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Ed Bausbacher

P T R Prentíce Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publícatíon Data
Bausbacher, Ed.
Process plant layout and piping design J Ed Bausbacher, Roger
p. cm.
Indudes index.
ISBN 0-13-138629-8
l. Chemical plants-Design and construction. 2. Plant layout.
3. Chemical plants-Piping. I. Hum, Roger (Roger W.) II. Title.
TP155.S.B38 1993
660--dc20 93-9725

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To the most importara people in my life, ubom I tooe
very mud» my cbildren, Peter, Karin, ami Linda

To tbe memory of my brotber, William


Poreword xi Inter- and After-Coolers . 82

Preface xiii Housing and Platform Requírements 83
General Compressor Layout . . . . . 85

J The Basics of Plant Layout Design

The Plant Layout Desígner 1
Project Input Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Types of Drurns 91
Basic Layout Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . 4 Locatíon of Drums 92
Abbrevíatíons, Standards, and Terminology 8 Nozzle Locations . 95
Platform Arrangements 98

2 Plant Layout Specíficatíon

Pípíng Arrangements
Drum Instrurnentatícn .
The Components of Specification 19 Maintenance . . . . . . 106
Further Consíderatíons 107.

3 Plot Plans
6 Exchangers
The Plot Plan in the Process Unit 27
Definition . . . . . . . 27 Exchanger Constructíon . . . . . 110
Plot Plan Developrnent 28 Exchanger Locatíon and Support 114
Types of Plot Plans 31 Nozzle Oríentatíon . . 125
Equipment Location . . 33 Exchanger Piping . . . 127
Pipe Racks . 42 Exchanger Maintenance 135
Roads, Access Ways, and Paving 44
Equípment Spacing . . . . . .
. 44
44 7 Furnaces
Sample Plot Plan Arrangement . 51 Basic Operation and Primary Parts of a Furnace 141
Types of Furnaces 141
4 Compressors Termínology . . . . . . . . . . . .
Burners . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Combustíon Air Preheatíng Systems 148
Centrifuga! Compressors. Nozzle Oríentations 61 General Arrangement of Furnaces . 149
Types of Compressor Drives . 61 Píping Layout for a Furnace . . . . 165
Lube Oíl Systern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Tail Gas lncínerator and Waste Heat Unít 177
Seal Oíl Systern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Surface Condensers and Auxiliary Equipment
Compressor Maintenance . . . . . . .
8 Pumps
Cornpressor Arrangernent and Location 75 Pump Termínology 181
Elevatíons of Machines . . . . . . . . 79 NPSH Requirernents 182

Types of Pumps
Pump Locatíons
185 12 Structures
Pump Píping .. 188 Desígn Features 285
Purnp Supports Structural Terms . 285
Structural Details 287
Small Structures . 293
Reactors Mediurn-Sízed Strucrures 296
Process Operatíon . . . . .
Structures 298
Stair Structures 301
Design Consíderatíons for Reactors
Dril! Strucrures 301
Locatíon of Reactors . . . . . . 204
Support and Elevation . . . . . 204
Locations and Elevations 207
Platform Arrangernents 209
Píping 210
Maíntenance . . . . . . 216 Industry Standards 305
Terminology 305
Types of Systerns . 306
10 Towers
Construction Materials
Oily Water and Storm Water Systerns
The Dístíllatíon Process . . . . . . 219 Chemical and Process (Closed) Sewers 320
Types of Towers . . . . . . . . . 221 Process and Potable Water . . . . . . 322
Design Consíderaríons for Towers
Fire Water System . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Tower Elevanon and Support .. 223
Underground Electrical and Instrument Ducts 337
Nozzle Elevation and Orientatíon
Underground Details . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
232 Double Containmem-Underground Systems 340
Platform Arrangernems 240 Fabricatíon . . . . . . . 341
Tower Piping . . . 243 Underground Composíte 344
Tower Instruments 246
Maintenance . . . . 252
J4 Instrumentanon

11 Racks
Types of Instrurnents
Instrument Locatíons
Establíshíng Width, Bent Spacing, and Míscellaneous . . . . 357
Elevatíons . . . . . . . . . · . . 261
Setting Line, Valve, and Instrument Locations 269
Pipe Flexíbilíry and Supports 271
__anks ,
15:::'.'.:._--=P...:::.r...:::.o...:::.c...::..es.::..s:_L1_· q,!...u_i_d_S_t_o_ra_;g=e__ T
Structural Consíderatíons 277 Codes and Regulatíons . 359
Other Consíderations . . . . 280 Terminology . . . . . 359
Types of Tanks 360 Layout Solutions of Thermal Loads 398
Spill Containrnent . 362 Layout Solutions for Other Stress 410
Dike Access 366
Sizing Tanks and Dikes
Tank Details
17 Computer-Aided Design '
Tank Supports 374 Basíc CAD Applícatíons . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Integrated Modeling Systems . . . . . . . . 419
16 Stress Analysis
Systems Engineering and Instrument Design
Electronic Spool Sheets
CAD Benefits Sumrnary . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Introduction to Piping Stress 389
Pipe Stress Analysis Work Process 389
Impacts of Excessíve Pipe Stress 392
Causes of Pipe Stress . . . . . . 394 Indo: 431
Layout Solutions for Weight Stress 395

During the 43 years of my career, it was extrernely am convínced it provídes an excellent too! to enhance
difficult and tíme-consumíng for an individual to be- the educatíon of índívíduals who aspire to such a ca-
come knowledgeable and competent in the field of reer. In addítion, I belíeve ír should anract wídespread
pípíng desígn and plant layout Líttle was wrirten in a use as a textbook and reference manual by refinery
formar that would províde the desígner wíth educa- and petrochemícal cornpaníes, engíneeríng and con-
tíonal or reference material. About the only ways structíon companíes, and technícal schools and col-
knowledge and techníques were absorbed were by leges,
tedious, repetítíous desígn functíons and through I commend the authors on their rernarkable effort
workíng wíth experienced peers. in accurnulatíng and developíng this data, and present-
Today, the learníng cycle is even more constrícted, ing ít in such a practica! and commonsense rnanner.
reducíng exposure to the desígn bastes that are so
essentíal to the development of the plant layout de-
sígner, Piping Desigr: and Plaru Layout
Engineer and Manager
I have spent considerable time in reviewing and
studyíng Process Plant Layout and Piping Design and

Whether one is enteríng the ernployment ranks in the wíthín the process unit plot plan. Chapters 4 through
process índustry for the first time or is well estab- 15 <leal wíth specífic píeces of process equipment, or
lished in the design field, it is írnperatíve to under- components of a plant such as píperacks, structures,
stand the true nature of today's marketplace. underground pípíng, Instrumentation and theír most
Competítion forrnerly limited to cítíes, states, prov- efficíent layout in the overall plant desígn configura-
ínces, or country, must now be consídered in the tion. Chapter 16 deals with stress analysís by step ap-
world marketplace, A susraíned level of success can proach to baste stress analysís, which is a must for
only come about as a resultof "meeting or exceedíng" designers and engineers. The last chapter in this book
client requirements. Introduction of automated tech- is dedicated to the computerization tools that are now
nology has added another dímensíon to the already available to help plant layout and píping designers in
dynamíc process industry, Formal educatíon of desígn- the execution of their work. During the past decade or
ers and engíneers has become a necessíry. Rapíd two, the way these designers learned their craft has
changes in process technology, envíronmental and changed dramatically. Historically, secondary school
safety laws, along with work executíon rnethodology, as well as two-year technical college graduates entered
place a constant dernand for educatíon in this industry, the profession and spent manyyears learning the busi-
The intent of thís book is to help traín, on an ac- ness. Novices were trained lhrough such manual ex-
celerated basís, the young engíneers and technícíans ercises as revising drawings, drawing single-line
enteríng the field of process plant layout and pípíng isometrics, and preparing material takeoff sheets;
desígn, It also updates equipment spacíng require- eventuaUy they were given an opportunity to do sim-
ments and addresses the latest feature of electroníc ple design work Today's computers vastly alter this
data transfer for the experíenced layout desígner, leaming process. One designer at a computer graph-
Process Plaru Layout ami Piping Design represents ics terminal can route a line and extra.etthe single line
the accumulated, practica! experíence of two plant isometric, which íncludes a complete bill of material.
layout desígners who, through more than 70 years of Thís information may then be electronicaUy transmit-
tríal and error, have devísed workable methods and ted to a shop or field fabricator.
rules of thurnb for and pípíng desígn. Such rapid changes in technology demand that in-
Illustratíons that make up the heart of this book are dustry adopt a more formal mea.ns of educating future
íts key aspect, because plant layout and pípíng desígn designers, beca.use new trainees today must learn in a
is visual by nature, requíríng the desígner to rnake in few short years what our talented predecessors spent
essence the conceptual leap from a rwo-dímensíonal a lifetime leaming by repeated manual exercise. Al-
process flow díagrarn, to a three-dímensional, phy- though the availability of the computer vastly facilitates
sical process facílíty that compríses extensive networks the design of process plants, the tool itself does not
of process and pípíng equiprnent. confer !he knowledge of fundamental principies of
This book has been arranged into 17 chapters. TI1e plant layout and piping design that are the basís of any
first three deal wíth general concepts and príncíples of creditable effort at such design work. The computer
plant layout from basíc technology and requíre- remains, at best, a tool for learning and execution.
ments to actual delíverables. Plant layout specíficatíons A plant layout designer is primarily skilled in the
have been Included for spacíng, clearances, and safety development of equipment arrangements and piping
requirernents leadíng to equíprnent arrangement layouts found in process plants. The position offers a


unique opportuníty to dernonstrate technícal abílíty entaíled in each individual job. And although the tools
and creatíve talent as well as a comrnonsense approach we now use to achíeve these goals have changed from
to problem solvíng. The world economy today de- pencíl and paper to computer graphícs terminal, the
mands that the desígn and engíneeríng of process responsíbílíries and challenges of the plant layout de-
plants be accomplíshed on extrernely short schedules signer remain the same. Ir is hoped that, through the
whíle optímízíng operatíons, rnaíntenance, safety, combíned practícal experíence of both authors, this
qualíty, constructíbility, and economics. This demand- book can help desígners meet those challenges suc-
íng position offers great rewards for those wíllíng to cessfully.
work to solve the countless cornplex layout problems


The Basics of
Plant Layout
Plant layout desígn plays an írnportant part in the de- " Creativíty,
sign and engíneeríng phases of any industrial facility. • Sufficient experience to avoid reínventíng the
This chaprer discusses the role and responsíbllítíes of wheel.
the plant layout desígner, provídes advíce on how to
• Knowledge of the principal roles of other desígn
use project data, describes the timing of various activi- and engíneeríng groups and the abílíty to use input
ties, offers an approach to a basíc pípíng desígn layout,
from these other disciplines.
and lists abbrevíatíons and cornrnon terrnínology. Sub-
• The abilíty to resolve unclear or questíonable data.
sequent chapters cover plant layout specíficatíons, rna-
jor equípment layouts commonly found in such facili- • Willingness to compromíse in the best interest of
ties, pipe rack layout, underground desígn, and the project.
instrurnentation. " The ahility to generare clear and concíse documents.
• The abílíty to defend designs when challenged.

THE PLANT LAYom· DESIGNER The Desígner's Role

The plant layout desígner is skílled prímaríly in the Exhibir H shows the factors, departrnents, and per-
developrnent of equípment arrangements and píping sonnel with which the plant layout desígner can ex-
layouts for process industries. The position offers an peer to work throughout the engineering phase of a
opportunity to demonstrate technícal ability along project. The principal activitíes of the plot plan devel-
with a creative talent and comrnon-sense approach to opment, equipment layout, and pípíng desígn, which
problem solvíng, Process facilities rnust be desígned often account for a significant portian of project engí-
and engíneered wíthín extrernely short schedules neeríng costs, become a focal point for clients, project
while adheríng to maintenance, safery, and quality management, constructíon, engíneeríng, and support-
standards, moreover, the desígn must take constructí- ing díscíplínes. The desígner must realize that time
bility, economícs, and operatíons into account. Al­ and care spem during engineering help shorten con-
though the tools to achíeve these goals are changíng struction schedules and thereby lower overall project
from pencíl and paper to computer graphícs terrni- costs. The designer must be conscious of the construc-
nals, the responsíbílítíes of the plant layout desígn re- tibilit:y of every layout.
rnain the sarne.
The plant layout desígner must develop layout doc- Principal Functions
uments during the conceptual and study phases of a
The principal functions of the plant layout designer
project. The skílls needed include:
indude the conceptual and preliminary development
of process uní~ plot plans, sometimes referred to as
,. Common sense and the ability to reason.
equipment arrangemems; the routing of major above-
" Knowledge of what a particular plant is desígned to and below-grade piping systems; and the layout of
do. equipment and its associated infrastructure. Plot plans
" A of how process equípment show !he positions of major units and equipment
is maíntaíned and operated. within i.míts and their associated ínfrastructure. Creat-
'" The ability to generare a comprehensíve layout ing a weU-designed facilit:y involves meeting all cliem
wíthin a specified time and with consíderatíon to- specifications and local govemment codes and regula-
ward constructibility and cost-effectíveness. tíons and adhering to design engineering practices.

EXHIBIT 1-1 Plant Layout Interface

With the planníng plot plan as a basís, the followíng • Establishing all equípment nozzle locatíons that
functíons are a standard part of the plant layout de- satisfy ali process, utility, and instrument requíre-
sígner's activítíes. rnents.
" Locatíng all safety ítems (e.g., fire hydrants, moní-
• Settíng all equípment Iocatíons=- This actívíty in-
tors, and safety shower stations ).
dudes input from constructíon on erectíon se-
quences or on specíal problems assocíated wíth set- • Locanng all rníscellaneous iterns (e.g., filters, si-
tíng large píeces of equipment, Choosíng equip- lencers, and analyzer houses ).
rnent locatíons íncludes setting coordínates in two These actívítíes rnust be closely coordínated among
dírectíons and finalízíng equípment elevatíons,
all the plant desígn and construction partícípants in-
whether they are centerlíne, tangent líne, or bottom
volved in the engíneeríng and constructíon phases of a
of baseplate.
proiect to reduce costly rework and enable the plant
• Desígníng all structures and posítíoníng the associ- layout desígner to generare the optímum desígn on
ated staírways, ladders, and platforms-In general, schedule.
the desígner rnakes provísíons to satisfy all opera-
tíonal, maíntenance, and safety requíremenrs for ac-
cess to and clearance around equípment, PROJECT INPUT DATA
.. Plannlng unobstructed áreas for necessary steel
mernbers or structures that facílítate all plant maín- Although there is a vast amount of input data through-
tenance requirements. out the lííe of a project, the data basícally falls into
Internally Generated
Engineeríng Data

three dístinct categories: Internally generated engíneeríng data This data is

typícally generated by the supporting disciplines
.. Project desígn data=-Is supplied by the client or wíthín the desígner's organízatíon. An example of
project engíneeríng. such ínforrnatíon is shown in Exhibit 1-2. This infor-
" Vendor data=-Pertalns to equipment and specialty mation is eventually superseded by certífied vendar
bulk items. drawings but is of sufficíent quality and definítíon to
" Internally generated engíneeríng data. use during the study phase of the project.

These are discussed in the following sections,

The Logíc Díagram
Project desígn data This íncludes the geographic lo- The desígn of any processíng plant is usually accorn-
canon of the plant, íts proximíty to roads, railways,and plíshed in three phases: conceptual, study, and detail.
waterways, local cedes and regularíons, topography, Conceptual desígns are rnade when sketchy or mini-
and clímatíc condítions. The project desígn data also mal ínforrnatíon is used to prepare an abstraer ar-
specífies whether the project is within an existing facíl- rangement of a plot plan or an equipment and pípíng
ity or is a new síte, Thís inforrnation is generally re- layout. Prelirninary, or study phase, desígns are made
quíred duríng the project's plot plan development wíth unchecked or uncertífied data to desígn a facílíty
phase. in sufficíent detail so that the documents produced
can be used for detail desígn, confirrnatíon of pur-
Vender data Ali purchased equípment and specíalty chased equípment, and the purchase ofbulk materials.
bulk items (e.g., purnps, compressors, air coolers, fur- In the detall phase, all desígns are finalized. The de-
naces, control and safety valves, leve! ínstruments, sígns use such checked data as steel and concrete
straíners, and sílencers) require preliminary vendor drawíngs, hydraulícs and certífied vendar drawíngs
drawings for the development of pípíng layouts. Final for equíprnent, valves, and instrurnents.
certífied drawings are usually not required until the The majar activíties of the plant layout desígner to
detall phase. achíeve an optimum plant configuration take place
EXHIBIT 1-3 Logíc Diagram

1 ~
._1 ~
---------- --- +
( ~rzr p~\A~ . tf L

duríng the study phase of a project. The diagram BASIC LAYOUT PHILOSOPHY
shown in Exhíbit 1-3 outlínes the sequence of these
actívities, along with the principal input required and Each plant layout designer develops an individual lay-
output generated. Although project schedules often out philosophy, Although condítíons (e.g., clíent
dictare variatíons in thís approach, it is ínrended to be ficatíons, schedule constraints, and availability of ínfor-
an optimum condítíon for the most effectíve use of mation) may change signíficantly among proíects, the
staff time. The study phase can rnake or break a pro]- desígner's style rernaíns consístent, One basíc rule to
ect. Working out of sequence is acceptable within rea- remember is to avoid designing one line at a time-
son, but if it is overdone, a project will never recover that is, routing a line from one píece of equípment to
duríng the detall phase, The ideal situation for another befare about the next one. "'""'"'"'!!>"
and quality is to do the job right the first time. it is possíble to an area desígn

Layout a.nd Pf.ping Destgn


EXHIBIT 1-4 Plan View Layout

!)....--.;;:z.-..;¿. - v·&
::.o::z. ::UTJ z:. - ~
e. '

Bt:N "~''. @

approach, the result is a lack of consistency. Plan View Layout

An overview of ali the pípíng wíthín a given area
should be cornpleted before the desígner proceeds Both arrangernents shown in Exhibir 1-4 are workable
wíth the final arrangement. This can be achieved pípíng Iayouts far the given equiprnent. The design in
through close revíew of the pípíng and instrumenta- plan A is the one-líne-at-a-tírne approach. Along with
tion díagrams and freehand sketchíng of majar pípíng requíríng more pipe fittings and steel in support 1, ír
conñguratíons to ensure that the píping will be routed lacks consistency. Plan B was developed as a whole
in an orderly manner. unir. Lines running to the nozzles on drums D and E

The Bastes of Plant Layout Design


EXHIBIT 1-5 Elevation Layout

' 1

1 '

are on the outsíde of the pipe rack and peel off first though it is not always necessary to plan for future
with flar pípíng turns, The Iínes to exchangers A, B, expansíon, it can often be done with very little addí-
and C are located to the center of the rack and can also tíonal effort and cost. Each area should be thought
off in most cases. on a case-by-case basís.
This approach saves fittings and requires a shorter
steel beam to support the pípíng, It should be noted
that the use of flat turns in pipíng is not recommended
Elevatíon Layout
if there ís a líkelíhood of future in an area. Exhíbit 1-5 shows two workable layouts, The
The alternatíve to accommodate future pípíng key dífference is that the arrangement on the leñ
north at the same elevation is to change elevation for shows pípíng running at too rnany elevatíons. With a
the pípíng runníng east and west to the drums. Al- little effort, thís can be corrected, as shown in the
!.... r-. ·I
'''(" Diagonal Piping Runs

right-hand view. Adding support steel for this prefer- ferent elevatíon, as shown. There is no absolute rule,
red would only mínima! effort. The except that judgment should be used to produce a
view on the left, would require additíonal neat and orderly layout as well as to occasíonally save
engíneeríng time and addítíonal steel cost, pipe fittings when possíble.

u1:ag<>ru11 Pípíng Runs Valve Ma.nifolds

When línes are run in a congested area, a basíc rule to The layout of valve manífolds is another opportunity
follow is to the elevation to avoid ínterference to exercíse consístency of desígn, Layout A of Exhibít
wíth other lines when línes are to be routed perpen- 1-7 uses an excessíve number of finíngs and Indicares
dicular to most The arrangement a lack of proper With a and
A of Exhibit 1-6 has a mínírnal offset extra a less and more desígn
the líne at the same elevation is can be generated, as shown in B. Certaín pípíng
"'"'-·'-!-''""'-"'" if ít does not block the passage of a specmcanons may restrict the use of branch connec-
number of other lines. In B, dimension Y would tíons in líeu of reducers, but thís option should be
interfere with too many Unes and should run ar a díf- considered if at all possíble.
EXHIBIT 1-7 Valve :\fani.folds

ft?E:~e? ~
~11--.11~uy EIUI~

Use of Space keep that in mind when the next expansión is

The effective use of plant real estate provídes plant
operanons and rnaíntenance personnel with the maxi-
mum arnount of room in a plant, whích in most cases
can be very congesred, Exhibir 1-8 shows sorne rypícal
misuses of valuable real estate.
For example, the stearn trap assembly shown on the
Thís section defines and surnmarizes the abbrevía-
left is comrnonly desígned in the engíneeríng office.
tíons, standards, and terrnínology used throughout
This arrangernent for a therrnodynamíc stearn trap is
thís book.
spread out over an area of approximately 27 in ( 690
mm) in length. Although this area may not seem ex-
cessrve for one trap assembly, ít can be avoided com- Abbreviations
pletely by ínstallíng rhe trap and strainer in the vertical
leg of the pípíng, as shown on the right. An addítíonal The following abbreviations are used in text and íllus-
drain may be requíred, but thís arrangernent should tratíons:
be consídered as a space-saving alternative, The stearn
tracing manifold in the Ieft-hand sketch is another • AG-Above ground.
common engíneeríng office approach that wastes valu- ., ANSI-American National Standards Institute.
able plant space. If a vertical manifold that is sup- • ASME-American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
poned from the column is used, addlrional space is " BBP-Bottom of baseplate,
available for other píping systems or operator access. " BL- Battery limit,
The client must live wíth the planr long after the
• t-Centerline.
engíneeríng and construction phases are over, The
operators will be walking through the facility each day • EL-Elevation.
and will be continually rerninded of who took the time e IRI-Industrial Rísk Insurers.
and effort to plan the project thoroughly, and they will • N-North.

Process Plant Layout and Piping Destgn

Space Use

Tbe Bastes of PlantLayout Design

• OD-Outside diameter. conveyors. It shows equíprnenr numbers, flow rates,
e (J)-Diameter. and operatíng pressures and temperatures and is used
to prepare the mechanical flow diagrams (i.e., piping
NFPA-National Fire Protection Association.
and ínstrurnentatíon diagrams). Ir is also used ro pre-
• NPSH-Net positive suction head.
pare conceptual and preliminary plot plans.
• OSHA-Operational Safety and Health Act.
., PFD-Process flow díagram. Equípment líst An iternized accountíng list by class
• P&ID-Piping and instrumentauon diagram. of ali equiprnent to be used on a project, this docu-
• POS--Point of support. ment gíves the equipment ítem numbers and descrip-
.. 1L-Tangent line. tions and is generally fumished by the client or project
,. TOS- Top of steel.
" 1YP-Typical. and instrumentatíon diagrarns These docu-
• UG-Underground. ments schematically show ali process, utílity, and aux-
iliary equipment as wel! as piping, valving, specíalry
iterns, instrumentation and ínsulatíon, and heat tracing
Codes and Standards
This book refers to the following codes and standards,
which cover the stated areas: Piping specífication This document Iísts the type of
materíals to be used for pipes, valves, and fittíngs for
• ANSI/ASME B31-3-Chemical plant and petroleurn each cornrnodíty in a plant. This listing ís based on
refinery pípíng. pressure, temperature, and the corrosive nature of the
• ANSI/ASME B31-4-Petroleum pipeline. ílow medium. It also describes pipe wall thícknesses,
• ANSI/ASME 831-8-Gas transmissíon pipeline. how branch connections are made, and itemized stock
• NFPA 30-Tank storage. codes that are used for ordering materials.

"' NFPA 58-Liquefied petroleum gas storage and han-

Líne run This is the physical route a pipe takes be-
tween any rwo points as set by the plant layout de­
" NFPA 59A-Liquefied natural gas storage and han- sígner.
• OSHA 1910-24-Fixed stairs. Planníng study or layout drawing This is an ortho-
* OSHA 1910-27-Fixed ladders. graphic piping plan. It is usually not a finished docu-
ment, nor is it deliverable to a client. This drawíng
shows all equipment in a given area to scale and in-
eludes majar process and utility piping systerns, sígnífi-
The terrnínology used in text and illustrations is de- cam valving, and instrurnents. It notes exact equíp-
fined in the followíng sectíons. ment Iocatíons and elevatíons, all nozzles, platform
and ladder requirements, and any pipe support data
Process fíow díagram This document schernatícally that affects the design of equipment or structures by
shows ali majar equípment íterns within a plam and other disciplines. Exhibit 1-9 is a typical example of a
how they are linked together by pipíng, ducts, and planníng study.

Process Plant Layout and Piptng


i ~~~t .~

~ ~I j l
-o. ~. __ _..i~;¡:;:;,,~¡¡:i:;:;.:;.........

­~(jj¡ •OO¡ •

tbe Bastes o/ Ptant Layout Design

Steam-Traced Une


Heat tracíng In many processes, equipment, ínstru- points in a plant. An example of a header arrangernent
rnents, and piping systerns require externally applied is shown in Exhibir 1-12.
heat, This heat may be applied by electrical tracing
leads attached to the ítem or line or through a small Branch The individual pípíng leads between head-
bore pipe or tubing that carries stearn or other heatíng ers and users are also illusrrated in Exhibít 1-12.
medía (e.g., hot oil). An example of a steam-traced line
is shown in Exhibir 1-10. Maíntenance Equiprnent and its components re-
quíre routíne maimenance for contínued relíabílity
Inlíne This term refers to a component that is placed and safe operation. A plant layout desígner must pro-
either inside or berween a paír of flanges as opposed vide unobstructed space for service equíprnent and
to one attached to a píece of pipe or equipment. An personnel to access and remove components without
example of inline instrumentarion is shown in Exhibit removíng unrelated equíprnent and piping.
Operation Valves, instruments, and many rypes of
Header block valves These valves ísolate branch equípment requíre frequent attention for operatíon.
lines that are not usually provided with perrnanent These ítems rnust be accessíble wíthout ímpaírlng the
access for plant operations personnel. safery of plant personnel.

Header This line is the primary source of a cornmod- Safety The layout of any facilíry rnust enable plant
ity used by numerous pieces of equípment or service personnel to exit a potentíally hazardous area wíthout

Process Ptant layout Design

. EXHIBIT 1-11
Inline Instrurnentation


Block Valve

injury. Planning for safety íncludes adding roadways to the result of a balanced consíderatíon of írutíal cost,
provide access for fire fighters and equíprnenr, strate- safety, and the long-terrn effects of a design on opera-
gícally placing fire detectors and hydrants around the tions and maíntenance.
process unit; adding sufficíent ladders and stairways at An example of cost-effectíveness is the layout of
structures to meet OSHA requirements: locating fur- stearn-driven gas compressors. Although a grade-
naces wíth fired burners away from potentíal sources mounted ínstallauon is initíally Iess expensíve to in-
of gas leaks, and setting the height and Iocatíon of stall, maimenance on such arrangements often re-
vents to prevent injury to operating personnel. quires the dismantling of all major piping systems.
This can prolong plant downtíme and translates into
Cosr-effectíve Developing the most ínexpensíve lay- lost revenue for the clíent. Careful consideration
out may not translate ínto the most cost-effectíve de- should be gíven to al! factors before the initiallv low-
sígn for the life of the plant. A cost-effecríve design is est-cost solution is chosen.

Tbe Bastes of Plant Layout Design

EXHIBIT 1-13 Gravíty Flow

Graviry flow When pockets must be avoided in a Flexibility Every piping arrangernent muse be suffi-
given piping system, the line is labeled "graviry flow" ciently flexible to allow each line to thermally expand
on the pípíng and instrumentanon diagram. This often or contraer without oversrressíng the pipe or equíp-
results in locatíng equipment in elevated structures ment. Exhibit 1-15 íllustrates severa! methods to meet
instead of at grade, as shown in Exhibir 1-13. this flexibility requirernent, including:

Open systems An open systern is one in which the .. Relocating equipment to build flexibility into the
contents of a line are discharged and not recovered. ínherent desígn of the line.
Examples of this inelude a relief val ve discharging into
$ Adding an expansion loop.
the atmosphere and a steam trap discharging orno the
ground or into an open draín. " Addíng an expansíon joim (but only íf a loop will not
Closed systems A closed system is one in which the • Reducing the schedule (í.e., wall thickness) of the
contents of relief systems or steam trap condensares pipe if possible.
are recovered. Examp!es of open and closed systerns
are shown in Exhibit 1-14. The desígner should thoroughly revíew ali possible

Process Plant Layout and Piping Design

. 15
EXHIBIT 1-14 Open and Closed Systems

*8 ?t?JEM
---- 17~~'*" f' A~&-~
1- . ---werv~

J1 ~ ¡~
- +-1 / t?t?~ 1-J ilut>

Une Flexibility
Typícal Pipe Supports



solutions wíth the project stress engineer befare pro- '" Spring supports=- These lines move at the point of
ceedíng with any of these rnethods. support as a result of thermal expansión or contrae-
tion and are generally supported by springs. De-
Pipe supports These steel members are attached to a signed for specífic pipe loads and movemerns, they
pipe to hold it in place during operation. Supports are maintain a support under a line throughout ns range
avaílable in many shapes and sízes and range from of movement.
those that hold a line firm enough to perrnit no rnove- • Trunnions and dummy legs-These supports are
ment to those that allow movernent in any dírecrion. used for many applicatíons and are welded to the
Sorne rypícal pipe supports are shown in Exhibit 1-16 outside of the pipe without cuttíng a hole into it,
and include. • Brackets-This rype of support may be welded to
structural members or certaín pieces of equiprnent.
• Pipe shoes=- These insulated lines are usually sup- It may have a cantilever design or knee bracíng for
ported on shoes fabricated from structural shapes supporting heavy loads. Lines may be U-bolted,
(e.g., T-sections or wide flanges). A standard shoe guided, or hung by rod hangers from the bracket or
height is 4 in (100 mm). may rest on shoes.

