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BBMP 1103

Management Mathematics
Chapter:3 – Introduction to
Functions

Prepared by

Richard Ng

BBMP1103 – Chapter 3 - Richard Ng (2008) Page 1 of 25

1. Relations and Functions


™ Four types of relations:

X Y X Y
z z z z

z z z z

z z z z

One to One One to Many

X Y X Y
z z z z

z z z z

z z z z

Many to One Many to Many

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2. Function
™ Any relations that produce only one output:

X Y
z z

z z

z z

One to One

X Y
z z

z z

z z

Many to One

BBMP1103 – Chapter 3 - Richard Ng (2008) Page 3 of 25

Example: 1
Which of the following equations will define y as a
function of x?
y
y = 3x
a) y = 3 x z

z z z z
x

The above relation is a 1 to 1 (Answer: Function)

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b) y = x2
y

y = x2
z

z z z z
x

The above relation is a Many to 1 (Answer: Function)

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c) y=± x atau y2 = x

y2 = x
z

z z
x

The above relation is a 1 to Many (Answer: Not Function)

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d) y = 6

y=6
z

z z z z
x

The above relation is a Many to 1 (Answer: Function)

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e) x = 5

x=5
y

z
x

The above relation is a 1 to Many (Answer: Not Function)

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Exercise: 3.2
Which of the following graphs represent a function of x?
y y
a) b)
z

z z z
0 x
z

z z

z z
0 x

The above relation is a One The above relation is a One


to One. to Many.
Answer: Function Answer: Not Function

BBMP1103 – Chapter 3 - Richard Ng (2008) Page 9 of 25

y y
c) d)
z z

z z z z
0 x 0 x

The above relation is a One The above relation is a One


to One. to One.
Answer: Function Answer: Function

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y
e) f) y

z
z

z
z z
0 x
z

z
0 x

The above relation is a One The above relation is a One


to One. to Many.
Answer: Function Answer: Not Function

BBMP1103 – Chapter 3 - Richard Ng (2008) Page 11 of 25

3. Function, Domain and Range

™ Domain = is a set of all values of x that defines y


™ Range = is a set of all values of y for a given domain
Example: 2
Determine the domain and range of the following functions:
a) y = 3 x
y = 3x
y
y →∝
Domain = all values of x
where x ∈ R

∝← x
x →∝
x

Range = all values of y


where y ∈ R
y →∝
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b) y = x2
y →∝
y

y = x2

z
∝← x y=0 x →∝
x

Domain = all values of x Range = all values of y


where x ∈ R where y ∈ R and y ≥ 0

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1
c) y = y
x 1
y=
y →∝ x

∝← x x≠0
x≠0 x →∝ x

y →∝

Domain = all values of x where Range = all values of y where


x ∈ R and x ≠ 0 y ∈ R and y≠0

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d) y = x + 3 atau y = x + 3
2

y
y →∝
y2 = x + 3

z
x = −3 x
x →∝

y →∝

Domain = all values of x where Range = all values of y where


x ∈ R and x ≥ −3 y∈R

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Exercise 3.3:
Determine the domain and range of the following functions:

a) f(x) = 2x y
y = 2x
y →∝

∝← x
x
x →∝

y →∝

Domain = all values of x where Range = all values of y where


x∈R y∈R

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b) f(x) = 3 - x
y →∝
y

y = 3− x

x →∝

∝← x
x

y →∝

Domain = all values of x where Range = all values of y where


x∈R y∈R

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c) f(x) = x2 + 1
y

y →∝
y = x2 + 1

zy =1

∝← x
x
x →∝

Domain = all values of x where Range = all values of y where


x∈R y ∈ R and y ≥ 1

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1
d) f(x) =
x−4
1
y= x−4 ≠ 0
x−4

x ≠of4x where
Domain = all values x ∈ R and x ≠ 4

Denominator
1 1 cannot be zero
x−4= x= +4
y y

Range = all valuesxof≠y4where y ∈ R and y≠0


y≠0

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e) f(x) = x

y= x x≥0

x ≠of4x where
Domain = all values x ∈ R and x ≥ 0

x = y2 y →∝

x ≠ 4 of y where y ∈ R
Range = all values
y≠0

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Exercise 3.4:
a) y

y →∝

x →∝
∝← x
x

y →∝

Domain = all values of x where Range = all values of y where


x∈R y∈R

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b) y

y=n
z

∝← x
x
x →∝

y →∝

Domain = all values of x where Range = all values of y where


x∈R y ∈ R and y ≤ n

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c) y

y →∝

z
∝← x y>0 x →∝ x

Domain = all values of x where Range = all values of y where


x∈R y ∈ R and y > 0

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y
d)
y →∝

y>0
x≠0 x
∝← x x →∝

Domain = all values of x where Range = all values of y where


x ∈ R and x ≠ 0 y ∈ R and y > 0

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End of
Chapter
3

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