 V
Table 12: Voltage circuit for P120 – P123, P125 – P127
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -23

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden* Maximum Burden


P120 - P123, P125 Size 4/20TE < 3 W or 8 VA < 6 W or 14 VA
P126, P127 Size 6/30TE < 3W or 8VA < 6W or 14VA
Table 13: Auxiliary supply for P120 – P123, P125 – P127

* Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.

Additional Burden Relay Auxiliary Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input - 10 mA
Per energized output contact - 0.25 W or 0.4 VA
Table 14: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P120 – P123, P125 – P127

3.3.2 Current Transformer requirements


The current transformer requirements are based on a maximum fault current of 50 x In and
the relay having an instantaneous setting of 25 x In. These CT requirements are designed to
provide operation of all protection elements.

Accuracy Limit Limiting Lead


Nominal Rating Nominal Output Accuracy Class
Factor (ALF) Resistance
1A 2.5 VA 10P 20 1.30 Ω
5A 7.5 VA 10P 20 0.11 Ω
Table 15: CT Specification for P120 – P123, P125 – P127

Where the criteria for a specific application are in excess of those detailed above, or the
actual lead resistance exceeds the limiting values, the CT requirements may need to be
increased according to the formulae in the following sections. For specific applications such
as SEF and REF protection, refer to the sections below for CT accuracy class and knee-
point voltage requirements as appropriate.

3.3.3 Protection
Protection type Knee-point voltage
Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT overcurrent and earth fault protection

Time-delayed phase overcurrent Vk ≥


I fp
(R ct + Rl + Rrp )
2

Time-delayed earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional instantaneous overcurrent and earth fault protection

Instantaneous phase overcurrent Vk ≥ I sp (Rct + Rl + Rrp )

Instantaneous earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Directional instantaneous overcurrent and earth fault protection

Instantaneous phase overcurrent Vk ≥


I fp
(R ct + Rl + Rrp )
2

Instantaneous earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT SEF protection - residual CT connection

Non-directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -24

Protection type Knee-point voltage

Directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥ I sn (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rn )

Directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT SEF protection - core-balance CT connection
Core-balance current transformers of metering class accuracy are required and should have a limiting
secondary voltage satisfying the formulae given below:

Non-directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + Rl + Rrp )
2

Directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + Rl + Rrp )
2
Non-directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥ I sn (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )

Directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + Rl + Rrp )
2
Table 16: Knee-point voltages for P120 – P123, P125 – P127

3.3.3.1 High impedance REF protection


The high impedance REF element should be stable for through-faults and operate in less
than 40 ms for internal faults, provided the following conditions are met in determining the
CT requirements and value of associated stabilizing resistor.

If
Vk ≥ 4 I s Rs and Rs = (Rct + 2 Rl )
Is

Note:: Class 5P or PX CTs should be used for high impedance REF applications.

3.3.3.2 High impedance differential protection


The relay can be applied as a high impedance differential protection for 3 phase applications
such as busbars, generators and motors. The high impedance differential protection should
be stable for through faults and operate in less than 40 ms for internal faults, provided the
following conditions are met in determining the CT requirements and value of associated
stabilizing resistor.

If
Vk ≥ 4 I s Rs and Rs = 1.4 (Rct + 2 Rl )
Is
Where X/R ≤ 40 and through-fault stability with a transient DC offset in the fault current must
be considered, the following equation can be used to determine the required stabilizing
voltage.

⎛ ⎞
Vs = I f ⎜ 0.007 + 1.05 ⎟(Rct + 2 Rl )
X
⎝ R ⎠
If the calculated stabilizing voltage is less than IsRs calculated above then it may be used
instead.

Note: Class 5P or PX CTs should be used for high impedance differential


applications.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -25

3.4 P124
This model is available as either:
1. Self-powered (P124S) - powered by > 0.2In secondary current, or;
2. Dual-powered (P124D) - powered by either > 0.2In secondary current or an auxiliary
supply.
The MiCOM P124S is a self powered relay, which includes non-directional phase/earth
overcurrent and thermal overload protection.
The MiCOM P124D is a dual powered relay, which includes all of the P124S features plus
negative sequence overcurrent and autoreclose functionality.

3.4.1 Burdens
CT Input In CT Burden
Phase 1A 2.5 VA
Earth 1A 2.5 VA
Phase 5A 2.5 VA
Earth 5A 2.5 VA
Table 17: Current circuit for P124

Auxiliary supply
Relay Case Size Nominal Burden*
P124D Size 6/30TE 3 W or 6 VA
Table 18: Auxiliary supply for P124

* Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.

Additional Burden Relay Auxiliary Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input (for P124D) 24 to 60 V dc ≤ 9 mA
Per energized opto-input (for P124D) 48 to 150 V dc ≤ 4.7 mA
130 to 250 V dc/
Per energized opto-input (for P124D) ≤ 2.68 mA
100 to 250 V ac
Per energized output contact - 0.25 W
Table 19: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P124

Energizing Voltage Peak Current


0 to 300 V dc < 10 mA
Table 20: Opto-inputs for P124

3.4.2 Current Transformer requirements


Assuming that the CT does not supply any circuits other than the MiCOM P124, the following
CT types are recommended:

• 5 VA 10P20 for 1A secondary rating


• 10 VA 10P20 for 5A secondary rating

3.5 P130C, P132, P138, P139


These units provide selective short-circuit protection, ground fault protection and overload
protection for solidly-grounded, low-impedance-grounded, resonant-grounded or isolated-
neutral medium and high voltage systems. The control functions can handle up to six (for the
P139) electrically operated switchgear units.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -26

3.5.1 Burdens
CT Input In CT Burden
Phase 1A < 0.1 VA
Earth 1A < 0.1 VA
Phase 5A < 0.1 VA
Earth 5A < 0.1 VA
Table 21: Current circuit for P130C, P132, P138, P139

Vn VT Burden
50 - 130V < 0.3VA rms at 130V
Table 22: Voltage circuit for P130C, P132, P138, P139

Relay Case size Nominal Burden* Maximum Burden


P130C Compact 8W 10 W
P132, P139 40TE 12.6 W 34.1 W
P138 40TE 13 W 32 W
P132, P139 ? 14.5 W 42.3 W
P138 ? 13 W 32 W
Table 23: Auxiliary supply for P130C, P132, P138, P139

* Typical minimum burden at 220 V dc with no opto-inputs or output contacts


energized.

Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input 19 to 110 V dc 0.5 W ±30%
Per energized opto-input > 110 V dc Vin × 5 mA ±30%
Table 24: Auxiliary supply for P130C, P132, P138, P139

3.5.2 Current Transformer requirements


Accuracy Limit Limiting Lead
Nominal Rating Nominal Output Accuracy Class
Factor (ALF) Resistance
1A 2.5 VA 10P 20 1.30 Ω
5A 7.5 VA 10P 20 0.11 Ω
Table 25: CT specification for P130C, P132, P138, P139

Where the criteria for a specific application are in excess of those detailed above, or the
actual lead resistance exceeds the limiting values, the CT requirements may need to be
increased according to the formulae in the following sections.

Note: The P138 may be applied at low system frequencies of 16⅔ Hz or 25 Hz.
Any VA or knee-point voltage quoted must apply at the chosen nominal
frequency (fn).
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -27

3.5.3 Protection
The knee-point voltage of the CT should comply with the minimum requirements of the
formulae shown below.

Protection type Knee-point voltage


DT/IDMT overcurrent and earth fault protection

Time-delayed phase overcurrent Vk ≥ KI fp (Rct + Rl + Rrp )

Time-delayed earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥ KI fn (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )


Table 26: Knee-point voltages for P130C, P132, P138, P139

If the P13x is to be used for definite-time overcurrent protection, then the dimensioning
factor, K must be selected as a function of the ratio of the maximum short-circuit current to
the pick-up value and the system time constant, T1. The required value for K can be read
from the empirically determined curves in Figure 1. When inverse time overcurrent
protection is required, K can be determined from Figure 2.
Theoretically, the CT could be dimensioned to avoid saturation by using the maximum value
of K, calculated as follows:

X
K ≈ 1 + ωT1 = 1 +
R
However, this is not necessary. Instead, it is sufficient to select the dimensioning factor such
that the correct operation of the required protection is guaranteed under the given conditions.

10

T1= 10 ms

T1= 25 ms

T1= 50 ms

0.1 T1= 500 ms


T1= 100 ms

T1= 250 ms

0.01
1 10 100
I' /I
1,max operate

Figure 1: Dimensioning factor, for definite time overcurrent protection (fn = 50Hz)

X X
Note:: T1 = R= R (in seconds)
ω 2πf n
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -28

25

k 20

15

10

0
0 50 100 150 200 250
T1 / ms

Figure 2: Dimensioning factor, for definite time overcurrent protection (fn = 50 Hz)

3.6 P141 - P145


These feeder management relays provide a comprehensive solution for the complete
protection, control and monitoring of overhead lines and underground cables for various
voltage levels for distribution and transmission applications. They contain a range of
integrated communication protocols.

3.6.1 Burdens
CT Input In CT Burden
VA Burden 1A <0.04 VA at rated current
Impedance 1A <40 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
VA Burden 5A <0.01 VA at rated current
Impedance 5A <8 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
Table 27: Current circuit for P141 - 145

Vn VT Burden
100 - 120 V < 0.02 VA rms at 110 V
380 - 480 V < 0.02 VA rms at 440 V
Table 28: Voltage circuit for P141 - 145

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden*


P141, P142 Size 8/40TE 11 W or 24 VA
P143 - P145 Size 12/60TE 11 W or 24 VA
Table 29: Auxiliary supply for P141 – P145

* Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.


Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -29

Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden


Energized opto-input 24 to 54 V dc 0.09 W
Energized opto-input 110 to 125 V dc 0.12 W
Energized opto-input 220 to 250 V dc 0.19 W
Per energized output contact - 0.13 W
With optional 2nd rear communications - 1.25 W
With optional 10 Mbps Ethernet card - 2.25 W
With optional 100 Mbps Ethernet card - 3.75 W
Table 30: Additional burden for P141 – P145

Energizing Voltage Peak Current


0 to 300 V dc 3.5 mA
Table 31: Opto-inputs for P141 – P145

3.6.2 Current Transformer requirements


The current transformer requirements are based on a maximum prospective fault current of
50 x In and the relay having an instantaneous setting of 25 x In. These CT requirements are
designed to provide operation of all protection elements.

Accuracy Limit Limiting Lead


Nominal Rating Nominal Output Accuracy Class
Factor (ALF) Resistance
1A 2.5 VA 10P 20 1.30 Ω
5A 7.5 VA 10P 20 0.11 Ω
Table 32: CT specification for P141 – P145

Where the criteria for a specific application are in excess of those detailed above, or the
actual lead resistance exceeds the limiting values, the CT requirements may need to be
increased according to the formulae in the following sections. For specific applications such
as SEF and REF protection, refer to the sections below for CT accuracy class and knee-
point voltage requirements as appropriate.