Process Pianr layout and Piping Design


A plant layout desígner should rnake every effort to pump. Although the pípíng configuration is basically
know and understand the pipe support requirernents correa, it ignores the constructibility of the overall
of the area beíng worked on so that an optimum lay- layout. Addíng a spool píece to pump B perrníts any
out from a píping and a pipe support poínt of view can adjustment that construction may require.
be developed, The fitting-to-fitting arrangernent at the air cooler
inlet header poses a similar problem. Installanon of
Constructibility Spendíng addítional time and effort large air coolers often makes it ímpossible for a pre-
during the engíneeríng phase of a project is often justi- fabrícated pípíng configuration to be bolted to the
fied if it reduces initial construction staff time or de- nozzles, unless a spool píece of reasonable length is
creases the potential for costly rework on píping lay- included in the layout. Heat may be applied to the
outs. Two examples of constructibillty are shown in problem branch lines so they can be recentered on
Exhibir 1-17. The suctíon piping of pump A is arranged the nozzles. The fitting-to-fitting configuratíon <loes
fitting to fitting and does not allow the construction not permit thís flexibilíty to the constructor. Once
contracter any way to rnake an adjustmem to a mis- agaín, the construcríbílíty factor should be considered.
alígnment berween the cenrerline of the vessel and the

Tbe Bastes o/ Piant Layout Design


Plant Layout
Specífication, as used in industrial terminology, means equípment in place or to remove the unít equíprnent
the constraints under which a component should be or portíons of equípment for off-site repair.
designed and manufactured. Almost everythíng that is Equipment includes every component associated
purchased, constructed, or designed is governed by with the process plant (e.g., pumps, towers, heat ex-
specifications. Specifications encourage uniformity changers, and compressors).
and improve qualíry throughout ali industries. For the
plant layout desígner, specification is an essential too!
ofthe trade. Ignorance of or failure to comply wíth the
Equipment Arrangement
guídelines set in the proiect specification could be General plant arrangernent must be consistent with
costly and could affect the quality of the design. Specifi- prevaíling atmospheríc and site conditions as well as
cations set the requirements for plant equípment ar- with local codes and regulations. Equipment must be
rangement, operation, rnaintenance, and safety in the grouped within common process areas to suit inde-
process plant layout and detall the requírernents for pendent operation and shutdown. Equípment within
compliance with natíonal codes and regulatíons. process and off-síte areas rnust be arranged to accom-
modate operatíonal and maintenance access and to
meet the safery requirements listed in Exhibit 2-1. Un-
THE COMPONENTS OF SPECIFICATION less required for comrnon operatiorr or safety, equip-
rnent is to be located in process sequence to rnínímize
This chapter defines what is included in the specífica- ínterconnectíng pípíng.
tion. The plant layout designer must be aware of al! Process units, buíldíngs, and groups of off-síte areas
the specíficatíon componems and how to work effec- (e.g., tank farms) are serviced by auxiliary roads far
tively wíth the specification. maintenance and fire fíghtíng. Equipment locatíon
rnust facílítate in-place maíntenance by mobile equip-
ment. Process equíprnent must be enclosed in shelters
only when required by extreme climatic conditions or
Any revisions, exceptions, or addenda to the specífica- clíent preferences.
tion should be highlighted in the project documenta- In general, piping, power, and instrument cables
tion. Except for small skíd-mounted units, all clear- are to be carried on overhead pipe racks in process
anees and accesses for operation and maintenance on units and utílity plants and in grade sleepers in off-site
equípment furníshed as a regular part of a proprietary areas.
package should be in accordance with the requíre-
ments of the specíficatíon. Equípment Elevations
Equipment should generally be elevated a minimum
Terms heíght from grade to suit process, operational, and
Operator access is the space required berween corn- rnaintenance requírements. Horizontal drums, shell
ponents or paírs of components to permit walking, and tube exchangers, and furnaces rnust be supported
operating valves, viewing instruments, clímbíng . lad- from grade by concrete píers. Vertical vessels ( e.g.,
ders or staírs, and safely exíung the unit in an erner- towers and reactors wíth attached skíris) and baseplate
gency. equiprnent with pumps should be supported at grade
Maintenance access is the space requíred to servíce by concrete foundations.

EXHIBIT 2-1 Bquípment Spacíng
A Can be reduced to a mínimum of
200' by increasing heíght of flare
B Boilers, power generators, air
C Monitor locations should be
selected to protect specífic ítems of
D Greater than 500º F
E Less than 500º F
F The díameter of the largest tank
G Double the diarneter of the Iargest
H Máximum 250'; minímum will vary
J Blast res ístaru
M Mínimum to suit operator or
rnaínrenance access
NA Not applicable

Exhibit 2· I highlights the recornmended safery dístances Fixed fire water sprays should be provided over equípmenr that
between equípment assocíated with reñnery, chernical, and handles flamrnable materials and operares at temperatures
petrochemícal plants, greater than 500º F (260º C) and over equlpment that handles
This exhibit should be read in conjuncrion with national and light hydrocarbons wíth a vapor pressure greater than 65 psi
local cedes and regulations, Exceptíons to thís exhibir should be (3.5 kg/cm) at 100° F (38° C) ora díscharge pressure grearer
by client specíñcatíon only. than 500 psi (35 kg/crn) that is located directly beneath
aír-cooled exchangers,
Dimensíons shown are to the face of equiprnent and are

a. Engllsh Measurement

Large vacuum or crude towers with swagged bot- overhead pipe racks. Equipment elevatíons rnust be in
tom sections and compressors that are to be elevated accordance wíth Exhibit 2-2.
for operational needs must be supported from con-
crete structures. Equipment that rnust be elevated for
Roads, Pavíng, and Raílroads
process requírements (e.g., shell and tube overhead
condensers) rnust be supported in structures. When Process plants are to be serviced by roads adjacent to
practical, aír coolers should also be supported from process units, utility plants, materíals-handling and

Process Plant Layout and Piptng Design

EXHIBIT 2-1 Equipment Spacíng (Cont)

A Can be reduced to a minimum of
61 m by íncreasing height of flare
B Boilers, power generators, air
C Monitor locaríons should be
selected to protect specífic iterns of
D Greater than 260º C
E Less than 260º C
F The diarneter of the largest tank
G Double rhe diarneter of the largest
H Maximum 75 rn: minimum will varv
J Blast resistant ·
M Mínimum to suit operator or
maintenance access
NA Not applicable

b. Mettic Measurement

loading áreas, and groups of off-síte equipment that extend to auxilíary roads.
require access for rnaintenance and fire fighting. An Oíf-site area paving must be provided ar groups of
adequate road network and parking faciliry should be equípment (e.g., pump slabs and metering stations)
províded at adrnínístratíon buildings, the main plant but not at tank farms, insíde díked areas, under pipe
control room, firehouses, and warehouses. Access racks, or in areas alongside roads, except when re-
ways or secondary roads must be provided within pro- quired for maíntenance. These unpaved áreas are not
cess units and utility plants so that equipment can be surfaced. Unpaved áreas withín the banery lírníts of
removed for off-unit repair and chemicals and cata- process units and utilíry plants must be graded and
lysts can be loaded and unloaded. Roads must be surfaced with crushed stone or a similar material. Ex-
ramped over píping at ínrersectioris with grade-leve! cept for floors in control and swítchgear buíldíngs, all
sleepers. indoor and outdoor paving must be sloped for drain-
Pavingwithin process units and utiliry plants should age.
also encompass all equíprnent, unit control room ar- Curbs and walls are to be used in process units and
eas and the area beneath the main pipe rack. Unless utility plants to contain spills from equíprnent usíng
required for rnaíntenance reasons, paving need not acid and other dangerous chemicals. Earthen díkes

Plant Layout Specificatfon

Open Enclosed EXHIBIT 2·2
Installatíon Installatíon Equipment Elevations
Item Support Reference ft mm ft mm

a. Process Units ami Utility Plants

Grade paving, floors Hígh point 100' 100,000 100'6" 100,150
Low point 99'6" 99,850 100'2" 100,050
Vertical vessels Bottom of base ring or 100'6" 100,150 101' 100,300
Tankage Bottorn 101' 100,300 101'6" 100,450
Horizontal vessels Bonom of saddles As requíred for NPSH or for operatíon
t EL. and maíntenance
Pumps, blowers, packaged Bottom of baseplate 100'6" 100,150 101' 100,300
lndependent lubrícated Bottom of baseplate As required for lube oil return piping or
compressors t shaft surface condensers
Motor-driven Bonorn of baseplate As requíred for clearance ar pulsation
reciprocating t shaft bottles and plpíng
Furnaces, wall- or Bottorn of floor piare 104' 101,200 NA NA
roof-fired POS
Furnaces, floor-fired Bonom of floor piare 108' 102,400 NA NA
Vertical reboilers Bottom of lugs As required to suit structure or related
POS tower
Pipe racks Top of steel As required to suit clearances for
operation and maimenance access
b. Of/Site
Grade pavíng, floors High poínt 9" 230 1'3" 380
Low point 3" 75 9" 230
Vertical vessels Bonom of base ring or 1 '3" 380 1'9" 530
Storage tanks Top of berm or bottom of i: 300 NA NA
Horizontal vessels Bottom of saddles As required for NPSH or for operation
t EL. and malntenance
Pumps, blowers, packaged Bottorn of baseplate 1'3" 380 1'9" 530
Cooling towers, clarífiers, NA As required NA NA
clear wells
Grade pipe sleepers Top of steel 1' 300 NA NA
For ease of height reference and calculations. al! elevations refer to 100 ft
for próiects using English rneasurements and 100,000 mm for projects
using metríc rneasurements. These datums correspond to the site elevation
híghlíghted in the project design data specífication.
Dímensíons shown in b (Off Site) are heights above high point of grade.
Ali concrete support elevations shown for equíprnent include an allowance
for grout,
Ali dimensions shown are mínimum.

must be built in off-síte áreas to retain spills from Railroad systems that are designed for in-plant op-
storage tanks. Dikes, curbs, and walls used to contain eratíon and that intersect or forrn part of the main line
tank spills must be able to accommodate the volume are to conform with standards and practices of the
of the largest tank in the area. When calculating the main-line railroad or appropriate authority. Road, pav-
size of enclosure, the desígner muse consider the dís- íng, and railroad dimensíons and clearances should be
placement volume of ali other tanks (í.e., to the heíght in accordance with the mínimum dimensions shown
of the dike) as well as an allowance for freeboard. in Exhibit 2-3.

ProcessPlant Layout Piptng Design

Dímensíons EXHIBIT 2·3
Item Descríptíon ft mm Roads, Pavíng, and
Main plant roads Width 24' 7,300
Headroom 22' 6,700
Inside tuming radius 22' 6,700
Secondary plant roads Width 16' 4,800
Headroom 14' 4,300
lnside tuming radíus 10' 3,000
Minar access roads Width 10' 3,000
Headroom 11' 3,400
lnside turning radius 8' 2,450
Paving Distance from outsíde edge of equípmenr to edge of 4' 1,200
Railroads Headroom over railroads, from top of raíl 22' 6,700
Headroom over dead ends and sidings, from top of 12' 3,600
Clearance from track centerlíne to obstructíon 8'6" 2,600
Centerline distance berween parallel tracks 13' 4,000
Distance between centerline of track and parallel 23' 7,000
above ground and underground piping
Cover for underground píplng within 23 ft (7,000 3' 900
mm) of track centerline

Platforms, Ladders, and Staírs

EXHIBIT 2-4 Platforms, Ladders, and Staírs
Platforms are to be províded at all elevated equíprnent
and at controls that are beyond reach from grade for
Item Descríptíon
ft mm
manual operation and rnaíntenance.
Stairways must be provided to lead to service levels Platforrns Headroom 7' 2,100
in structures, buildings, compressor house decks, and Width of walkways (grade or 3' 900
furnaces that require frequent access by plant opera- elevated)
Maximum variance berween 9" 230
tíons personnel. Storage tanks Iarger than 15 ft ( 4,500 platforrns without an
mm) in diarneter and hígher than 20 ft (6,000 mm) Intermediare step
also require stairs for access. Ladders rnust be pro- Width at vertical vessels 3' 900
víded for vessel platforms, secondary service levels in Dístance between insíde radíus 10" 250
and ínsíde of platform on
structures, and furnaces and at storage tanks with the vertical vessels
dímensíons prevíously mentioned. Escape ladders Maximum distante of platforrn or 5' 1,500
must also be provided from service levels so that no grade below centerlíne of
rnaíntenance access
point on a platform is horizontally more than 75 ft Maximum length of dead ends 20' 6,000
(22,500 mm) in walking distance from a main or sec- Width of ladders 1'6"
Ladders 450
ondary exit, Side exit Iadders are preferred, Fiare Diarneter of cage 2'4" 710
stacks need only be províded with a single continuous Extension at step-off platforms 4' 1,200
ladder for tip inspectíon and access to the top maínte- Dístance of bottom hoop from 8' 2,400
grade or platform
nance platform. Handrails should be installed on open
Dísrance berween inside radius of 1 '2" 350
sides of all platform áreas and staírways, Ladders that vertical vessels to centerlíne of
extend more than 20 ft (6,000 mm) above grade rnust ladder rung
have safety cages. Self-closíng gates at ladder openíngs Maxírnurn vertical ríse of 30' 9,150
uninterrupted ladder run
on all platforrns are also requíred, Maximum slope from vertical axis 15º
Vertical vessels ( e.g., towers or reactors) should Toe clearance 8" 200
generally have circular platf orms supported by brack- Stairs Width (back-to-back of stringer) 2'6" 750
ets from the síde of the vessel. Platform, ladder, and Maxírnum vertical one-flight rise 18' 5,500
stairway dímensíons and clearances should be in ac- Maximum angle SOº
cordance wíth those shown in Exhibit 2-4. (Unless oth- Headroom 7' 2,100
erwise noted, dírnensíons shown are mínírnum.)
Width of landings 3' 900

Maintenance be located in trenches.

In process uníts and utílíty plants, pípíng to equip-
Adequate clearance must be provided adjacent to or
ment must run overhead to meet operator and mainte-
around equípmenr and controls that require in-place
nance clearances. Short runs of píping (e.g., pump
servícíng or that require rernoval from theír fixed op-
suctions), however, may run at grade, where they do
eratíonal locatíon for repair,
not obstruct access ways. in such off-síte áreas
If equípment is located wíthin shelters, suítable fa-
as tank farms must run approximately 18 in (450 mm)
cilities (e.g., trolley bearns or travelíng cranes) must
above and must províde adequate access to con-
be províded to lift and relocate the heavíest ítems.
trols and rnaintenance áreas by walk-over stíles. Off·
Drop areas rnust exist wíthín shelrers that use fixed
site pipe racks must be located adiacent to storage tank
handling facilities. There should also be drop areas for
díkes. Within diked areas, pípíng rnust run by the most
vertical equipment that rnust be Iowered to grade.
direct route unless lírníted flexibility and tank set·
There must be adequate area at all shell and tube
tlernent. Piping servíng a tank ar tanks in a cammon
exchangers for rodding or tube bundle removal and at
area must not run through adjoining diked areas.
furnaces for coi! rernoval. Exhibit 2-5 híghlíghts sorne
Ali insulated that passes through dikes and
of the principal maíntenance activítíes and
ali piping passing under roads ar railroads must be
devíces associated wíth a conventíonal operating
enclosed in metal pipe sleeves. Uninsulated piping
passing through dikes should be coated and wrapped
but not sleeved. Piping systems must facilitate the re-
Plant Operatíon moval of equipment without removing the associated
There rnust be clear access at grade and ar elevated piping and comrols.
platforrns so that operation of the plant can proceed in Piping systems are to be arranged with sufficient
a safe and unrestrícted manner. Valves and ínstru- flexibility to reduce any excessive stresses and, when
rnents are to be placed so that they can be operated or possible, to accommodate expansion without using
viewed but do not impede access at grade and ele- expansion bellows. Line spacíng should be based on
vated walkways. U'-''"""'"·'-' line movements under regular operating
Operatíng valves that cannot conveníently be lo- conditions.
cated below a centerline elevation of 6 ft 9 in (2,050 The top of stacks and continuous!y operating vent<>
mm) from grade or platforrn must have chaín opera- that discharge hazardous vapors must be positioned at
tors, extensión stems, or motor operators. Except for least 10 ft (3,000 mm) above any platform within a
bartery limít valves, ali unit isolation valves rnust be horizontal radius of 70 ft (21,000 mm) from the verlt
located at grade. Exhibít 2-6 híghlíghts the mínimum or stack. Intermittent vents that discharge hazardous
requirernents for operator access to controls. vapors into the atmosphere are to be located a mini-
mum of 10 ft (3,000 mm) above any platform within a
Above-Ground Piping horizontal radius of 35 ft (10,500 mm) from the vent.
The vertical distance may bereduced for vent5 and
With the exceptíon of pipeline pumping statíons, stacks discharging into the atmosphere by the same
sewers, and most coolíng water systems, píping is gen- distance that a platform is outside the safety radius
erally run above grade in process plants. When located from the vent or stack, as illustrated in Exhibit 2- 7.
below ground, process pípíng that has protective heat- Nonhazardous vapors (e.g., air or steam) must be di-
íng or that requíres ínspectíon and servicing should rected away from personnel.

Process Ptant layout and Ptpiñg Design

Item Activity Handling Devíce EXHIBIT 2~5
Vertical vessels Maintenance access cover rernoval Maíntenance access davít
Relief and control valve removal Top head davít
Catalyst loading and unloading Mobile crane
vessel interna! rernoval Top head davit or mobíle
Exchangers Cover removal (horizontal) Hoist trestle with load up to
2,000 lb (900 kg) or mobile
eran e
Bortorn cover removal (vertical) Hítch poínts
Top cover removal (vertical) Mobile crane
Bundle removal (horizontal) Mobile crane and extracter
Bundle removal (vertical) Mobile crane
Rodding Manual
Air cooler tube rernoval Mobile crane
Plate rernoval (plate exchanger) Manual
Purnps, compressors Motor or largest cornponenr rernoval Trolley bearn or traveling
(housed) crane
Motor or largest component rernoval Mobile crane or hoist trestle
(open installation) wíth load up to 2,000 lb
(900 kg)
Vertical pumps Mobile crane
Fu maces Coi! removal Mobile crane
Miscellaneous Filter rernoval Manual or hoist trestle
Strainer removal Manual
Relief valves, 4 to 6 in and larger Davits, hítch poínts, or mobile
Blinds, blanks, figure-8s, and valves, more Hoisr tresrle
than 300 lb (135 kg)
Srnall components, 300 lb (135 kg) and Manual or hoíst trestle

EXHIBIT 2-6 Operator Access to Controls EXIUBIT 2-7 Atmospheríc Vents

Platform Fíxed
Item or Grade Ladder

Maíntenance access Yes No

Leve! controls Yes No
Moror-operated valves Yes No ~
Sample connectíons Yes No 1
Blinds and figure-Bs Yes No
Observation doors Yes No
Relief valves Yes No
Control valves Yes No
Battery limit valves Yes No
Valves, 3 in and larger Yes No
Hand holes Yes Yes
Valves, smaller than 3 in Yes Yes

Leve! gauges Yes Yes
Pressure instruments Yes Yes
Temperacure ínstrumenrs Yes Yes
vessel nozzles No No
Check valves No No
Header block valves No No
Orífice No No

Plant Layout spectficatton


Plot Plans

The plot is one of the key documents produced limit area, usually desígned for índependent operation
the engineering phase in any processing facíl- and shutdown. The final plot plan ideruifies al! the
ity. It is used to locate equíprnent and supporting in- cornponents by desígnated numbers and shows, to
frasrructure and to establísh the sequence of majar scale, the basíc shapes of the equiprnent and' support-
engineering and constructíon actívitíes. Plot plans are ing facilities, locatíng thern in both the vertical and the
used by almost every engíneeríng group within a pro]- horizontal planes. Generally, the arrangement is
ect task force from estimating and schedulíng through shown in the plan with elevated víews furníshed only
construction. The plot plan is developed by the plant for claríty (e.g., in the vertically structured plant), Plot
layout usually at the proposal of the plans wíth three-dímensional CAD model-
project, and remaíns the responsibility of the uesigner ing have the of producíng multiple plans,
construction, Similar process units and ísomerríc víews wírh no addítíonal ef-
neered for two clíents may Iook dífferent for is used for the functions díscussed
avaílable real estate, soíl
and clíent phllosophy on op-
eratíon, and safery, For these reasons, Pípíng desígn The plot plan is used to produce
standardízatíon of process unit plot plans is difficult. equipment arrangernent studies that facilitate the in-
Nevertheless, as rnost operating facilities use common terconnection of above- and below-ground process
equípment ( e.g., shell and tube heat exchangers, pres- and utility systems and to. estimate piping mate-
sure purnps, and compressors), It is possíble rial quantities.
to apply a few baste rules that suit most clients and
processes and that enable the plant layout desígner to Civil engineering The plot plan is used to develop
approach the task of arrangíng the equipment and grading and drainage plans, holding pande;, diked ar-
supportíng facilities in an orderly manner, eas, foundation and structural designs, and ali bulk
material estimates.

THE PLOT PLAN IN THE PROCESS UNIT Electrical. engineering The plot plan is used to pro-
duce area dassification drawings, to locate switchgear
Thís chapter híghlíghts the general requírernents for and the incoming substation and motor control cen·
process unít plot plan arrangement, It ídentífies the ter, to route cables, and to estimate bulk materials.
ínformatíon requíred to locate operatíng equíprnent
and supportíng facilities to suit operator and maínte- Instrument The plot plan is used to !a-
nance access, constructibility, process cate analyzer houses and cable trays, assist in the loca-
safery, and cost-effectíve desígn. tion of the main control house, and estímate bulk ma-

DEFINITION Systems The plot plan is used to facili-

tate hydraulic design, line sizing, and utility block ílow
The process unit plot plan is an arrangernent drawíng requirements.
that híghlíghts the equipment and supportíng facilities
(e.g., pipe racks and buíldíngs). These are requíred for Scheduling The plot plan is used to schedule the
a gíven process íntegrated wíthín a comrnon banery orderly completion of engineering activities.
Sample Proposal Plot
Foe!;> """"" va.....

~ñ~I~t ~fi[lJ]~;?: ~ ~

Constructíon The plot plan is used to schedule the arrangement be recognízed and eliminated during the
erectíon sequence of ali plant equípment, whích in- plot plan developmem phase of the project because
dudes ríggíng studíes for large lífts, constructibillty they can be costly to correct once the plant is in opera-
revíews, rnarshalíng, and lay-down áreas throughout tion.
the entíre construction phase. Plot plans are generally developed in stages, from
the initial concept to the fully dimensioned documern
Estímatíng The plot plan is used to estímate the at the construction issue stage.
overall cost of the plant, The propasa! plot plan, shown in Exhibir 3-1, is
developed during the estímate phase of rhe project
Clíent use The plot plan is used for safety, operator, and is used to estímate bulk materials. It is also in-
and rnaintenance reviews and to develop an as-built cluded in the proposal as a representation of the unit
record of the plant arrangement. arrangernent to the prospective client. The proposal
plot plan is based on limited information and gener-
ally indicares only the principal ítems of equipment,
PI~OT PLAN DEVELOPMENT maín supporting facilities, and overall dimensions.
After contraer award, the proposal plot plan is up-
Developing a plot plan is not an exact scíence, because dated to suit the latest information and is reviewed
the arrangement of the plant rnust be set at the begín- and approved by the client. This document becomes
ning of the project before ali equipment requirernents the basis for the plam layout phase of the project and
and configuratíons are finalized and before all of the is called the planníng plot plan. A sample planning
rnechanícal problems assocíated with the design are plot plan is shown in Exhibir 3-2. On completion of
solved. Plot plan arrangement is a reflectíon of the the plant layout phase-when ali the equípment has
desígner's abílíry to anticípate rnechanícal problems been sized and is in the best position to suit the proj-
and províde the necessary access for operatíon and ect requirernents and when ali access roads, buildings,
maíntenance as well as the desígner's general experi- and pipe racks have been located=-the plor plan is
ence wíth plant layout requirements. The intended finally issued for construction. This is illustrated in
goal is to produce a safe, cost-effective operatíonal Exhibir 3-3 as the constructíon plot plan.
plant, whích wíll probably remain in use for at least 25 To develop a plot plan, the desígner must assemble
years. Therefore, ít is important that any errors in the ínformation discussed in the following sectíons.
EXHIBIT 3·2 Sample Planníng Plot Plan

The equípment list Thís document lísts ali the iterns The block fíow diagrarn The block flow diagram
of equípment and buíldíngs by number and descríp- shows all primary ínterconnectíng Iínes berween pro-
tíon to be included within the unit battery limíts. A cess uníts, plants, and storage facilities. Although
sample equípment list is gíven in Exhibir 3-4. not absolutély essential, ít is a useful document for
equiprnent Iocatíon.
The process fíow díagram The process flow díagram
is one of the mosr important docurnents requíred by Specífications Similar to the plant layout specífica-
the desígner to posítion equipment, It indicares flow tion discussed in Chapter 2, this document híghltghts
rates, temperatures, and pressures and how the vari- rnaíntenance, operator access, clearances, and equíp-
ous píeces of equipment are ínterconnected, The pro- ment spacíng.
eess flow díagram generally does not show utility
equípment ( e.g., dríves, surface condensers, and injec- Process desígn data The process design data gives
tíon paekages). These can be obtaíned from the equip- site Informatíon on a map or an overall existing plot
ment líst. The process flow diagram does not always plan. The existing plot plan, or site map, shows such
show the true representation of the equíprnent. A shell geographíc detaíls as roads, raílroads, rívers or sea,
and tube exchanger shown as a single ítem could turn shore, land comours, and inhabited areas. Ir also indi-
out to be two or more shells for a large load. Exhibit cates the locatíon and extent of real estate available for
3-5 shows a process flow diagram that Incorporares the new facility or expansíon. The process design data
the items in the sarnple equípment líst. Indicares weather conditíons (e.g., average seasonal

-\) ~
=. 1
11! u:


z H.1.1"0~ 11o¡ia1
(JJ. )l'"{i
n~íoo1 ·13·c,o¿
~-101 Ul

Q;: 'Sl·IO!
e O·t_OJ ·1:;!
.9 '3º 01

¡qº¡OO! '1'3 '<;C\:j
f'I'\ V~

á fFfi"

Pip'lng Design
temperatures, raínfall records, and prevaílíng winds),
mm:mrr 3-4 Sample Bquípment Líst
It also gives the plant elevation daturn and reference
Descríptíon coordinares for plant locatíon.

Fu maces
Equípment sizes At thís phase of the project, the
101-F Charge furnace
equípment sizes for the plant are furníshed by the
supportíng groups on the basis of prelirmnary infor-
101-E Strípper reboíler
102-E Srnpper feed/effluent exchanger
maríon and cover such general ítems as floor space
103-E Stripper overhead trím condenser requirernents (e.g., for a pump of known síze) ora
104-E Reactor effluent trirn cooler shell and tube exchanger with only the tube díarneter
105-E Stripper overhead condenser and Iength given, As the project progresses, equíp-
106-E Reactor effluenr cooler ment configuratíons and sízes become firm and the
107-E/A to H Combíned feed exchangers
108-E Surface condenser plan is updated accordíngly. Exhibít 3-6 lísts sam-
109-E Product cooler ple ínforrnatíon that rnust be supplied.
101-PA Charge purnp Materíals of constructíon A materíals specíalíst
101-PB Spare charge purnp marks up a process flow díagram ídenufyíng specíal or
102-P Water injectíon purnp crítícal pípíng materials ( e.g., alloy and large heavy
103-PA Stripper bottoms pump
wall pípíng). The díagrarn assísts the plant layout de-
Spare strípper bottorns pump
104-PA Stripper reflux purnp sígner in optimízing equípment locations to suit che
104-PB Spare stripper reflux pump most economíc pípíng runs,
105-PA Condensare purnp
105-PB Spare condensare pump
101-T Srrípper
Reactors Plot plans are often referred to by theír process (e.g.,
101-R Reactor an ammonia or hydrotreater unit) rather than by
Drums the type of configuratíon of the equípment layout In
101-D Feed surge drum terrns of equipment arrangement, process unít plor
102-D Recyde cornpressor suenen drum plans can basícally be divided into two configurations:
103-D Make-up cornpressor suctíon drum
104-D Water íníectíon drum
the grade-mounted horizontal ínlíne arrangement
105-D Strípper reflux drum seen in most refinery facilities, and the structure-
Compressors mounted vertical arrangement found in many chemi-
101-C Recycle compressor cal plants.
102-CA Make-up cornpressor
102-CB Spare rnake-up compressor The Grade~Mounted Horizontal Inlíne
Miscellaneous Attangement
101-CU Lube oíl console
101-L Corrosión ínhíbitor íníecnon systern The horizontal inline unir is usually located within a
101-H Cornpressor house rectangular area, with equipment placed on either
101-HL Overhead travelmg crane
side of a central pipe rack serviced by auxiliary roads.
EXHIBIT 3·5 Sample Process Flow Díagram

FE;.E.I) '!:oul2'6l<




014...ii.i! MAP'E .. wP

I~· E Pl?ot:>v<:-T ~Le.¡¡¡:

!'20° l../AP'HT~A

Process Plant Layout ami Piping Design


and cabling usually enter and exit the structure ar one

EXHIBIT 3-6 Floor Space Sízes
level and gain access to each floor by chases or are
supported from the outsíde members. Operators usu-
ally gaín access to each leve! by stairs or by elevator.
Bundle Díameter Length
Equípment maintenance is usually accomplished
101-E 36 in (915 mm) 20 ft (6,100 mm) through the use of hitch poínts, trolley beams, or trav-
102-E 30 in (750 mm) 20 ft (6,100 mm) eling cranes. An adequate area rnust be provided
103-E 30 in (750 mm) 20 ft (6,100 mm) around each ítem along with a clear drop zone ar
104-E 24 in (610 mm) 20 fr (6,100 mm) grade for equípment removal. The structure is ser-
105-E (NC) 30 ft (9,150 mm) 40 ft (12,200 mm) víced by access roads.
106-E (NC) 30 ft (9,150 mm) 20 ft (6,100 mm) The advantages of this rype of arrangernent are the
107-E (8 shells) 36 in (915 mm) 24 ft (7,300 mm) small amount of real estate requíred for the plant and
108-E 60 in (l,500 mm) 15 ft (4,600 mm) the abílity to house the facíliry to suit process require-
109-E 30 in (750 mm) 20 ft (6,100 mm) rnents or climate conditions. The disadvantages are in
the operator and maintenance access and in the con-
struction of the plant. Exhibit 3-8 shows a typical struc-
Item Lengtll Width
ture-mounted vertical plot plan arrangement.
101-Pa/b 5 ft (1,500 mm) 2 ft 6 in (750 mm)
102-P 2 ft 6 in (750 mm) 1 ft 3 in (380 mm)
103-Pa/b 4 ft 6 in (J,370 mm) 2 ft (610 mm) EQUIPMENT LOCATION
104-Pa/b 4 ft (l,220 mm) 1ft6 in (450 mm)
105-Pa/b (vertical) l ft 6 mm) 1 ft 6 in ( 450 mm) Various requirements dictare the location of equip-
ment and supportíng facilities within the convemional
operatíng plant, and many factors rnust be considered
when the designer is locating equipment. They are
The principal advantage of this arrangement is that the
discussed in the following sectíons.
equipment is generally located at grade, which makes
this rype of plant easier to construct and more accessí-
Plant Layout Specíficatíon
ble for maíntenance and operatíon. The disadvantages
are the amount of real estate required and the long This document highlights spacing requirements for
runs of cabling, utility, feed, and product piping re- equípment and access widths and elevation clearances
quired to servíce the unit. Exhibit 3-7 shows a typical for operator and maíntenance access. A typical plant
horizontal ínline plot plan arrangernent. layout specíficatíon can be found in Chapter 2. The
sarnple specíficatíon shown in Exhibit 3-9 highlights
The Strucrure-Mounted Vertical the safety spacing requirernents around a process fur-
Arrangement nace.

The structure-rnounted vertical arrangement has

Economíc Piping
equipment located in a rectangular multilevel steel or
concrete structure, The structure can be severa! bays The major portion of the piping within most process
long and eíther open-sided or fully enclosed, to suit units is used to interconnect equipment and support
either clíent preference or climate conditions. Piping controls berween equíprnent. To minimize the cost of

Plot Plans
EXHIBIT 3· 7 Grade-Mounted Horizontal Inline

..-----------·-·---------·----.. .

Ra-~1c.. E.!i1:..\~T

.;/¡. ~Q - -------

thís bulk material, equíprnent should be Iocated in of related equípment and controls that function as a
process sequence and close enough to suit safety subsystern within the main process unir, The compo-
needs, access requirements, and flexibility. The nents wíthín the subsystern should be arranged to suit
sequentíal interconnection of the unit is shown on the the rnost economíc pípíng runs, and the whole assem-
process flow díagram, The first step is to ídentífy the bly should be positioned within the plot area to pro-
alloy or heavy wall pípíng, The diagram should then vide the rnost economtc interconnection between re-
be subdívided ínto smaller groups of process-related lated process subsystems, Exhibir 3-10 shows a
equipment. These groups should contaín an assernbly process flow díagram dívíded ínto subsysterns, an ar-
EXHIBIT 3-8 Structure-Mounted Vertical Arrangement

--Et 1

Sample Plant Layout
Specíñcatíon for Safety
Spacing Requírernents

Plot Plans
1® 1
,_........_..,. I 1
1 1

- ---::=i
®' 1 1 1
1 1
1 .....,_.......,_. . . . . . . . . L~_@_!_J
a._ _

a. Subdfvfded Process Flow Díagrarn

f®- - - 1 f@- - - 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1

_....,. !. 1 1 1

~.- - - _j Lr_t_tJ
=r1---~- - - - -,
1 1 1 1
1 1---.4 1
1 1 . 1
'@ 1 '@ 1
b. Subsystern Arrangement
~B- __ _J ~e- __ j
c. Interconneetíon of Subsystems
EXHIBíT 3~11
Typícal Gravity
Feed Arrangement

cost, Exhibir shows a typical cornpressor area ar-


Process Requírements Real Estate Availabillty

Equipment often must be located in a specífic position Generally, most new process units are built wíthín an
to support the plant's process operation ( e.g., for pres- exístíng facilíty in which a píece of land is dedicated to
sure drop, Iíne pocketing, and gravity feed). The plant the new expansión. Older process units, which have
layout desígner must be familiar with the process be- undergone many expansións, often leave a less-than-
cause the process flow diagram Indicares this desírable piece of real estate for the next new facility.
ínforrnatíon. It is recommended that the desígner dis- This can be a problem for inline horizontal arrange-
cuss these requirements wíth the process engíneer ments but is less so for vertical structure arrange-
befare proceedíng wíth the plant arrangement. Ex- ments, which require less ground space. When an in..
hibit 3-11 shows the effects of an arrangement with a line arrangernent is constructed, it is recommended
gravity feed process requirernent. that parts of the unit be located in elevated structures
with related equípment located adjacem to ít if the
process perrníts, For an already-elevated plant, adiust-
Common Operatíon
ments can be made in the overall size of the structure
Equípment that requíres contínuous operator atten- and extra floors can be added. Care must be taken to
tíon or shares common utility and maintenance facili- adjust usual plant configurations to suit minimum
ties should be located in the same area. For exarnple, space requírernents so that the plant is not too dífficult
compressors generally requíre 24-hour operator ar- to rnaíntaín. Exhibir 3-13 shows an arrangement be-
tentíon, Compressors wíth condensíng steam turbíne fare and after it has been adjusted to suit mínimum
dríves often share the saine surface condenser and are space requírernents.
locared in a compressor house usíng a common fixed
handling facility (e.g., an overhead travelíng crane).
Equípment Sízes
Although thís arrangement is often more expensive in
terrns of piping components, the use of common facil- Ideally, ali the different types of equípment within the
ities (e.g., the surface condenser, building, and equip- process unít would be the same size. Thís rarely oc-
rnent-handlíng facilities) makes up the difference in curs, however, and the plant layout designer often


Typical Compressor Area

C:::OMpt:z.E?~o k:.

EXHIBIT 3-13 Floor Space Cornparíson

a. Before Minimum Space Adjustment b, After Mínimum Space Adjustment

ProcessPlant Layout and Piping Design


EXHHUT3-14 Fluid Catalytíc Cracking Unir Plot Plan

struggles to place a large, cumbersome piece of equip- first and plan the remaínder of the unit around them.
ment into an area while retaíníng the aesthetics of the Whether the planned plant is an inlíne arrangement
unit, Generally, rnost plants are domínated by convén- or housed in a structure, the plant layout desígner
tíonal rectangular and circular equípment of a reason- must make provisíons for operator and maíntenance
able size, Sorne processes, however, requíre rnuch access, The desígner must review the items of equíp-
and more awkwardly íterns (e.g., an rnenr that are íncluded in the plan for
orthoflow converter and expander traín in a fluid cata- theír operation and maintenance requirements. For
lytic cracking unit, as displayed in Exhibir 3-14, a re- example, towers rnust be located in a posítion to allow
forrner fumace in an ammonía or a waste heat for the removal of reactors space for
recovery system in a large cogeneratíon plant). In catalyst loading and unloadíng, shell and tube ex-
these sítuatíons, the desígner should place these iterns changers require space for bundle rernoval, and rotar-

Plot Ptans
E)(c.>IA>..16EHi! T._.~ E.XHIBIT 3-15
6'..i..ii:>t..E F'o.11.l.1"-! 6 Typícal Access
l>.f<:.~A Requirements in a
Vertical Arrangement

ing equipment needs space for drive and casing re- soíl condítíons, rhe foundations for the equipment are
rnoval, eíther piled or spread footings. Spread footing founda-
All these aspects of the equiprnent desígn add to tions requíre more space than píled applícations, and
the floor space requírements of the plant. Equipment care should be taken to locate equiprnent so that
that requíres servícing during regular operation or enough space exists berween equipment for the foun-
planned shutdown periods should be accessible from datíons of larger ítems. In certain cases, equíprnent
the auxiliary roads or interna! access ways, From the can be supported on a common foundatíon. Depend-
project specíficatíon, the plant layout desígner should ing on the project specífication, ínstrument and elec-
determine operator access requirements and the de- trical cablíng can be located above or below grade. If
vices to be used for servícíng before proceeding with located below grade, adequate space should be desíg-
the plant arrangement, Exhibit 3-15 shows typical ac- nated during the plot plan development stage. Under-
cess requírements in a vertical arrangemem, and Ex- ground piping is another factor that the designer must
hibit 3-16 displays an inline arrangemem. consíder when locatíng equipment, Most process units
are servíced by an underground oily water sewer,
storm sewer, and fire water systern and a chemícal
Underground Facilities
draínage system if requíred. In addítíon, the unit cool-
There are a varíety of underground facilities that could ing systern could be posítíoned below ground. AII of
affect the posítíoníng of equíprnent. Depending on these facilities requíre plot space, and it is recom-

ProcessPlant layout and Piping Design


EJ<.c.~e.i<. Tt..lf!;>é. EXHIBIT 3-16

e>1.J1.tDt..E. Fl.JU..11Y6 All.1!~-;, Typical Access
Requírements in an
Inline Arrangement

l<E.F~I c:!IE.~""1"
PAG.~ e:. A«,a.+~

rnended that the plant layout designer Investigare what the whole unit, as depícted in Exhíbít 3-18, or by in-
facilities are to be posítíoned below ground before dividually housíng groups of equipment (e.g., com-
proceedíng with the equipment arrangement. Exhibir pressors or pumps), as íllustrared in Exhibit 3-19. For
3-17 shows a typical elevation through a unit below individual housing, consíderatíon must be given to
ground. locaríng equipment out of process sequence to mini-
mize cost.
The wind can influence the locatíon of such equíp-
Climate Condítions
ment as furnaces, compressors, control houses, cool-
Weather condítions could influence the location of ing towers, and stacks. Furnaces or other fired equíp-
equipment. In a severely cold climate, equipment ment should be located so as not to allow flammable
should be housed; thís can be done by encasing vapors to constantly drift, Smoke from stacks or vapors

Plot Plans
Typícal Underground

Total Unit Encasement

from cooling towers should not be in the direct path sían), the equipment and access way located beneath
of main operatíng areas ( e.g., cornpressor houses, con- the pipe rack, or the equipment (if any) supported
trol rooms, and structures). above the pipe rack. The layout that results in the rnost
economical design shou!d be chosen.
At the estímate stage, when most plot plans are
PIPE RACKS developed, the pipe rack width is specified on the
basís of lirnited ínformatíon, process flow díagrarns
Generally, rnost inline plam arrangements are fur- usually are nor available to accurately work out the
nished with a central pipe rack systern that acts as the exact requírements, Using the process flow diagram,
main artery of the unít supporting process intercon- the desígner can prepare a line routíng diagram on a
nection, feeds, product and utility pípíng, instrument print of the preliminary plot pian, similar to the in-
and electrical cables, and, sornetímes, air coolers and structions given in Chapter 11. This establíshes the
drums. Usually, the pipe rack is rnade of srructural main process línes supported in the pipe rack for
steel, either single leve! or multilevel, to suit the width equípment interconnectíon, feed, and production, An
and capacity of the unit ít is servíng, The pipe rack bays allowance of 20% of the maín línes should be added
are usually spaced at 20-ft ( 6,000-mm) centers. The to the total for unknowns. The pipe rack wídth can
width is deterrnined by such factors as the quantity of be adequately sízed on the basís of approxírnate line
píping and cablíng to be carríed on the main run of sízíng, utility and insulation requirernents
the pipe rack (with an allowance for future expan- by the process system engíneer, cable tray require-
Individual Equiprnent

ments by the electrical and instrument engineers; and The bottorn support elevation of rhe main pipe rack
a 20% future piping allowance. Mosr rypícal units re- is díctated by the maintenance and piping clearance
quire a two-level pipe rack with a width of 20 ft ( 6,000 beneath the pipe rack, with additional levels spaced ar
mm) to 40 ft (12,000 mm). If the total requirernenrs 6-ft (l,800-mm) intervals. On projecrs with very large
exceed 80 ft (24,000 mm), an extra leve! should be díameter píping, íncreasíng this dimensión to suit
introduced. clearance requírernents should be considered when
After establishing the pipe rack width to suit the pipe direction is changed. Externa! clearances (e .g.,
piping and cable requirernents, the designer must over rnain roads or intersectíons with off-síte pipe
check the design for the accommodation of air cooler racks) need close attention. Exhibir 3-20 shows a rypi-
support, if specífied, and pumps and access ways be- ca! pipe rack elevatíon.
neath the pipe rack The air cooler is specified by tube Pipe rack configurations are díctated by the equip-
bundle length and is established at the estimare stage rnent layout, site conditions, cliem requírements, and
of the project. Ir can overhang the rack width equally plant economy. The ideal situatíon would be a
on eíther side. An air cooler with a 40-ft (12,000-mm) straíght-through arrangement, wíth process feeds and
tube bundle length can be adequately supported on a utilities entering one end of the unit and products and
pipe rack that is 35 ft (10,500 mm) wide. Pumps may disposals exiting the other end. The final layout of the
be located beneath pipe racks on eíther side of an pipe rack to meer the specific requirements of the
access way that is 10 ft (3,000 mm) wide. project could result in a variety of configurations ( e.g .

Plot Pians


a T, L, or U shape), as shown in Exhíbit 3-21. Changes cess ways for mobile equipment access. Most clíents
of direction in pipe racks must be accommodated by requirethat the equipment areas, .the area beneath
changes in elevation and are usually equally spaced the pipe rack, and the areas around buildings be
about the midpoint of the main pipe rack elevations to paved with concrete for housekeepíng. Exhibir 3-23
suit required clearances. illustrates a typical process unit road and paving ar-
Pipe racks within vertically structured or housed rangernent.
facilities cannot be defined as easily as for inline ar-
rangernents, because the equípment is usually located
on severa] levels. The vertical units are usually fed by BUILDINGS
conventíonai pipe racks at establíshed elevations en-
teríng the structure at a desígnated area. Once inside Apart from buíldings that house equípment (e.g., com-
the structure, piping should be routed in an orderly pressor houses ), it is often necessary to posítion con-
rnanner accordíng to econornic, constructibility, and trol houses, substanons, analyzer houses, and operaror
support requírements. Exhibir 3-22 displays a typícal shelters within the process unit battery limits. Admin-
process structure. istration buíldings and warehouses are generally lo-
cated away from process unit areas. Control houses
and substations are usually located ar the edge of the
ROADS, ACCESS WAYS, AND unit adjacent to a plant road, 50 ft (15,000 mm) from
PAVING the operatíng equipment. As seen in Exhibir 3-24, ana-
lyzer houses and operator shelters should be Iocated
For maintenance and safety, the principal access to next to the equipment rhat they servíce.
and from most process units is by auxiliary roads. Ide-
ally, the unir battery limits should be posítíoned 50
ft (15,000 mm) from the centerlíne of the main plant EQUIPMENT SPACING
roads. This allows adequate space for dítch draínage
and firefighting facilities and avoids obstructing' roads The prevíous sectíons have outlined the ínforrnation
when such items as heat exchanger tube bundles are required to locate equiprnent and the general content
removed. Access ways or spur roads should be pro- of the typical process unit. At this stage, the plant lay-
vided within the unit for access to items that requíre out designer should prepare a sketch of the unit con-
servicing or for cornponents that require rernoval figuration and a line run to confirm that the equíp-
for off-síte repair. Clearance according to project ment is positíoned for the most favorable piping
specification should be provided over roads and ac- interconnection. The líne run can be prepared by día-

Process Plant Layout and Ptping Design

EXHIBIT 3-21 Pipe Rack Conñguratíons EXHIBIT 3-22 Typical Pipe Rack in a Vertical


graming rhe principal process pípíng, as shown on the

process flow diagram, amo a print of the plot plan
1 arrangernent sketch.

L __
1 The final step in the plot plan arrangernenr is to
space equipment and supporting facilities for operaror
and rnaintenance access, safety, pípíng flexibilitv and
-~ support, and platforrníng requirernents. At this stage.
the layout designer rnust rely on experience because
the final information is nor available for calcul.uing

EXHIBIT 3-23 Process Unit Road and Pavíng Arrangernent

exactdístances between equípment or solvíng unfore- should review the sketched arrangernent of the unit to
seen mechanícal problems, The spacing of the compo- confirm the exact requírernents needed for safe and
nents wíthín the unit is an important exertíse=-ít fi- orderly operation of the plant, Consultation with pro-
nalizes real estate requirements for the facility and cess engíneers is recommended to obtaín general líne
assísts in the prícíng of the plant. It is also used as the sizing requirements for control spacíng allowances. At
basís for the plant layout desígn, this stage, the designer should be completely familiar
Before spacíng the equíprnent, the layout desígner wíth the project specíficatíon requirernents for safety

ProcessPlant Layout
Building Locations

and for operator and maintenance access, paíred in each bay.

In a typical tower area, depícted in Exhibir 3-25, the Compressors and theír related equípment are usu-
tower and such related equípment as drums and heat ally located in one area for common operatíon and
exchangers are located adíacent to the main pipe rack, servícíng adiacent to the main pipe rack and the auxíl-
with maintenance access from the auxilíary road, The íary road, The suction drum for the rnachíne should
assocíated pumps are located beneath or adiacent to be posítíoned for flexibility in the pípíng and to ac-
the pipe rack and are serviced by a central access way. commodate orífice run requíremenrs. If the compres-
Shell and tube hear exchangers can be located as sin- sor is dríven by a condensing turbine, a surface con-
gle íterns or in pairs, If the process perrníts, they can denser and condensare pumps are requíred, If
be· supported vertícally or Iocated in structures to one machíne, the eondenser may be located
feed requírernents. Vertical reboílers beneath the turbíne. If ír services two or more, the
'""~"'".,_,,ri from theír related towers, Multi- condenser must be located adjacent to the machines ít
ple shell heat exchangers operatíng in series or in servíces. In both cases, space rnust be províded for
parallel may be stacked three hígh íf size condenser tube bundle removal.
Pumps beneath the rack may, if síze perrnits, be The condensare purnps are usually vertical pumps
Typícal Tower Area

c::.L~lii: PPE2AT1>~
Au.e.~s .

A. :::: Si d1 l.t;oo
e, : : lo1- 011 ?.oa.o
e : /1.
.DIA..ME.TC.~ E.xCMAt-Jc;,e.a. F!.Jl.~6e.,+Hi1>11 J.
D = 81 -o"/ '.2. .400 TO 1 O ~O~ 3.ooo
: Y'Z. Oli?wM D1AME.TE.li:'.4>+ 41-o11 / !-12.oo
•/z Dl2wl--i DI AME.Te~+ ·h.
~AN'4E~ Dl~METé.2
+ 31 -ou/ ''? opE:.!2ATolé!.A,aE-7~ + ~·-o~9l?
~ PtP1~6 A.~D ~,....T¡;¡:ol..S
G z: Wli"-llMwM R;>e Fl...E:.>l.1,f,11...1Ty



and should be located as close to the condenser as compressor and suction drurn. Adequate space should
possible to suit flexíbílíry in the piping and vertical be provided around the compressor and turbine for
removal space. The lube oil console should be located the ínstallation of a platform and staircase. If the facil-
as close to the compressor as possible with operator iry is housed, a drop area must be provided. Exhibit
access on al! sides of the skíd, with space to remove 3-26 illustrates a typical compressor area arrangement.
the cooler tube bundle, filters, and pumps. Interstage Air coolers, shown in Exhibit 3-27, are generally
coolers, if needed, should be located adjacent to the supported from the central pipe rack adjacent to their

Process Plant Layout and Piping Design

EXHllUT 3-26
Typícal Compressor Area


8' '-011/~Aoo
C'( 1...t~.!)E:.12. l2E..Me>\IAL + 1z"j.,oo
Có1­011 ¡_e,oc:i M11-.!IMUM
F "' '2 x e + 18 ~ /.4?o

related equipment and are serviced by platforms ar the located dírectly beneath aír coolers. Space should be
header boxes and beneath the air coolers for motor available on the plot plan for maíntenance access by
rnaíntenance. Care should be taken to position air rnobile cranes for removal of air cooler tube bundles.
coolers to allow flexíbility for interconnecting pípíng. Furnaces should be located ar a safe dístance and
A poorly positíoned overhead condenser could result upwind from unrelated equípment containing hydro-
in additional large overall díameter piping and expen- carbons. Steam drums or deaerators can be located as
síve supports. Unless furníshed with fixed tire water required for operation and maintenance, Reactors can
sprays, pumps containíng hydrocarbons and operat- be located closer to fumaces than other equipment
ing hígher than autoígnítíon conditions should not be containing hydrocarbons, as long as adequate space is
ToWE.f<:. ~"!'loiYEQ io $•..llT FXHIBIT 3-27
~VEa: HE.AD l-lhlE. _ FL..é')(.l¡)¡Jl¿!"f Aír Cooler
P.J~p-s Afzov i: Spacíng
A..i-ro 16\>.!l"TIOM

OC'(. Wl_:'l'f.4 FilitG.D

Typical Fuman: Area

-t----- As l<'ll!~...i1izeoo

¡i!t;LAT~O EGlú 1PMENT



PN>cess Plant Layout and Piping Destgn

EXHllUT 3-29 Subsysterns Within the Process Flow Diagram

provided for catalyst loading and unloadíng. Exhibir sketch of the unit (Exhibir 3-30), the line run check
3-28 shows a rypícal furnace area. (Exhibít 3-31 ), and the final plot plan arrangement
(Exhibít 3-32).
This chapter has híghlíghted sorne of the principal
SAMPLE PLOT PLAN ARRANGEMENT features ínvolved in the arrangernent of process
equíprnent wíth regard to operation, rnaíntenance,
The followíng illustrated examples show the various constructíbílíty, safety, and economics. Subsequent
steps in arrangíng a naphtha hydrotreater unit and chapters deal with the needs of each equipment ítem
identify the process subsystems within the process in more detaíl, thereby offeríng grearer insíght to
flow diagram (Exhibir 3-29), the mírial arrangernenr proper equípment locatíon on a plor plan.
EXHIBIT 3-30 Initial Arrangement Sketch




ProcessPlant layout and Piping Design


EXHIBIT 3-31 Line Run Check


~fA!;c:r/ ¡
!Jl1UT1e. S;._..-,._...


ae.vJi.'T E. e

EXHIBIT 3·32 Final Plot Plan

Id-o'' ~.ooo \l./IDE AU.E:?~

' 1

1-JA.l'HTHA H'(P~1"1ZE:..ATEIC!
Pk.b.i.J...i1¡..Jéi Pt.oT P!.Ai.J

Process Plant Layout and Piping Design



Compressor machines are used to íncrease the pres- ing compressors are avaílable in rnany sizes and physí-
sure of a gas by rnechanically reducing its volume cal configurations. These machines, which can be used
within its case. Air is most frequently compressed, but wíth a variety of auxilíary equipment, are usually
natural gas, oxygen, and nitrogen are also com- dríven by steam or gas turbínes or by electric motors.
pressed, Posítive-displacernent, centrífugal, and axial Exhibit 4-1 shows a surface condenser mounted
compressors are the three rnost common types used dírectly below the rurbíne. Thís arrangement is used
in process facilities and pipeline stations. They can when the condenser is desígned to servíce only one
handle large volumes of gas in relatívely srnall equíp- stearn turbíne. The arrangernent shown in Exhibir 4-2
ment and may have a variety of drives ( e.g., electric is generally used when severa! turbines are exhausting
motors and stearn or gas turbines). Into one condenser, Exhibir 4-3 shows the various
This chapter focuses on the two rnost common compressor systems and their recíprocals,
types of compressors=-cenrrífugal and posítíve dís-
placernent, also known as recíprocating, Centrífugal
machines can be single stage or multistage. High- AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT
speed íncrease the kinetic energy of the gas,
convertíng this energy ínto hígher pressures in a di- Centrifuga! and reciprocating compressors and theír
vergenr outlet passage called a díffuser. Large volumes drives requíre a varíety of auxílíary equipment to sup-
of gas are compressed to moderare pressures in cen- port theír operanon. The equípment for these corn-
trifuga! machines. Positíve-displacernent, or recipro- pressors is descríbed in the following sections.
catíng, compressors can also be single stage or multí-
stage. They are usually of the recíprocatíng piston-type Lube oil consoles Compressor bearíngs receíve lu-
and are the only compressors that can compress gas to brícatíng oíl from the lube oíl console (Exhibir 4-4).
extremely high pressures, Centrifuga! and reciprocar- These consoles may either stand alone or be mounted

Elevated Centrifuga!
Compressor with a Single
Condensíng Stearn
Turbíne Drive


Multíple Condensíng
Steam Turbíne Dríves

of Compressor

a. Grade·Mounted r,,,,,,.,,.,.."',~"'·"1 Compressor

wíth Electric Motor Dríve


directly onto the compressor frame, Condensare pump The condensare pump (Exhibir
4- 7), which is usually vertical, removes the condensare
Seal oíl consoles The hydraulíc seals, located ar the from the hot well in the surface condenser. Conden-
outer ends of the compressor shaft, receíve oíl from sate forms during liquefaction in the condenser and is
the seal oil console (Exhibir 4-5). The sea! oil equíp- collected in the hot well.
rnent may be configured as a console or may be de-
signed as individual píeces of equíprnent. Air blowers Usually motor driven, these centrifuga!
fan machines (Exhibit 4-8) delíver fresh air to cool the
Surface condensers Surface condensers (Exhibir internally housed electríc motors, Although this air is
4-6) reduce gas or vapor to a liquid by removing heat. delivered to the motor through ducts, íts exhaust may
Once sufficient heat is elímínated, liquefactíon occurs. be sent directly into the cornpressor house or to the

Process Plant layout and Piping

Types of Compressor
Systerns (Cont]

c. Elevated Centrífugal Compressor with Gas Turbíne Dríve

and Waste Heat Recovery System

~~Ct-J 12~reN~
a¡:x:..¡121c. ~

d. Recíprocatíng Compressor wíth Electríc Motor Dríves

Outdoor Installatíon

e. Recíprocatíng Compressor with Electríc Motor Drfve.

Indoor Installatíon

Lube Oíl Consolé

Seal Oíl Consolé

Surface Condenser
Vertical Condensare

Air Blower
-, .:.~===!=-::::~

!­~ Wfc:?tZ

outsíde in similar ducts, Not all electric motors within If other aír ínlet duct schemes (e.g., B, C, D, or E) in
houses requíre thís coolíng facility. Exhibit 4-10 are considered, a bríef study should be
conducted to obtaín an agreement by all príncípals,
Inlet aír filters Gas turbínes require large amounts includíng the equípment engíneer, the engíneering
of clean filtered air for operatíon. The filters (Exhibit manager, the vendor, and the clíent, The exhaust gas
4-9) can be extrernely large, When posítíoníng a gas duct has a theoretícal 180º díscharge oríenratíon range
turbíne-dríven cornpressor, the plant layout designer but is usually set ar the left, top, or right síde, shown as
should be aware of the possible varíatíonsín orienta- F, G, and Hin Exhibit 4-10.
tíon of the ínlet and outlet ductíng, as shown in Exhibir
4-10. Waste heat system Waste heat systerns (Exhibít 4-11)
The optimum ínlet ductíng arrangernent shown in take hot exhaust gas from gas turblnes and put hígh
Exhibit 4-1 O is in a parallel plane with the gas turbíne, outlet ternperatures, rangíng from 800º to 1,200º F
whích is at poínt A in the exhibit, Sometímes, how- ( 426º to 650º C), to use in various ways. Through con-
ever, the avaílable space adjacent to the gas turbíne vection, it may be used to generare stearn or to heat
and air filter does not permít thís optimum arrange- oíl, which may be used as a heatlng médium.
rnent, and alternatíve Iayouts must be considered. Ad-
ditional turns and length to the inlet ducting can de- Compressor suction drum/knockout pot Because
grade the machíne's efficiency and overall economics. compressors requíre dry gas that is free of foreign

Inlet Air Filter

Variations in Inlet and
Outlet Ductíng

'// eoMA2~


Waste Heat System

Process Plant Layout

particles, it is necessary to pass the inlet gas through a
suctíon drum or knockout pot (Exhibit 4-12). This ves- EXHIBIT 4-12 Compressor Suction Drurn/Knockout
sel rernoves moisture and particles from the gas by
passíng ít through a dernister screen, which is located
below the outlet nozzle.

Pulsatíon bottles The

effects of víbration on the life of
pressors and assocíated
the use of vu"''"·'v'
mr1PnPr~ are sízed the compressor ven-
dar and are mounted dírectly onto the noz-
zles, pressure on the outlet whích is sub-
to greater and víbratíon, is usually on the
bottorn of the H can be held down more
easíly because it is located to grade. Volume
bonles are also used to reduce víbratíon, They are
located downstream of the díscharge pulsatíon darnp-
ener and are similar to snubbers but do not have such
ínternals as baffles or choke tubes.

Vertical Splít-Case Compressors

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS: Exhibir illustrates how this application can
come with top or bottorn oríentatíons on the nozzles.
Layout preference dictares the selectíon, Rernoval of
the rotor is through the front end of the
The selection of a síngle-stage or rnultístage horizontal compressor, away from the driver; the compressor
splít-case compressor may depend on the desígn of vendar supplíes the rernoval dístance to the plant lay-
the compressor or preference of the nozzle Iocatíon out desígner. This desígn is used for catalytíc reforrn-
to suit a particular layout If a grade-rnounted com- gas conversión and repressurizing, processing
pressor is planned, the síde or oríentation may be servíces, refrigeratíon, and hígh-pressure, low-volurne
selected, whereas the bottorn connectíons are gener- or hígh-volume, low-pressure gas service appiícatíons.
ally used for elevated compressors. During rnaínte- More than one compressor case may be hooked up in
nance, the top half of the compressor case is removed tándem (see Exhibit 4-16).
by lifting ít vertícally and away from the bottom assem-
bly. This configuration is used for chemícal, petro-
chernícal, industrial and process refrigeration, and 1YPES OF COMPRESSOR DRIVES
hígh-volume and low- to medíurn-pressure gas servíce
applicatíons. Exhibir 4-14 shows the variatíons of a Electric motor From a layout standpoint, electríc
horizontal splít-case cornpressor. rnotors require the least amount of information to

Pulsatíon Dampeners/
Volurne Bottles

Sin~e-Stage or Multistage
Horizontal Splít-Case

Process Plant Layout Piping Design

EXHlBIT 4-15 Vertical. Split-Case Compressor EXHIBIT 4-16 Tandem Arrangement

EXHIIUT 4-17 Electric Motor

support a comprehensíve desígn adequately. Informa-

tion is needed regardíng the rnotor's physícal dimen-
síons, Iargest component, weight to be rnaintaíned,
and specíal cooling requirernents, if any. Exhibir 4-17
shows a typical electric motor.

Steam turbine There are rwo kínds of stearn tur-

bínes=-back pressure and condensing. Back-pressure
turbines are driven by hígh-pressure stearn and do nor
require surface condensers. Condensing turbínes are
usually driven by low-pressure stearn. Stearn turbínes
are currently popular because they can convert large
amounts of heat energy into mechanícal work very
efficiently. The propulsión force is applied dírectly to Gas turbine Selection of gas turbines, like any other
the rotating element and not through a series of links drive systern, is based on economics. The availability
and cams. The stearn turbíne also has a low vibration of gas in such remote areas as deserts and offshore
level and few moving parts rhat require rnaintenance. platforrns makes It a prime source of power in these
Fínally, the rurbíne's range of speed is very wide- locatíons. Gas turbines are used in various applica-
some vendar turbines are rated from 1 to 100,000 tíons, induding gas transmission, gas lift, liquid pump-
horsepower. Noncondensing turbines are physically gas reíníectíon, and process compressors. Air is
smaller than comparable condensíng units because compressed in the gas turbíne by the centrifuga! come
fewer stages are needed to let down steam that has a pressor and is díseharged into a reverse flow annular
lower heat drop, A typícal steam turbine is shown in combuster in which fue! is injected through nozzles.
Exhibir 4-18. The transitíon duct dírects the hot gas ínto a gas gener-

EXHIBIT 4-18 Steam Turbíne EXHIBIT 4-19 Gas Turbíne

míght restrict their removal. when the unit will

be exposed to severely cold ternperatures, a heating
coi! is placed below the tank that maínte-
nance and must be pulled clear of the tank. Exhibir
4-21 shows a rypícal lube oil console pípíng and in-
ator turbine, whichin turn dríves the compressor. The strumentation díagrarn, and Exhibir 4-22 illustrates a
hot gas is ducted into a power turbíne and discharged typical drain line routing from the compressor to the
through an exhaust diffuser. The exhaust gas, which lube oíl reservoir tank.
generally ranges between 800º and 1,200º F ( 426º to
650º C), is often used for steam generatíon and for hot
oíl systerns. Exhíbit 4~19 shows a rypical gas turbine. SEAL OIL SYSTEM

The sea! oil systern supplies oil to the hydraulic seals

LUBE OIL SYSTEM of the compressor, whích are locared at the outer ends
of the shaft, at a constant ternperature and pressure.
The prímary function of the lube oíl console is to The oíl escapíng the low-pressure síde of the sea! re-
supply clean, cool lubricaring oil to the bearings of the turns to the reservoír and is recirculated. Oil escaping
compressor and íts driver. The console is a package of through the hígh-pressure side passes through sour
equípment, which is supplied by the compressor ven- oíl traps to the seal oil degassing tank.
dor and usually íncludes an oíl reservoir, two pumps There are two types of sea! oíl systerns: gravity and
(a primary and a spare), rwo filters or filter elements pressunzed. The gravity-feed seal oíl system reservoir
in a duplex-type arrangement, coolers, and assocíated is mounted above and in view of the cornpressor,
controls. A typical lube oíl console is shown in Exhibit whose elevation is set by the compressor vendar. The
4-20. When placíng a lube oil console around a corn- sour oil traps can be integral wíth the lube oíl console
pressor, the designer must adhere to cleárance re- skid or located on a separare skíd. The pressurized
quirements for operatíon and maintenance of the unit. sea! oíl system is a purnp-around facility whose corn-
First, there should be sufficíent room to remove the ponents are integral to the lube oíl console skid or
cooler tube bundle. Second, the space requíred to rnounted on a separare skid. If components are
pull the filter elements must be considered-there mounted on a separare skíd, placernent must accom-
can be no physical obstruction over the filters that modate seal oil console operation and maintenance,

Process Plant Layout and Piplng Design

Lube Oil Console

r _, ...,...._..,. __ Lube Oíl Console Piping
and lnstrumentation
~ íU!Zei11JE-
l 1


1 e~.. ) 1

~t"I t-J~(132ee- 1
1 be& NI@ "---t
~l.~~ ;

1 1 1

L-; 1


Lube Oíl Drain Routíng



hibit 4-23 shows a sea! oíl tank location, and Exhibit

EXHIBIT 4-23 Seal Oil Tank Location 4-24 shows a general pípíng and instrurnenratíon día-
gram of a sea! oil console.