3.6.3 Protection
Item Knee-point voltage
Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT overcurrent and earth fault protection

Time-delayed phase overcurrent Vk ≥


I fp
(R ct + Rl + Rrp )
2

Time-delayed earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional instantaneous overcurrent and earth fault protection

Instantaneous phase overcurrent Vk ≥ I sp (Rct + Rl + Rrp )

Instantaneous earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥ I sn (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )


Directional instantaneous overcurrent and earth fault protection

Instantaneous phase overcurrent Vk ≥


I fp
(R ct + Rl + Rrp )
2

Instantaneous earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT SEF protection - residual CT connection
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -30

Item Knee-point voltage

Non-directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2

Directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥ I sn (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )

Directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT SEF protection - core-balance CT connection
Core-balance current transformers of metering class accuracy are required and should have a limiting
secondary voltage satisfying the formulae given below:

I fn
Non-directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥ (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )
2
I fn
Directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥ (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )
2
Non-directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥ I sn (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )
I fn
Directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥ (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )
2
Table 33: Knee-point voltages for P141 – P145

Note:: The phase error of the applied core balance current transformer must be
less than 90 minutes at 10% of rated current and less than 150 minutes at
1% of rated current.

3.6.3.1 REF protection

Low impedance
Condition Equation

Vk ≥ 24 I n (Rct + 2 Rl )
X
< 40 and I f < 15 I n
R
X
≤ 40 and 15I n < I f ≤ 40 I n
R
or Vk ≥ 48I n (Rct + 2 Rl )
X
40 < ≤ 120 and I f < 15 I n
R

Vk ≥ 40 I n (Rct + Rl + Rr )
X
< 120 and I f < 10 I n
R
Table 34: REF protection for P141 – P145

Note:: Class 5P or better CTs should be used for low impedance REF applications.

High impedance
The high impedance REF element maintains stability for through faults and operate in less
than 40 ms for internal faults provided the following conditions are met in determining the CT
requirements and value of associated stabilizing resistor.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -31

If
Vk ≥ 4 I s Rs and Rs = (Rct + 2 Rl )
Is
Where X/R ≤ 25 and through fault stability with a transient dc offset in the fault current must
be considered, the following equation can be used to determine the required stability voltage.

⎛ ⎞
Vs = I f ⎜ 0.0123 + 0.68 ⎟(Rct + 2 Rl )
X
⎝ R ⎠
The standard equation Vs = I s Rs should be used for X/R ratios greater than 25.

If the calculated stability voltage is less than the voltage calculated by the standard equation,
then the standard equation must be used instead.

Note:: Class 5P or PX CTs should be used for high impedance REF applications.

3.6.3.2 High impedance differential protection


The relay can be applied as a high impedance differential protection to 3 phase applications
such as busbars, generators, motors etc. The high impedance differential protection shall
maintain stability for through faults and operate in less than 40 ms for internal faults provided
the following conditions are met in determining the CT requirements and value of associated
stabilizing resistor.

If
Vk ≥ 4 I s Rs and Rs = 1.4 (Rct + 2 Rl )
Is
Where X/R ≤ 80 and through-fault stability with a transient dc offset in the fault current must
be considered, the following equation can be used to determine the required stability voltage.

⎛ ⎞
Vs = I f ⎜ 0.005 + 0.78 ⎟(Rct + 2 Rl )
X
⎝ R ⎠
The standard equation Vs = I s Rs should be used for X/R ratios greater than 80.

If the calculated stability voltage is less than the voltage calculated by the standard equation,
then the standard equation must be used instead.

Note: Class 5P or PX CTs should be used for high impedance differential


applications.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -32

4 MOTOR PROTECTION RELAYS


The range of motor protection relays consists of the following devices: P210, P211, P220,
P225 P226C, P241-P243.
Their burdens and current transformer requirements are detailed in the following sections.

4.1 P210, P211


P210 and P211 motor protection relays are suitable for low power, low voltage induction
motors.

4.1.1 Burdens
CT Input In CT Burden
Phase 1A < 0.03 VA at In
Earth 1A < 0.05 VA at 1n
Phase 5A < 0.1 VA at In
Earth 5A < 0.15 VA at 1n
Table 35: Current circuit for P210, 211

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden*


P210 35 mm DIN rail mount ≤ 3.5 VA
35 mm DIN rail
P211 4.5 VA
or flush mount
Table 36: Auxiliary supply for P210, 211

*Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.

Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden


Energized opto-input 48 V 0.7 VA
Energized opto-input 230 V 0.6 VA
Table 37: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P210, 211

4.1.2 Current Transformer Requirements


Zero sequence current, a characteristic of earth faults, can be detected by either a residual
connection of the three-phase CT or by the use of a core-balance CT. If the motor neutral is
earthed through an impedance, or is isolated from earth, as in the case of an insulated
network, a core-balance CT is preferred. This avoids possible problems with false zero
sequence current detection arising from asymmetrical saturation during the motor start-up.
Starting currents can reach values up to several times (typically 5 – 6 times) the rated motor
current. This phenomenon can be aggravated by the magnetization of the CT when there
are opposing residual fluxes in the CT.
These issues may be overcome by using suitable earth fault settings and by careful selection
of the CT, but the use of a core-balance transformer is recommended.

Motor
Recommended Alternative
Earthing
Solidly earthed 3 ph CT (and stabilizing resistance*) 3 ph CT and core-balance CT
Impedance 3 ph CT (and stabilizing resistance*) or 2
3 ph CT and core-balance CT
earthed ph CT and core-balance CT
Insulated 3 ph CT and core-balance CT 2 ph CT and core-balance CT
Table 38: Recommended CT types for P210, P211

* Where a residual CT connection is used, the value of stabilizing resistance can


be calculated from:
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -33

I st
Rs = 1.4 (Rct + nRl + Rrn )
I0
Where:

n = 1, for 4 wire CT connection (star point at CT)

n = 2, for 6 wire CT connection (star point at relay)


The short circuit current setting should be set to less than 90% of the CT accuracy limit
factor. Under these conditions tripping is guaranteed for fault currents up to 50 times the
value of saturation current for symmetrical CT current output.

Accuracy Accuracy Limit


Breaking Device In Rated Output Burden (VA)
Class Factor (ALF)

≥ 0.025 + I n (Rr + 2 Rl )
2
Fused contactor 1A 5P 10

I fp
≥ 0.025 + I n (Rr + 2 Rl ) ≥
2
Circuit breaker 1A 5P
50 I n

≥ 0.3 + I n (Rr + 2 Rl )
2
Fused contactor 5A 5P 10

I fp
≥ 0.3 + I n (Rr + 2 Rl ) ≥
2
Circuit breaker 5A 5P
50 I n
Table 39: IEC 60044-1 specifications for circuit breaking

Note:: A CT with accuracy class 10P may be used instead of 5P, however the
thresholds of thermal overload and unbalance protection functions will be
less precise. This may be acceptable where the motor has been oversized
in relation to its purpose or is not used for heavy duty services

4.2 P220, P225, P226C


The P220, P225 and P226C motor protection relays are suitable for high power, low voltage
induction motors and for low power, medium voltage induction motors. The P226C is a
compact sized solution.

4.2.1 Burdens
CT Input In CT Burden
Phase 1A < 0.025 VA at In for P225 and < 0.3 VA at Vn for P226C
Earth 1A < 0.004 VA at 0.1In for P225
Phase 5A < 0.3 VA at In
Earth 5A < 0.01 VA at 0.1In
Table 40: Current circuit for P220, P225, P226C

Vn VT Burden
57 - 130V < 0.1 VA at Vn
220 - 480V < 0.1 VA at Vn
Table 41: Voltage circuit for P220, P225, P226C

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden*


P220, P225, P226C Size 6/30TE < 3 W or 6 VA
Table 42: Auxiliary supply for P220, P225, P226C

* Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.


Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -34

Additional Burden Burden


Per energized opto-input < 10 mA
Per energized output contact 0.25 W
Table 43: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P220, P225, P226C

4.2.2 Current transformer requirements


Zero sequence current, a characteristic of earth faults, can be detected by either a residual
connection of the three phase CT or by the use of a core-balance CT. If the neutral of the
motor is earthed through an impedance or isolated from earth in the case of an insulated
network, a core-balance CT is preferred as it avoids possible problems with false zero
sequence current detection arising from asymmetrical saturation of phase CT during motor
start-up. Starting currents can reach values up to several times (typically 5 – 6 times) the
motor rated current. This phenomenon can be aggravated by the magnetization of CT when
opposing residual fluxes exist in the CT.
These issues may be overcome by employing suitable earth fault settings and by careful
selection of the CT, but the use of a core-balance transformer is recommended.

Motor
Recommended Alternative
Earthing
Solidly earthed 3 ph CT (and stabilizing resistance*) 3 ph CT and core-balance CT
Impedance 3 ph CT (and stabilizing resistance*) or 2
3 ph CT and core-balance CT
earthed ph CT and core-balance CT
Insulated 3 ph CT and core-balance CT 2 ph CT and core-balance CT
Table 44: Recommended CT types for P220, P225, P226C

* Where a residual CT connection is used, the value of stabilizing resistance is


calculated from:

Note::

I st
Rs = (Rct + nRl + Rrn )
I0
Where:
n = 1, for 4 wire CT connection (star point at CT)
n = 2, for 6 wire CT connection (star point at relay)
The short circuit (overcurrent) current setting I>> should be set less than 90% of the CT
accuracy limit factor. Under these conditions tripping is guaranteed for fault currents up to
50 times the value of saturation current for symmetrical CT current output.

Accuracy Accuracy Limit


Breaking Device In Rated Output Burden (VA)
Class Factor (ALF)

≥ 0.025 + I n (Rr + 2 Rl )
2
Fused contactor 1A 5P 10

I fp
≥ 0.025 + I n (Rr + 2 Rl ) ≥
2
Circuit breaker 1A 5P
50 I n

≥ 0.3 + I n (Rr + 2 Rl )
2
Fused contactor 5A 5P 10

I fp
≥ 0.3 + I n (Rr + 2 Rl ) ≥
2
Circuit breaker 5A 5P
50 I n
Table 45: IEC 60044-1 specifications for circuit breaking
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -35

Note:: A CT with accuracy class 10P may be used instead of class 5P CT, however
the thresholds of thermal overload and imbalance protection functions will be
less precise. This may be acceptable where the motor is oversized in
relation to its purpose, or is not used for heavy duty services.

4.3 P241 - P243


P241, P242 and P243 motor manager relays are suitable for high power medium voltage
induction and synchronous motors.

4.3.1 Burdens
In CT Burden
VA Burden 1A <0.04 VA at rated current
Impedance 1A <40 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
VA Burden 5A <0.01 VA at rated current
Impedance 5A <8 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
Table 46: Current circuit for P241 - P243

Vn VT Burden
100 - 120V < 0.06 VA rms at 110 V
Table 47: Voltage circuit for P241 - P243

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden*


P241 Size 8/40TE 11 W or 24 VA
P242 Size 12/60TE 11 W or 24 VA
P243 Size 16/80TE 11 W or 24 VA
Table 48: Voltage circuit for P241 - P243

*Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.

Additional burden Energizing Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input 24 to 54 V dc 0.09 W
Per energized opto-input 110 to 125 V dc 0.12 W
Per energized opto-input 220 to 250 V dc 0.19 W
Per energized output
- 0.13 W
contact
With optional 2nd rear
- 1.25 W
communications
With optional 10 Mbps
- 2.25 W
Ethernet card
With optional 100 Mbps
- 3.75 W
Ethernet card
Table 49: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P241 - P243

Energizing Voltage Peak Current


0 to 300 V dc 3.5 mA
Table 50: Opto-inputs for P241 - P243

4.3.2 Current Transformer requirements


The current transformer requirements are based on a maximum prospective fault current of
50 x In and the relay having an instantaneous setting of 25 x In. These CT requirements are
designed to provide operation of all protection elements.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -36

Accuracy Limit Limiting Lead


Nominal Rating Nominal Output Accuracy Class
Factor (ALF) Resistance
1A 2.5 VA 10P 20 1.30 Ω
5A 7.5 VA 10P 20 0.11 Ω
Table 51: CT specification for P241 - P243

4.3.3 Protection
Protection type Knee-point voltage
Non-directional DT Short Circuit and DT/IDMT Derived Earth Fault protection

DT-delayed Short Circuit elements Vk ≥


I fp
(R ct + Rl + Rrp )
2

DT-delayed/IDMT Derived Earth Fault elements Vk ≥


I cn
(Rct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional instantaneous Short Circuit and Derived Earth Fault protection

Instantaneous Short Circuit elements Vk ≥ I sp (Rct + Rl + Rrp )

Instantaneous Derived Earth Fault elements Vk ≥ I sn (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )


Directional definite time/IDMTdelay Derived Earth Fault protection

Directional time-delayed Derived Earth Fault


protection Vk ≥
I cn
(Rct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Directional instantaneous Derived Earth Fault
protection Vk ≥
I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional/directional definite time/IDMT sensitive earth fault (SEF) protection – residually
connected

Non-directional time delayed SEF protection Vk ≥


I cn
(Rct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2

Non-directional instantaneous SEF protection Vk ≥


I sn
(Rct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2

Directional time delayed SEF protection Vk ≥


I cn
(Rct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2

Directional instantaneous SEF protection Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
SEF protection – as fed from a core-balanced CT

Directional / non-directional time delayed element Vk ≥


I cn
(Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )
2
I fn
Directional instantaneous element Vk ≥ (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )
2

Non-directional instantaneous element Vk ≥


I sn
(Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )
2
Table 52: Knee-point voltages for P241 - P243

Note:: The phase error of the applied core-balanced CT must be les than 90
minutes at 10% of the rated current and less than 150 minutes at 1% of the
rated current.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -37

4.3.3.1 Biased differential protection (P243 only)


For IEC-compliant protection, class 5P CTs must be used.
The calculations in this section are based on the following conditions:

Parameter Description Value


Is1 Current setting of differential element 1 0.05 x In
Is2 Current setting of differential element 2 1.2 x In
K1 Slope setting of first slope in double knee characteristic 0%
K2 Slope setting of second slope in double-knee characteristic 150%
Ist Boundary condition of starting current ≤ 10 x In
Table 53: Conditions for P243 knee-point voltage calculations

Condition Knee-point Equation Minimum

60
Motor not earthed or resistance earthed
at motor neutral point
Vk ≥ 30 I n (Rct + Rl + 2 Rr )
In
60
Motor is solidly earthed at the motor
neutral point
Vk ≥ 40 I n (Rct + 2 Rl + 2 Rr )
In
Table 54: Knee-point calculations for P243 – biased differential protection

For Class-X current transformers, the excitation current at the calculated knee-point voltage
requirement should be less than 2.5 x Ιn (<5% of the maximum fault current, on which these
CT requirements are based).

Note:: For IEC standard protection class 5P CTs should be used.

4.3.3.2 High impedance differential protection (P243 only)


If the motor differential protection function is to be used to implement high impedance
differential protection, then the CT knee-point voltage is:

Vk ≥ 2 I s1 Rs
and the value of associated stabilizing resistor is:

1.5I st (Rct + 2 Rl )
Rs =
I s1
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -38

5 INTERCONNECTION AND GENERATOR PROTECTION RELAYS


The range of interconnection and generator protection relays consists of the following
devices: P341-P345.
Their burdens and current transformer requirements are detailed in the following sections.

5.1 P341
The P341 provides overcurrent and ground fault, undervoltage and overvoltage,
underfrequency and overfrequency, thermal overload, negative phase sequence overcurrent
and overvoltage and power protection for generators.

5.1.1 Burdens
In CT Burden
VA Burden 1A <0.04 VA at rated current
Impedance 1A <40 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
VA Burden 5A <0.01 VA at rated current
Impedance 5A <8 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
Table 55: Current circuit for P341

Vn VT Burden
100 - 120V < 0.06 VA rms at 110 V
380 - 480V < 0.06 VA rms at 440 V
Table 56: Voltage circuit for P341

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden*


P341, P342 Size 8/40TE 11 W or 24 VA
P342, P343 Size 12/60TE 11 W or 24 VA
P343, P344, P345 Size 16/80TE 11 W or 24 VA
Table 57: Auxiliary supply for P341

* Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.

Additional burdens on auxiliary supply


Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden
Per energized opto-input 24 to 54 V dc 0.09 W
Per energized opto 110 to 125 V dc 0.12 W
Per energized opto 220 to 250 V dc 0.19 W
Per energized output contact - 0.13 W
With optional 2nd rear communications - 1.25 W
Table 58: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P341

Energizing Voltage Peak Current


0 to 300V dc 3.5 mA
Table 59: Opto-inputs for P341

5.1.2 Current Transformer requirements


The current transformer requirements for each current input depend on the protection
function with which they are related and whether the line current transformers are being
shared with other current inputs. Where current transformers are being shared by multiple
current inputs, the knee-point voltage requirements should be calculated for each input and
the highest calculated value used.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -39

The P34x can carry out all protection functions over a wide range of operating frequency due
to its frequency tracking system (5–70 Hz).
When the P34x protection functions have to operate accurately at low frequency, it is
necessary to use CTs with larger cores. The CT requirements need to be multiplied by
fn/fmin.

The current transformer requirements are based on a maximum prospective fault current of
50 x In and the relay having an instantaneous setting of 25 x In. These CT requirements are
designed to provide operation of all protection elements.

Accuracy Limit Limiting Lead


Nominal Rating Nominal Output Accuracy Class
Factor (ALF) Resistance
1A 2.5 VA 10P 20 1.30 Ω
5A 7.5 VA 10P 20 0.11 Ω
Table 60: CT specification for P341

Where the criteria for a specific application are in excess of those detailed above, or the
actual lead resistance exceeds the limiting values, the CT requirements may need to be
increased according to the formulae in the following sections. For specific applications such
as SEF and REF protection, refer to the sections below for CT accuracy class and knee-
point voltage requirements as appropriate.

5.1.3 Protection
Protection type Knee-point voltage
Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT overcurrent and earth fault protection

Time-delayed phase overcurrent Vk ≥


I fp
(R ct + Rl + Rrp )
2

Time-delayed earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional instantaneous overcurrent and earth fault protection

Instantaneous phase overcurrent Vk ≥ I sp (Rct + Rl + Rrp )

Instantaneous earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥ I sn (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )


Directional instantaneous overcurrent and earth fault protection

Instantaneous phase overcurrent Vk ≥


I fp
(R ct + Rl + Rrp )
2

Instantaneous earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT SEF protection - residual CT connection

Non-directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2

Directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Non-directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥ I sn (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )

Directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥


I fn
(R ct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )
2
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -40

Protection type Knee-point voltage


Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT SEF protection - core-balance CT connection
Core-balance current transformers of metering class accuracy are required and should have a limiting
secondary voltage satisfying the formulae given below:

I fn
Non-directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥ (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )
2
I fn
Directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥ (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )
2
Non-directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥ I sn (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )
I fn
Directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥ (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )
2
Table 61: Knee-point voltages for P341 – P345

Note:: The phase error of the applied core balance current transformer must be
less than 90 minutes at 10% of rated current and less than 150 minutes at
1% of rated current.

5.2 P342 – P345


The MiCOM P342 is suitable for protection of generators which require cost effective high
quality protection. Protection includes overcurrent, ground fault, neutral voltage
displacement, sensitive or restricted ground fault, voltage dependent overcurrent or
underimpedance, under and overvoltage, under and overfrequency, reverse, low forward or
overpower, field failure, negative phase sequence thermal, negative phase sequence
overcurrent and overvoltage, turbine abnormal frequency, thermal and overfluxing, rotor
ground fault as well as VT and CT supervision.
The MiCOM P343 is suitable for protection of larger or more important generators, providing
generator differential, 100% stator ground fault via a 3rd harmonic measuring technique,
pole slipping and unintentional energization at standstill protection in addition to the features
of the P342.
The P344 is similar to the P343 but includes a second neutral voltage input for ground fault /
inter-turn protection.
The P345 is similar to the P344 but includes 100% stator ground fault protection via a low
frequency injection technique.

5.2.1 Burdens
In CT Burden
VA Burden 1A <0.04 VA at rated current
Impedance 1A <40 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
VA Burden 5A <0.01 VA at rated current
Impedance 5A <8 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
Table 62: Current circuit for P342 – P345

Vn VT Burden
100 - 120 V < 0.06 VA rms at 110 V
380 - 480 V < 0.06 VA rms at 440 V
Table 63: Voltage circuit for P342 – P345
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -41

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden*


P341, P342 Size 8/40TE 11 W or 24 VA
P342, P343 Size 12/60TE 11 W or 24 VA
P343, P344, P345 Size 16/80TE 11W or 24VA
Table 64: Auxiliary supply for P342 – P345

* Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.