Surface condensers are used in conjunction with con-

densing stearn rurbínes that dríve large centrifuga!
compressors. As depícted in Exhibit 4-25 the exhaust
steam enters the top of the condenser and passes
as with the lube oil console. On sorne compressor through the shell, whích is filled with tubes, Cold wa-
systerns, a gland condenser is requíred, it should be ter is pumped through the tubes whíle hot exhaust
located clase to the compressor. Systems engineering steam passes around the oursíde. Hot water, called
supplies informatíon regardíng the elevation and condensare, results and collects in the hot well at the
other requírernents of a sea! oíl loop. Sea! oil facilities bottorn of the condenser.
are not required for recíprocating cornpressors. Ex- Exhibit 4-26 shows a pípíng arrangement rypícally

ProcessPiant layout and i>f.plng Design

Sea! Oil Console Piping
and Instrurnentatíon

~ "'IL <o>J~e'::...- P'U_M_e:>_

. EXHIBIT 4-25
Basic Condenser

Surface Condenser and
Auxiliary Equípment

found around surface condensers. The condensare the atmosphere through a safety valve. Condensare is
that collects in the hot well is pumped out and used in píped dowri:füeam of the valve and creares a water
the generation of steam elsewhere in the plant. A level seal on the valve to maintaín the vacuum pressure in
controller, which is rnounted on the side of the hot the system. Ejectors pull addítional wet vapor from the
well, activates the control valve downstream of the condenser. As steam is fed ínto the end of the elector,
pumps when the condensate reaches a specífic level in the low-pressure wet vapor is sent to the inter-after
the hot well. A wet vapor vent is run from the pump condenser, where additional Iíquefactíon takes place
casing back to the condenser shell to be liquefied. A through convectíon with cold water. When the steam
line connected to the exhaust system inlet is vented to trap is filled wíth condensare, ít opens and the higher

Process Plant Layout and Piping Deslgn


pressure on the ínter-after condenser sends the con- nance and economic factors must also be considered
densate back to the hot well in the surface condenser. when in a compressor area plan. When dealing with a
horizontal split-case centrifuga! cornpressor, the plant
designer must determine whether the compressor
Equípment Locatíon and Elevatíon
should be elevated or grade mounted, Although a
Exhíbít 4-27 illustrates how prírnary process consíder- grade-rnounted machine sits on a relatívely low con-
ations govem the elevaríon of the surface condenser crete pad, with its lube oil console close by, this ar-
and sorne of its auxiliary equípment. Because a pump rangement also has its price. Suction and díscharge
is needed to remove the condensare from the hot well, piping enters and exíts the compressor case from the
the pump net positíve suction head (NPSH) must be top, which means that piping rnusr be removed to
satísfied to operare sarisfactoríly. Vertical pumps are perforrn general rnaintenance on horizontal split-case
generally used in thís because the NPSH machines. When a condensing turbine is used as the
requirernent is calculated from the bottom of the driver for such a machine, the exhaust pípíng, which is
lower impeller for vertical purnps, compared with the also run overhead, must be removed. The support
centerline of the ínlet nozzle for horizontal pumps. steel required for top-connected cornpressors is gen-
Setting the elevaríon of the ínter-after condenser, usu- erally more extensíve, and it must be placed so that
ally Iocated ro the síde of the surface condenser, can maintenance of the machíne is not hindered.
be done wíth fewer restrictíons. The bottom of the For an elevated compressor wíth condensing tur-
ínter-after condenser shell must not be more than 3 ft bine drive, the compressor suction and discharge
(900 mm) below the condensare return nozzle on the (with single stage or multístage) and the exhausr out-
síde of the hot well. The plant layout designer is then let on the turbíne remain in place during general
free to set the elevatíon as high as necessary. maintenance. Although an elevated structure requíres
a greater initial capital expendíture, the on-stream
time over the life of the plant wíll be greater because
COMPRESSOR MAINTENANCE of shorter maintenance tumaround and shorter down-
Compressor installations and most other equipment
may be located eíther in open areas of the plant or in
Maintenance Impact on Shelter or
structures that have a roof only or a curtain wall or are
Structure Size
cornpletely enclosed. For the plant layout designer,
clíent preference and climate conditions are the rwo Exhibir 4-28 illustrates how compressor mainteriance
primary consideratíons that determine the ínclusíon affects the size of the shelter or structure. Although
of compressor shelters. The fact that machines may be operational access often determines floor space re-
either elevated or grade rnounted creares a varíety of quiremerns, the height of a compressor hbuse is
maíntenance problems for the plant layout desígner. strictly a function of maintenance. Consequeritly, the
size of the maintenance area must permit the largest
single ítem to pass unobstructed from one end of the
Compressor Maintenance Versus building to the other and should be set as close to the
Economícs operating leve! as possible. The centerline elevation of
Although operation and safery are írnportant and rnust the hook that allows ali items to pass through the
be íncorporated in the design of any facility, maínte- mainrenance area must be sel. The hook elevation,

Surface Condenser

JZ~1!2.fjv!~ 6.IZ.t': t~Glll2=Eó0 F-t?'olv1 ~l~

_rl. ~1.:?t:J~

Elevated Compressor

¡-, 1

A curtain wall is usually a four-sided structure with all four sides open 8 ft (2.6 m)
above the operating floor.
Totally enclosed structures usually have sidíng on all four sides from grade leve! up. This
generally is done in severe climates.
Ali maíntenance is handled by a traveling crane. A clear arca is reserved during the
layout stage to allow the largest piece to be removed withour dismantling any piping
svstern, if at al! possible,

Process Plant Layout and Ptf;in;: Design


Centrifuga! Cornpressor:
No Shelter

plus the máximum lifted load, determines the depth of tractor should be ínforrned of the type of mobile
the trolley beam. The elevatíon of the buíldíng's eave equíprnent the clíent will use, as well as its lifting
is then set by allowing sufficient space far the traveling capacíty, to develóp the optimum compressor layout.
crane to traverse the length of the building as well as For top-connected horizontal splít-case compressors,
for its routine rnaíntenance. break flanges rnust be províded in the pipíng to allow
the rernoval of the top half of the compressor case.
The mstallatíon in Exhibir 4-30 is an open-sided
Maintenance Consíderatíons for
structure with a roof. Componem removal may be ac-
No Shelter complíshed by mobile equíprnent or a traveling crane.
When developíng a compressor layout that does not Adequate room must be planned for removing the
require a structure or shelter, the desígner rnust al!ow largest component both in the level I (grade-
adequate room for mobile handling equípment to líft mounted) and leve! II (elevated) ínstallatíons.
an ítem, raíse it to clear ali obstructions (including fire The compressor arrangernent in Exhibir 4-31 is a
hydrants, monitors, and light poles ), and back away or curtain wall structure with four sides, open from the
swing it to where it can be placed on another vehicle. operatíng level to a heíght of 8 ft (2,400 mm} This
Exhibit 4-29 íllustrates a grade-mounted centrifuga! arrangernent is often found in temperare clírnares.
compressor with no shelter. Maíntenance is accomplished wíth a traveling crane.
Thís installatíon is usually the easiest to maintain The drop zone for the equipmem may be within or
because ali the cornponents may be removed with outsíde the shelter, if the drop zone is outside the
mobile equipment. If possible, the engineering con- shelrer, removable panels must be furníshed and íden-
Grade-Mounted or
Elevated Centrífugal
Open-Síded Structure

1 1-1r-')1
J 1 __ 1 \ ! _L_, -

CD es;¡~ ~IJ'f?O

tífied on the layout drawíngs. The arrangement íllustrated in Exhibít 4-28 is for an
The arrangement in Exhíbit 4-32 is an open ele- elevated multícompressor structure; ít can be
vated lnstallation. Component removal may be accom- equípped wíth a curtain wall or totally enclosed; A
plíshed with mobíle equipment or a travelíng gantry, dear area rnust be planned early in the layout stage to
whích rídes on two raíls along either síde of the ma- perrnít any machíne to be maíntaíned wíthout dísturb-
chine. A structure must be províded to carry the rails íng the pípíng or components of the other compres-
out to the equípment drop zone. sors. The maintenance sequence for a multicompres-

Process Plant Layout and Piplng Design

Curtain Wall Shelter

sor arrangernent is shown in Exhibir 4-33 and is • The ítem is lowered to grade, where maintenance
detailed as follows. may be performed, or set on a tlatbed truck for
" The component is lífted by the traveling crane and is " The clear area allows the mobile equipment to tra-
passed through the clear maíntenance area. vel to and from the drop zone.
" It is brought to rhe drop zone above the operating
tloor level, If the clíent prefers to rnaintain the cornponent on the
Elevated Centrifu al
Compr essor. No Sh
g e1 ter

Process Plant layout ami Design

operating deck leve!, an adequate area must be pro-
EXHIIUT 4-33 Malntenance Sequence vided and the structural engineers must be notífied of
the size and weight of the largest ítem that will be set
onto the deck.
Maintenance of reciprocating comprcssors for
open and enclosed installation is shown in Exhibir
4-34. Although it is common to use permanent han-
dling facilities (e.g., travelíng cranes) for encloscd in-
stallations, another option is available. lf the structural
engíneers provide removable panels in the roof mo-
bile equípment may be used to facilitare componenr
Another important feature regarding reciprocating
compressor maintenance is shown in Exhibir 4-35. A
clear area must be provided in line with each com-
pressor cylinder to perrnit cylinder rernoval during
the maíntenance cycle. The area berween two ma-
chines must be common for both cylinders.

No Shelter
Because rnany acceptable variatíons of a centrifuga!
compressor area are possible, the versíon presented
in Exhibir 4-36 must be explained. Briefly, the area
l. Píece to be maintained is lífted and passed through thís arca. indudes three centrifuga! machines with separare
11. It is then brought to the drop zone area. lube oil consoles (driven by condensing steam tur-
m. The píece is Iowered to grade or onto a vehícle for rernoval bines), rwo ínter-coolers, three suenen drums, a sur-
from the comprcssor structure. face condenser, and two vertical condensare pumps.
IV. The clear area allows the vehícle to pass free of any Because there are three condensíng steam turbínes
obstruction ( e.g., equípment, pípíng, fue monitors, and light
poles), operating at low steam pressure, minimizing the
Sorne maíntenance may be done on the operating floor, but the length of the exhaust line to the surface condenser
ñoor must be desígned accordingly. should be one of rhe first goals a layout desígner con-
síders, The surface condenser is located just to the
south of the compressor operating platform. The lube
oil console for compressor 1 is located to the west of
the surface condenser, which permits the return líne
to drain to the oíl reservoir wíthout obstruction. Con-
sequently, the area directly east of the surface con-


Compresson Open

Planníng for Cylinder
Remo val

Process Plant layout and Piping Design

Centrifugal Compressor
Arca: No Shelter

denser can be used to pul! the tube bundle. south for tube removal. The lube oil console for com-
The vertical condensare pumps are located just to press 2 is located just to the east of the compressor at
the south of the condenser and should straddle the grade level below the operating platform. If there is
centerlíne of the hot well outlet nozzle. The dístance ínsufficíent room to maintaín the console, removable
between the condenser and the pumps is díctated by grating must be províded ar the operating platform
pump operation and rnaintenance requirements as level, which prohibits any other use for thís area.
well as piping flexíbílíty. Compressor 3 has an inter-cooler rnounted directly
The suction drums for compressors 1 and 2 are below the machíne, whích is supplied by the vender.
located along the equipment liné just to the west of Again, ample access must be províded for tube re-
the operatíng platform, Often, the outlet line of the moval. The lube oil console for cornpressor 3 is lo-
suction drum to the compressor sucríon nozzle re- cated just outsíde and c!ear of the operaring platform
quíres a flow meter wíth straight run lengths upstream to the east. Again, a free-draíníng oíl return line to the
and downstream. Thís arrangernent permits the natu- console must be provided. The suction drum for corn-
ral configuration of the Iine to satísfy the meter ílow pressor 3 is on the equipment line to the east of the
requirernents. operatíng platform.
The intercooler for compressor l is located at Access to the operating platform is by two stairways
below the platform, with clear access to the ar opposite ends of the area, allowing ernergency exit.

Cornpressor Area: Totally
Enclosed Structure

Each machine has a control panel that is placed along whether it runs dírectly below the operatíng platform
the north edge of the operating platforrn. Because or below grade.
there is no shelter over this particular area, ali major Compressor 1 has three cylinders with a separate
maintenance is handled by mobile equipment. lube oíl console that is located directly to the north,
below the operatíng platform. A removable section of
Enclosed Structure the platforrn should be provided for maintenance
above the unit. This area must be kept clear of any
The arrangernent shown in Exhibir 4-37 consists of obstruction.
three electric motor-drívén-reciprocanng compres- Compressors 2 and 3 are ídentical four-cylinder
sors as well as air blowers, suction drums, ínter-cool- machines that have integral lube oil consoles mounted
ers, control panels, and one lube oil console. Because directly onto the compressor frame. Each compressor
the compressors are two dífferent sizes, the electríc has a control panel located along the north wall,
motors have been lined up to perrnít the power-supply An area along the north compressor wall is re-
conduít to run straight east and west, regardless of served for the valve stems, whích are located below

Process Plant Layout and Piptng

the floor and extend to a dístance of approximately 3 ft sor ínlet pípíng are the majar factors that set the final
(1,000 mm) above the platforrn floor. A sleeper runs elevatíon of the machines. Exhibits 4-38 and 4-39 illus-
easr and west outside the north wall for ali cornpressor trate the following:
píping, whích vibrares a great deal because of recipro-
cating compressor operation and therefore must be • Arrangement A shows bottom-mounted nozzles.
run as clase to grade as possible. If the operating • Arrangement B shows top-mounted nozzles.
valves are located outsíde the building, a catwalk " Arrangemem C shows a surface condenser mounted
should be provided to allow access during operatíon. directly below the turbine, which is common when
The suctíon drums and inter-coolers are located only one rurbíne is being serviced.
across from the sleeper area.
" Arrangement D shows a top nozzle that allows the
In a totally enclosed building, ali compressor main- exhaust steam Une to run to a surface condenser
tenance is handled by travelíng crane. The operatíng servícíng múltiple turbines, as shown in Exhibir 4-2.
floor stops one bay before the east wall, whích allows
for a drop zone for maíntenance. Mobile equípment By selectíng compressor arrangernent A or B and
must be brought into thís area from the south or east, placíng írs match líne agaínst the turbine match-líne
Roll-up doors are generally províded for thís purpose. arrangement C or D, a desígner can revíew the gov-
Each of the three electríc rnotors requires air from erníng criteria for settíng machíne elevations (see Ex-
the outsíde to cool the rnotors. Electric motors withín hibit 4-40). In addítíon, consideratíon rnust be given to
buíldings do not always require this type of cooling. míscellaneous equípment (e.g., as shown in arrange-
Access to the operaríng area of this structure is ac- ment A of Exhibir 4-38).
complished by stairway and doors along the north
wall both at the west end and clase to the east end and
on the south wall at the west end. An addítional staír- Reciprocating Compressors
way ar the east end permits operators or maintenance Recíprocatíng machines are located as clase to grade
personnel to enter the drop zone or to access the area as possíble because of the extreme víbratíon in the
under the operating floor. pípíng systern. This mínimum elevation is establíshed
by the following steps that describe Exhibit 4-41:

ELEVATIONS OF MACHINES l. Sleeper-Usually set ar 12 to 18 in (300 to 450 mm)

above grade.
This section deals with the problerns that must be 2. Header size-Established on the piping and ínstru-
addressed when the elevatíons of both centrífugal and mentation diagram.
recíprocatíng compressors are set. When separare
3. Mínimum distance required to enter the header
lube oil consoles are used, a free-draíníng line frorn with the largest line to and from the compressor.
the machine to the lube oíl reservoír must be rnain-
4. The pulsation dampener-Designed by the com-
pressor vendar.
5. Mínimum clearance required between the damp-
Centrífugal Compressors ener and floor steel.
The type of driver and associared equípment íterns as 6. Maximum depth of floor steel-Set by the struc-
well as the straíght run requirernents of the compres- tural engineer.
Setting Elevatíons of
Centrifuga! Compressors


rr. '-trii-rr,.;,--1rh;¡~~~

·{:>­_. o
i...----"" ;;

Process Plant Layout anti Piping Design

Settíng Elevatíons of
Steam Turbínes

P1 i::c.e


Compressor Drfve Elevatíon EXHIBIT 4-40

Arrangement Arrangement Governed By Crítería for Settíng
Machine Elevatíons
A e e
A Electric motor A Motor not shown
B e e
B D NA Usually grade-mounted arrangement
B Electríc motor NA Usually grade-mourued arrangement, motor
not shown

- &Jlllíl!ll!lllllll"

Settíng Elevations of

fU l..~TIO!-J t?.o.~e~NÉ'JZ. Recíprocatíng


7. Dírnensíon from the centerlíne of the dampener to should be located as close to the compressor as prac-
the face of the nozzle-Set by vendar. tícal. In sorne reciprocating cornpressor arrangements,
8. Bottorn of the compressor baseplare to the cen- the coolers may be mounted on and directly over the
terline of the compressor shaft--Set by the vendar. compressor by the vendar, but they are usually lo-
cated by the engineering contractor close to the ma-
chine or stage suction drum. Exhibit 4-42' shows a
INTER~ AND AFTER-COOLERS centrifuga! compressor with íts ínter-cooler and ínter-
connecting piping between stages as supplied by the
Inter-coolers Coolers are primarily used to reduce vendor. Exhibit 4-43 shows a recíprocation compres-
the operating ternperature withín a compressor cir- sor with al! components, induding the Inter-cooler,
which allows the use of a srnaller rnachine with supplied separarely by the contractor. Further refer-
fewer cylinders. These coolers may vary in size and ence to thís can be seen in Exhibir 4-36, where the
type (e.g., shell and tube, air coolers, and U-tube) and íntercooler to compressor 1 is mounted separately at

----~---------· - --
ProcessPlant Layout and Piping De:sign
grade, parallel to the compressor shaft. The ínter-
cooler to compressor 3 is mounted at grade, perpen- EXHIBIT 4-42 Centrífugal Compressor wíth
dicular to the centerlíne of the shaft, and is supplíed Inter-Cooler and Piping Berween Stages
by the vendar.

Añer-coolers After-coolers are used to reduce the

operatíng temperature of the gas when ít leaves the
cornpressor, whether it contínues through additional
process equipment or enters a pipeline in which It
musr have a specífic ternperature. After .. coolers may be
Iocated farther away frorn the cornpressor than shown
in Exhibit 4-37 because the primary pípíng does not
return to the cooler. Exhibir 4-44 shows a typical after-
cooler pípíng and instrumentation diagram.



When a compressor is covered-partially or totally INfa?~l=g

enclosed by a shelter or srructure=-many elernenrs
determine how the layout must be approached. The
factors to consíder are:
., Operation=-The plant operations personnel need
room to walk safely around the machine, They rnust day while allowíng cooler breezes to pass through
have access to va!ves, swítches, and gauges and must the structure, Thís ínsrallatíon may also be used in
be able to see ali gauges, lights, and dials on the areas with sígníficant rainfall. Totally enclosed struc-
control panels. tures are usually provided in severely cold climates.
" Maintenance-All principal cornponents to be re- • Safety-The housíng must have easy access through-
moved during major maintenance must be able to out, arnple ventilation as protection from potentíally
be lífted by the traveling crane, swung laterally to dangerous gas leaks, and a sufficíent number of
the dear area (desígnated in Exhibir 4-33 ), and re- doors and stairways in the evem of an ernergency.
moved from the building. • Economics-The area inside the building should be
• Clímate condíríons-i-Insrallatíon in temperare clí- large enough to satísfy all other factors and no
mates may require only a roof that provides Iímíted larger, unless specífically requested by a client to
protectíon from the elements. In warmer clímates, a accommodate future equíprnent withín the struc-
curtain wall structure may be the right applícation. A ture.
curtain wall has a complete roof and four sídes that
are open from the operating leve! to a heíght of 8 ft Exhibít 4-45 shows how to size a building, regard-
(2,400 mm). The roof blocks the sun for most of the less of what rype of rnachíne is used, the example is far

EXHIBIT 443 A Recíprocatíng Compressor wíth Ali EXHIBIT 444 Añer-Cooler Pípíng and Instrumentatíon
Components Díagram


pressor end, there must be sufficiem room for the

operators and any routine maíntenance, as shown in
block B. Although the operator rnust have access to the
front of the control panel, it may also be necessary to
allow access to the rear of the panel for rnaintenance,
shown as clearance D.

a centrifuga! gas cornpressor, The elements to be sized Building elevation The elevation of the building is
are díscussed in the followíng sectíons. further establíshed by determining the size of the clear
maintenance area (shown as X by Y). This area must
Floor elevatíon The operating floor elevation is es- accommodate the largest single píece to be maíntaíned
tablíshed by makíng all standard allowances around at a minimum elevation above ali operating floor re-
and above equípment and providing the usual head- quirements, shown as clearance A The alternative
room below all horizontal pipíng runs and conduíts, maintenance area may be used if this area is clear
as shown by blocks E and F and Exhibir 4-45. throughout the length of the building.

Building wídth The width of the building is estab- Hook centerline elevatíon The layout designer de-
líshed by first allowíng space for rhe largest compres- termines the centerline elevation of the hook. The
sor train. There must be adequate room between the maximurn lifted load must be supplied to the struc-
stearn turbine, lube oíl draín pípíng, and any míscella- tural engineer or building contractor to furnish the
neous pípíng that rnay be arranged along the adjacent correct traveling crane. The eave elevatíon is then set
wall, as shown by block C in Exhibit 4-45. At the com- on the basis of the clearance of the crane selected.

layout and Piping Design

Compressor Shelter.
Siziag Critería

GENERAL COMPRESSOR lAYOUT by the various layouts. Another factor that could influ-
ence straight run requírernents is the need to inject
This sectíon híghlíghts additional features to consider wash water into the gas strearn to olean compressor
in the desígn of a centrifuga! or recíprocatíng com- blades, as shown in Exhibir 4-47.
pressor layout. There are many ways to develop a
compressor layout, but certain aspects of these ma-
Sudion Líne Straíners
chines dictare how best to approach a desígn that optí-
mizes operatíon, maintenance, and safety while adher- Compressor suction lines rnust be free of any foreign
ing to economic requirements. particles that could darnage the ínternals of the ma-
chine. Strainers are installed in the inlet line between
the block valve and the compressor inlet nozzle. After
Centrifuga! Compressors: Inlet Pípíng
the unit has been on stream for sorne time, the strain-
With hígher compressor velocítíes and rotating ers are norrnally removed. Should the strainer be the
speeds, the plant layout desígner must gíve greater perrnanent type, a clean-out connection must be
consíderatíon to the compressor inlet line. The ASME added to remove any trapped foreign matter during a
power test code requires a mínimum. of three díame- shurdown of the compressor. Exhibir 4-48 illustrates
ters of straíght run píping between the elbow and. the two such applícatíons,
inlet nozzle. Often, however, such factors as gas veloc-
ities, molecular weíght, and ternperature rnust be con-
Break-Out Flanges
sidered for the optimum layout. An equipment engi-
neer should be consulted at the outset to develop a Ali línes to a compressor that must be removed for
base-case layout requírernent. The preferred desígn is maintenance of the compressor or strainer removal
one in whích the horizontal run is parallel to the com- must have a set of flanges in rhe line in addition to rhe
pressor shaft, as shown in arrangement A of Exhibit set at the compressor nozzle. Exhibit 4-49 shows one
4-46. (In these examples, it is assumed that the com- line with a built-in extra set of flanges ar the shut-off
pressor inlet size is 12 in and that the required L- valve and another line for which flanges must be
dímension far thís particular gas compressor is four added because there are no other flanges near the
díameters.) The compressor elevation can be affected compressor case.
Compressor Suctíon

Process Plant Layout and Design

Wash-Water Injectíon

~r2~HJ rzu~
~- __ 107i.oez
!2éQJ1 t2eyte:Nf
~'°'( i.Jo z zl{;
!1. LI "1 E:

Miscellaneous Pípíng Connectíons accessíble through extensíon stems or chain opera-

tors, Exhíbit 4-50 shows sorne of these variations.
The plant layout desígner must review both the engí-
neering contractor and the vendor piping and instru-
mentation díagrams to ensure that ali connections Hígh-Pressure Steam Inlet Piping
have been píped up by one or the other.
To streamlíne the hígh-pressure, hígh-temperature
Primary valve accessíbility AH operar- steam inlet pípíng to the turbíne, the plant layout de-
valves must be accessíble to the operator from should revíew the compressor outlíne drawing
grade or the operatíng platform around the machíne, to locate the neutral axis. At thís point, the turbíne is
Valves that are physically out of reach may be made anchored to the steel As depícted in Exhibir
Inlet Line Straíners


t t

EXHIBIT 4-49 Maíntenance Break-Out Planges EX.HIBIT 4-51 Hígh-Pressure Steam Inlet Pípíng

4-51, locatíng the líne anchor clase to this poínt en-

ables the designer to· generare a layout with a míni-
mum amount of leg, thereby satísfyíng the stress and
EXHIBIT 4-50 Operatíng Valve Accessibility flexibility requirements in this particular system.

Straíghteníng Vanes
1 1
CH4!N \ 1 When the straight run on the inlet pípíng is less than
OP§?l.l.Tef? d desired, a straíghteníng vane may be ínstalled to
smooth the flows and improve the compressor perfor-
mance. These vanes must be in accordance with ASME
or American Gas Association standards. If use of vanes
can be tolerated, the length for any arrangement (as
illustrated in Exhibir 4-46) can be divíded by four.

Reciprocatíng Compressor Pípíng

Poorly designed recíprocating compressor ptpmg
causes pulsation that can reduce machine capacíty and
íncrease horsepower requírernents. Line design
should be simple and run as low to grade as possíble
to facilitare support. Once the compressor piping has
been designed, the proposed configuration is sub-
jected to an analog study that may be done the

ProcessPlan: layout and Piptng Design

Compressor Line

Cornpressor Supports

vendar or an índependenr testíng Iaboratory. Símu- located on the top of the píping to minimize any po-
Iated by electrícal circuits, this analog study ídentífies tential líquíd carry-over, Exhibir 4-52 shows typical
potentíally damaging accoustíc or pulsation problems branch connections.
during the design phase of the project, elírnínating
hígher repaír and redesígn costs at a later date.
Compressor Pipe Supports
Exhibit 4-53 illustrates how to minimize the transrnís-
Une Branches
sion of damaging vibrations by isolating the line sup-
Ali branches should be located close to a líne support ports from adjacent compressor or building founda-
whenever possíble. Any such connections should be tions, operatíng floor steel, or building framíng.


Draín Piping strumentatíon díagram should be carefully revíewed

to ensure that ali vents and draíns are properly de-
Arnple draín must be províded on suctíon and
díscharge pípíng to avoid líquid carry-over into the
This chapter has gíven the plant layout desígner a
cylínders, On mulristage machines, care must be taken
variety of possíble solutíons to successfully develop _ª
with the draín systern to avoíd pípíng upa low-
comprehensive cornpressor layout. Maximizing effi-
pressure draín into a high-pressure header. Doing so
ciency while rnínirnízíng original capital expendítures
forces the hígher-pressure liquids into the lower-pres-
and ongoíng maintenance costs is a dernandíng task,
sure cylinders. Compressors have small arnounts of
The close coordínatíon and cooperarion of equíprnent
gas leakage ar the stuffing box, whích is usually pícked
and systern engineers, an understandíng of the client's
up in the dístance berween the cylínder and the
needs and preferences, and desígner creatívity are ali
crankcase. Gas-tíght distance píeces are used for such
necessary elements to achieve this goal.
hazardous materíals as hydrogen. The pípíng and in-

Procéss Plant Layout Design



Generally, drums are cylindrícal hollow steel vessels drum, and Exhíbit 5-2 shows a horizontal reflux drum,
used in process plants as intermediare containers that When specífied, steam drums and deaerators are
receíve Iíquid from distillation and condensíng equip- usually furníshed as a propríetary ítem. Layout is lim-
rnenr, Drums also collect liquid from vapor circuits ited to confirmation of nozzle and support locations to
and pump it to other process groups, dísposal, or suit piping and structural configuranons and platform-
product storage, They are also used for chernícal and ing for operator and rnaintenance access. Exhibit 5-3
catalyst storage, stearn generation, and deaeratíon of illustrates a rypícal deaerator arrangement,
boiler feed water. This chapter highlights the general
requirements for drum plant layout and provídes in-
forrnatíon requíred to locate nozzles, ínstruments,
EXHIBIT 5-1 Typícal Vertical Compressor Suction
and controls for platformíng and operator and
maíntenance access.

The drums discussed in thís chapter are process unit
drums that are used far refluxing, surge, suction, and
general líquid collectíon. Drums in these services can f!1GoM l..lGWID L.E.\/e.~ i:Tn'77.r77'71)
generally be divided ínto two categories: hortzontally Mb.lNTE.MANC..e
and vertícally rnounted, Drum ínternals are far less
sophístícated than the components found ínsíde the
dístíllation tower and are lírnited to demister pads,
baffles, vortex breakers, and dístríbutíon pípíng. Ex-
hibit 5-1 shows a typícal vertical compressor suction

LIGIUIO IÑ Typical Horizontal Reñux


EXHIBIT 5·3 Typical Deaerator Arrangement EXHIBIT 5-4 Drum Locatíon in a Tower Reñux System

-!jt--t~:l--11'-\ 6':>TT0N1'!> F'wMP'!>

LOCATION OF DRUMS EXHIBIT 5-5 Locatíons for Feed Surge and Cornpressor
Suction Drums
Drums are located within a process unít eíther adía-
cent to related equípment (e.g., the reflux drum) oras
a standalone operatíon ( e.g., a condensate collection
drum). When operating within process sequence of
related items (e.g., pumps, condensers, and towers),
the drum should be posítíoned to facilitare an orderly
and economic pípíng interconnectíon berween ítself
and those iterns,
Within the conventíonal inline process unit, drums N
and their related ítems are generally located on eíther
side of a central pipe rack serviced by auxiliary roads
for rnaíntenance access, In certaín cases ( e.g., for flash
drums and deaerators), drums can be located above
the pipe rack. In chemical plants, drums are generally
located ar all levels of enclosed or open-síded struc-
tures. For example, Exhibit 5-4 shows the drum loca-
tion in a tower reflux system, Exhibít 5-5 shows the
typícal locatíon of feed surge and compressor suction
drums, and Exhíbit 5-6 shows the drum locations in an
enclosed chernícal plant structure.

Process Plant Layout and Piping De#gn


FRE.E:'.STA.....SD1N 6i EXHIBIT 5~6

IOWE.R. Drum Locations in an
Enclosed Chemical Plant

Elevation and Support abilíty. Drums for chemical collection systems are gen-
erally located below ground in concrete pits, as shown
Similar to towers, drum elevatíons are díctated by the in Exhibit 5-8.
NPSH, as illustrated in Exhibit 5-7, mínimum olear- Methods of support are ínfluenced by the size and
ance, common p!atforming, and rnaintenance and op- location of the drum. Similar to towers, large vertical
erator access. Within structures, especíally chernícal drums are supported skírts. If size srnall
"'","'·"""' drums could be elevated above the míni- vertical drurns may be supported legs, as shown in
mum requirements of accommodate floor space avail- Exhibir 5-9, or by lugs if elevated within a structure, as
EXH]BH 5-7 Net Positive Suction Head Elevation EXHIBlT :5-8 Elevation Requirernents for an
~"""'~•" for a Horizontal Drurn Drum

lti &W1U&UtJjL ri

EXHIBH 5·9 Leg-Supported Drum EXHIBIT 5-10 Lug-Supported Drum

N tDE "A.DI + 1411 .!?i:i MIN1MtJ"'1 Sample Saddle-Supported
l"-1~\De. liZ.A..DlüS+ 2ei1 .ses MA>'IMl.I~ Drum

Plt!aS o~
'i>T!Si!L. Fi<?.A.M es

EXHIBIT 5-12 Drum Elevatlon Sketch EXHIBIT 5·13 Typícal Process Vessel Sketch for a
Horizontal Drum

.e.Él:.; 1 ti t_ ~ '-or........¡..-1--
'21.o' ÍtDO
Mt>J· ~Hl<lrH l.IQIJ10 l.l'lVet.~ ~ ~

:Q[~ ~ ·<>~ ' ' .