Additional burdens on auxiliary supply


Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden
Per energized opto-input 24 to 54 V dc 0.09 W
Per energized opto 110 to 125 V dc 0.12 W
Per energized opto 220 to 250 V dc 0.19 W
Per energized output contact - 0.13 W
With optional 2nd rear communications - 1.25 W
Table 65: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P342 – P345

Energizing Voltage Peak Current


0 to 300 V dc 3.5 mA
Table 66: Opto-inputs for P342 – P345

5.2.2 Protection

5.2.2.1 Biased differential protection


The calculations in this section are based on the following conditions:

Parameter Description Value


Is1 Current setting of differential element 1 0.05 x In
Is2 Current setting of differential element 2 1.2 x In
Slope setting of first slope in double knee
K1 0%
characteristic
Slope setting of second slope in double-knee
K2 150%
characteristic
Ist Boundary condition of starting current ≤ 10 x In
Table 67: Conditions for P342 – P345 knee-point voltage calculations

Condition Equation Minimum

60
Vk ≥ 50 I n (Rct + 2 Rl + Rr )
X
< 120 and I f < 10 I n
R In
60
Vk ≥ 30 I n (Rct + Rl + 2 Rr )
X
< 40 and I f < 10 I n
R In
Table 68: Knee-point calculations for P342-345 – biased differential protection

Where the generator is impedance earthed and the maximum secondary earth fault current
is less than Ιn then the CT knee point voltage requirements are:
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -42

Condition Equation Minimum

60
Vk ≥ 25I n (Rct + Rl + Rr )
X
< 160 and I f < 10 I n
R In
X
< 100 and I f < 10 I n
R
60
or Vk ≥ 30 I n (Rct + Rl + Rr )
In
X
< 1200 and I f < 5I n
R
60
Vk ≥ 40 I n (Rct + Rl + Rr )
X
< 120 and I f < 10 I n
R In
Table 69: Knee-point calculations for P342 – P345 – biased differential protection

For Class-X current transformers, the excitation current at the calculated knee-point voltage
requirement should be less than 2.5 x In (5% of the maximum prospective fault current, on
which these CT requirements are based). For IEC standard protection, class 5P CTs should
be used.

5.2.2.2 High impedance differential protection


If the generator differential protection function is used to implement high impedance
differential protection, then the CT knee-point voltage is:

Vk ≥ 2 I S 1 Rs
and value of associated stabilizing resistor is:

1.5 I st (Rct + 2 Rl )
Rs =
I S1

5.2.2.3 Voltage dependent overcurrent, field failure and negative phase sequence protection
When determining the CT requirements for an input that supplies several protection
functions, the most onerous condition must be met. This has been taken into account in the
formula given below. The formula is equally applicable for CTs mounted at either the
neutral-tail end or terminal end of the generator.

Vk ≥ 20 I n (Rct + 2 Rl + Rr )
For class PX CTs, the excitation current at the calculated knee-point voltage requirement
should be less than 1.0 x In. For IEC standard protection, class 5P CTs must be used.

5.2.2.4 Sensitive directional earth fault protection

Line current transformers


It is assumed that the directional SEF protection function is only applied when the stator
earth fault current is limited to the stator winding rated current or less. It is also assumed
that the maximum X/R ratio for the impedance to a bus earth fault is no greater than 10. The
required minimum knee-point voltage is therefore:

Vk ≥ 6 I n (Rct + 2 Rl + Rr )
For class PX CTs, the excitation current at the calculated knee-point should be less than
0.3In (i.e. less than 5% of the maximum prospective fault current, 20In, on which these CT
requirements are based). For IEC standard protection, class 5P CTs must be used.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -43

Core-balance CT connection
Unlike a line CT, the rated primary current for a core-balanced CT may not be equal to the
stator winding rated current. This has been taken into account in the formula:

Vk ≥ 6 NI n (Rct + 2 Rl + Rr )

Note:: The maximum earth fault current should not be greater than 2In. i.e. N ≤ 2.
The core-balance CT must be selected accordingly.

5.2.2.5 Stator earth fault protection


The earth fault current input is used by the stator earth fault protection function.

Item Equation
Non-directional DT/IDMT earth fault protection

I fn
Time-delayed earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥ (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )
2
Non-directional instantaneous earth fault protection

Instantaneous earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥ I sn (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )


Table 70: Stator earth fault protection for P342 – P345

5.2.2.6 Restricted earth fault protetion

Low impedance REF protection


Condition Equation

Vk ≥ 24 I n (Rct + 2 Rl )
X
< 40 and I f < 15 I n
R
X
≤ 40 and 15 I n < I f ≤ 40 I n
R
or Vk ≥ 48I n (Rct + 2 Rl )
X
40 < ≤ 120 and I f < 15 I n
R

Vk ≥ 40 I n (Rct + Rl + Rr )
X
< 120 and I f < 10 I n
R
Table 71: Low impedance REF protection for P342 – P345

Note:: Class PX or 5P CTs should be used for low impedance REF applications.

High impedance REF protection


The high impedance REF element shall maintain stability for through faults and operate in
less than 40 ms for internal faults provided the following conditions are met in determining
the CT requirements and value of associated stabilizing resistor.

Condition Equation

Knee-point voltage Vk ≥ 4 I S 1 Rs
If
Stabilizing resistor value Rs = (Rct + 2 Rl )
I S1
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -44

5.2.2.7 Reverse and low forward power protection


For settings greater than 3% Pn, the phase angle errors of suitable protection class current
transformers will not result in any risk of malfunction or failure to operate. However, for
settings less than 3%, we recommend that the current input is driven by a correctly loaded
metering class current transformer.

Protection class current transformers


For less sensitive power function settings (>3% Pn), the phase current input of the P34x
should be driven by a correctly loaded class 5P protection current transformer.
To load the current transformer correctly, its VA rating should match the VA burden (at rated
current) of the external secondary circuit through which it is required to drive current.

Metering class current transformers


For low power settings (<3% Pn), the In sensitive current input of the P34x should be driven
by a correctly loaded metering class current transformer. The current transformer accuracy
class is dependent on the reverse power and low forward power sensitivity required. The
table below indicates the metering class current transformer required for various power
settings below 3% Pn.
To load the current transformer correctly, its VA rating should match the VA burden (at rated
current) of the external secondary circuit through which it is required to drive current. Use of
the P34x sensitive power phase shift compensation feature will help in this situation.

Reverse and Low Forward Power Settings


Measuring CT Class
% Pn
0.5 0.1
0.6 0.1
0.8 0.2
1.0 0.2
1.2 0.2
1.4 0.2
1.6 0.5
1.8 0.5
2.0 0.5
2.2 0.5
2.4 0.5
2.6 0.5
2.8 0.5
3.0 1.0
Table 72: Power settings v. measuring class
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -45

6 DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS


The range of distance protection relays consists of the following devices: P430C, P432,
P433, P435 - P439, P441, P442, P444, P443, P445 (MiCOMho).
Their burdens and current transformer requirements are detailed in the following sections.

6.1 P430C, P432, P433, P435 – P439


The MiCOM P43x devices are cost effective one-box solutions for distance protection and
control. They allow the user to cover a wide range of applications in the area of selective
short-circuit protection, ground fault protection and overload protection. They can be applied
in medium-, high- and extra-high-voltage systems.

6.2 Burdens
CT Input In CT Burden
Phase 1A < 0.1 VA
Earth 1A < 0.1 VA
Phase 5A < 0.1 VA
Earth 5A < 0.1 VA
Table 73: Current circuit for P430C, P432, P433, P435 – P439

Vn VT Burden
50 - 130 V < 0.3 VA rms at 130 V
Table 74: Voltage circuit for P430C, P432, P433, P435 – P439

Nominal
Case Size Relay Maximum Burden
Burden*
Compact P430C 4W 8W
40TE P433, P435, P439 13 W 29 W
40TE P436 13 W 37 W
84TE P433, P435, P437, P438, P439 13 W 37 W
84TE P432 13 W 40 W
Table 75: Auxiliary supply for P430C, P432, P433, P435 – P439

* Typical minimum burden at 220V dc with no opto-inputs or output contacts


energized.

Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input 19 to 110 V dc 0.5W ±30%
Per energized opto-input > 110 V dc Vin × 5 mA ±30%
Table 76: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P430C, P432, P433, P435 – P439

6.2.1 Current Transformer requirements


The current transformers should comply with the IEC 60044-1 class 5P fault limit values. If
auto-reclosing is used, it is best to use class TPY current transformers conforming to IEC
60044-6 Part 6, as these have anti-remanence cores.

Note:: The P436 and P438 may be applied at low system frequencies of 16⅔ Hz or
25 Hz. Any VA or knee-point voltage quoted must apply at the chosen
nominal frequency (fn).
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -46

6.2.2 Protection
The knee-point voltage of the CT should comply with the minimum requirements of the
formulas shown below:

Protection type Knee-point voltage

Phase fault distance protection Vk ≥ kI fp (Rct + Rl + Rrp )

Earth fault distance protection Vk ≥ kI fn (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )

Theoretically, the CT could be dimensioned to avoid saturation by using the maximum value
of k, calculated as follows:

X
k ≈ 1 + ωT1 = 1 +
R
However, this is not necessary; it is sufficient to select the dimensioning factor k, such that
correct operation of the required protection is guaranteed under the given conditions.
If auto-reclosing is not used, k can be obtained from Figure 3. The dotted line represents the
theoretical characteristic maximum k = 1+ X/R.

Figure 3: Dimensioning factor, k, for distance protection (fn = 50 Hz)

X X
Note:: T1 = R= R (in seconds)
ω 2πf n
This CT requirement ensures tripping of distance element within 120 ms at 95% of the set
zone reach.
If auto-reclosing is used, the dimensioning factor k for the CT is increased as follows:

⎡ ⎛ − T ⎞⎤ − T
t' t fr
k + ⎢1 + ωT1 ⎜1 − e ⎟⎥ e s
1

⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -47

6.3 P441, P442, P444


These are full scheme distance protection devices providing flexible, reliable, protection,
control and monitoring of transmission lines. The MiCOM distance protection relays can be
applied for a wide range of overhead lines and underground cables in high and extra high
voltage systems.

6.3.1 Burdens
In CT Burden
VA Burden 1A <0.04 VA at rated current
Impedance 1A <40 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
VA Burden 5A <0.01 VA at rated current
Impedance 5A <8 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
Table 77: Current circuit for P441, P442, P444

Vn VT Burden
100 - 120 V < 0.03 VA rms at 110 V
Table 78: Voltage circuit for P441, P442, P444

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden* Maximum Burden


P441 Size 8/40TE 15 W or 16 VA 20 W or 20 VA
P442 Size 12/60TE 18 W or 19 VA 26 W or 26 VA
P444 Size 16/80TE 21 W or 22 VA
Table 79: Auxiliary supply for P441, P442, P444

* Typical burden with half of the opto-inputs and one output contact per board
energized.

Additional burdens on auxiliary supply


Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden
Per energized opto-input 24 to 54 V dc 0.09 W
Per energized opto-input 110 to 125 V dc 0.12 W
Per energized opto-input 220 to 250 V dc 0.19 W
Per energized output contact - 0.13 W
With optional 2nd rear communications - 1.25 W
With optional 10Mbps Ethernet card - 2.25 W
With optional 100Mbps Ethernet card - 3.75 W
Table 80: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P441, P442, P444

Energizing Voltage Peak Current


0 to 300 V dc > 3.5 mA
Table 81: Opto-inputs for P441, P442, P444

6.3.2 Current Transformer requirements


For accuracy, class PX or 5P CT are recommended.