V- ~

~ ~~ ~ ~b
shown in Exhibit 5-10. Horizontal drums are usually f.Jo:Z.7.1..E 5'..l."llMA!il:."(
~MloL. S.1'2.111 '!>l!O~\llG.E.
supported by saddles from concrete piers or steel l 1/'l• 1i;c;4' IZF
Á llA~o..,T
frames if elevated within a structure, as lllustrated in e.
Exhibit 5-11. Leg-supported drums should not be used e ""4• L1Qu10

in recíprocatíng compressor circuíts,

The first step in drurn layout is setting the heíght of
F 1•
'Soi'eA"°' e>IJT
the drum. To do thís, the plant layout desígner re-
quires the following ínforrnatíon.
p 1• Pl:l:E....,. 21:'
" Drurn dirnensions. T 1• TE.M~Tl.IRE

• Type of heads.
• Support detaíls.
" NPSH requirements of pump. release package. Exhibir 5-13. shows a typical process
• Bottom outlet size, vessel sketch for a horizontal drum. The followíng
'" Mínimum clearances. ínformauon is requíred in order to positíon drum
• Location.

The cenrerline elevatíon of the drum, as illustrated • Process vessel sketch.

in Exhibir 5-12, was set usíng the following lísted ínfor- " Instrument vessel sketch.
mation (it is recommended that a freehand sketch be • Pípíng and ínstrumentation díagrams.
used for thís exercíse): • Plant layout specíficatíon,
" Nozzle summary.
• Drurn dimensions-4-ft (1,220-mm) díameter by 10-
ft (3,050-mm) length. " Insulatíon requirements,
• Support details=-Saddles and concrete píers, • Plot plan.

• NPSH-9 ft (2,700 mm).

Exhíbít 5-14 depícts the preferred nozzle locatíons for
• Bottom outlet-4 in. horizontal drums.
• Location-Freestanding. The preferred locatíon for level instrumenrs is away
• Mínimum dearance-7 ft (2,100 mm). from the turbulence ar the líquid outlet nozzle. Al-
though the vessel is províded wíth a vortex breaker,
instruments should be set in the quiet zone of the
NOZZLE LOCATIONS vessel=-for example, on the opposíte síde of the weír
or baffle or near the vapor outlet end. Process nozzles
Drum dímensíons, nozzle sízes, and, if required, ínter- should be located a mínimum from the tangent líne.
nals are shown on the process vessel sketch furníshed Stearn-out connectíons should be located at the end
by process engíneeríng and íncluded in the process opposíte the maíntenance access and vent in the bot-

Preferred Nozzle
Locatíons for a
Horizontal Drurn

tom section of the drum. Pressure instrurnents should

EXHIBIT 5-15 Typical Hillside Nozzle be located anywhere in the vapor space, preferably at
the top section of the drum. Ternperature instruments
should be located anywhere in the liquid space, pref-
erably at the bottom section of the drum. The vent
connectíon should be located in the top section of the
drum at the end opposite the steam-out connection.
The drain should be located in the bottom section of
the drum.
To facilitare specífic elevation requirements for
leve! instruments or positioning a maintenance access,
nozzles may be located off the main axis. These noz-
zles are generally referred to as hillside nozzles. A
typical hillside nozzle is shown in Exhibir 5-15. Talt
vertical drum nozzles should be elevated and oriented
using the tower subject as a guide. It should be noted,
-------- .....~/ ::'?·_4 ·.
.... ~ ..
however, that nozzle locations are not restricted by
.... ínternal componenrs, as is the case for the distillation
tower. More information on vertical drums is avaílable
-; ,,,. in Chapter 10, Towers,
The nozzles shown in Exhibir 5-16 were positioned

ProcessPlant Layout and Piptng Design

."'fó11 ,
1V•'l ?.~11 h.
11 ~~9" 911 22.'' 1111
Sample Nozzle Locations
.l'X> ;h:J .2Bo and Elevations
/¡.. LI E

- 1.1



using the guídlínes discussed in thís chapter as well as • Piping and Instrumentatíon Diagram (P&ID)-Ex-
other ínformatíon contaíned in thís book. The infor- hibit 5-28.
matíon requíred can be located as follows: .. Nozzle summary-Exhibit 5-13.
" Plant layout specification-Chapter 2.
Process vessel sketch-Exhibit 5-13. " Insulation-No requirernents,
• Instrument vessel sketch-·Exhibit 5-29. Plot plan-Exhibir 5-4

Platforrn Arrangement at
a Horizontal Drurn

MAtN ~A.'íl~úi
P\ATFo~M W:.V!:.L.

For tall vertical drums, platforms are usually circu-

EXHIBIT 5-18 Platform Arrangement ata Vertical lar and supported by brackets attached to the shell of
the drum. Platforms ar horizontal drums are usually
rectangular and are supported by brackets attached to
the concrete píers supporting the drum or trunnions
attached to the shell of the drum, or by structural steel
supported from grade. Drums located in structures, if
size perrníts, use the structure floor for access to con-
trols. Top head platforms on horizontal and vertical
installatíons are supported by trunnions attached to
the vessel head. Generally, access to freestandíng
drum platforms is by ladder. Typical drum platform
arrangements are shown in Exhíbit 5-19.
Platforrn elevatíons for drums are set by the items
that requíre operation and maintenance. On tal! verti-
cal and high elevated horizontal drums, the platform
PLATFORM ARRANGEMENTS elevations are deterrníned by a rnaxírnum Iadder run
of 30 ft (9,150 mm). Exhibit 5-20 illustrates horizontal
Platforms are requíred at drums for access to valves, drum platform and ladder elevatíon requirernents.
Instruments, blínds, and maíntenance accesses. Ex- Platforrn floor space requirements are dictated by op-
híbít 5-17 íllustrates a platform arrangement at a hori- erator access to controls, instruments, and rnaínte-
drum, and Exhíbít 5-18 dísplays the arrange- nance accesses, Exhíbíts 5-21 and 5-22 show platform
rnent for a vertical drum. floor space requírements for horizontal and vertical

and Plptng Design



~h.!G~TE PIE.ii!$ t:?t~2F
a. Horizontal Drum Platform Supports

~PA:>l2. ~p ~i.A

b, Vertical Drum Platform Supports

c. Strucmre-Located Drum

d. Common Platform


$TEP-"TH~(.:aH EXHIBIT 5-20

L.Apoe.~ g,ui.J Horizontal Drum
Platform and Ladder

Elevatíon Requírements


IOF' OF <::<::>l'J.::'.~E:Té
=o p¡e:,¡;¡?
{'(\ M A.1....a TE' wA..t..&C.E:.
1 4 )t
.• Ac:.c.i:-ss, V.AL.ve:, ~UND
J LADDé-JÍ! ~~,T~~.Ef....iT Aue.~~
~ ~
i e l~TE!<ME.D1ATE- Pl..ATR::i!<M
4 ()" iO~IT MA)(.lMi..iM
1....t..i:;>Q e~ Rl.JN

ínstallatíons. For tal! vertical drums, platforms should drums' location to related equipment. Píping should
be arranged using the tower subject as a guíde, this is be positioned to facilitate the ínstallatíon of supports,
covered in Chapter 10. with sufficíent flexíbíliry to absorb any excessíve
Exhibít 5-23 depicts a horizontal drurn platforrn ar- stresses during operation. Piping at tall vertical drums
rangement that was desígned using the guidelines in should be arranged in accordance wíth the guídelines
thís chapter. This information can be found as follows. gíven in Chapter 10.
If required, pipíng at horizontal freestandíng
• Process vessel sketch-Exhibit 5-13. drums should be supported from the shell of the
• Drum elevation-Exhibit 5-12. drum, the platform steel, or the concrete píers sup-
• Plot plan-Exhibit 5-4. porting the drum. Píping assocíated wíth drums lo-
• Type of support-Saddles and concrete piers. cated within structures should be supported from the
structural steel, Exhibit 5-24 shows typícal pipe sup-
ports at a horizontal drurn, and Exhíbit 5-25 shows a
PIPING ARRANGEMENTS typical pump suction arrangernent,
Relíef valves that are open to the atmosphere on
Píping at drums should be arranged in conjunctíon low elevated horizontal or vertical drums should be
with nozzle locations, platform arrangements, and the positioned to allow the discharge pípíng to be routed

Horizontal Drum
.7fJo Platforrn Floor Space
Area Requírements

TeMpEO!Z.ATJ 12.E:


t.-.;., 4> ••

', ti ....

lltJE. LJP PLti.TFofi?M :• .~

.t ": ,..

EXHIBIT 5-22 Vertical Drurn Platforrn Floor Space Area EXHIBl'.r 5-23 Horizontal Drum Platform Arrangemen»
31_:;~ l]~r,,1

i ~~""'"""' "''·~
~ rn , . :-+-
~ ..+-<!:=

: 1
-~ J{ 1
Tf::MPe~..ATua.e ._ ~~ 1
11\1$TIQ..IM~TS . ·-·-

Horizontal. Drum Pipe
SUPFt:>l2TS r'20M Supports
71.tel..l- oi;:.: Dei.JM

,. .. '~
.: ·'
.• e

S.WPPol2.T~ ~120""1
P\..ti.T FO 2.M _€?~A,<::.!(. e:. T
EXHIBIT 5-25 EXHIBIT 5-26 Relief Valve Systems

~lióD °'l~TE.M
V&Llll!. l..oc:A.T1t1>J
IF p~.,¡"' P'U.ll'OIZ.M 1-¡,
~l..oW REWEF llo..Ly!Z
11&1..IE.F Vtw..lJE
~~"- IZwu:

• Nozzle summary-Exhibit 5-13.

" Drum elevation-Exhibit 5··12.
• Plant layout specification-Chapter 2.

The sample pípíng and instrumentatíon díagram dis-

cussed in thís chapter is íllustrated in Exhibit 5-28.


Level, pressure, and temperature instrumenrs are used

to control the operatíon of the drum and should be
placed in a posínon for optirnum operatíon and main-
tenance. Instrument requirernents are usually hígh-
to a convenient, safe location. Closed system relíef líghted on an instrument vessel sketch furníshed by
valves should be located ar a conveníent platform adja- the instrument engíneer assígned to the project. Ex-
cent to the drum above the relief valve header. Relief hibit 5-29 is a typícal ínstrument vessel sketch.
valve inlet pípíng more than 20 ft (6,100 mm) long Level controllers, swítches, and gauges are eíther
should be checked by the systems engineering group located individually or grouped from a common
to determine whether the line síze needs to be in- bridle or standpípe. The controller must be operable
creased for pressure drops. Exhíbit 5-26 shows typical from grade' or a platforrn, switches, gauges, and pres-
arrangements for both systerns. sure and ternperature connectíons may be operable
The pípíng arrangemem shown in Exhibir 5-27 was from a ladder íf no platform is available ar the re-
desígned usíng the guídelínes in thís chapter, The re- quíred elevatíon.
quirements can be found as follows: The instrument arrangemenr shown in Exhibir 5-30
was desígned usíng the guidelines in thís chapter as
" Process vessel sketch=-Exhíbír 5-13. follows:
" Nozzle locations-Exhibit 5-16.
.. Instrument vessel sketch=-Exhibit 5-29. "' Nozzle locatíons=-Exhíbít 5-16.
.. P&ID-Exhibit 5-28. .. Instrument vessel sketch-e-Exhíbit 5-29.
.. Equípment arrangement=-Bxhíbít 5-4. " Platform arrangemem-Exhibit 5-23.
• Platform arrangement-Exhibit 5-23. " Pípíng arrangemem-Exhibit 5-27.

Sample Drum Pípíng

PLATf'c:>l2.t.1 EL.


ProcessPlant layout and Ptping Design

Sample Pípíng and
Instrumentation Diagrarn


4ll'rYP.) i;¿l(T'(P,)
P..'2oi "JA/6 P- 2óo ;J"Aje,
&ono..-i~ P-aM"'° l'Z.EFW><. PuMP?

Sample Instrument Vessel
1Q6 77111' urn
E.XHíBit 5-30
1.1 Lil

m ,
EXHU:UT 5-31 Horizontal Drum Davit EXHIBl'r 5··32 Drum wíth Mixer

EXHIBIT 5·33 Typical Drum Boot Layout


Maintenance of drums is limíted to rernoval of such

exterior cornponents as large relíef or control valves
for off-síte repair. Handling of these items can be
achíeved eíther by fixed davits or by mobile equíp-
rnent. Davit arrangements for tall vertical drums
should be in accordance with tower requírements. Da-
vits are not usually furníshed at horizontal drums, if

Process Plant layout and Ptptng Design

Sample Slopíng Drum

requíred, should be arranged in accordance with given to the arrangement of additional platforrning for
those in Exhibit 5-31. access to rhe instrumentaríon on the boot. Exhibir 5-33
Rernoval space should be provided above drums shows a rypical drum boot layout.
furnished wíth rnixers. If the drum is located within a In certaín cases, drums must slope, as shown in
structure, a removable section of the floor above Exhibir 5-34. If the nozzles are not perpendicular to
should be províded. Exhibit 5-32 íllustrates a drum the horizontal plane, ali vertical pípíng runs from
with a mixer. these nozzles must be calculated because they will be
offset ar an angle.
The dimensions, clearances, and guídelínes hígh-
FURIBER CONSIDERATIONS lighted in this chapter are an example of what can be
used far drum arrangement. The plant layout desígner
For varíous process reasons, horizontal drums often should be familiar with cornpany and client standards,
are fumished with what appears to be a small vertical however, before proceedíng with drum layout and
drum, called a boot, attached to the underside of the should coordinare the effort with such supportíng
vessel. Because the boot is inaccessíble to the maín groups as vessel, systems, process, and instrument en-
drum platforrníng, specíal consíderatíon must be gíneering,

Heat exchangers are similar to purnps and vessels in rnatíon requíred by the plant layout desígner to locate,
that they are widely used in most process plants. The elevare, operare, and maintain the most common ex-
control of withín any facility is an important part changers and to position the pipíng and controls asso-
of plant operation, whether by direct applícatíon ( e.g., cíated with these íterns. The most common applica-
in a furnace) or by hear ínterchange (e.g., in a shell tíons far heat exchangers, íllustrated on a process flow
and tube exchanger). The principal application of a díagrarn in Exhíbít 6-1, are:
heat exchanger is to rnaíntaín a heat balance through
the addition or removal of heat by exchange with out- .. Cooler-Cools process streams by transferríng heat
side sources or between streams of two dífferent oper- to cooling water, atmosphere, and other media.
atíng ternperatures. ,. Exchanger-Exchanges heat from a hot to a cold
This chapter híghlíghts the general layout require- process stream,
ments for heat exchangers. It also ídentífies the infor- "' Reboiler-Boils process liquid in tower bottoms us-

Exchanger Applícatíons
Shown on a Process Flow


G.•·111 .. 1.. Eíl

EXHIBIT 6-2 Common Heat Exchangers

a. Shell and Tube Exehanger

b. Plate Exchanger

c. Spíral Exchanger d. Double Pipe Exchanger

r ·- ·
¡-- - 1

i t----r'- _ _...___...__ _ ___.i...¡

e. Aír Cooler Exchanger

ing steam, hot oíl, or a hot process stream as the atures by evaporating a refrigerant.
heatíng medium.
• Heater-Heats a process stream by condensing EXCIIANGER CONSTRtJCTION
• Condenser-Condenses vapors by transferring heat The most common heat exchangers used in process-
to cooling water, atmospheric air, or other media. ing facilities are illustrated in Exhibir 6-2 and dis-
" Chiller-Cools a process stream to very low ternper- cussed in the following sections.

Process Plant Layout Piping Design

of Tube and Shell
Exchanger Passes

l..L. SI DE..

EXHUUT 6-4 Key Iterns for a Typical Shell and Tube Exchanger

T¡,Jfl;>S -?14E:ET

~eAD cove...z

l='IX.E.!2 T...Ji3>E
0:.14e.e. T

Shell and Tube Exchangers welded steel plates for the larger sízes. Tube bundle
sizes can vary from 8 to 96 in (200 mm to 2,400 mm) in
Shell and tube exchangers are elongated steel cylín- diameter and from 6 to 50 ft (1,800 mm to 15,000 mm)
drical vessels containing bundles of parallel tubes. Líq- in length. The ends of the shell can be desígned to
uid passes through the inside of the shell over the accommodate welded, díshed, or flanged shell covers
exterior side of the tubes, with another liquid passíng as well as flanged or welded heads. Both the tube side
through the interior of the tubes, causing the neces- and the shell síde of the exchangers have inlet and
sary interchange of heat berween the two Iiquíds. The outlet nozzles positíoned to províde the reqüíred flow
heads at the ends of the exchanger can be designed to through the exchanger. The unít is supported at the
accommodate severa] passes on the tube side. Multi- shell by artached saddles for horizontal lnsrallatíons
ple passes on the shell side can be achieved by ínstall- and by lugs for vertical arrangements. Tube bundles
ing baffles parallel to the tubes. Baffles may also be are rnade up of many small-diameter tubes thar are
installed inside the shell, perpendicular to the tubes, expanded into tube sheets ar each end of the bundle.
to direct the liquid in the shell against the tubes. Multi- One end is usually fixed, the other is allowed to float
ple passes are used to increase the fluid velocity or to for expansion. For the more simplified U-tube ar-
improve the flow path, causing increased heat recov- rangernent, only one tube sheet is used, which is inte-
ery, Exhibir 6-3 shows an exchanger with two passes grated wíth the channel head, Exhibit 6-4 shows a typi-
on the tube side and one on the shell side. cal shell and tube exchanger identifying the key iterns
The shells of most heat exchangers are constructed of consrrucnon.
of seamless pipe for small diameters and shaped With many shells, shell covers, and head covers

avaílable, can be arranged in various com-

EXHIBIT 6-5 Typical Shell and Tube Exchanger
binations to provide a wide range of servíces, The U-
tube, fixed tube, and kettle arrangernents are illus-
trated in Exhibir 6-5.

Plate Exchangers
Plate exchangers, shown in Exhibit 6-6, are generally
used in low-pressure, low-temperature applicatíons
and are made up of end covers, carryíng ínlet
and outlet nozzles, plates, and gaskets. The exchanger
a. U-Tube plates have spacing between them for liquid flow, A
gasket, set into channels on the periphery of each
plate, directs and contains the liquid flow distribution.
Ports far ínlet and outlet of both hot and cold liquids
are starnped into the corners of each plate. When
alígned, they form four dístributíon headers through
the plate pack. Distribution of hot and cold liquids to
alternate plate flow channels is achieved by the gasket-
ing partern around each port. When rhe Iíquíd is in-
tended-to flow through to the next plate, the gasket is
left íntact around the port. Alignment is achíeved by
b. Fíxed Tube top and bottom carrying bars and slots in each plate.
When cornpletely assembled, the plate pack and gas-
kets are compressed by bolts berween the rwo covers.
Support is provided by the fixed end cover and carry-
ing bar. The plate exchanger requires less installation
and servicing space than do shell and tube arrange ..
ments of equivalent surface.

Spíral Heat Exchangers

Spíral heat exchangers are generally used in chemícal
plants and are of circular constructíon, consisting of an
assernbly of two long stríps of plare wrapped to form a
c. Kettle pair of concentríc spíral passages, Alternare edges of
the passages are closed, so that liquid flows through
continuous channels. Rernovable covers are fitted to
each side of the spíral assembly for access to the spiral
plate. As shown in Exhibir 6-7, the inlet and outlet
nozzles are integral to the plate housíng and the cov-
ers. The unit is supported by legs artached to the plate

Process Plant Layout and Piping Design


Plate Exchanger

~• . .


housing for horizontal installatíons and by lugs for

EXHIBIT 6-7 Spiral Exchanger Construction vertical ínstallatíons, Similar to the plate exchanger,
the spíral exchanger is compact and requires less in-
stallation and servícíng space than conventíonal ex-
changers of equívalent surface.

Double Pipe Exchangers

The double pipe, or fin-tube, exchanger is used when
one liquid has a greater resístance ro heat flow than
another or when the surface area is small, In such
cases, the addition of fins to the inner pipe evens out
the resistance to heat flow of the rwo líquíds, As shown
in Exhibir 6-8, the double pipe exchanger consists of a
pipe within a pipe; both pipes have a return bend at
one end, The ínner pipe is fitted with fins, the outer
pipe acts as the shell, The shell nozzles are mounted
vertically from the outer pipe, and the tube nozzles
are directly welded to the ínner pipe ends. The units
are generally supported horízontally by brackets at-

Double Pipe zxcnanger

Aír Cooler Exchanger

HEA.Di:l2 e>o.i<

tached to a foundatíon or to the side of other equíp- installed and Iocated síde by side.
ment supports. Air is círculated by rnultíblade propeller-type fans
that provide forced or índuced drafts. Fans can be
supplied with eíther adiustablé-speed or variable-pírch
A.ir Cooler Exchangers
blades. The fan blade pitch can be changed to vary the
Air cooler units are entirely dífferent from the previ- air-flow rate to compensate for rising or falling air
ously rnentíoned arrangements in that the cooling temperatures. Air coolers supplied with multiple fans
agent used is circulating air instead of a liquid. As seen may be operated with sorne of the fans shut down.
in Exhibit 6-9, an air cooler unit consists of fin-tube Dampers, baffles, and bypasses can also be used to
bundles with a header box attached to each end, sup- further control liquid outlet temperature, For elevated
ported horlzontally by a steel frame or structure. For ínstallatíons, platforms are generally furnished for ac-
the single-pass arrangement, the ínlet nozzles are cess to header boxes and motors.
mounted on the top of the header box, the outlet
nozzles are at the opposíte end and mounted on the
bottom of the header box. For the double-pass ar- EXCHANGER LOCATION AND SUPPORT
rangement, the outlet nozzles are located at the same
end as the inlet nozzles, For additional surface area, Heat exchangers are located within the conventíonal
more passes can be added or addítional uníts can be process unit plot area, close to related equíprnent, to

Process Plant Layout and

Plot Plan of
Severa! Exchanger

Tu e;e eu....ipt..e EXHIBIT 6-11

Sample Exchanger
&ND l'Ztalv10\/AI.. A~f:A Orientation


AwX:I LI Al<.Y ~A9

Oíil. MA11>.1TE:t-..1A..J<::.,E:.
~<=.~~~ WA.Y


Uih& ]1--
EXHIBJ.T EXHIBIT 6-14 Sample Structure-Mounted Exchanger
Installation Installation

¡..if;.E ~"!.PI-E
IZ !':.MOV.l>I.. . Arz¡¿~

EXHIBIT 6-H Parallel and Series Exchanger

Installations support economic pipe runs, flexibility, process re-
quírernents, and operator and rnaíntenance access.
Support of the equípment ( e.g., for air coolers or verti-
cal reboilers) can also ínfluence heat exchanger loca-
tíon, Exhibir 6-10 depicts a rypícal plot plan wíth sev-
era! heat exchanger applicatíons. Horizontal shell and
tube exchangers should be positíoned so that the
channel end faces the auxiliary road or maíntenance
access way for tube bundle removal with adequate
space providéd at the front end of the exchanger for
bonnet removal. This exchanger oríentatíon is shown
in Exhibir 6-11.
Exchangers can be located as single iterns, in pairs
(thís is the most common installation), or in larger
groups when no intermediare control is required be-
rween the shell and tube streams. The single and
paired ínstallatíon is shown in Exhibit 6-12. Paired ex-
changers rnay operare in series, parallel, or dissimilar
servíces, grouped exchangers operare only in series or
parallel. Exhibit 6-13 shows samples of parallel and
series exchanger installaríons.
Paired or grouped exchangers should be spaced to

Process Plant layout and Piping Design

allow a mínimum of 18 in ( 450 mm) between the
EXHIBIT 6-15 Stacked Exchanger Installations outside of adjacent channel or bonnet flanges to facíli-
.._PA.::.e F"-~A.1..u::. tate access to ñange bolts for maintenance. Space
should be provided on eíther síde of paíred exchang-
Á~E':.?? ers and ar both ends of grouped exchangers for con-
trol and operator access, Exhíbit 6-14 illustrates a
structure-rnounted Installatíon and lts requíred access
Horizontal exchangers rnay be stacked to a pre-
ferred máximum top shell centerlíne elevatíon of 12 ft
(3,600 mm) from grade or platform, as depícted in
Exhibft 6-15. Stackíng of exchangers above this heíght
-, may require platforming for access to channel · and
bonnet tlanges and fixed handling devices,
pio/.?IMll.A~ :S.Elo:.\/IC.~\,, Horizontal shell and tube exchangers may be lo-
cated ar grade or elevated in steel or concrete struc-
tures when process requírements or space availabilíry
dictate. Support of horízontal exchangers, as shownin
Exhibít 6-16, is by saddles attached to concrete piers
EXHIBIT 6-16 Typícal Horizontal Exchaager Supports for grade-mounted ínstallatíons and by saddles at-
tached to steel frames in elevated installations, When
possíble, supports should be ínline for cornmon foun-
datíon desígn.
If process requírements perrnít, shell and tube ex-
changers can also be mounted in a vertical posiríon,
supported by lugs and tower nozzles in a tower-sup-
ported ínstallation (as shown in Exhibit 6-17), wíthin
l'l~ ·"'ºº concrete or steel structures (as shown in Exhibir 6-18),
and by concrete piers (as shown in Exhibir 6-19). The
same considerations for maíntenance, control, and op-
117 C Le:.Al'ANC. E.
~~"'- Oú\!f,\OE: OF' erator access should be gíven for vertical installatíons
FLA.JC..E. o><: as are for horizontal mstallatíons.
An ímportant feature to remember when working
wíth tower-supported vertical reboílers, not requínng
Doue>~E PIPE spríngs, is híghlíghted in Exhibit 6-17A
E:XcMAl>.J6~) L The layout desígner must set the reboíler sup-
port lug elevatíon 1 in/.025 above the platforrn
steel, and not ar the steel elevatíon.
2. Before maíntenance, the 1-in/.025 gap will be
shimmed, thereby enabling the reboiler load to
Tower-Supported Vertical

PL,c.: l"c':lr<::t<A

12 a f;>o4 1...E:. R
l-llTC..~ Po1...iT"!- ~
C:ovE12: ¡:¡:¡;Mol/AL.

11'.o" /3/,.00
'.o'Y MAl<IMulvl
MllJIMUM P1,A"TFc:>l2M

Tube Bundle


Process Plant Layout and Piptng. Design


Vertical Installation




1 f'J.1­o11 l'V\A')(.IMt.lM

__ .lj.l_L.. _ __::::=:::::::::::=:::....i¡L_~-b:.. . . . .;_1_o'/.
900 MtN IM U 1>11

be carried by the platforrn steel duríng rnainte- rangements for control and operator access, with
nance turnaround, enough room allowed at the spíral exchanger to swing
3. The nozzle and channel ílange will be unbolted · the cover plates open, as shown in Exhibit 6-20, and ar
and the channel section removed. the plate exchanger to remove the individual places, as
shown in Exhibit 6-21.
4. The tube bundle is then ready to be removed.
Air coolers are located adjacent to the equíprnent
Spíral and plate exchangers can opérate in series or that they serve for píping flexibilíry and maintenance.
parallel, because of their configuratíon and maín- can be supported from grade, ar the top leve! of
tenenace requirernents, it is preferable to posítion structures, or above pipe racks, which is the most
thern as single iterns. Space is províded at both ar- common ínstallatíon. The tube bundle bank can be
····· 7 ,, &B A W
Píer-Mounted Vertical
Installatíon .

l'l1~o/;.boo MAl\lt./lUM
-r T!4oUí Pl.AJ.FQ¡M
. . . ~~v~--~-~~
.. ;-o'1
. . . . . . . . . --~~--..i,.__~- .900 MINIMUM

Control and Operator
Access in a Spiral

covr=,rz. PI.ATE
$W1,.,,¡6 AR6A (íyP,)

SF't>..::::..E (TYP,J

A!Ze.A Control and Operator
Access in a Plate

'SP,6.C..E (TYF?)

llJDWO:::E:D Dr<AFí EXHIBIT 6-22

A1g c:::.ooi..e.1<
Column-Supported Air
Cooler Arrangement


AODlí\ON.b.!.. Plb.TFO~M
IF LA!)pe,12.. IZL.1N I?
Loi..,¡ Gi E.!< 114-AN
A! R <::.oó l..E fZ Typícal Leg-Supported
Air Cooler Arrangement

;!01Y~.100 ~H "'b Q
or>e." A"i"e;J'2. ~~'$ -d'I' <i':

supported by steel legs from the air cooler vendor or platform arrangements.
by extendíng the pipe rack or structure columns to the When designing the air cooler configuration, the
undersíde of the bank. Generally, the air cooler ven- plant layout designer must consider the source of the
der furníshes header box and motor access platforms. supporting column. A5 seen in Exhibir 6-26, arrange-
Ladders are províded for exir to grade to suít maxi- ment A, developed by the contractor, allows changes
mum ladder runs and safery requírements, Exhibits to platforming and pipe support loading late in a pro]-
6-22 through 6-25 show various air cooler support and ect without affecting the air cooler vendor's scheduled
platforrn configuratíons, whích include colurnn-sup- delívery dates to the job site. In arrangement B, any
ported, leg-supported, fixed-platforrn, and traveling- such late changes would cause the air cooler vendor

ProcessPlant Layout and Plplng Deslgn

EXHIBlT 6-24
Typical Fíxed-Platforrn
Air Cooler Arrangernent

LA.t>OE.2 To

...i EADE&.2. Bo)(

Pl..A"T"FOR.IY1 ('Ty~')
LA.DpEe. To
Ci~A.DE. tv« P.)

M A.lt...iTE-"'JA i.J GE. /,i.112-4'.00l..S.~

P'l..A.TFOl<M ':SoU PPo!Z.T ~AIVI

Travelíng-Platform Air
Cooler Arrangement

PL..b.i"f=0'2 M

LADDE..12. T<?
~IS.A.DE,.g, e,~x

Process Plant layout and Ptping Design


lliill lllli!l I g

Consíderatíons for
Vender- or
Supportíng Columns

@ @

to redesign the support legs or platformíng, causing improved arrangement by relocatíng exchanger noz-
delays in delívery and extra costs, zles, Exhibir 6-28 shows allowable nozzle configura-
NOZZLE ORIENTATION Elbow or gooseneck nozzles are especíally useful
in reducíng the height of large stacked exchangers.
Nozzle orientation and location can affect the pípíng Exhibít 6-29 híghlíghts the effects of usíng elbow noz-
configuratíons at rnost exchanger arrangernents. A de- zles on stacked exchangers,
císion by the pípíng desígner to relocate the ex- Air cooler nozzle locatíons can also affect pípíng
changer nozzles can ofien produce a neat and cost- configuratíons, A single-pass arrangement can rnake
effectíve arrangement. Although the pípíng desígner the rerurn pípíng on an overhead condenser very long
does not have the freedorn to independently relocate and C'J.n also íncrease the heíght of the air cooler.
exchanger nozzles, suggested alternare nozzle loca- Reorienting the aír cooler or makíng the unit a dou-
tíons can be rnade to the exchanger engíneer in the ble-pass arrangement can irnprove the piping configu-
ínterest of improving externa! pípíng arrangements- ratíons. Exhibít 6-30 shows alternative nozzle configu-
for example, alternative B in Exhibir 6-27 híghlíghts an rations for aír cooler piping.
Alternative Arrangements
for Locating Exchanger

'' 11

Allowable Nozzle


Process Plant Layout and

Effect of Elbow Nozzles
on Stacked Exchangers


/JQM' /l}}/¡Qll



SIN6L~~EASS OUT~~T Alternative Air Cooler
"-IO"Z.2.1..!: l.oGAllO~ llJLe,T t-..iOZZLE Nozzle Configuratíons

()(:)uf;>L.1!>-P.tlJI;':> OuTl..ª.:T
1­JO"Z. &:.L.E l-OC,.A. T iOl-J

.·.. · Towe~


Exchanger pípíng must be routed in such a rnanner tions. Large-díameter or more expensíve piping can-
that it meets economy, flexibiliry, support, and opera- not be set to accommodate smaller or less expensive
tion and maíntenance access requirements. Piping at piping. Pipíng connected to channel head nozzles
shell and tube exchangers is positioned to allow ade- should be furnished wíth break flanges to facilitare the
quate space for removal of channel heads and shell removal of the channel head.
covers. The free space at the síde of horizontal shells Piping at spíral and plate exchangers is also posi-
can be used for placement of controls. Pipíng is ele- tioned tO allow the openíng of covers and the removal
vated a mínimum dístance from grade or platform to of plates. Controls at the spíral exchanger are Iocated
províde operator headroom clearances, to offer ease on the ends of the unir, clear ofthe cover plate swing
of support, and to meet desígnated pipe rack eleva- area, and at the front and on one side for the plate
Pípíng Arrangement for
Horizontal Shell and
Tube Bxchangers

4_ F"1f"'E. RAc.l'.
- C:::.0\..UMN'°7

P1PE k!ACli:::
--~1P1NC:. AT
( <::..::>NIMON EL.S.VAT1o>J
-1--""'-'4'-·.,..:, Te:::> '>Ut'T P1F'S 12Ac.K
5.1..é VA ÍION-S,
i>AA.li.JTAIN GLE::A.~Jl>.Nc.E

AL'TE.lb.lA. 'TI VE. MA.1 >.J E.i...JA...U:.t:

i.oG.A.."TION Fe>!< AG.Ge~'S
~ ...:r-~1.~ c::::>Pe':l'<:.A olZ.

exchanger. Piping is elevated in a fashion similar to over tube banks or fans and should be kept clear of
the shell and tube arrangernents. Piping attached to the designated space for motor maintenance. Exhibits
the cover plate nozzles of the spiral units is furníshed 6-31 through 6-44 show various pípíng configurations
with break flanges. Piping at air coolers is not routed far heat exchangers.

Process Plant Layout and Ptptng Design

Piping Arrangement for
Underground Cooling
Water System

Fp12 e>o..JTTE:.IZ.-F~

C.Ot-J9E~2Aíe. S.íE.AM C.ONTl'Zot. EXHIBIT 6-33

C.01>·.ff!<.ol. Vb..l..VF!:. VAi...\@_ Piping Arrangernent for
Steam and Condensare


TI(:u~~IO~ ce:>¡..,¡DE~SATE Pe::tT
::¡,¡..1pfo!ié:,'T ~ET f:1r' ~O'­&p?
e.o...,. O \"TI en"~

Sarnple of Pípíng
Econorny Arrangernent

l~cp ALLoy

011ef' cAl'Z.eot..1 ?TEEI..

EXHIBIT 6-35 Supports for a Piping Arrangemenr EXHIBIT 6-36 Pípíng Arrangernent for Horizontal
l"JTEIZl<l¬ :: D1A TE $'-'Pf'o'1.T
l2i:c:::lu1R.aD i=o¡;¡; PIPIN"'
T"'.ta.T I"> .::Wl.!<li!,,Pb.N>JE.p
?.>-e.lWE:E"-' P1PE: RA.c.K A...ip
E....: C:.t.4111....a 61S2"-

EXHIBIT 6-37 Pípíng Arrangement for Vertical

brflt.G.~ '!>Tl!Et.
!'!<?.A.ME TO
'!ó>uPF'c:>¡;¡: ~

ProcessPlant Layout ami Piping De:!dp

\!Bl!lilll E il!DI crrnw
Píping Arrangerncnt for
Hígh-Pressure Feed

I ¡

PGi?c>v 1 O E. Loo P
11\.J P1P1N6 FO!<: ~wppoeT b..Tc~e.g
FL E X 111; ll.1 TY i:= XC M..JG t 12 c+­4~ W E::l.

' ------

11 ,,

Lo<::...e..lE P1P11>.J& 5E.,...iet.;..TW EXHIBIT6·39
Pípíng Arrangement for
Pl..A.i"Pc>1'M F.:::::i!Z E-.A~E
Peed Exchangers
01= 1Pupf'\?~'T

EXHIBiT 6-40
Arrangement for

ProcessPtant Layout and PlpingDesign

Pípíng Arrangement for
Plate Exchangers



EXHIBIT 6..42 Air Cooler Piping Configurations


Overhead Pípíng
Arrangements for a
Condensíng Air Cooler

~l..E.il. ~f'Fbl2.T t:::o".;:n' • E.FFEiGí\'IJE

:.TE.E.l. To SuPf>02.i' ALTEli!.tJATIVE. 12oUTIN(:a
ove:R\.IE.Af) LINE IF P1P 1t.A(.:i I ";:;. Fl..E:'Klf?l.E:
,A..¡..¡I) c..AN $pA,...,¡ 0!',frA.i.JCE.
WIT.\.k:>t..JT l"­&IE.~ ME Olb.'1'1.:


i=oe l='LEY-1e>ILI .,-..¡e:.

A11Z. i::.001..eli::. ~ e:.e
f)OSl"í\Oi..it;O 'N\"TM 114E
~E.T 1'JOZ,2.L.!!!:'$ º"-' 11-l-E
t=A,.¡¡:. ~T~li!Lt""6E:ºF
'"n+E.. PIPE fil.A.e.~ Gc&..uMto..1S.
T~a A1!2. ~l.E.íl. -=-6'.J10111.S
$iolo-ut..!:) br:. ~~li?&~ATS..I)
At.J!> T!otE. Sf E.'EJ.. EJCTEl.JOEO
TO ~t...lPPO~T .,...¡.¡¡;
óvE:sz.14E:l.li.O P1f>1""4'3.

Inlet and Outlet Piping
Arrangement for a
Product Air Cooler

SwPPo!G.T looL.11.Jó.
Ff".OM P1..ATFok:'.IV!

EXCHANGER MAINTENANCE dling devices far removal of tube bundles. Minar re-
pairs (e.g., tube plugging) are usually accomplished
Like an automobíle radíator, the ínternals of heat ex- with the aír cooler in place; far majar repairs, air
changers require periodic cleaníng and repaír, It is cooler sections are removed by mobile cranes, as
ímportant for exchangers and related components to shown in Exhibit 6-49. Interna! servicing at piare ex-
be positioned to facilitare access to their interna! parts. changers can be done manually. In the event of a tube
For the shell and tube heat exchangers, the tubes faílure, individual tubes are closed by inserting a plug
and the interior of the shell can be cleaned in place through the end of the header box and hammering it
with hígh-pressure steam or water and rodding de- ínto place, asshown in Exhibir' 6-50.
vices. If the design of the exchanger permits, the tube The use of tube bundle extractors eliminates the
bundle can also be removed for repair or cleaning. need for perrnanent tube bundle removal structures,
Tube bundles and head and shell covers can be re- with considerable saving to the plant. These mecha-
moved by built-in fixed handling devices (e.g., davits, nisrns weigh seven tons and are capable of pull forces
hitch points, pulling posts), fixed structures with trol- greater than 500,000 lbs. The extractor is lifted into
ley beams and travelíng gantry cranes, or by mobile position by crane and clamped to the shell flange of
equíprnent (e.g., cranes and hydraulic bundle extrae- the exchanger, which is stripped far bundle removal.
tors). Exhibits 6-45 through 6-48 provide examples of Held in posítion by the crane and balanced by the
tube bundle removal equipment. Considerable saving extractor's leveling cradle, the bundle is pulled out of
can be achíeved if the plant is serviced by mobile its shell with pul! rod attachrnents that use hydraulic
equipment. force. The whole unít is then lowered to grade and can
Air cooler units are not furnished with fixed han- be relifted onto a truck for ofl-síte repaír or cleaning.

MT mm
Bundle Pulling Post

6uNDli. l.6N6Tt4 F.XHIBIT 6-46

+ ''J:-o'1 ¡. (;, 10 Fixed Structure with a
Trolley Bearn

Pu L.L1"46 \;>EA..M

ProcessPlant layout ami Ptping Design

Fíxed Structure with a
Traveling Gantry

EXHIBIT 6-48 Removal of a Tube Bundle by Crane EXHIBIT 6-49 Removal of Air Cooler Sections with a
Mobile Crane

k1~Le¡ wonbf;
Air Cooler Tube Plugging

~ ~1ue-e: B.u§

Gi u ioe: Tec>J.

Bundle Removal Using an
Extractor and a Mobile

e.u1.11) 1..E.

Process Plant Layout and Piptng Design


Tube Bundle Extractor

ltem No.
3 Main supentructun 8 Orive chain
9 l'lanp clamp 9 Flanc• clamp
19 Hyclr1Wlic moten 10 Sting eylinden
21 Tandempumps 11 Hydrauliccontrol vahies
23 Ali' motor 15 llalance ccylinclers

Main trame 18 lleaction lugs

6 Cylinder main car 26 Alr cylincler lor reaction lugs

1 Main eylincler

EXHIBIT 6-53 Tower-Mounted Air Cooler EXHIBIT 6-54 Stab-In Reboiler


most commonly used in process plants. A wide range

of iterns, however, can be identífied as heat exchange
Exhibir 6-51 illustrates an elevated exchanger with the equipment for specific situatíons. General!y, these
extractor and crane in posítion for bundle removal. items have design features similar to those for com-
Exhibir 6-52 provides details of a hydraulic tube bun- mon applications. Care should be taken to arrange the
dle extractor. equipment so that the basíc rules for exchanger layout
This chapter has highlighted the principal layout are followed. Exhibits 6-53 and 6-54 show examples of
requirements for the heat exchanger configurations more unusual heat exchanger equipment,

ProcessPlant Layout and Piping Design



Fumaces, also referred to as heaters, are one of the perarure íncreases, the hot flue gas ríses out of the
main pieces of equipment in a process complex. A stack and begins to exert a negative pressure within
furnace may raise the ternperature of a gas or hydro- the radiam and convection sections. For optírnum op-
carbon liquid to rneet specífic processíng needs or, in eratíon, there should be a pressure of approxímately
the case of pyrolysís and reformer furnaces, cause a -0.35 in of water columns just inside the aír regíster
chemical or physical change to the medium. A circular of the bumer. There should be a pressure of -0.2 in
or box-rype configuration is prirnaríly used, variations of water columns at the furnace floor, wíth a further
to each design are covered throughout this chapter. In drop to -0.5 in at the top of the radiant section, and
addition, because of the various types of furnaces, this -0.7 in at the base of the stack. Maintaining these
chapter covers sorne basics of furnace design and dís- levels ensures adequate air flow to the burner, Peep
cusses how to approach a pípíng layout as it relates to doors are províded along the radiant walls to allow
maíntenance, operation, and safety. plant operations personnel to view the bumers while
making fuel flow adíustments.
A product is íntroduced into the radíant tubes and
BASIC OPERATION AND PRIMARY is heated to the máximum operating temperatures, lt
PARTS OF A FURNACE then exíts the furnace. Steam enters the convection
sectíon tubes and is raísed to a superheated tempera-
Exhibir 7-1 illustrates the basíc makeup of a furnace. As ture by the hot flue gases.
shown in thís exhíbít, the basíc parts of a furnace in- The damper, which is used to control the draft in
dude: the furnace, is located in the stack. Adjusting the
damper controls the pressure balance within the fur-
• The radíant section-Houses rows of horizontal or nace. The stack heíght is determined by the draft re-
vertical tubes that carry the product to be heated. quirements of the fumace but may be adjusted. Draft
• Bumers=-These are primaríly fired by oíl or gas and gauges are used to check pressure levels.
are located in the radíant section. lt should be understood that there are many vari-
" The convection section-Located above or down- ables to this description. Burners may be located in
strearn from the radíant sectíon. Ir houses rows of the side waHs or roof of !he radiant section. Insulation
horizontal tubes that are heated by the hot flue may be refractory brick, ceramic fibers, or a mineral
gases. wool blanket. The product may flow into the convec-
" The stack-This is usually located above the convec- tion section tubes, exit that section through crossover
tíon sectíon and carnes the flue gases to the armo- piping, and flow through the radíant section. Multiple
sphere. furnaces may be tied to one common stack by breech-
" Insulation=-Lines the walled surfaces of the radíant ing.
and convection sectíons.
The fumace operares in the following manner. Fuel
is fed to the burners locared along the furnace floor. It The principal types of fumaces are box, circular, pyro-
is then ígníted by a pilot gas líne located in the burner.
lysis, and reformer.
The cornbustíon aír flow is regulated by adíustment of
the air regísters. For proper operation wíthin a fur- Box-type Exhibit 7-2 shows a box-type furnace that
nace, a natural draft must be maintaíned. As the tem- houses rows of horizontal or vertical tubes in the radi-


Basic Furnace Operatíon

~11 N§ -----,,<.:..__.


b,JQNE';¡;z ­­­1­1­­J

Process Plant Layout and Ptping. Design


EXHUUT 7-2 Typícal Box-Type Furnace EXHIBIT 7-3 Typical Circular Furnace

ant sectíon. The convection sectíon is located down- the product beíng heated, and are Iocated at one end
stream from the radíant section, where flue gas may of the convection section.
pass in an upward or downward flow. Rows of burners
are located in the radíant sectíon; this is the primary Pyrolysís Exhibir 7-4 illustrates a pyrolysis furnace
source of product heatíng. whose product tubes are placed in the cerner of the
radíant sectíon because of a relatively short residence
Circular Exhibit 7-3 illustrates a circular furnace that time, hígh heat transfer rate, and need for even tern-
houses tubes mounted vertícally or helically in the perature distribution in the tubes. An integral waste
radíant section. These furnaces are generally used far heat recovery systern that employs the use of a steam
such smaller dutíes as start-up heaters or reboilers. drum and a transfer line exchanger (TI.X) is also
Inlet and outlet connectíons are usually Iocated at the shown. Steam decoking is requíred to clean the inter-
top or the bottom of the radíant section, depending on na! walls of the process tubes.
Typical Pyrolysis Furnace

Reformer In a reformer furnace, shown in Exhibit system used to carry waste away from pípíng or tubes
7-5, preheated process fluid flows through catalyst- for disposal.
filled tubes, which are usually located in the center of
the radiant section. This type of furnace may have sin- Breeching Breeching refers to the duct work that
gle or multiple compartments, bumers may be collecis ílue gases along the furnace box outlet for
mounted in the roof, wall, or floor. Heat recovery sys- transrnission to the stack.
tems may also be employed through the use of waste
heat boilers or the convection sectíon's stearn genera- Burners Supplied with air and fue! necessary for
tion coils. combustion, burners heat the product in the tubes in
the radiant section of the furnace. The rnost common
types of burners are gas; air and gas; air and oíl or
TERMINOLOGY gas; and oíl, which requires air, oil, and atornizíng
The following sections list common fumace terms.
Burner management package This device is de-
Blowdown steam Blowdown steam is used for tube signed to control such burner operations as monitor-
cleaning or rernoval of products from the inlet piping ing purge sequence, ígnirer and main fue! start-up,
in the event of fire. pilot flame, maín flame, and heater conditions. Limít-
ing devices are builr into the package that shut down
Blowdown systern A blowdown system is the píping the furnace if unsafe operating conditions arise.

Process Plant Layout and Piping Design

Stearn Reformer Purnace

Clean-out access doors Access is provided to the in- usually flat plates that rotare on a shaft restíng on pil-
terior of the furnace for maintenance personnel. low blocks set in the steel shell, similar to a burterflv
valve. ,
Convection sectíon Thís compartrnent houses rows
of primarily horizontal tubes located downstream Decokíng The coke built up in many hydrocarbon
from the radíant section that are used for additional furnace tubes during operatíon is removed by inject-
heating in a process unit. Passíng the hot flue gases ing steam and air into the tubes,
over these tubes can províde additional duty. Exam-
ples include preheating process streams, steam super-
Draft gauge This instrument is used to check pres-
heatíng, and additional stearn generatíon. Provisions
sure in a furnace.
must be made to remove these tubes for inspection,
repair, or replacement.
Explosíon doors In the event of an explosion in a
Crossover pípíng This píping interconnects the radi- furnace, doors specífically desígned to blow out and
am and convection sections and is usually furnished protect agaínst a major structural failure are provided
by the furnace vendor. they act like safety valves in a píping systern.

Darnper Located in the stack or duct, this device is Header A header is the fitting that connects rwo
used to control drafts in the furnace. Dampers are tubes in a ílow pattern.


Pigtail Detall

Typical Radiant Coil

ProcessPiant Layout and Piptng IJesign

Combination Oíl and Gas

Header boxes Most ends of tubes are connected by on natural drafts. If the height of the stack is íncreased
U-bends that make inspection dífficult. Therefore, spe- to suit safery conditions, a fan must be added. If ernís-
cial return fittíngs with plugged connections are pro- sion probes are needed in a stack, ladders and plat-
vided that perrnit inspection and cleaning, Because the forms are added as requíred.
rernovable plugs are subject to leakíng, ali headers
must be completely enclosed in header boxes. Snuff- Snuffing steam This is steam that is injected into the
ing stearn is used to suppress fire in this area. combustión chambers or header box of a furnace ro
suppress a fire,
Peep doors Small doors are províded in the wall or
floor of the radiant section to perrnit visual inspection
Transfer line 'Ihe outlet df the process tu bes are tied
into a piping header called a transfer line, which feeds
of burners during start-up or operation.
the main process tower.
Pígtaíls Small-bore flexible píping configurations
Tubes Piping within the fumace carnes the medium
connect the radiant tubes to the inler and outlet head-
to be heated. A typical radiant coíl is shown in Exhibir
ers, as illustrated in Exhibir 7-6,
Radiant sectíon The main compartrnent of a furnace
is the radiant sectíon, in which process strearns are BURNERS
heated, usually in vertical tubes, by heat from burners
rnounted in the walls, roof, or floor. Furnace structure and heat-release requirements are
the deterrnining factors in the selection of the correct
Refractory The refractory is made up of ínsulating burner desígn, Burners are fired by a wide range of
bricks capable of wíthstanding high rernperatures in gaseous and liquid fuels, and a variety of configura-
fu maces, tíons are used throughout the industry. It is recorn-
mended that the desígner take full advantage of all
Soot blowers Soot blowers are mechanical devíces burner data avaílable from vendors to gaín a greater
that clean resídue buíld-up on the exterior of the con- understanding of the operation and maintenance re-
vectíon tubes. They are usually furnished when oíl- quirements of each desígn,
fired burners are used. The combínatíon oil and gas burner is shown in
Exhibit 7-8, Sorne of the features of this burner in-
Stack Located downstream from the convecuon sec- elude:
tion, the stack is designed to carry flue gases directly to
the atmosphere or to divert thern through secondary • It is desígned to tire horizontally or vertícally,
ducts to an air preheating systern. Stack elevations are • Oil spillage in the radiant section cannot cause
usually establíshed by a furnace designer to operare burner pluggíng.

Wíl 4tt "ml&Z & i Jb E IU! !IHiiU 1 F3R

FXHIBIT 7 ·9 Maíntenance Area for a Combínatíon Oil EXHIBIT7-l0

and Gas Burner

,~ - -7--
,.¡!\~e'f MZ·-
,._-<1..._ - --.----- -f

is easy to light and fires in any position. It requires no

combustion controls to maintain maximum efficiency.
The burner may be straight or L-shaped, according to
layout requírements.
Burners may be arranged in single or múltiple
rows and located in the roof, wall, or floor, as shown
in Exhibir 7-11. Many burners are operated and con-
trolled through the use of burner management
• It burns any oíl that can be pumped. systems.
• It burns any fue! gas safely and quietly.
• All parts of the burner can be ínspected dosely
while the burner is in operation. COMBUSTION AIR PREHEATING
Exhibir 7-9 shows the maíntenance area that must
be provided when developing a layout for a combina- The overa!! thermal efficiency of a furnace is improved
tion oil and gas burner. By shutting off the oíl and if the air that enters the radiant section around the
steam to the oíl gun, the oil tip/atornizer assembly can burners is preheated. Economic studíes are per-
be changed while the heater is in operation. formed early in a project to determine the feasibility of
The wíndproof gas burner, shown in Exhibir 7-10, such a systern. The two most common preheatíng sys-

Process Plant Layout and Piplng Design

Sample Burner Locatíons

tems are regeneraríve systems and recuperatíve sys- tank and pump is far less complex than the regenera-
tems. tive system.
A typical regeneratíve systern is shown in Exhibir
7-12. Hot flue gas exítíng the convection sectíon is
díverted through a duct to a heat exchanger called an GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF
aír preheater. Incoming fresh air is heated and sent by FURNACES
a forced draft fan to the burner plenum, where ít en-
ters the burner through the air regíster for combus- This sectíon describes the general arrangement of var-
tíon. An índuced draft fan draws the flue gas through ious types of furnaces and discusses how operation
the preheater and sends the cooled gas back into the and maíntenance affect fumace elevation, how to plan
atrnosphere through the stack. al! necessary access, and platform requirernents, asso-
A conventíonal recuperative ( closed-loop) systern cíated equípment, and stack desígn, Exhibir 7-14
is illustrated in Exhíbit 7-13. Oíl is circulated through shows a typical arrangernent of a circular furnace.
the convectíon sectíon tubes, heated, and sent through
the ínlet air duct, where it releases íts heat. The hot air
Settíng Purnace Elevatíon
then enters the bumer for combustion, and the hot oil
is recirculated to a storage tank for recycling. From a TI1e locatíon of burners and the possible need for air
layout standpoínt, the hot oil systern with a storage preheatíng ducts are two primary factors to be consid-


Typical Regeneratíve


Piping Design

Recuperative System

__ ___;;..._--....--=t ._.__ E~ éAI 12

Fu maces

Typícal Arrangement of a
Circular Furnace

( UPPE:l2. flAi-J
LoWE:-12.. A.At-J

[L_j -4--t--1t--t--+--r- -jH}

~7777~w7777~~~~/ flv1rmwur<wcE:


ered when the elevatíon of a furnace is establíshed. If, valves is on the firing platform at the peep doors, not
as shown in Exhíbít 7-15, the burners are floor beneath the furnace. When wall-rnounted bumers are
mounted, the elevation should be set hígh enough to used, the elevatíon of the furnace can be lower be-
allow an operator to walk freely under the furnace or cause there are no majar rnaintenance or operatíonal
ducting but not necessaríly under ali the burner requirements beneath the furnace to be addressed.
piping. Access for operatíon and maintenance is a major
The preferred location of the burner operating considerauon in the development of a furnace layout.

Process Plant Layout and Piping Design

Settíng a Furnace

Il W0

Access requirernents are reviewed for tube removal, tube removal in a circular furnace is accornplíshed by
soot blowers, damper control, header boxes, burners, pullíng the tubes through an access door located in
and bumer management skíds and control panels, the top of the radíant sectíon. Thís is performed by
Because fumace tubes must be periodically re- using a hoíst attached to the circular trolley bearn on
placed, clear areas are provided directly in líne wíth top of the stack, Once the tubes are lífted out of the
the tubes, The rernoval mechanísrn may be a trolley radíant compartrnent, they are pulled away from the
beam located on the stack of a circular fumace, a furnace and lowered to grade. The convection sectíon
crane, or a picker, If only one or two tubes tubes are removed in a manner similar to the one
require rernoval, a tube extractor, similar to the rype shown far the box-type fumace in Exhibit 7-17. Here
used for extracting shell and tube exchanger bundles, again, the access area must allow the tubes to be
may be used. As can be seen in Exhibir 7-16, radiant pulled clear of the furnace, permitting the crane to

Fu maces

Radiant Tube Rernoval in
a Circular Furnace


Convection Section Tube
Rernoval in a Box-Type
Fu mace


156 ..

Header Box Dctail

Process layout and Piping Design

Burner Management Skíd

ated operators are less commonly used for darnper

EXHJ.BIT7-21 Burner Management Control Panel adíustments, which are routinely made during start-up
when the proper pressure balance within the furnace
must be obtaíned,
Header boxes, as shown in Exhibit 7-19, are enclo-
sures around the fittíngs that connect two tubes. The
fittíngs, called headers, are furníshed wíth plugged
connectíons for cleaníng. The header boxes are sealed
from the ínside of the furnace by an ínsulated tube
sheet, and, because thís area is a possible source of
fire, a snuffing steam connectíon is províded :liar fire
suppression, A draín connectíon is also prov'ided for
leak detection, Clear access must be províded around
the header box to permít ínspectíon and tube cleaning
or replacement,
Burner access is requíred for ígnítíon on start-up,
aír flow control through regíster adiustment or control
swíng away and lower the tubes to grade. handles, and oil-gun maíntenance. Access is also re-
Soot blowers have dífferent access requírernents, quíred to allow routíne operator ínspection for any
dependíng on the type used. One type is fixed to the sígn of leaks, partícularly when flexible hoses are
convectíon sectíon wall and occupíes a relatívely srnall use d.
area, unlike the retractable type, which is furníshed Burner management systems are vendor-supplíed
wíth a horizontal support beam that enables the mech- packages consístíng of ali primary valving and ínstru-
anism to insert the lance during operation. mentatíon necessary to start up, operare, and shut
Darnpers, locared in the stack, are usually regulated down all burners of a furnace under regular or emer-
a devíce located at grade, as depícted in Exhibir gency conditions. A typical burner rnanagement skíd is
7-18. Cables strung through guídes fixed to the shown in Exhibir 7-20, anda burner management con-
darnper and adjustment lever, or control handle, may trol panel is shown in Exhibit 7-21.
be locked into various positions as desíred, Air-actu- Platforrn requirements for furnaces are no dífferent

Fu maces
Circular Furnace Platform

Miscellaneous Platform
Requirernents for a
Circular Furnace

from any other large piece of equiprnent that needs A circular furnace platform layout is shown in Ex-
operator and maintenance attention. Because each hibit 7-22. The firing platform, which is usually a full
heater is designed to meet specific process needs, may 360º circle, can be reached by a variety of stairway
tire with dífferent fuels and require air preheating or configurations and ladders, as íllustrated on the lower
soot blowers, and is subject to clíent needs, each de- plan in this exhibir. Each scheme shown may be set to
sígn should be approached as a unique layout, follow- accommodate the layout as required. Stairway varia-
ing basic guidelines. tíons shown here are:

ProcessPlant layout and Piptng Destgn

EXHIBI'f 7-24
Pyrolysís Purnace Ladder
and Platforrn

• Stairway A-Perpendicular, which can be set to ei- form and viewed from rhe peep door on the end wa!L
ther side of the landing. The floor-mounted burners can be operated from
• Stairway B-RadiaL grade ar the edge of the furnace or from an optional
• Stairway C-TangentiaL !ower firing platforrn, Additional platformíng is re-
quired for access to draft gauges, peep doors, and the
Access to ali other platforms on this type of furnace is convectíon section. Because the primary operator
by ladder, índícated on the exhibit as follows. leve! is ar the burners, staírways are used for access
and ladders are provided for al! other levels.
" Ladders D and E-Limited to a 30-ft (9150-mm) max-
A reformer furnace, showri in Exhibit 7-25, has a
imum ladder run per Occupational Safery and Health
penthouse and roof-mounted burners, In addition to
Administratíon ( OSHA) An intermediate platform is
platforms and a stairway for regular rnaíntenance and
operation, ladders are provided in case of an emer-
e Ladder F---Enables plant personnel to gaín access to gency. Other platforms are for access to peep doors,
both sides of the upper furnace by the convection draft gauges, and pípíng, as requíred.
sectíon platform.
Addítíonal platforrn requirements-for example,
Auxílíary Equípment
for access to soot blowers or ínterconnecting plat-
forms between groups of similar heaters=-are shown A soot blower mechanically cleans soot buíld-up on
in Exhíbit 7-23. Catwalks are planned for the firíng convectíon section tubes in fuel-oil-fired heaters. A
platform and top of the radiant section for operator soot blower essentially consists of a lance (í.e., pipe)
convenience. with nozzles specifically located for the tube section to
A pyrolysís fumace, shown in Exhíbit 7-24, has both be deaned and a connection for the blowíng medium,
wall- and floor-mounted burners. The wall-mounted whích is steam or air, There are two rypes of blowers.
burner piping can be operated frorn the firing fixed and retractable.

Fu maces
Reformer Furnace

WWl1DI . ;o ?BI M& ¡¡

Fixed Soot Blower


Process Plant Layout and Piptng Design

Retractable Soot Blower

Al ~/:4!JJP?±1 1.Jbfq:

lllLZ!I i-lllllia!lill
EXH!BIT 7-28
Soot Blower in Operation

A fixed soot blower, shown in Exhibir 7-26, is in Exhibir 7-29. Platforms designed specifically for
rnounted directly on the convection section wall and is each fan configuration should be adequate for rnainte-
hard-píped as shown. A retractable soot blower, illus- nance and operation of the drive and fan mechanism.
trated in Exhibir 7-27, allows the lance to be removed Exhibir 7-30 shows a typícal arrangemem of a sin-
from the convection section duríng operation. Sorne gle-zone pyrolysís furnace with an integral waste heat
of the principal components are the support ohannel, systern, which requires a steam drum anda heat ex-
the gear-dríven carriage, the poppet valve (used to changer (often called a transfer line exchanger). Be-
control the flow of the deaning médium), and the cause the preheater and ducting on an average-sízed
lance with nozzles. Exhibir 7-28 depicts a soot blower combustion air preheatíng sysrem are somewhat large,
in operation. As the lance enters the heater, the blow- the plant layout desígner should pay extra attention to
íng medium cuts a path through the deposits until the the amount of space that is finally used for thís equíp-
lance reaches its apex. The lance then reverses rota- ment. After enough room is aUotted for rnaíntenance
tion and is indexed so that on the retraction path it and operation ofthe forced and induced draft fans and
deans surfaces not covered on insertion. The reversed blowers, the distance from the outer edge of the pre-
rotation and indexing allow the soot blower to pee! heater to the centerline of the fu mace should be kept
and strip al! deposits effi.ciently and with less chance of to a mínimum, as shown in Exhibit 7-31.
heater tube erosion. Whenever fumaces are arranged in groups on a
An induced draft fan may be required for furnace plot plan, the plam layout designer should consider
operation, as shown on top of the convection section using a cornrnon stack, as depicted in Exhibir 7-32

Induced Draft Pan

Stearn Drum and Transfer
Line Exchanger
Combustion Air
Preheating System

zniamc w u 111 mr nrr -

Common Stack for
Múltiple Purnaces

f-J!B Piping and
Instrumentation Díagram
for a Cornbínatíon Burner

i:;;;'). ~ui:re- ~ULATll-.Jé¡ JI
o Gc!N~l6<: , - -- -

@)~~urze: I
~~ 1

~~-~~-~-·'' ~

-~--~>]M" Jj___l _lL

~-1)>Q--,-rl)(IXl)(h-p$l...l¡--~ j 1

-ro FLACZE:-

* t...c::i:::::óJ!:: f'T Ei12t>DS - Mli..Jlf....1Ul..1 t;o{li?.'200

Ff20M R.1121-..l~.

Economíc constraints usually determine the feasibilíty convection sectíon. The furnace plan and elevation for
of thís design feature: ali furnace configurations can the upper level of this furnace are shown in Exhibits
use this breeching concepr, 7-35 and 7-36, respectively. The stack shown in Exhibir
7-36 is equípped with a trolley beam (an optíonal fea-
ture) that pulls the radiant tube bundles during rnain-
tenance. The need for platforms depends on the in-
strument requírernents. The damper settíng is
Thís section details the pipíng layout of circular and
regulated from grade by a cable-operated mechanísrn
box-type furnaces. Although such special features as
supplied by the fumace vendar.
snuffing steam are actually requíred for both heaters,
In the convection sectíon, three stationary soot
they are explained for one applícatíon only.
blowers are fed by 1.5-in leads from the fire steam
header located below them This pípíng is kept close
Circular Purnace Pípíng to the convection sectíon wall to maximize the avail-
Exhíbíts 7-33 and 7-34 present simplified pípíng and able work area for plant personnel. The four 3-in
instrurnentatíon diagrams for a circular furnace. The product inlet lines have manual control valves and
furnace has 6-in ínlet and outlet Iínes, with control local flow índícarors that rnusr be visible when person-
valves, cornbination burners, and soot blowers in the nel are operating the valves. They are located at the

Fu maces
Plan for the Upper Level
of a Circular Furnace

Furnace Elevation for the
Upper Leve! of a Circular



Lower Plan for a Circular

-~~: t)f211l.ll-l Hui:z. .1.