6.3.3 Protection
The knee-point voltage of the CT should comply with the minimum requirements of the
formulae shown below.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -48

Item Equation

⎛ X⎞
Phase fault distance protection Vk ≥ 0.6 I fZ 1 ⎜1 + ⎟(Rct + Rl )
⎝ R⎠
⎛ X ⎞
Earth fault distance protection Vk ≥ 0.6 I feZ 1 ⎜⎜ 1 + e ⎟⎟(Rct + 2 Rl )
⎝ Re ⎠
Table 82: Knee-points for distance protection P441, P442, P444

Note:: The required knee-point voltage must be calculated for the three phase fault
current at the Zone 1 reach and also for the earth fault current at the Zone 1
reach. The higher of the two calculated knee-point voltages is used.

6.4 P443, P445 (MiCOMho)

6.4.1 Burdens
In CT Burden
VA Burden 1A <0.04 VA at rated current
Impedance 1A <40 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
VA Burden 5A <0.01 VA at rated current
Impedance 5A <8 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
Table 83: Current circuit for P443, P445

VT Input Vn VT Burden

⎛ 110 ⎞
Phase 100 – 120 V < 0.02 VA rms at ⎜ ⎟V
⎝ 3⎠
Table 84: Voltage circuit for P443, P445

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden*


P445 Size 8/40TE 12 W or 24 VA
P445 Size 12/60TE 12 W or 24 VA
P443 Size 16/80TE 12 W or 24 VA
Table 85: Auxiliary supply for P443, P445

* Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.

Additional Burden Energizing voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input 24 to 54 V dc 0.09 W
Per energized opto-input 110 to 125 V dc 0.12 W
Per energized opto-input 220 to 250 V dc 0.19 W
Per energized output contact - 0.13 W
With optional 2nd rear communications - 1.25 W
With optional Inter MiCOM communications - 1.25 W
Table 86: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P441, P442, P444

Energizing Voltage Peak current


0 to 300 V dc 3.5 mA
Table 87: Opto-inputs for P443, P445
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -49

6.4.2 Current Transformer requirements


For accuracy, class PX or 5P CT are recommended.

6.4.3 Protection
The knee-point voltage of the CT should comply with the minimum requirements of the
formulae shown below.

Item Equation

⎛ X⎞
Zone 1 reach-point accuracy Vk ≥ 0.6 I fZ 1 ⎜1 + ⎟(Rct + Rl )
⎝ R⎠
Zone 1 close-up fault operation Vk ≥ 1.4 I f max (Rct + Rl )
Table 88: Knee-point voltages for P443, P445

The higher of the two calculated knee-point voltages is used. It is not necessary to repeat
the calculation for earth faults, as the phase reach (3∅) calculation is the worst case for CT
dimensioning.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -50

7 CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION RELAYS


The range of current differential protection relays consists of the following devices: P521,
P541 - P546, P547, P591 – P595.

Selection of X/R ratio and fault level


The value of X/R ratio and fault level will vary from one system to another, but selecting the
correct value for the CT requirements is critical. In the case of single end-fed (radial)
systems the through fault level and X/R ratio should be calculated assuming the fault occurs
at the location of the remote CT. For systems where the current can feed through the
protected feeder in both directions, such as parallel feeders and ring main circuits, further
consideration is required. In this case the fault level and X/R ratio should be calculated at
both the local and remote CT. In doing so the X/R ratio and fault level will be evaluated for
both fault directions. The CT requirements, however, should be based upon the fault
direction that gives the highest knee-point voltage. Under no circumstances should the X/R
ratio from one fault direction and the fault level from the other be used to calculate the knee-
point. Doing so may result in exaggerated and unrealistic CT requirements.
Their burdens and current transformer requirements are detailed in the following sections.

7.1 P521
The MiCOM P521 relay provides high-speed two-ended current differential unit protection of
overhead lines and underground cables in applications such as ring mains and parallel
feeders.

7.1.1 Burdens
CT Input In CT Burden
Phase 1A < 0.025 VA at In
Earth 1A < 0.008 VA at 0.1In
Phase 5A < 0.3 VA at In
Earth 5A < 0.01 VA at 0.1In
Table 89: Current circuit for P521

Case Size Relay Nominal Burden*


Size 6/30TE P521 3 W or 6 VA
Table 90: Auxiliary supply for P521

* Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.

Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input - 10 mA
Per energized output contact - 0.4 W or 0.4 VA
Table 91: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P521

7.1.2 Curent Transformer requirements


For accuracy, class X or 5P CT are recommended.

7.1.3 Protection

7.1.3.1 Current differential protection


The knee-point voltage of the CT should comply with the minimum requirements of the
formulae shown below.

Vk ≥ K s K t I n (Rct + 2 Rl )
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -51

Ks is a constant depending on the maximum value of through fault current If (as a multiple of
In) and the primary system X/R ratio. Ks is determined as follows:

Condition Value of ks

X ⎛X ⎞ ⎛X ⎞
< 40 K s = 0.023I f ⎜ + 55 ⎟ + 0.9⎜ + 26 ⎟
R ⎝R ⎠ ⎝R ⎠
X ⎛X ⎞ ⎛X ⎞
≥ 40 K s = 0.024 I f ⎜ + 44 ⎟ + 0.06⎜ + 725 ⎟
R ⎝R ⎠ ⎝R ⎠
Table 92: Calculation of ks

Kt is a constant depending on the current differential operating time (tIDiff) and the primary
system X/R ratio.
For applications where the CT knee-point voltage is fixed (e.g. a retrofit application where
the CT are already installed), it may be possible to reduce the CT requirements by adding a
small time delay to the relay The tIDiff setting allows the user to increase the relay operating
time thus making the relay more stable. For some applications a time setting of 50ms may
reduce the required CT knee-point voltage by as much as 30%. Further reductions in CT
knee-point are possible with longer time delays.
For applications where the relay is set for instantaneous operation, i.e. tIDiff =0s, Kt =1.
When a time delay is applied, Kt is determined as follows:

Condition Value of Kt

X K t = 1 − 6.2t Idiff (for tIDiff ≤ 0.15s)


< 40
R K t = 0.07 (for tIDiff > 0.15s)
X
≥ 40 K t = 1 − 2.5t Idiff (for tIDiff ≤ 0.25s)
R
Table 93: Calculation of Kt

7.1.3.2 SEF protection


Core-balance CT of metering class accuracy is required and should have a knee-point
voltage satisfying the following formula:

Vk ≥ I fn (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrn )

Where: Rrn = Impedance of neutral current input

7.2 P541 - P546


The MiCOM P541-P546 series provides high-speed current differential unit protection. The
P54x is designed for all overhead line and cable applications, as it interfaces readily with the
longitudinal (end-end) communications channel between line terminals. The interface options
support direct fiber optic, or multiplexed digital links.

7.2.1 Burdens
CT Input In CT Burden
VA Burden 1A <0.04 VA at rated current
Impedance 1A <40 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
VA Burden 5A <0.01 VA at rated current
Impedance 5A <8 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
Table 94: Current circuit for P541 - 546
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -52

Vn VT Burden
100 - 120 V < 0.02 VA rms at 110 V
Table 95: Voltage circuit for P541 - 546

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden*


P541 Size 8/40TE 11 W or 24 VA
P542 - P544 Size 12/60TE 11 W or 24 VA
P545, P546 Size 16/80TE 11 W or 24 VA
Table 96: Auxiliary supply for P541 - 546

* Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.

Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input 24 to 54 V dc 0.09 W
Per energized opto-input 110 to 125 V dc 0.12 W
Per energized opto-input 220 to 250 V dc 0.19 W
Per energized output contact - 0.13 W
With optional 2nd rear communications - 1.25 W
With optional 10Mbps Ethernet card - 2.25 W
With optional 100Mbps Ethernet card - 3.75 W
Table 97: Auxiliary burdens on auxiliary supply for P541 - 546

Opto-inputs
Energizing Voltage Peak Current
0 to 300V dc 3.5 mA
Table 98: Opto-inputs for P541 - 546

7.2.2 Current Transformer requirements


For accuracy, class PX or 5P CT are recommended.

7.2.3 Protection

7.2.3.1 Current differential protection


The knee point voltage of the CT should comply with the minimum requirements of the
formulae shown below.

Vk ≥ KI n (Rct + 2 R l )
K is a constant dimensioning factor and is defined as follows:

Condition Value of K Minimum value allowed


For relays set at: IS1 = 20%, IS2 = 2 In, K1 = 30%, K2 = 150%

X ⎛ X⎞
≤ 1000 K = 40 + 0.07 ⎜ I f ⎟ 65
R ⎝ R⎠
X
1000 < ≤ 1600 K = 107 107
R
For relays set at: IS1 = 20%, IS2 = 2 In, K1 = 30%, K2 = 100%

X ⎛ X⎞
≤ 600 K = 40 + 0.35⎜ I f ⎟ 65
R ⎝ R⎠
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -53

Condition Value of K Minimum value allowed


For relays set at: IS1 = 20%, IS2 = 2 In, K1 = 30%, K2 = 150%

X
600 < ≤ 1600 K = 256 256
R
Table 99: Calculation of K

7.2.3.2 Distance protection

Zone 1 reach point accuracy (RPA)

⎛ X⎞
Vk ≥ K rpa I fZ 1 ⎜ 1 + ⎟(Rct + Rl )
⎝ R⎠
Where:
Krpa = Dimensioning factor – fixed at 0.6
IfZ1 = Maximum secondary phase fault current at Zone 1 reach point (A)

Zone 1 close-up fault operation


An additional calculation must be performed for all cables, and any lines where the source
impedance ratio might be less than SIR = 2.

Vk ≥ K max I f max (Rct + Rl )


Where:
Kmax = Dimensioning factor - fixed at 1.4
Ifmax = Maximum secondary phase fault current (A).
The highest of the two calculated knee-points must be used.

Note:: It is not necessary to repeat the calculation for earth faults, as the phase
reach calculation (3ϕ) is the worst-case for CT dimensioning.

Time delayed distance zones


When a time delayed distance zone is being used, there is no need to calculate the required
Vk separately. This is due to the employed time delay (usually more than 3 times the
primary time constant), which overrides the transient conditions. When it is insisted to do
some calculations for the time delayed distance zone, then we should use the following
equation.

Vk > I f (Rct + Rl )
Where:

If is the current for a fault at the remote bus of the protected feeder (the through fault
current for the current differential function).
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -54

P547
The MiCOM P547 Phase Comparison Protection Relay provides unit protection of EHV / HV
lines. Phase comparison is an established mode of protection for medium and high voltage
lines.

7.2.4 Burdens
CT Input In CT Burden
VA Burden 1A <0.04 VA at rated current
Impedance 1A <40 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
VA Burden 5A <0.01 VA at rated current
Impedance 5A <8 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
Table 100: Current circuit for P547

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden*


P547 Size 8/40TE 15 W
Table 101: Auxiliary supply for P547

* Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.

Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input 24 to 54 V dc 0.09 W
Per energized opto-input 110 to 125 V dc 0.12 W
Per energized opto-input 220 to 250 V dc 0.19 W
Per energized output contact - 0.13 W
With optional 2nd rear communications - 1.25 W
Table 102: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P547

Energizing Voltage Peak Current


0 to 300 V dc 3.5 mA
Table 103: Opto-inputs for P547

7.2.5 Current Transformer requirements


For accuracy, class PX or 5P CT are recommended.

7.2.6 Protection

7.2.6.1 Phase comparison protection


The knee point voltage of the CT should comply with the minimum requirements of the
formula shown below:

Vk ≥ KI n (Rct + 2 rl )
K is a constant dimensioning factor and is defined as follows:
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -55

Condition Value of K
If ≤ 20

X
≤ 1600 K = 125
R
X ⎛ X⎞
1600 < ≤ 2400 K = −90 + 0.13⎜ I f ⎟
R ⎝ R⎠
X
≤ 2400 K = 230
R
If > 20

X
≤ 1600 K = 230
R
X
1600 < ≤ 2400 K = 230
R
X
≤ 2400 K = 230
R
Table 104: Calculation of K

7.2.6.2 Distance protection

⎛ X⎞
Vk ≥ K rpa I fZ 1 ⎜ 1 + ⎟(Rct + Rl )
⎝ R⎠
Where:
Krpa = Dimensioning factor – fixed at 0.6
IF Z1 = Maximum secondary phase fault current at Zone 1 reach point (A)

Zone 1 close-up fault operation


An additional calculation must be performed for all cables, and any lines where the source
impedance ratio might be less than SIR = 2.

Vk ≥ K max I f max (Rct + Rl )


Where:
Kmax = Dimensioning factor - fixed at 1.4
Ifmax = Maximum secondary phase fault current (A).
The highest of the two calculated knee-points must be used.

Note:: It is not necessary to repeat the calculation for earth faults, as the phase
reach calculation (3ϕ) is the worst-case for CT dimensioning.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -56

8 TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION RELAYS


The range of transformer differential protection relays consists of the following devices:
P630C, P631 - P634, P638, P642 – P645.
Their burdens and current transformer requirements are detailed in the following sections.

8.1 P630C, P631 - P634, P638


The P63x is a differential protection relay that provides fast and selective short circuit
protection of transformers, reactors, generators, motors and any installation with two, three,
or four windings.

8.1.1 Burdens
CT Input In CT Burden
Phase 1A < 0.1 VA
Earth 1A < 0.1 VA
Phase 5A < 0.1 VA
Earth 5A < 0.1 VA
Table 105: Current circuit for P630C, P631 – P634, P638

Vn VT Burden
50 - 130V < 0.3 VA rms at 130 V
Table 106: Voltage circuit for P630C, P631 – P634, P638

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden* Maximum Burden


P630C Compact 8W 10 W
P631 - P633 40TE 12.6 W 34.1 W
P632 - P634 84TE 14.5 W 42.3 W
P638 84TE 13 W 32 W
Table 107: Auxiliary supply for P630C, P631 – P634, P638

* Typical minimum burden at 220V dc with no opto-inputs or output contacts


energized.

Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input 19 to 110 V dc 0.5 W ±30%
Per energized opto-input > 110 V dc Vin × 5 mA ±30%
Table 108: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P630C, P631 – P634, P638

8.1.2 Current Transformer requirements


IEC 60044-1 accuracy class 5P or equivalent

Note:: The P638 may be applied at low system frequencies of 16⅔ Hz or 25 Hz.
Any VA or knee-point voltage quoted must apply at the chosen nominal
frequency (fn).

8.1.3 Protection

8.1.3.1 Differential protection


The required knee-point voltage must be calculated for phase fault current and also for the
earth fault current. The higher of the two calculated knee-point voltages is used.
The CT requirements are based on the default settings.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -57

Parameter Description Value


Transformer differential protection
Idiff> Current setting of first stage biased differential 0.2 x Iref
Setting that defines the second knee of the tripping
IRm2> 4 x Iref
characteristic
Lower bias slope setting of biased differential
m1 0.3
element
Higher bias slope setting of biased differential
m2 0.7
element
Busbar differential protection
Idiff> Current setting of first stage biased differential 1.2 x Iref
Setting that defines the second knee of the tripping
IRm2 1.8 x Iref
characteristic
Lower bias slope setting of biased differential
m1 0.2
element
Higher bias slope setting of biased differential
m2 0.8
element
Table 109: Conditions for P630C, P631 – P634, P638 calculations

Protection type Knee-point voltage

Phase fault differential protection Vk ≥ K (Rct + Rl )


Earth fault differential protection Vk ≥ K e (Rct + 2 Rl )
Table 110: Knee-point voltages for P630C, P631 – P634, P638

K is a constant depending on the maximum value of through fault current (as a multiple of In)
and the primary system X/R ratio. K is determined as follows:

Condition Value of K
For phase faults, K is determined as follows

X X
If ≤ 500 I n K = 0.14 I f
R R
X
500 I n < I f < 1200 K = 70
R
For earth faults, Ke is determined as follows

X X
I fe ≤ 500 I n K e = 0.14 Ife
R R

500 I n < (I fe )
X
< 1200 I n K e = 70
R
Table 111: Calculation of K for phase and earth faults

Typical knee-point voltage requirement for transformer differential protection


The through fault stability required for most transformer applications is determined by the
external through fault current and transformer X/R ratio. The through fault current in all but
ring bus or mesh fed transformers is given by the inverse of the per unit reactance of the
transformer. For most transformers, the reactance varies between 0.05 to 0.1pu, therefore
typical through fault current is given by 10 to 20In.
For conventional transformers (non-autotransformer), the X/R ratio is typically 7. This
cancels out the 0.14 multiplier, leaving only the maximum secondary through fault current (If)
to multiply with the loop resistance, giving:
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -58

Vk ≥ I f (Rct + 2 Rl )
Alternatively, as a conservative estimate:

Vk ≥
(Rct + 2 Rl )
Xt

8.1.3.2 REF protection

Low impedance
The CT requirements for low impedance REF protection are generally lower than those for
differential protection. As the line CT for low impedance REF protection are the same as
those used for differential protection the differential CT requirements cover both differential
and low impedance REF applications.

High impedance
The high impedance REF element shall maintain stability for through faults and operate in
less than 40ms for internal faults provided the following conditions are met in determining the
CT requirements and value of associated stabilizing resistor:

Vk > 2 I diff Rs

(I ) (
Rs = 1.1 + 2 rl )
f
R ct
I diff

For faster operation of the REF element, a larger knee-point voltage will provide reduced
operating times. Refer to the graph below showing the operating time of the REF element
for differing ratios.

45

40

35
Operating time (ms)

30

25

20

15

10

0
0 5 10 15 20
Vk / (Idiff> × Rs)

Figure 4: REF operating times


Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -59

Note:: The diagram is the result of investigations which were carried out for
impedance ratios in the range of 5 to 120 and for fault currents in the range
of 0.5 to 40 In.

8.2 P642 – P645


The P64x incorporates differential, REF, thermal, and overfluxing protection, plus backup
protection for un-cleared external faults. It offers fast and reliable protection for
transformers, reactors, motors and short interconnectors.

8.2.1 Burdens
CT Input In CT Burden
Phase 1A < 0.2 VA
Earth 1A < 0.2 VA
Phase 5A < 0.2 VA
Earth 5A < 0.2 VA
Table 112: Current circuit for P642 – P645

Vn VT Burden
100 - 120V < 0.06 VA at 110 V
Table 113: Voltage circuit for P642 – P645

Relay Case Size Minimum*


P642 40TE 11 W or 24 VA
P643/5 60TE NA
P645 80TE NA
Table 114: Auxiliary supply for P642 – P645

* Typical minimum burden at 220V dc with no opto-inputs or output contacts


energized.

Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input 24 to 54 V 0.09 W
Per energized opto-input 110 to 125 V 0.12 W
Per energized opto-input 220 to 250 V 0.19 W
Per energized output relay - 0.13 W
Table 115: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P642 – P645

8.2.2 Current Transformer requirements


IEC 60044-1 accuracy class 5P or equivalent

8.2.3 Protection

8.2.3.1 Differential protection


For accuracy, class X or class 5P current transformers (CT) are strongly recommended.
The current transformer knee-point voltage requirements are based on the following settings:

Parameter Description Value


Transformer differential protection
Minimum differential threshold of the low set
Is1 0.2 pu
differential characteristic
Bias current threshold for the second slope of the
Is2 1 pu
low set differential characteristic
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -60

Parameter Description Value


First slope setting of the low set differential
K1 20%
characteristic
Second slope setting of the low set differential
K2 80%
characteristic
Is-HS1 High set element one setting 10 pu
Is-HS2 High set element two setting 32 pu
Ih(2)%> Second harmonic blocking threshold 15%
If enabled the low set element trip is blocked in all
Cross blocking three phases when the ratio of second harmonic to Disabled
fundamental is above Ih(2)%> in any of the phases.
5th harmonic
Fifth harmonic blocking threshold Disabled
blocking
Table 116: Conditions for P642 – P645 calculations

A series of internal and external faults were performed to determine the CT requirements for
the differential function. These tests were performed under different X/R ratios, CT burdens,
fault currents, fault types and point on wave. The CT requirements are determined either by
the operating time for internal faults (≤35msec in the P64x) or by through fault stability,
whichever requires the highest K dimensioning factor. The K factors were calculated for
internal and external faults.
The following equation shows that the knee point voltage (VK) is directly proportional to the
CT burden (RCT) and to the loop burden (2RL). K is the CT dimensioning factor calculated
using the equation below and the CT requirements test results.