.H e-o.ot=12 eex tif2Alt-J

l"ILciT' GAi'!>
¡..__. FU.ft. ~
,¡-------------f\JEH .. olll.

upper platform for economic reasons=-placíng them port when practícal, as shown in Exhibit 7-38.
ar grade would require running four individual línes Snuffing steam, which is used to suppress a fire in
up the entire furnace. The snuffing stearn Iínes are the header box in the convection or radiant sectíons,
grouped together far common support until they is supplied through local and remate manifolds. The
reach the top of the radíant sectíon, The líne to the remate manifold should be no doser than 50 ft
header box on the opposite síde is run radially around (15,000 mm) from the furnace. In Exhibit 7-37, the
the heater, Bending small lines is generally nota prob- local manifold is located at grade, next to the interme-
lem and saves fittings and welds. Platforms are de- diare pipe support columri. If the local area is unreach-
signed to permít planr operatíons and maíntenance able in an emergency, stearn would be supplíed from
personnel clear access to ali valves, Instruments, and the remate manifold. The inlet and outlet control sta-
soot blowers. tions are located along the pipe rack adjacent to the
The lower level of the circular furnace is shown in furnace. This particular furnace uses manually con-
Exhibits 7-37 through 7-39. In the radiant section, all trolled valves for each burner. The burner supply
piping should be grouped together far common sup- headers-fuel gas, fire steam, and fue! oil-are run

Process Ptant Layout and Piping Design

sxamrr 7-38
Furnace Blevatíon for the
Lower Level of a Circular

Burner Piping Detail

!" fUta:L. ~~
~q '9TE-AM -------t-
!4" fu~ oil.

170 .·
Piping and
Instrumentation Diagram
for a Box-Type Furnace

.. 6 l.)

radially over ene another to keep the ladder close to should have a drip leg to remove any condensare
the furnace wall. This posítioning also allows the indi- build-up by píping it to the flare systern. The fire stearn
vidual burner píping leads to run adjacent to the peep line that atomízes steam mu= be run and insulated
doors, creatíng access to the valves during operation, with the fue! oil line to decrease oil viscosity. Atomiz-
as shown in Exhibir 7-39. The pilot gas valve is located ing steam is injected into the burner with the fue! oíl
below the furnace, providing operator access during to obtain effectíve combustion.
ignition. It should be noted that although most new The header-box draín must have a sea! loop and
furnace installatíons use burner management systems, clean-out plug for inspection [ust above the drain hub
thís design approach is acceptable if manual control (see Exhibir 7-37). Removal of this plug permits in-
and ignition is required. spection far small leaks in rhe tube headers in the
The fue! oíl, fuel gas, and pilot gas control valves header box.
are located at the pipe rack. The fue! gas is run sym- The 360º firing platform allows full access around
metrically to provide an even gas flow to each burner. the radíant sectíon to the burner valves (at the peep
This system must be kept dry by the eliminatíon of low doors) and instrumenta. The ínterrnedíate platform is
points where condensare may collect. The header furnished to meet OSHA requirements, which state

Process and Piping Design

f '@
] - E m
Box-Type Furnace

fFXHle?iT 7-42.

that any single ladder run rnust not exceed 30 ft (9,150 is set for regular operation With the swing el! bolred
mm). The plant layout desígner must ensure that tube to the steam and air line, the tube cleaning process
removal áreas remain clear of any obstruction, may begin. Each coi! is draíned and blown out wíth
steam, Header plugs are rernoved=-the rernovable
header-box panels are illustrated in Exhibir 7-43. A
Box-Type Furnace Pípíng
cleaning too! is used to remove coke deposits from
Exhíbít 7-40 is a sample piping and instrumentation the inner wall of each tube, Once this is cornpleted,
diagram for a box-type furnace. This heater has ó-in the plugs are replaced and the burners are fired.
product lnlet and outlet leads, a swing el! used for Stearn is introduced to rernove .tny remaíning coke
decoking, a convection stearn coíl, and a burner man- deposits. The steam flow rate must be sufficient to
agement system. Exhibit 7-41 provides an overall víew prevent overheating of the tubo walls, air is then
of the furnace in this example and indicates the major added to bum off any rernaining n)ke deposits Steam
parts of the furnace. and air díscharge to the stack above the damper
Exhibir 7-42 shows the decoking operation. Product through the vent líne. Steam is introduced one final
inlet line A is shown in the decokíng mode, and inlet B time to flush the tubes clean. Ali decoking flows are

EXHIBIT i-42 Decokíng Fumace

o ·"Z.?o- ~-'__
' , ­­­­­=O:"'Zr?I. f~
o­'ZJq­4" Till--ttttit-t-·~~ll:A:':_

OU:.&;f? p:x.g,,
(i::;.o No¡ ~íZUC...T.~J

Process Plant layout and Piping Design

Product Outlet and
Decokíng Pípíng

Fu maces
Convection Section
Stearn Pípíng with
Miscellaneous Structural

L" 1-'1"'1~
Ofú?!?¡l.Jb =:N9
'2-Jf!SIZ+-l@:p::o 7[§AY q

E:X1UIUT 7-45
Pípíng and
-~-e.urz~ lnstrumentanon Díagram

p.!FL 'ª'""" for a Burner Managernent


downílow operations, except the vent line to the stack. Exhibit 7-43 also shows the product outlet líne and
The swing el! is positioned to be accessible to mainte- its decoking hook-up, Line A is set up in its usual
nance personnel. The stearn and air manual control operation configuratíon, líne B is set in the decokíng
valves and their local flow indícators must be located mode. As the steam and air are blown through the
at the peep doors to allow the tubes to be viewed radíant any waste is carried to the sewer or, if
during this operatíon because overhearíng can cause preferred, to a drurn for removal. The vent líne is run
damage to furnace tubes. to the stack. Once again, the plant layout desígner

Process Plant Layout and Piping Design

!ll!Jj f&¡Ji 11 &MM. M 4Wtt .


C>V12Nf'IZ ~~ID

~11oN · ~-A·

fl.le:L ~ L1'1-Je:

must avoid blocking access to the header boxes when hazard to plant operations and maintenance person-
developing the pípíng layout in this area of the nel. The structural feature highlighted here is the ab-
furnace. sence of handraíls to permit access to the decokíng
piping. The plant layout desígner musr notify the fur-
nace vendor of this requirement on a rnark-up of the
Convectíon Sectíon Pípíng
platform arrangement drawing.
Exhibir 7-44 íllustrates the convection section steam
coi! pípíng along wíth sorne miscellaneous structural
Burner Management System Pípíng
details. The steam ínlet line can be run horizontally to
the inlet nozzles because the elevatíon is above head- Exhibit 7-45 is a sample píping and instrumentarion
room. The superheated steam outlet pípíng can be diagram of a burner managernent sysrern supplied by
routed below the · platform so that it will not pose a the burner vendor. The engineering contractor sup-

EXHIBIT 7-47 Transfer Líne Layout EXHIBIT 7-48 Steam-Generation Thermosíphon Circuir


~~-e:;;;;;pc;i...1 ~
hibit, the transfer líne should run horízontally and in
the rnost direct route to all stress and
flexibility requiremenrs. The addition of line
should be planned to facilitare cleaning if cokíng be-
comes severe.
A typical stearn-generation therrnosíphon circuir is
shown in Exhibir 7-48. Briefly, this circuit is the díffer-
plies the fuel gas to the burner skid and may be re- ence of the water-steam mixture and the static head in
quíred to run the fue! gas and pilot gas to the individ- the downcomer that maintains fluid circulatíon. Locar-
ual burners. ing the stearn drum ar rhe top of the furnace provides
Exhibir 7-46 is a plan at grade of the burner man- the static head and collects the steam beíng generated.
agernenr skid and control panel in relation to the fur- Steam returns to the top portien of the drum, while
nace and burners, The skid is located dírectly in líne the water línes come off the bottorn. Loops and pock-
with the fumace centerline to provide the rnost direct ets must be avoided when laying out rhe downcomer,
piping to the individual burners. The burner manage- and riser pípíng and any horizontal lines must slope
mem control panel is remotely located at a mínimum toward the wasre heat boiler or convection coíl, When
of 60 ft (18,000 mm) from the furnace. Plant opera- pumps are used in this circuir, it is called forced circu-
tions personnel may ignite the burners from this panel latíon,
by sending a spark to the igniter located ar the pílot Transfer line exchanger píping is shown in Exhibir
gas típ within the burner and activating the solenoid 7-49. Thís exarnple shows how the heated product
valves on the skid, outlet of a pyrolysis furnace is used to generare steam.
The main consideration is the downcomer and riser
píping between the steam drum and transfer líne ex-
Transfer Líne Pípíng
changers. Lines should be run with a pronounced
A furnace transfer line is the prímary product outlet slope to avoid undesirable slug flow, which tends to
header from a heater or fumace to a process tower. A occur in horizontal piping runs. Vertical expansión
typical vacuum tower transfer line layout is shown in loops can be easily spríng-supported from the struc-
Exhibir 7-47. Because many transfer lines tend to cake, ture. The transfer line exchanger is supported by two
the length of the line should be kept to a mínimum. lugs just above the bottom channel flange, and a trol-
Quench oíl ínjectíon near the furnace outlet is another ley beam is provided to remove the top head for main-
means of reducing line coking. As shown in the ex- tenance. In this systern, the product líne enters the

Proeess Plant Layout and Piping Design


EXHIBIT 7-49 Transfer Line Exchanger Pípíng

convectíon sectíon, exits the coi! into the crossover TAIL GAS INCINERATOR AND
pípíng, and then enters the radíant tubes through the WASTE HEAT UNIT
top of the heater. The heated product outlet from the
two rows of radiant tubes enters the transfer line ex- Waste gases containing liquids that rnust be disposed
changer from the bottom, transferríng its excess heat of and that for environrnental or safery reasons cannot
energy to the stearn pípíng, and exits at the top of the be directed to the fiare systern are burned in a tail gas
exchanger. íncinerator, shown in Exhibir 7-50. The horizontal in-

Tai.l Gas Incineraror

r 1

cinerator is bolted directly to the stack. The waste continued heat source for steam generatíon. Because
product enters the top ínlet and is disposed of by a the physical makeup of these waste heat units varíes in
burner firing directly into the chamber. Pípíng usually size and overall configuratíon, a detailed piping layout
associated wíth thís equipment includes fue! gas, pilot is not shown.
gas, steam, nitrogen, and a liquid drain outlet located Because the configuration of equípment and assocí-
in the stack. ated iterns covered in this chapter may vary signifi-
The waste heat recovery unit, illustrated in Exhibir canrly among vendors, the plant layout desígner
7-51, uses the waste gases of 800º to 1,200º F ( 425º to should study the principies outlined and adjust each
650° C) from a gas turbíne to generare high- and low- layout accordingly. Consideration for rnaintenance,
pressure steam for plant use. As can be seen in thís operation, safety, and economics, as well as the use of
exhibir, duct burners located in the inlet of this unit common sense, result.s in an effective overall fumace
can be used if the turbine is shut down, providing a design.

Process Plant layout and Piptng Design

EXHIBIT 7-51 Waste Heat Recovery Unit

Fu maces


This chapter highlights the rypes of pumps commonly required. Dimensions of nozzle locations or baseplate
found in industrial plants, along with maintenance and sizes may change slíghtly, but revisions to physica\
operation consíderatlons for a centrifuga! purnp píp- nozzle locations (i.e., from top to side or side to front)
ing layout. do not usually occur when che data is finalízed. Work-
Exhibit 8-1 shows an electric motor-driven hori- ing closely with the equipment and system engíneers
zontal purnp that is familiar to plant layout desígners. acquaínts the principal parties with the exact desígn
The rwo primary piping connectíons are the suction conditions and minímizes rework.
and discharge nozzles (i.e., liquid inlet and outler).
The impeller within the pump case draws the liquid
into the pump and sends ít out ar a high velocity. The PUMP TERMINOLOGY
ímpeller shaft is sealed wíth a box where rhe
shaft exits the case to prevent the pump fluid from This section sorne of the most common
leakíng. from wearing seals are pícked up in the terms that the plant layout desígner encounrers when
stuffing box draín. The purnp shaft is connected to the creanng a pump
drive shaft a coupling, which is enclosed within
prorectíve housing. Both pump and driver are Allowable nozzle loadíng The allowable nozzle
rnounted on a common baseplare. Miscellaneous loadíng is che máximum amount of stress that the pip-
pump leaks that collect within the baseplare duríng ing configuration may impüse on the pump suction
operation are drained through a connection at the and discharge nozzles, as set by the vendor, client, or
front of the pump. code. The pipe stress engineer is responsible for
Purnp size and configuration vary for the following working within this colerance by coordinating the pip-
reasons: ing design early in a projectand rechecking ali calcula-
tions before formal fabrication issues of piping draw-
• The commodity beíng pumped. ings are made.
" The viscosity of the liquid.
Net positive suction head NPSH is one of the most
• Capacity.
important terms a plant layouc designer needs to un-
• Pressure. derstand when developing an equipment layout that
• Ternperature. includes pumps and vessels. The required net positive
• Avaílabte head requirements. suction head is a measure of the pressure drop of the
• Physical limitations. liquid as ít moves from the inlet of the pump to the
eye of the impeller. It is a characteristic of the pump
Inicial pump piping layouts are done with prelimi- that is generally determined by testing and is ex-
nary ínformarion. The equiprnent engíneer supplies pressed in "feet of water" by the pump manufacturer.
the plant layout desígner with a catalog cut of the
pump that most closely represents rhe one to be pur- Vapor pressure When the pressure in the pump suc-
chased. In many cases, thís data does not change síg- tion line falls below the vapor pressure of a liquid, the
nificantly if the engineer has made the correct selec- liquid flashes, or changes to vapor. Because no ordi-
tion. Piping layouts are started early in the study phase; nary liquid pump can pump only vapor, liquid flow to
when the certífied vender drawings becorne available the pump falls off and the unit is said to be vapor
later in the project, minor adjustmenrs are made as bound.


lfET Y- li ill!llliT a: " "BBl'BW

P1%HA~ Centrifuga! Pump
(u~1C? ou-p.e()

CA?lh.JGJ ~~

"Pt)r?LING! 4!UbtZ!2 ~.o::f::fLAµ:: t;?t?bil-.J

'1u Ff:!NC;t "'2)(. 1?12A! t>J

Available net positive suctíon head The availahle vice" is used to specífy pumps for purchase. To a plant
NPSH is the net pressure available in a given systern, layout designer, an API pump is a large, refinery-type
based on vessel pressure and static head, mínus the pump.
liquid vapor pressure and functional losses in the sys-
tern. The goal is to maiutain equiprnent heíghts and AVS (American Voluntary Standard) pumps This
rninimize pump suction píping to ensure that the standard, íssued by the Hydraulic Institute, outlínes
available NPSH is greater than the required NPSH. In- severa! pumps with standard dimensions. They are in-
sufficient NPSH can reduce pump capacity and effi- terchangeable for a given size, regardless of who
ciency and lead to cavítation darnage. builds the pump, with no effect on foundatíon, piping
design, or rype of electric motor used.
Cavitatíon The rapid collapse of vapor bubbles that
can produce noise, resu!t in a loss of head and capac-
iry, and creare a severe erosion of the impeller and NPSH REQUIREMENTS
casing surfaces in the adjacent inlet areas.
An example of how to deal with a typical NPSH prob-
API (American Petroleum Institute ) pumps This lem is shown in Exhibir 8-2. The required NPSH in this
term refers to the horizontal, síngle-stage pumps exarnple is 22 ft (6,700 mm). If a horizontal pump is
found in the petroleum industry. The standard devel- used, the botrom tangent · line of vessel A· must be a
oped by vendors, contractors, and users entítled "API mínimum of 22 ft (6,700 mm) above rhe centerlíne
610-Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Ser- elevaríon of the shaft. If a vertical pump is used, the

Process Plant Layout and Piping Design



@ 'NPSH Exampk

vessel B rangent line ts located closer to grade because temperarure. They are usually driven by electríc mo-
NPSH is calculated from the bottom ímpeller of the tors or steam turbínes. Tiíey may be single stage or
pump locared below grade. Although vertical purnps multístage, depending on pressure requirements in
require less of a vessel support structure and possihly the system, and can he horizontal or vertical. Centrifu-
less píping, they are more expensíve to huy and main- ga! purnps, unlike recíprccatíñg and rotary pumps, op-
tain. Therefore, a horizontal pump application is a erate at constant speed and c<IÍi deliver any capacity
more desírable solution in this ínstance. Vertical from zero to maximum, dependíng on the head de-
pumps are better used to draw suction frorn large sign and suction conditions. Exhibit 8-3 depkts sorne
surface condensors rhat service large compressors. of the more common variations of centrifuga! pumps.

Posíttve Dísplacemen; (Recíprocatíng)

Purnps are classífied as centrifugal, positive displace- These pumps are commonly used to rnove viscous
ment (recíprocatíng), or rotary. líquids, inject chernícals or addítíves into a system, or
pump quantities too small for centrifuga! pumps.
These purnps díscharge a definite quantity of líquid
Centrífugal Pumps during pistan or plunger movernenr through che
The majority of pumps used in índustry are centrifuga! stroke distance. Exhibir 8-4 shows rwo typical recipro-
because of their flexibility in flow rates, pressure, and cating pumps.


EXHIBIT 8-3 Examples of Centrifuga! Purnps -- 4 n

b. Chemical Process Pump (ANSI)

a. Horizontal Splít-Case, Double Suctíon Pump
(for chemícal and corrosíve Iíquíds)

c. Mu]tistage, Hígh-Pressure Pump d. Horizontal Frame-Motrnted Pump

e. Inlíne Process Pump

f. Vertical Sump Pump

Process Plant layout and Ptptng Design

EXlUBB:' 8--4
Examnles of Positíve
Díspíacernent Pumps

a. Single-A.cfutg Pump h. Double-Actíng Píston Pump

(for very high pressure wíth (for víscous Iiquíds ami
moderare flows and high efficiency) slurry servíce)

Exarnples of Rotary

a. Exterrial-Gear Purnp b, Cam and Pístorr c. Two-Lobe Pump

d. Three-Lobe Pump e. Sínglc-Screw Purnp f. Two-Screw Purnp

Rotary Purnps the length of the suction piping while satisfying the
piping flexibility requírements as well as allowahle
These pumps are generally used for viscous liquids
loads that may be subjected to the nozzles. Exhibir. 8-6
that are free of hard and abrasíve solids: Rotary pumps
deals wirh pumps along ami under main pipe racks at
push the liquid within the casing by gears, vanes, and
various locatíons. Exhibir 8- 7 dísplays the rypícal pump
carns. The liquid is then díscharged in a smooth tlow,
unlike with the reciprocating pump. These pumps are
In.Exhibit 8-6, pumps lA, l B, 2A,and 2B are located
also characterized by the absence of suction and dís-
under the main overhead pipe rack This is a common
charge valves. One advantage of rotal)' pumps is theír
location within manv plants with a minimal potentíal
ability to send out a constant volume against variable
for hydrocarbon leaks to the electric motors. ( Hvdro-
discharge pressures. Sorne variations of rorary pump
carbon-bearlng air coolers located over pipe racks are
design are illusrrated In Exhibir 8-5.
a concern for many clients.) This location provides un
effective means for adding support steel from the pipe
PUMP LOCATIONS Pumps 3A, 38, 4A, and 4B are partially located un-
der the pipe rack, with the casing set outside the
The location of pumps may vary for many reasons. The column line. In this arrangernenr, the discharge piping
prirnarv goal in setting pump location is to minirnize can rise into the vertical slot that is usuallv provided

Typícal Pump Locations:

Typical Pump Locations.


for lines entering or leaving the pipe rack, as shown in poned in the structure above. Drums and shell and
Exhibit 8-8. tube exchangers are less associated wíth dangerous
Purnps 5A, 5B, 6A, and 6B in Exhibít 8-6 are Iocated spills and therefore may have pumps located dírectly
outside the confines of the pipe rack. This is the usual beneath thern. Supporting pump pípíng is also facili-
arrangernent when hydrocarbon spílls are more tated the proximity of rhe steel.
Pumps 7A, 7B, 8A, and 8B are Iocated dírectly under Pumps 9A, B, and C and 10A, B, and C are inline and
the process equipment that they serve, which is sup- are treated basícally as a piping itern (e.g., a control
EXHIBIT 8-8 Pump Discharge Location EXHIBIT 8-9 Vertical Condensare Pump

EXlHBIT 8-10
Sump Purnp

valve), Adequate access must be planned to the pump shows a typical condensare purnp that is located adía-
and drive, whích may be removed for maintenance. cent to the surface condenser ir serves.
Exhibir 8-1 O depícts a sump purnp that is generally
used to rernove waste material collected in a concrete
Loeatíng Boíler Feed Pumps or steel pit, A screen ar the bottom of the pump suc-
Because boiler feed pumps take water from a deaera- tion connectíon reduces the possibilíry that the pump
tor and generally operare close to che vapor pressure will foul during operation. The díscharge connection
of the liquid, they must be Iocared as close to the may be piped to another holding vessel, a pond, or a
deaerator as possíble. waste-rernoval vehícle.
Centrifuga! pumps in vacuum service are shown in
Exhibir 8-11. Because the sysrern operares ar a negatíve
Locatíng Vertical Pumps
pressure and extrernely high ternperatures, the loca-
Vertical pumps are used when NPSH requírernents tion of these pumps rnust be either directly under the
make using horizontal pumps impractical. Exhibit 8-9 tower or just outside the support columns. When the

Centrifuga! Pumps in
Vacuum Service

Spring-Mounted Pump

pumps are located dírectly under the tower, it may he in rnost of the exhibits, the arrangemems are rypícal
necessary to support the pumps with spríngs, as for ali types of pump applícatíons. Exhihit 8-13 illus-
shown in Exhihit 8-12. This essentíally consists of a trates the components that ar-, usually found in pump
steel frarne with four spríng supports attached to the suction and discharge pípíng
sídes. The pump is then set into rhe steel frame and The suction line has a posítíve shur-off valve, in this
secured, During operation, the pump is free to move example, it is a gate valve, The ternporary tee-rype
within the design limits of the four sprlngs, reducing strainer (shown in Exhibir 8-14) catches any foreígn
the stress imposed on the nozzles by hígh tempera- matter that rnay have collected in the piping during
tutes. constructíon. After the suction ami discharge valves
have been shut off, the blind flange is unbolted and
put aside and the strainer is pulled out. Thís strainer is
PUMP PIPING generally used only for start-up. Exhíbit 8-15 shows a
basket strainer that may also be used in a pump suc-
This section highlights sorne common pump pípíng tion line.
configuratíons. Although horizontal purnps are shown Although this particular strainer <loes not need ad-

ProcessPlant layout and Piplng Design

Comoonents of a
Pump Suction and
Discharge Pípíng

Typícal Ternporary
Tee-Type Strainer

Typical Basket Strainer


iiHff 1111!111111
dítional fitttngs for its removal and if
EXHIBH 8-16 Eccentric Reducers it does requíre addtrional maintenance because of the
downstream tlanges of rhe valve. The pump nozzle
and possihly the base support under the elbow rnust
be unbolred to pul! the spool piece ami remove the
strainer. The next cornmon fitting is a reducen this
should be an eccentric rype as shown in Exhibir 8-16,
wíth the flat side on top to reduce the possihility of
cavitation in the purnp.

Piping Layout Consideratíons

Before initiatmg a pípíng layout in a purnp area, the
plant layout designer rnust consklcr severa! factors
rhat are critica! to optimurn design. The first factor
concerns rhe support of the pump pípíng, which often
includes Iarge expansion loops for tlcxibility. lf the
pumps are located under a pipe rack or structure,
support is relatively easy. lf not, the plant layout de-
sígner muse consult with che stress engineer for the
EXHIBIT 8-17 A-Frame for Pump Maintenance best locatíon for equipment such as stops and hangers.
Pumps in an open arca often require a much larger
structure for pipe supports. Allowahle loadíng on a
purnp nozzle is very low, and the piping must be prop-
erly supported to avoid overstressing the nozzles. Ven-
dors may void pump warranties if the allowable loads
are exceeded.
Client pump and driver maintenance procederes
must also be known at this stage, especíally those re-
garding how each ítem is ro be physically removed.
Very small purnps may be removed by hand, larger
pumps require the use of an Aframe, as depícted in
Exhibit 8-17. Very large pumps may be removed by a
cherry picker,
The next factor to consíder is duplicare piping con-
figurations at groups of pumps of similar size. For
example, a new chernkal plant had 203 purnps, of
which alrnost 75% required piping rangíng.from 1112
in to 3 in in díameter and had a máximum "L'''·''""
ternperature of F. A layout desígner,
a stress/support desígned the

Process Piant Layout and


Standardized Purnp

flexíbíliry loop that was based on a 3-in Jine operating project, If the pumps in the desígner's area fell into the
at 230º F. This layout was duplicated for 76 pairs of 3-in, 230º F operatíng ternperature category, the desígn
pumps, or 152 total. Although the piping as designed was copíed exactly, The 152 pumps were designed
was conservative and slíghtlv more costlv for the l 1/2- and supported once and in an ídentícal manner.
in and 2-in pumps, engineering, fabrication, and con- Uníformiry of desígn in piping, supports, and steel
struction time could be reduced through standardiza- were the results of thínkíng ahead. This is what a client
tíon. A fuUy dímensíoned sketch of this particular pays for when hiring an engíneering contractor
standard desígn was gíven to each designer on the Spending more on engíneering may reduce construc-
EXHIBIT 8-19 Maíntenance and Opcranonal Access EXHIBIT 8-21 Block valve Handwheel Etevatlons

a. Preferred b. Alternatíve
Arrangement Arrangement

tion costs, or spcnding more on m.ueriuls mav save

both engineering and conxtruction costs. A pump
out should he viewed not on an itern-bv-item basis but
as a whole arca, Exhibir 8- 18 shows an example of a
srandardízed pump layout. The designer muse also be
aware of ali operation ami maintenance concerns with
ali pump lavouts. Maintcnance and operutional access
EXlUBIT 8-20 Primary and Standby Purnp Arrangement needs are illustrared in Exhibir 8-19.
When developing an cquipment arraugement in
pump arcas, the layout designer must envision poten-
tial obstructíons around rhe pumps ( e.g., large block
valves, steam turhine piping, and ree-rype pipe xup-
ports from grade). Four feet ( 1,200 mm) is a generally
accepted distance berween pumps or associated
When expansion loops are required between
pumps, it is necessary to partially run the lines over
the pump and driver. Every effort must be made to
mínímíze maintenance ohstructíons by running the
pipíng either outside the arca directly over rhe pumps,
or at a high enough elevation to permit rhe rernoval of
the pump or driver.
Orientation of block valves must minimize the plot
area required, Elevation of the valves should generally
be as low as possible and cornrnon in both lines when

Multiple-Pump Pípíng Arrangements

There are rnany ways to desígn multiple-purnp hook-
ups. This sectíon discusses severa! conligurations that
satisfy various condíríons. The primary ami standby .

Process Plant Layout and Piptng Design

Two Primary Pumps and
One Common Srandby

shown in Exhibir 8-21. In larger line si1.l'.s with highcr

EXHIBIT 8-23 Common Standby Pump pressure ratings, the valves place the horizontal piping
too high, especíally if they are beneath the pipe rack.
Therefore, the alternative arrangement shown in the
exhibir solves rhe layout problern.
Exhibir 8-22 illustrates how a cornrnon standbv
purnp is used for rwo primary pumps, rhis is rhe ideal
layout, with flexibiliry loops added as required. E:\-
hibit 8-23 shows how the suction line for service B is
tied into the suction line for service A below or down-
stream frorn the block valve and upstream from the
strainer. The discharge líne for service B is tied in
downstream from the check valve.
Pumps for hot slurry servíce rnay he configured in
another manner, as shown in Exhibir 8-24. Because the
line requíres a large flexible loop, the amount of dead
leg in the line for the nonoperating purnp must ¡,,,
pump arrangement íllustrared in Exhibir 8-20 indicates minimized. The plant layout desígner shoukl di-;rns,;
rwo ways in which the pumps may be tied together. this particular arrangernent with the vessel engineer.
Although the preferred hookup is directly across and When the vessel data sheets are sent out for quotation,
over headroorn, the operating remperature of many the split bottorns outlet connection ís included in the
pumps requires the addition of a flexibiliry loop to basic desígn. Making rhís rype of decísíon too late can
reduce stresses on che purnp nozzles. The loop need be very costly and may delay delivery of rhe vexxcl.
not take the routing as shown, but ít should be confi- The designer should not just take information as is but
gured so that the piping receives optimum support. should look for wavs to improve the overall design or
Another concem is the elevation of rhe block valve lower the cost of the plan: in ali disciplines.
handwheel in the discharge line, which must be Pumps whose suenen lines come from below grade
within the reach of plant operatíons personnel-the are shown in Exhibir 8-2'í. This is the one time that che
preferred arrangernent and an alrernative layout are reducer absolutelv must have the tbr side on top to

Prímary and Standby
Pump for Hot Slurry

EXHIBIT 8-25 and Standby Pump with EXHIBIT 8-26 Spool Piece Rernoval
Below-Grade Suction

arrangement has a maximum straight drop out of the

deaerator down to where the flexibilíty loop is re-
quired. Although support may be more dífficult, opti-
mízing the operation of the pump is of primary con-
cern and should take precedence.
There are many solutions that can rernove C02
from process gas, sorne of whích operare close to the
vapor pressure of the liquid. Exhibit 8-28 shows one
way to solve this problem. The use of multiple nozzles
avoíd cavíratíon. Use of a basket strainer is more prac- reduces che changes in direction in the suction line.
tica! in this case because the spool píece containing Extending the nozzles to a maximum dístance before
the strainer could be lifted out, as illustrated in Exhibir exíting the skirt above headroom and adding a slight
8-26. slope to the horizontal run also helps streamlíne the
Avoiding cavitatíon in a pump is a concern in al! piping. The suction strainer rnust be located away
services but partícularly when the liquid operares. from rhe purnp, as shown in the vertical portien of the
close to the vapor pressure. Boiler feed pumps, shown líne, and placed low enough to maintain, Once agaín,
in Exhibit 8-27, generally operare close to the vapor early planning by the plant layout desígner allows thís
pressure of the feed water. A'> a result, it is imperative additíonal nozzle feature to be added to the quote
that changes in dírecrion be minimtzed, Designers documents.
add to the sucrion line when It is con- When sidesucrion nozzles are used on centrifuga!
veníent to support ít, bur this may disrupt the flow and purnps, a mínimum of five díameters of straíght run is
increase the possibilíty of cavítatíon. The preferred added to the line before it enters the nozzle. This

Boiler Feed Pumps

____ ......!

dístrlbutes the liquid evenly because the flow is corn- srearn condensare into the turbíne case, which could
ing in perpendicular to the ímpeller, Exhibir 8-29 dis- damage the blades, A typical turbíne arrangernent is
plays this configuratíon for a centrifuga! purnp. shown in Exhibit 8-30.
The srearn supply comes off the top of the supply
header and reduces condensare carry-over into the
Steam Turbíne Pípíng turbíne. The block valve ísolates the turbíne when it is
Arrangements not in use. A dríp leg is províded ar the low point of
When a stearn turbíne pípíng arrangemem is being the systern to rernove any condensare. A control valve
developed, Ir is ímportant to avoid the íntroduction of is placed adjacent to the turbine. The steam exhaust

C02 Médium Pumps

and Ptptng Design

Sídc-Suctíon Nozzks on a
Centrifuga! Purnp

Typícal Stearn Turbine
Piping Arrangement

EXHlBIT 8-31
Improper Yalve and
Stearn Trap Locaríon
Condensare Blowdown

line block valve is provided for ísolation. A relief valve and may be run to the pump support pedestal for
is also provided as a protection device should the ex- hígh-temperature services.
haust valve be closed before cutting off the steam sup- Pump vendors usually supply the auxiliar,' piping
ply, This line rnust vent to a safe location away from to the mechanícal seals through a harness. When
plant personnel. Additional considerarion must be purnp fluid is used, a Iíne is attached to che vent con-
given to access to rhe turhine for maintenance or in- nection on che pump case. The círculated sea! fluid
spection of lube oil connccrions, packíng glands, and must be sent back to the pump stream or returned
the govemor. through the sea! to pump interna! dearances. In vis-
Exhibir 8-31 shows an improper steam supply line cous or hígh-temperarure hydrocarbon liquids, the
arrangernent, the steam trap does not come off the low sea! fluid médium circulares from an exsernal source
point in the system. The condensare that builds up through connectíons on the pump seal. This medíurn
ahove the block valve enters the turbine when the may he a cíean gas oil. In ali cases of auxiliary purnp
valve is opened, damaging the blades. This configura- píping, the plam layout desígner must carefully review
tion rnust be avoided. the vendor drawing and piping and instrumemation
Rernoval of condensare ar mulnsrage turbínes is an- diagrams co ensure that ali requiremems for cooling
other serious concern because if the water .slugs, the or seals have heen covered by one of these docu-
thrusr bearíngs can faíl, A typical method of safely re- mems. Exhibit 8-33 shows a t)l)ical auxiliary pump
moving excess condensare without endangeríng the piping arrangement. The c<x>ling water in and out of
operator who draíns the line is shown in Exhibit 8-32. this particular pump is from above grade; however,
A temperature indicator, whích is visible from the many cooling water systems are below grade, and the
blowdown valve, indicares the presence of water in plam layout desígner must find a suitahle location for
the systern. Opening the valve releases the hot con- this connection.
densare into the exhausr stack The hot stearn can rhen
vent safely overhead, and the condensare is dumped to
grade or dírectly to a draín systern. PUMP PIPING SUPPORTS

A plant layout designer must have sorne basic knowl-

Amdliacy Pump Ptpíng Arrangements edge of stress and pipe suppom to generate a sound
Many purnps have auxiliary pípíng that is supplied by pump piping arrangemem that will nm be radically
the vender or the engineering contractor. This pípíng redesigned by a stress/suppon engineer. Sorne simple
delivers cooling water to mechanícal seals, bearmgs, rules, if followed, enable the designer to satisfy rwo of
stuffing boxes, gland quench, and lantern ríng flush the most important considerations illustrated in Ex-
Auxiliary Pump Piping

hihit 8-34: supporting the suction line under the el- diameters of that elbow. Pump nozzle loading falls
bow and supporting the díscharge líne within five di- under the AP!-610 code. There are two ways of sup-
ameters of the top elbow. porting the discharge Iíne. One is to sít the spring
The suction line is commonly supported under the support on the steel with a rod hanger and clamp; the
elbow adjacent to the pump nozzle. This may be a other versíon is to place a base spring on the steel with
hard support ( i.e., pipe ora structural steel mernber), the díscharge line resting directly on the load flange of
adiustable rype, or spring support for hígh-tempera- the spríng, Because the hanger rod could pose a dan-
ture purnps, If pumps are locared in poor soil areas or ger during a fire, each project should be reviewed for
where dífferemíal settlernent may occur, extending such concerns. Loadíng on steam turbine nozzles falls
the pump block foundatíon may be necessary to pick under the NEMA-SM-21 code, whích is dífferent from
up the base support. The stress/support engineer and the allowable nozzle loads on pumps.
civil engineer need to be pan of thís decision. Inline pumps do not require a direct support but
The discharge line should be supported as close to are held in place by the suction and discharge line
the top elbow as possihle and should be wíthín five supports, as shown in Exhibir 8-35.