Vk ≥ kI n (Rct + 2 Rl + Rr )
To achieve through fault stability and operating times ≤35msec, the K dimensioning factor
must comply with the following expressions:

System conditions K (CT dimensioning factor)

If ≤5
⎛X ⎞ ⎛X ⎞
X K = 0.04 I f ⎜ + 24.25 ⎟ + 0.06⎜ + 177 ⎟
5 ≤ < 40 ⎝R ⎠ ⎝R ⎠
R
If ≤5
X K = 12 I f + 16
40 ≤ < 120
R
5 < I f ≤ 10
⎛ X ⎞ ⎛X ⎞
X K = 0.14 I f ⎜ − − 15 ⎟ + 0.44⎜ + 202.5 ⎟
5 ≤ < 40 ⎝ R ⎠ ⎝R ⎠
R
5 < I f ≤ 10
X K = −7.38I f + 112
40 ≤ ≤ 120
R
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -61

System conditions K (CT dimensioning factor)

5 < I f ≤ 20
⎛X ⎞ ⎛ X ⎞
X K = 0.06 I f ⎜ − 52.5 ⎟ + 1.1⎜ − + 74.9 ⎟
5 ≤ < 40 ⎝R ⎠ ⎝ R ⎠
R
10 ≤ I f < 20
X K = −0.81I f + 45
40 ≤ ≤ 120
R
Table 117: K requirements for P642 – P645

The Knee-point voltage must be calculated for both phase fault current and earth fault
current. The higher of the two calculated voltages must be used.
To calculate the knee point voltage required for the maximum phase fault used the following
equation:

Vk ≥ K (Rct + Rl )
To calculate the knee point voltage required for the maximum earth fault used the following
equation:

Vk ≥ K e (Rct + 2 Rl )

8.2.3.2 Low impedance REF protection


For accuracy, class X or class 5P current transformers (CTs) are strongly recommended.
The CT requirements for low impedance REF protection are generally lower than those for
differential protection. As the line CTs for low impedance REF protection are the same as
those used for differential protection the differential CT requirements cover both differential
and low impedance REF applications.
The current transformer knee-point voltage requirements are based on the following settings
for transformer REF protection:

IS1 = 0.09In, IS2 = 0.9In, K1 = 0%, K2 = 150%.


A series of internal and external faults were performed to determine the CT requirements for
the REF function. These tests were performed under different X/R ratios, CT burdens, fault
currents, fault types and point on wave. The CT requirements are determined either by the
operating time for internal faults (≤45msec in the P64x) or by through fault stability,
whichever requires the highest K dimensioning factor. The K factor was calculated for
internal and external faults.
The knee point voltage (VK) is directly proportional to the CT burden (Rct) and to the loop
burden (2Rl). K is the CT dimensioning factor, and it was calculated using the equation
below and the CT requirements test results.

Vk ≥ KI n (Rct + 2 Rl + Rr )
For the REF protection, the K dimensioning factor is smaller than for transformer differential
protection. The higher of the two must be considered when applying both types of
protection.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -62

8.2.3.3 One breaker application


According to the CT requirements test results, to achieve through fault stability and operating
times ≤ 45 msec, the dimensioning factor K must comply with the following formula:

System conditions K (CT dimensioning factor)

2 ≤ I f ≤ 20
⎛ X ⎞ ⎛X ⎞
X K = 0.013 I f ⎜ − + 17.7 ⎟ + 0.15⎜ + 28 ⎟
5 ≤ < 40 ⎝ R ⎠ ⎝R ⎠
R
2 ≤ I f ≤ 20
⎛X ⎞ ⎛X ⎞
X K = 0.0003 I f ⎜ − 934 ⎟ + 0.04⎜ + 215 ⎟
40 ≤ < 120 ⎝R ⎠ ⎝R ⎠
R
Table 118: K requirements for P642 – P645 (one-breaker application)

Note:: K must always be greater or equal to 6.5.

8.2.3.4 One and a half breaker application


According to the CT requirements test results, to achieve through fault stability and operating
times ≤ 45 msec, the K dimensioning factor must comply with the following expressions:

System conditions K (CT dimensioning factor)

2 ≤ I f ≤ 20
⎛ X ⎞ ⎛X ⎞
X K = 0.04 I f ⎜ − + 5 ⎟ + 0.95⎜ + 0.18 ⎟
5 ≤ < 20 ⎝ R ⎠ ⎝R ⎠
R
2 ≤ I f ≤ 20
⎛X ⎞ ⎛X ⎞
X K = 0.007 I f ⎜ + 97.1 ⎟ + 0.14⎜ + 115.7 ⎟
20 ≤ < 120 ⎝R ⎠ ⎝R ⎠
R
Table 119: K requirements for P642 – P645 (one and a half breaker application)

Note:: K must always be greater or equal to 5.


Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -63

9 BUSBAR PROTECTION RELAYS


The range of Busbar protection relays consists of the following devices: P742-P743, P746.
Their burdens and current transformer requirements are detailed in the following sections.

9.1 P742 - P743


The P742 and P743 differential busbar protection relays offer integral biased differential
distributed busbar, breaker failure, dead zone, overcurrent and earth-fault protection.

9.1.1 Burdens
In CT Burden
VA Burden 1A <0.04 VA at rated current
Impedance 1A <40 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
VA Burden 5A <0.15 VA at rated current
Impedance 5A <8 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
Table 120: Current circuit for P742 – P743

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden*


P742 Size 8/40TE 16 - 23 W
P743 Size 12/60TE 22 - 32 W
P741 (with all communications boards) Size 16/80TE 37 - 41 W
Table 121: Auxiliary supply for P742 – P743

* Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.

Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input 24 to 54 V dc 0.09 W
Per energized opto-input 110 to 125 V dc 0.12 W
Per energized opto-input 220 to 250 V dc 0.19 W
Per energized output contact - 0.13 W
Table 122: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P742 – P743

Energizing Voltage Peak Current


19 to 265 V dc 3.5 mA
Table 123: Opto-inputs for P742 – P743

9.1.2 Current Transformer requirements


The characteristics of the CT are set in each peripheral unit (P742/P743), therefore allowing
different classes of CT to be used in the same scheme. The following CT specifications may
be used:

• IEC 60044-1 class 5P or PX (equivalent to BS 3938 class X)


• IEC 60044-6 class TPX, TPY or TPZ
• IEEE C57.13 class C.

Note:: The following knee-point requirements can be converted to an equivalent C


voltage classification as per Appendix B.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -64

9.1.3 Protection

9.1.3.1 Differential protection


The knee-point voltage of the CT should comply with the minimum requirements of the
formulae shown below.

Vk ≥ 0.5I f max (Rct + 2 Rl )


And for each CT:

Vk ≥ I f max int (Rct + 2 Rl )


The recommended specification makes it possible to guarantee a saturation time greater
than 1.4 ms with a remanent flux of 80% of maximum flux (class TPX). This provides a
sufficient margin of security for CT saturation detection.

9.2 P746
The P746 differential centralized busbar protection relay protects substation busbars from
distribution to transmission voltage levels. It offers integral biased differential busbar, breaker
failure, dead zone and overcurrent protection.

9.2.1 Burdens
In CT Burden
VA Burden 1A <0.04 VA at rated current
Impedance 1A <40 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
VA Burden 5A <0.19 VA at rated current
Impedance 5A <8 mΩ over 0 - 30 In
Table 124: Current circuit for P746

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden*


P746 (with all comms boards) Size 16/80TE 12 W
Table 125: Auxiliary supply for P746

* Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.

Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input 24 to 54 V dc 0.09 W
Per energized opto-input 110 to 125 V dc 0.12 W
Per energized opto-input 220 to 250 V dc 0.19 W
Per energized output contact - 0.13 W
Table 126: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P746

Energizing Voltage Peak Current


19 to 265 V dc 3.5 mA
Table 127: Opto-inputs for P746

9.2.2 Current Transformer requirements


The characteristics of the CT are set in each peripheral unit (P742/P743), therefore allowing
different classes of CT to be used in the same scheme. The following CT specifications may
be used:

• IEC 60044-1 class 5P or PX (equivalent to BS 3938 class X)


• IEC 60044-6 class TPX, TPY or TPZ
• IEEE C57.13 class C.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -65

Note:: The following knee-point requirements can be converted to an equivalent


voltage classification as per Appendix B.

9.2.3 Protection
Differential protection

9.2.3.1 The knee-point voltage of the CT should comply with the minimum requirements of the
formulae shown below.

Vk ≥ 0.5I f max (Rct + 2 Rl )


And for each CT:

Vk ≥ I f max int (Rct + 2 Rl )


The recommended specification makes it possible to guarantee a saturation time greater
than 1.4 ms with a remnant flux of 80% of maximum flux (class TPX). This provides a
sufficient margin of security for CT saturation detection.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -66

10 CIRCUIT BREAKER FAIL PROTECTION RELAYS


The range of Circuit Breaker fail differential protection relays consists of the following
devices: P821.
Their burdens and current transformer requirements are detailed in the following sections.

10.1 P821
The MiCOM P821 is an Advanced Breaker Failure relay based on the latest numerical
technology.

10.1.1 Burdens
CT Input In CT Burden
Phase 1A < 0.025 VA at In
Earth 1A < 0.008 VA at 0.1In
Phase 5A < 0.3 VA at In
Earth 5A < 0.01 VA at 0.1In
Table 128: Current circuit for P821

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden*


P821 Size 4/20TE 2 W or 5 VA
Table 129: Auxiliary supply for P821

* Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.

Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input - < 10 mA
Per energized output contact - 0.25 W or 0.4 VA
Table 130: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P821

10.1.2 Protection
The current transformer requirements are based on a maximum prospective fault current of
50 times the relay rated current (In) and the relay having an instantaneous setting of 25
times rated current (In). The current transformer requirements are designed to provide
operation of all protection elements.
Where the criteria for a specific application are in excess of those detailed above, or the
actual lead resistance exceeds the limiting value quoted, the CT requirements may need to
be increased according to the formulae in the following sections.

Nominal Accuracy Limit Limiting lead


Nominal Rating Accuracy Class
Output Factor resistance
1A 2.5 VA 10P 20 1.3 ohms
5A 7.5 VA 10P 20 0.11 ohms
Table 131: Current transformer requirements for P821

The knee-point voltage of the CT should comply with the minimum requirements of the
formulae shown below:

Vk ≥ I fp (Rct + 2 Rl + Rrp + Rrn )


Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -67

11 VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY PROTECTION RELAYS


The range of Voltage and Frequency protection relays consists of the following devices:
P921 – P923.
Their burdens and current transformer requirements are detailed in the following sections.

11.1 P921 - P923


The MiCOM P92x relays are suitable for all applications where voltage and/or frequency
protection is required to provide load or generation shedding to ensure system stability.

11.1.1 Burdens
Vn VT Burden
57 - 130 V < 0.25 VA
220 - 480 V < 0.36 VA
Table 132: Voltage circuit for P921 – P923

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden*


P921 - P923 Size 4/20TE 3W
Table 133: Auxiliary supply for P921 – P923

* Nominal is with 50% of the opto-inputs energized and one output contact per
card energized.

Additional Burden Relay Auxiliary Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input 24 to 60 V dc 10 mA
Per energized opto-input 48 to 125 V dc 5 mA
Per energized opto-input 130 to 250 V dc 2.5 mA
Per energized output contact - 0.25 W or 0.4 VA
Table 134: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P921 – P923

11.2 P941 - P943


The MiCOM P94x relays are suitable for all applications where voltage and/or frequency
protection is required to provide load or generation shedding to ensure system stability.

11.2.1 Burdens
Vn VT Burden
100 - 120V < 0.02 VA rms at 110 V
380 - 480V < 0.15 VA r.m.s at 440 V
Table 135: Voltage circuit for P941 – P943

Relay Case Size Nominal Burden*


P941, P942 Size 8/40TE 11 W or 24 VA
P943 Size 12/60TE 11 W or 24 VA
Table 136: Auxiliary supply for P941 – P943

* Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energized.

Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input 24 to 54 V dc 0.09 W
Per energized opto-input 110 to 125 V dc 0.12 W
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -68

Additional Burden Energizing Voltage Burden


Per energized opto-input 220 to 250 V dc 0.19 W
Per energized output contact - 0.13W
Table 137: Additional burdens on auxiliary supply for P941 – P943

Energizing Voltage Peak Current


0 to 300V dc 3.5 mA
Table 138: Opto-inputs for P941 – P943
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -69

APPENDIX A: CONVERTING TO A LIMITING SECONDARY VOLTAGE


The suitability of a standard protection current transformer can be checked against the
limiting secondary voltage requirements, specified in this document.
An estimated limiting secondary voltage can be obtained as follows:

VA × ALF
Vk ≥ + ( ALF × I n Rct )
In
If Rct is not available, then the second term in the above equation can be ignored as it
typically only adds a small amount to the estimated secondary limiting voltage.
To ensure that the current transformer has a high enough rating for the relay’s burden it is
necessary to work out the current transformer’s continuous VA rating using the following
formula:

VAct > I n (Rl + Rr )


2

Example 1:
An estimate of the secondary limiting voltage of a 400/5A current transformer of class 5P 10
with a rated output burden of 15 VA and a secondary winding resistance of 0.2 Ω will be:

15 × 10
Vk ≈ + 10 × 5 × 0.2 = 40V
5
Example 2:
For a particular application of a 1A MiCOM overcurrent relay it is required to determine the
most appropriate class P current transformer to be used. The secondary limiting voltage
required has been calculated at 87.3 V using a current transformer secondary winding
resistance of 2 Ω.
The current transformer rated output burden must be:

VAct > I n (Rl Rr )


2

VAct ≥ 12 × (1 + 0.025) = 1.025 VA


The nearest rating above this will be 2.5 VA.
The accuracy limit factor required can be determined by:

VA × ALF
Vk = + ALF ×I nRct
In

2.5 × ALF
87.3 = + ALF × 1× 2 = 4.5 × ALF
1

∴ ALF = 19.4

The nearest accuracy limit factor above 19.4 is 20.


Therefore the current transformer required to supply the MiCOM overcurrent relay will be a
2.5 VA 10P 20. (i.e. 2.5VA is the rated burden, 10 (%) is the nominal accuracy class, 20 is
the ALF).
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -70

APPENDIX B: CONVERTING TO IEEE STANDARD VOLTAGE RATING


The MiCOM series protection relays are compatible with ANSI/IEEE CTs as specified in the
IEEE C57.13 standard. The applicable class for protection is class "C", which specifies a
non air-gapped core. The CT design is identical to IEC class P but the rating is specified
differently.
The IEEE C class standard voltage rating required will be lower than an IEC knee-point
voltage. This is because the IEEE voltage rating is defined in terms of useful output voltage
at the terminals of the CT, whereas the IEC knee-point voltage includes the voltage drop
across the internal resistance of the CT secondary winding added to the useful output. The
IEC knee-point is also typically 5% higher than the IEEE knee-point.
Where IEEE standards are used to specify CTs, the C class voltage rating can be checked
to determine the equivalent knee-point voltage (Vk) according to IEC. The equivalence
formula is:

Vk = 1.05C + K ssc I n Rct

Vk = 1.05C + 100 Rct

Note:: IEEE CTs are always 5A secondary rated, i.e. In =5A, and are defined with
an accuracy limit factor of 20, i.e. Kssc =20.
The following table allows C57.13 ratings to be converted to a typical IEC knee-point voltage:

CT Ratio Rct* Vk - C50 Vk - C100 Vk - C200 Vk-- C400 Vk - C800


100/5 0.04 Ω 56.5 V 109 V 214 V 424 V 844 V
200/5 0.08 Ω 60.5 V 113 V 218 V 428 V 848 V
400/5 0.16 Ω 68.5 V 121 V 226 V 436 V 856 V
800/5 0.32 Ω 84.5 V 137 V 242 V 452 V 872 V
1000/5 0.40 Ω 92.5 V 145 V 250 V 460 V 880 V
1500/5 0.60 Ω 112.5 V 165V 270 V 480 V 900 V
2000/5 0.80 Ω 132.5 V 185 V 290 V 500 V 920 V
3000/5 1.20 Ω 172.5 V 225 V 330 V 540 V 960 V

Table 139: C57.13 ratings

* Assuming 0.002 ohms per turn typical secondary winding resistance for 5A CTs.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -71

APPENDIX C: USE OF METROSIL NON-LINEAR RESISTORS


“Metrosils” (non-linear resistors) are used to limit the peak voltage developed by the current
transformers under internal fault conditions, to a value below the insulation level of the
current transformers, relay and interconnecting leads, which are normally able to withstand
3000 V peak.
The following formulae should be used to estimate the peak transient voltage (Vp) that could
be produced for an internal fault. The peak voltage produced during an internal fault will be
a function of the current transformer knee-point voltage and the prospective voltage (Vf) that
would be produced for an internal fault if current transformer saturation did not occur.

V p = 2 2Vk (V f −Vk )

V f = I ' f (Rct + 2 Rl + Rs )
When the value given by the formulae is greater than 3000 V peak, Metrosils should be
applied. They are connected across the relay circuit and serve the purpose of shunting the
secondary current output of the current transformer from the relay in order to prevent very
high secondary voltages.
Metrosils are externally mounted and take the form of annular discs. Their operating
characteristics follow the expression:

V = CI 0.25
where :

V = Instantaneous voltage applied to the Metrosil

C = Characteristic constant of the Metrosil

I = Instantaneous current through the Metrosil


With a sinusoidal voltage applied across the Metrosil, the rms current would be
approximately 0.52 times the peak current. This current value can be calculated as follows:
4
⎛ 2Vsin( rms ) ⎞
I rms = 0.52⎜ ⎟
⎜ C ⎟
⎝ ⎠

Where
Vsin(rms) = rms value of the sinusoidal voltage applied across the Metrosil.
This is due to the fact that the current waveform through the metrosil is not sinusoidal but
appreciably distorted.
For satisfactory application of a Metrosil, it's characteristic should be such that it complies
with the following requirements:
At the relay voltage setting, the Metrosil current should be as low as possible, and no greater
than ≈ 30 mA rms for 1A CTs and ≈ 100 mA rms for 5A CTs.
At the maximum secondary current, the Metrosil should limit the voltage to 1500 V rms or
2120 V peak for 0.25 s. At higher relay voltage settings, it is not always possible to limit the
fault voltage to 1500 V rms, so higher fault voltages may have to be tolerated.
The following tables show the typical Metrosil types that will be required, depending on relay
current rating, REF voltage setting etc.
Metrosil units for relays using 1A CTs
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -72

The Metrosil units for 1A CTs have been designed to comply with the following restrictions:
At the relay voltage setting, the Metrosil current should be less than 30 mA rms.
At the maximum secondary internal fault current the Metrosil should limit the voltage to
1500 V rms if possible.
The Metrosil units normally recommended for use with 1A CTs are as shown in the following
table:

Nominal
Recommended Metrosil Type
Relay Voltage Setting Characteristic
C β Single Pole Relay Triple Pole Relay
Up to 125 V rms 450 0.25 600A/S1/S256 600A/S3/1/S802
125 - 300 V rms 900 0.25 600A/S1/S1088 600A/S3/1/S1195
Table 140: Metrosil units

Note:: Single pole Metrosil units are normally supplied without mounting brackets
unless otherwise specified by the customer.
Metrosil units for relays using 5A CTs
These Metrosil units have been designed to comply with the following requirements:
At the relay voltage setting, the Metrosil current should be less than 100 mA rms (the actual
maximum currents passed by the units is shown below their type description).
At the maximum secondary internal fault current the Metrosil unit should limit the voltage to
1500 V rms for 0.25 s. At the higher relay settings, it is not possible to limit the fault voltage
to 1500 V rms hence higher fault voltages have to be tolerated (indicated by *, **, ***).
The Metrosil units normally recommended for use with 5A CTs and single pole relays are as
shown in the following table:

Secondary Recommended Metrosil Type


Internal Fault Relay Voltage Setting
Current
Up to 200V rms 250V rms 275V rms 300V rms
600A/S1/S1213 600A/S1/S1214 600A/S1/S1214 600A/S1/S1223
50A rms C = 540/640 C = 670/800 C = 670/800 C = 740/870*
35 mA rms 40 mA rms 50 mA rms 50 mA rms
600A/S2/P/S1217 C 600A/S2/P/S1215 C 600A/S2/P/S1215 C 600A/S2/P/S1196 C
100A rms = 470/540 70 mA = 570/670 75 mA = 570/670 100 mA = 620/740* 100 mA
rms rms rms rms
600A/S3/P/S1219 C 600A/S3/P/S1220 C 600A/S3/P/S1221C 600A/S3/P/S1222C
150A rms = 430/500 100 mA = 520/620 100 mA = 570/670** 100 mA = 620/740***
rms rms rms 100 mA rms
Table 141: Metrosil units for 5A CTs

* 2400 V peak, ** 2200 V peak, *** 2600 V peak

In some situations single disc assemblies may be acceptable. Metrosil units for higher relay
voltage settings and fault currents can also be supplied if required. Contact AREVA T&D for
detailed applications.

Note:: The Metrosil unit recommended for use with 5A CTs can also be applied for
use with triple pole relays and consist of three single pole units mounted on
the same central stud but electrically insulated from each other. To order
these units please specify "Triple pole Metrosil type", followed by the single
pole type reference.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -73

APPENDIX D: FUSE RATING OF AUXILIARY SUPPLY


Use fuses with standard ratings between 6A and 16A. Low voltage fuse-links rated for 250 V
minimum and compliant with IEC 60269-1 general application type gG with high rupturing
capacity are acceptable. These have gives equivalent characteristics to HRC "Red Spot"
fuse types NIT/TIA, often specified historically.
Where only one or two relays are wired as a fused spur, it is acceptable to use a 6A rated
fuse. Generally, five relays would be connected on a spur protected by a 10A fuse and ten
relays would have a 15 or 16A fuse.

Note:: This applies to MiCOM Px10, Px20, Px30 series devices. It also applies to
Px40 series devices with hardware suffix C the later of these have inrush
current limitation on switch-on to conserve the fuse-link.
The recommended external protective fuse for the auxiliary DC supply of the P59x series
interface units is a 2A HRC (high rupture capacity) GE Red Spot type NIT or TIA, or if a UL
recognized fuse is required, 2A time delay Gould type AJT2.
Alternatively, miniature circuit breakers (MCBs) may be used to protect the auxiliary supply
circuits.
Application Notes B&CT/EN AP/D11

Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays (AP) -74


Publication: B&CT/EN AP/D11

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