Piping Deslgn
Typical Pump ami
Turbíne Support

EXHIBlT 8-35
Typical Inline Pump



Reactors are used in processing facilities to contain e Sorne of the nitrogen is converted to ammonía.
catalysts that promote chemical transformation of • Any metals entraincd in the oil are dcposited on the
feeds or as agents to rernove unrequíred marerials caralvst.
from feeds. Reactors are generally vertical steel hollow • Some of the oletins, aromatics, and napluhenes he-
vessels and often operare under very high tempera- come hydrogen saturated and sorne cracking takes
tures and pressures. One of the principal layout fea- place, causing the formation of butancs, propane,
tures of the reactor is the requirernent for caralyst and lighter gases. Exhibir 9-2 shows a typical hydro-
loading and unloading. The use of caralyst-charged treater process arrangement.
vessels are essentíal to modern processes and have
found wídespread application in the production of Catalysts promote a reaction hut do not react in an~·
chemícal and refinery producrs. way thernselves. The catalyst used insidc reactors is
This chapter highliglus the general requírements generally hall or pellet shaped ami, depending 011 che
for reactor plant layout design. It provídes instructions rype of service, can he made from a variery of mate-
on how to locate nozzles, instruments, píping, and rials, including alumína, zinc oxide, or even such an
controls to provide convenienr and safe platforms for expensive metal as platinum.
operator and maintenance access.


There are many catalyst-charged vessels wirhin the cat- Although sorne reactors ( e.g., those used in methanol
egory of reactors, mainly because their characteristics and catalytic reforming units) are spherical, most are
and layout requirernents are similar. Examples of vertically mounted vessels with elliptical heads. There
these are desulfurízers, methanators, and guard cham- are fewer connections for the plant layout designer to
bers. The desulfurizer, which usually operares with a he concerned with than there are with the distillation
rwin vessel, is responsíble for the removal of sulfur tower. Generally, connections are limited to inlet and
from feedstock by absorbíng the sulfur on the ínter- outlet, maintenance access, unloading, sa11'1ple, aml
nally loaded catalyst. When the catalyst becornes satu- temperature. Internally, reactors are furnished with
rated with sulfur, regeneraríon takes place and the hed supports, screens, inlet bafíles, outlet collectors,
spent catalyst becomes refurbished. Exhibir 9-1 shows caralysts, and inert materials. Exhibir 9-3 depicts a typi-
a rypical desulfurizer process arrangernent. cal reactor and its principal components.
The reactor used in a typical hydrotreater unir is Nozzle requiremerns and overall dimensions of the
more versatile, In the hydrotreating process, rhe reac1or are highlighted on the process vessel sketch
treated stream is mixed with hydrogen and heated to furnished by process engineering and are included in
berween 500º and 800º F (260º to 427º C). The hydro- the process release package. If the reactor operates in
gen-oíl mixture is then charged to a reactor filled with a high-pressure service, it is recommended, for clear-
a pelleted catalysr, and the followíng reactions take ance purposes, that the plant layout designer obtain
place: the shell rhickness of the vessel before proceeding
with layout arrangements. Exhibir 9-4 shows a typical
• The hydrogen combines with sulfur to form hydro- reactor process vessel sketch, and Exhibir 9-5 shows a
gen sulfide. high-pressure reactor.
Desulfurizer Process

1 1

EXHHUT 9-2 Hydrotreater Process EXHIBIT 9-3 Reactor

FIKE!.Q Gr~1>.T1>.JC.

"'-- OUTl..f:.T CoLLS:'-íoli::
Reacrors are located within a process unir adjacent to
relared equipment and in a suitahle posítion for oper-
ation and catalyst loading and unloading. A reactor
operares in sequence and dose to a fumace because
expensive high-temperature piping runs must be min-
irnized, Exhibir 9-6 illustrates a partía! plot plan of a concrete píers, a ring girder from a concrete table top,
hydrotreater unit. and a skirt from a concrete table top. Exhibir 9-7 de-
picts these four arrangements.
Reactor elevatíon is díctated by the catalyst's un-
SUPPORT AND ELEVATION loading nozzle or clearance for the outler piping,
whichever results in the lower tangent Iine elevation.
There are four principal rnethods of support for reac- The tangent Iine elevation, however, could be much
tors. a skirt from a concrete foundation, lugs from hígher to suit specíñc client unloadíng requirernents

Process Plant Layout and Piptng Design

Process vessel Sketch

...S02.2LE. 'SUMMAIZ'<
SYi..t&.-.1. '512.E ~EIZ\/1<:.E
A e,ll "1oo'"IZF INLE.T
e e"~r.F OWTl..ET
$ ;a~tkEF SAMPl..E
T 111 60~ tpJ' Ti::M~Wf
-·o oo uc. 1~11éoo*ri!F e.ATA!..y-;.T
('t ~· t>"1'oP OUT
MA MJ.1..,,-EN.UU
2/fuo~F ~e-.c. ~

EXHIBIT 9-5 Hígh-Pressure Reactor EXHIBIT 9·6 Partial Plot Plan for a Hydrotreater Unir




EXHIBIT 9-7 Methods for Reactor Support


a. Skirt Supported (Foundation) b. Lug Supported

c.ot.i G2.E,. e
í.11.e>LE: 'Top
rA".?Le r,..

c. Ring Gírder Supported d. Skirt Supported (Table Top)

PN>cessPlant Layout
Minimum Reactor
Elevation Requirements

P1~ S1..1Pfo2..!.
o~ l.ow-Fb11 ...1T O!é:.ti..uJ

(e.g., truck unloading ). Exhibir 9-8 depícts mínimum

elevation requirements, ano Exhibir 9-9 shows dírect EXHIBIT 9-9 Direct Unloading frorn a Reactor to a
unloading into a truck. To set the elevation of reactors,
the plant layout desígner requíres the following infor-

• Reactor dimensions.
'" Type of heads,
• Support details.
• Bottom outlet size.
• Unloading nozzle size.
" Client preference for caralyst handling.


Nozzles are located to suit process operatíon and
maintenance requirements and to facilitare an eco-
Top-Head Nozzle



nomic and orderly interconnection of píping berween zle are located on the bottom head of the reactor. If
rhe reactor and related equípment. The following in- the reactor is skirt supported, the outlet is arranged
formation is required to locate and elevare reactor like a tower borroms outler. lf-supported by lugs or by
n< i1.1.les: a ring gírder, the nozzle is vertical on the centerlíne of
the vessel that terminares at the nozzle flange, The
• Procesx vessel sketch. catalyst unloading nozzle is angled from the bouom
" Instrurnent vessel sketch. head to clear the skirt and is posíríoned berween the
• Piping and instrumentation diagram. piers on lug-supported reactors and beiow the table
top on ring girder-supported reactors. Exhibir 9-11
• Piping line list.
depicts typical bottom-head arrangements. In certain
• Noz1.le summarv.
cases, especially with stacked reactors, catalyst unload-
• Plani layout specíticaríon. ing 1101.1.les are located in the side shell ofthe reactor,
• lnsulation requíremcnts. as shown in Exhibir 9-12.
Temperature instruments are usually required at
The process inlet is located at the top head of the reacrors, they are used to measure rhe temperature ar
reactor along with maintenance access, which is used dífferent levels of the catalyst bed. These instrurnents
for catalyst loading. On small-díametcr reactors whose can be individual nozzles located at various Ievels on
space is lírnited, the inlet nozzle can be integral with the shell of the reactor or, to minimize rnuhiple con-
maíntenance access. Exhibir 9-10 shows typical top- necuons, immersed in a well from the top of the reac-
head arrangements. tor, either on an individual nozzle or through the
The process outlet and the catalyst unloading noz- rnaínrenance access. lnstrument requírements for re-

Process Plant Layout and Ptptng Design

c:;AT ti.L. "'(-S, T
Bottorn-Head Nozzle
UNl..OADti>JG Arrangernents
Ol>JE "-1077.U':

~A C:'>I u "S

Sk'..112.T suPPoere.o

__ ~.._,,,
u t..11.0A.01+.JC'.s

e1.e:.vA"TION Pf.AN
l..E:6 SuPPOr.?T!!.,P

actors are usuallv highlíghted on a vessel instrument unloading, Platforrn elevations are derermíned by the
sketch thar is fu~nisbed by the ínstrument engíneer. íterns that require operation and maíntenance, on tal!
Exhibir 9-13 íllustrates síde shell-mounted tempera- reactors, platforrn elevations are set to accommodate
ture ínstrurnents, and Exhibir 9-14 shows the top-head a maximum ladder run length of 30 ft (9,150 mm).
vertical arrangement. Exhibir 9-16 shows platform and ladder elevarion re-
Sample probe connectíons, which are sometimes quirements.
specified, are usually located on rhe side shell of the Reacrors taller than 30 ft (9,150 mm) should be
vessel as shown in Exhibir 9-15. treated much like towers (see Chapter 10) for plat-
form requíremenrs except that, for reactors, interme-
diare platforrns and ladders are requíred only for ac-
PlATFORM ARRANGEMENTS cess to temperature instruments, sarnple probes,
catalyst unloading nozzles ar stacked vessels, and max-
Plarforrns are required at reactors for access to valves, imum ladder runs. Because of the economícs of plal-
instrumenta, blínds, maíntenance accesses, and cata- form bracket welding or client preference, however,
lyst loading as well as at stacked reactors for caralyst reacrors rnust somerirnes be surrounded by steel

EXHIBIT 9-12 Side Shell=Mounted Catalyst Unloading EXHIBIT 9-14 Vertically Mounted Temperature
Nozzles Connection

EXHUUT9-13 Side Shell-Mounted Temperature


EXHIBIT 9-15 Sample Probe Cormection

structures with staírs for operator and maíntenance

access. On reactors shorter than 30 ft (9,150 mm), onlv
a top-head platforrn is needed. Exhibits 9-17 through
9-21 show typícal reactor plarforrn arrangernenrs.


Reactor piping rnust be arranged for ease of support

and positioned to suit imerconnection with related

ProcessPlant Layout and Piping Design'


ToP Lle.A P'1-l>.TF02M EXIJ.IBIT 9-16

Reactor Platform and
VA.\..VE.1 \IE:.i..1T, TE..MPE:íZATu2.E;
Ladder Elevation
IN~~M~T 4;: CAíAl.."f?'T Requirernents

P l.E:,·
~ANI ~"-' "-! f:C.TION
/ Au..F!::.'7~

P&..ATfo'4.i To ~11
/ CAíb.i.:r?T UNl.oAD1NG
~&~~· F¡;¡:oM
MA\!.IMUM ~l')E.S2
G!2AQI!!:. eoi<:. P&.AíFoR>.1

EXHIBIT 9-17 Vessel-Supported Platform Arrangement EXHIBU 9-19 Structure-Supported Platform

(i.:l'.f'ICAI. 1"gee $.IQE~). C:-ATAL'(~T
Lo.e..p le.JO

EXHIBIT 9-18 Single Platform Arrangement

Process Plant Layout and Ptping De.~ign

Top Platforrn

c.oL !'olZ t.ux 1 LIAA(
~ .:;or..u..ie.c.;10..is ~Mer..::.TI0'-1

Single-Reactor Piptng
PIPS. lii!.ACK-+--+---

CA.TAi.: ~T ~Dt""'ú
' U>-.1L-0Aot"16

EXHIBl'f 9-23
Reactors in Series:
Manually Operated Valve

t 1r--- .. o----B


Reactors in Series:
Rernotely Operated Valve

Pt...AN E':.l-eVATlo"-1

equiprnent. Because reactors often operare at very be routed dírectly berween related equipment to suit
high temperatures, piping rnust be arranged with suffi- economícs, flexibility, and supports, as shown in Ex-
cient flexibiliry to absorb excessive stress under usual híbít 9-22. If the facílíty operares in a series, the piping
operating conditions. system is designed to accommodate regeneratíon of a
Píping at reactors or other similar catalyst operating catalyst in one reactor while the other is still on
equipment can be relatively simple in configuration, stream, as shown in Exhibir 9-23. To do thís, the sys-
as shown in the process flow diagram in Exhibir 9-2, or tern is fumished with controls and crossover bypasses.
more sophistícated, as shown in the flow díagram in Far ease of operation, the valve rnanífolds for regener-
Exhibir 9-1. In rhe single-reactor arrangement,. which ation should be located at grade. If these valves are
has no controls to influence the desígn, the pípíng can controlled rernotely, however, the overhead manifold
M! W f JWUi lb m
EXHlBil' 9-25 Davit EXHUUT9-26 Bearn Arrangement

can he located at the top-head platform, as shown in

Exhibir 9-24.
Relief valves are usually furrushed as part of the with the vessel, the first step is to load the bottom head
reactor piping sysrern and should he located in accor- and unload the nozzle with inert material. The inert
dance with the arrangernents shown in Chapters 5 material could he sílíca pellets or alurnina halls, whích
(Drums) and 10 (Towers). are usually larger rhan the catalyst and support the
catalyst bed. The inert material is then covered with
the bonorn floating screen. The catalyst is firsr sieved
MAINTENANCE a mesh screen to remove the finer particles, lt
is then Ioaded into a bucket or sock and lowered
Handling such rernovable iterns as relief valves and through the maíntenance access, where it is rnanually
valve drives for off-síte repair and catalysr loading can distributed in layers until the reactor is filled to the
be achieved by fixed handling devíces or by mobile requíred capacíry. The top and bottom Iayers of cata-
equípment, Fixed handling devices can be davíts or, lyst are usually a larger mesh than the rnain bed. The
for structure-mounted reactors, trolley bearns. Exhibir top floating screen is then ínsralled and covered with
9-25 depícts a rypícal davit arrangement, and Exhibir an additional layer of inert material that is used to hold
9-26 shows a trolley beam arrangernent. down the screen assembly during regeneratíon and
Catalysts are loaded the top-head rnainte- elímínates inlet gas turbulence during operation.
nance access of the reactor after rernoval of the inlet The catalyst is removed ínfrequently. Removal is
nozzle if integral to the maintenance access cover accomplíshed during shutdowns after cool-down by
flange. lf the catalyst is not supported 011 a rixed grat- allowing the catalyst to exir througb the bottorn un-
ing and screen assembly, which would be fabricated loadíng nozzle. After rernoval of the flange cover on

Process Plant Layout ami Design

..,¡o22.LE Spherical Reactor

~l'l{~f) ---- .cATA.L.'f ~í

(,;zA.Tl~Ú ------
4 ~c.cze::e.~ ¡.Jo %.'Z.1-5


..,.......,....,.........,_.,;':@...,."'" Horizontal Reactor

the unloading nozzle, the catalyst can be allowed to lighted in thís chapter are examples of reactor ar-
free fal[ to a temporary containment area or be re- rangernenrs. The plant layout desígner, however,
moved usíng an industrial vacuum, or a temporary should be familiar with company and clíent standards
valve may be used to control the unloading rates. Ex- before proceedíng with reactor layout and should co-
hibits 9-27 through 9-30 are exarnples of less common ordinate thís effort with such supporting groups as
reactor arrangernents. vessel, systems, process, civil, and ínstrument eugi-
The dírnensíons, clearances, and guídelínes high- neeríng.


EXHIBIT9-29 Stacked Reactors EXHIBIT 9-30 Multibcd Reactor


OuTLE.T Ut-.!L.oA.tn"-A6
"'o z. :z..1. e

e:::. A."i .b. L. "? T
~0'2. 'Z. l. e.

Process Plant Layout and Piping Destgn



Towers, also referred to as columns, are one of the • The fractíonal distillation process.
principal pieces of equipmenr of any processing fácil-
ity. Towers are cylindrical steel vessels that are used
for dístilling raw rnateríals in the production of such
Batch Shell
products as gasoline, diesel, and heating oil. The plant In the batch shell still process, the still is partíallv filled
layout desígner rnust understand the interna! structure with a set feed called a batch. The feed is rhen heated
of a tower and how ít operares to produce a satísfac- to the ternperature required to produce a specific
tory desígn. product from the overhead vapors. This process is
Thís chapter híghlíghts the general requirements repeated each time for each product until the batch
for tower plant layout desígn. It describes the interna! reaches the maximum ternperature for the range of
workíngs of towers and provides the information re- products specífied. The feed remaining in the still is
quired to oríent nozzles; locate ínstrurnenrs, píping, then pumped out, and the still is allowed to cool. lt is
and controls: and provide platforms and ladders for then refilled, and the whole process is repeated '.\ot
operator and rnaíntenance access. only is thís process time consurníng, but the product is
not always of hígh quality. Exhibir 10-2 shows the
batch shell still process, which was one of the earliest
ffiE DISTILLATION PROCESS used for liquid mixture separation.

Crude oil is of línle comrnercíal use; when separated,

or broken down, however, oil becornes one of the Contínuous Shell
most valuable cornmodítíes in the world, Crude oil is a In the continuous shell still process, severa! shell stills
mixture of hydrocarbon cornpounds with a wide are linked in series to form a battery. Fresh feed con-
range of boílíng points from 100° F (38° C) to 1,400° F tinuously enters the first still, which is kept at the low-
(760° C). est ternperarure for the líghtest overhead product, The
Separarion, or dlstillation, is a process by which a bottoms from the first still are fed to the second stíll,
liquid mixture is partíally vaporízed, 'rhe vapors ate whích is kept at the temperarure for the next híghest
then condensed, separatíng the individual compo- boilíng overhead product, and so on. The number of
nents of the mixture. As the ternperature of crude oíl is stills requíred depends on the number of products
raísed, the ínítíal boilíng poínt (IBP) is reached. As needed. If the feed and the ternperature of each still
boílíng continues, the ternperature rises. The líghtest remain constant, the finished product is of satísfactory
material, butane, is produced first, at IBP, just below qualíry. Exhibit 10-3 depicts the continuous shell still
100° F (38° C); the heavíer materials are produced be- process, whích is an ímprovement over the batch shell
low 800° F ( 427° C). The residue indudes everything still operation.
above 800°F (427° C). Exhibit 10-1 shows the distribu-
tion of the different products ar the various tempera-
ture ranges. Practíonal Dístíllation
The evolutíon of dístillatíon towers is best ex- Similar to the continuous shell still, the fractíonal dís-
plaíned in three basíc steps: tillation process is made up of severa] stílls linked
together in series. The maín difference is that ali the
• The batch shell stíll process. liquid condensate is returned to the upstream still. As
" The contínuous shell stíll process. the feed is partially vaporized in the first still, the va-

EXHIBIT 10-1 Crude Dístíllatíon of Produets Across EXHIBIT 10-2 Batch Shell Stíll Dístiílatíon Process
Temperature Range

(~º,;,)­(104.'.:;.) C:i~11'1E.
~-Z>IYF l>-IAPHiHA. __
(104't)· 1~7"t:.)
3'1!S>"F -4'iio"F 11:.E.~E,...E
4 . ~I' • G'l>o"F LiC::oHT '3A'So
(1Mt)­(~S"c;..) 011..
c;:,S<:>"F·i!!ao"F +IEAVY G.A.':>

Continuous Shell Still
Dístíllatíon Process

EXHH:UT 10-4
Multiunit Fractional
Distillation Process

IS~"F (~e"c.)

pors travel through the overhead líne, and come stíll, As vapors ríse in the first still, they meet the in-
ínto contact with the Iíquíd in the second stíll. Because coming líquíd from the second stíll, This causes vapor-
the ternperature of the Iiquíd in the second still is ízation of the incoming liquíd from the second stíll
than the vapors from the first still, the and of the risíng vapors in the first snll.
vapors condense. At the sarne time, liquid The same reactíon takes place in all the downstream
from the enters near the top of the first stílls, Thís process improves on prevíous operations in
EXHIBIT 10·5 Fractionator Tower EXHIBIT 10-6 Vapor Liquid Flow

terrns of quantíty, quality, and a reductíon in the en-

ergy needed to heat the raw rnateríals. Exhíbít 10-4 to flow down,
illustrates the multíunít fractíonal -dístíllatíon process, Rísíng vapors in the tower pass through slorted
AH three process arrangernents are satísfactory op- bubble caps and come ínto contact with Iiquid flowíng
eratíons and play an irnportant part in the develop- around the caps, Liquíd flowing down from trays
rnent of the modern dístíllation tower, The final step above fall through downcomers and over and around
in combíníng these operatíons into one single compo- the bubble caps en route to the next downcomer. In
nent is achíeved by stackíng the stílls on top of each this manner, the light boílíng fractions in the down-
other and ínstallíng an interna! devíce berween each flowíng liquíd are vaporízed by the heat frorn the rís-
stíll to allow the liquid to flow down and the vapors to íng vapors, and heavler boílíng fractíons in the vapor
rise, This means that the single unit can functíon in a are condensed and flow down the tower. Thís process
way similar to the rnultíshell unít for less capital and of vaporízíng and condensíng throughout the tower
operatíonal cost. Exhíbit 10-5 shows a single fractíona- allows the feed to be separated ínto the requíred boíl-
tor tower wíth the correspondíng still numbers and íng-range fractíons, whích are drawn off from the side
ternperature ranges of the multístíll unit, The reflux of the tower at the appropriate locaríons.
return líne controls the temperature of the fluids in
the upper portien of the tower.
Vapor and Líquíd Flow
Towers are named for the servíce or type of unít they
One of the rnost common íntemal devices that allows are assocíated wíth. For exarnple, a strípper is used to
the single tower to funetíon to the rnultistill strip líghter material from the bottoms of a maín tower
unít is the tray, íllustrated in Exhibir 10-6. Slots and or a vacuum tower, It is generally used in a vacuum/
hales in the trays allow the vapor to rise and the líquid crude unit for distilling crude bonoms resídue under
EXHIBIT 10-7 Vacuum Tower and Strípper EXHIBIT 10-8 Trayed Tower

lii:E.Fl.U )(

... FE.EQ

MA11>..1Téi..lANc.e IN~...:>NIE....,T$
·• ~TT0M7 j

vacuum pressure. Exhibit 10-7 shows a typícal vacuum of its assocíated components.
tower and strípper. In a packed tower, instead of having trays, the units
From the outsíde, tower configuratíons are similar are packed with beds of metal ríngs. On enteríng the
in appearance, varying only in dírnensíon, sorne tow- tower, the liquíd passes through a distributor that
ers have swaged top and bottom sections. The princi- routes the liquid evenly down through the packed
pal difference among towers is the rype and layout of beds of metal rings. Rising vapors passing through the
the interna! components that control the vapor-Iiquid beds come into contact wíth the descendíng líquíd, In
contact, a manner similar to trayed tower operatíon, the líquíd
This chapter describes the interna! and externa! is partially vaporized by the heat from the vapors and
plant layout requirements for the two most comrnon the vapors are condensed by the cooler liquid. Exhíbít
types of tower: the trayed and packed arrangements. 10-9 illustrates a typícal gas-líquíd packed tower and
Exhíbít 10-8 depícts a typícal trayed tower with sorne its principal components.

and theír related ítems are located on either side of a

EXHIBIT 10-9 Packed Tower
central pipe rack, serviced by auxílíary roads for maín-
tenance access. In plants in which the related equip-
ment is housed, the tower is often located adjacent to
the building or structure containing the equípment,
Exhibit 10-1 O shows a process flow diagram of a tower
and its related equipment, a typical plan arrangement
LIQ1..HD of the same equtpment, and the equiprnent in eleva-
D1.;,T1í!.1e>uTol< tion.


Tower elevation is the distance from grade to the bot-

tom tangent líne of the vessel. Support is the rneans by.
whích the vessel is retained at the required elevatíon.
Exhibit 10-11 shows an example of elevation and sup-
Although tower elevarion muse satisfy mínírnum
NPSH requirements, it can be set by a combination of
the following constraints-whichever produces the
mínimum tangent Une elevatíon:

• NPSH (Exhibir 10-12).

• Operator access (Exhibit 10-13).
• Maintenance access (Exhibir 10-14).
• Mínimum clearance (Exhibit 10-15).
• Vertical reboíler (Exhibit 10-16).
• Common access (Exhibit 10-17).
FORTOWERS A skirt is the most frequently used and most satis-
factory means of support for vertical vessels. It is at-
Towers are not a standalone operatíon; they are usu- tached by continuous welding to the bottom head of
ally located within a process unit adjacem to related the vessel and is furníshed with a base ring, which is
equípment and in a suítable position for operator and secured to a concrete foundation or structural frame
rnaíntenance access. A tower operares close to such by means of anchor bolts. In most cases, the skirt is
related items as purnps, reboílers, drums, and con- straight, bur on tall, small-díarneter towers, the skirt
densers and should be positioned to facilitare an or- could be flared. Access openings are required in ves-
derly and economíc interconnection between ítself sel skírts for inspection and, when possible, should be
and that equipment, oriented toward the main access way. Exhibir 10-18
Within the conventíonal inlíne process unit, towers shows a typical skirt arrangement.
EXHIBIT 10-10 Tower Area

+= -
1 ~-=-
,j, . .----;\1----,....



PIPii!. ~K

.A,e;:.&'!. Wt;,,-<

a. Process Flow Díagram b. Plan Arrangement


c. Elevatíon

ProcessPlantLayout and Piping Design

EXHIBIT 10-U Consíderatíons for Tower Elevatíon EXHIBIT 10·13 Operator Access
and Support


"ice.&~$ \
~p i:lT 1
~tzf) 1

~lhlf !!f~.i....;,..........:.-'-'--"""="'-=--

EXHmrr 10..12 Net Positive Suction Head mrn:mrr 10-14 M;ainterumce Access


NE."T' Po~l'T'IVE


EXHIBIT 10-15 Mínimum Clearance EXHIBIT 10-17 Common Access


The first step in tower layout is seníng the bottom

EXHIBIT 10-16 Vertical Reboíler tangent line elevatíon, This step assists civil engíneer-
ing in foundation desígn, vessel engineering in sup-
port desígn, sysrems engineeríng in line sizíng, and
rotatíng equiprnent engíneering in pump selection. To
set the elevation of a tower, the plant layout desígner
requires the following information:

" Tower dimensíons.

" Type of heads.
• Support details.
'" NPSH requirements.
• Bottom outlet size.
" Reboiler detaíls.
'" Foundatíon detaíls.
" Mínimum clearances.
lii!!E.MevA ~''---- For exarnple, the tangent fine elevation of the tower
Afll f!:A as shown in Exhibit 10-19 has been set using the fol-
lowíng informatíon and the guidelínes in this chapter.

" Configuratíon=-Exhíbn 10-13 (operator access).

• Tower dimensions--4 ft (1,200 mm) in díarneter by
EXHIBIT 10··18
Tower Skirt

~"! t.:_e.T

1111x12;11/. ~oxAi;o

---t--t . <G"\~i Aae~s
4. e.1...+121-Ci::>'/:;so

Tower Elevatien Sketch

l ( e""~~
PD1r..1T oF- "SuPPo~í

,....r:=:::::::::...~f::::=-:~kl1 ~:: _

c!>PE-.eAJo e
Process Vessel Sketch

F 6

o T

ITE.M T-100

60 ft (18,300 mm) in length. Tower Internals

• Type of heads-2: 1 elliptical. Towers have a variety of interna! devices for vapor-
" Support=-Straíght skirt wíth base ríng, líquíd contact and feed distribution that affect the exte-
.. NPSH-6 ft (1,800 mm) mínimum, rior layout of the vessel, There is a wide range of
" Bottom outlet stze=-é-ín díameter. desígns for trays, whích are the principal interna! com-
., Foundatíon-e-Concrete poínt of support elevaríon of ponent of the trayed tower. The two most frequently
101 ft (100,300 mm). used are the single-pass bubble cap tray and the dou-
ble-pass bubble cap tray. Other trays (e.g., sieve or
., Operator dearance-7 ft (2,100 mm).
perforated trays) are similar in design to the bubble
A freehand sketch should be used for thís exercíse. cap tray and do not affect the layout of the tower. Tray
Although the mínimum NPSH requirement was a configurations and dímensíons are furnished by pro-
key factor in elevatíng the tower in thís example, the cess engíneeríng and are induded in the process re-
heíght was finally díctated by operator access clear- lease package. Exhibir 10-20 íllustrates a process vessel
anee, whích was the greater of the two dímensions. If sketch, Exhibir 10-21 shows the tray detaíls, and Ex-
the configuratíon shown in Exhibit 10-12 (NPSH) had hibit 10-22 depícts single-pass and double-pass trays.
been used, the tangent line elevation would be 108.5 ft Towers have the same tray configuration for the
(102,600 mm). whole length of the tower. Sorne towers, however,


Tray Details

OuTi. ...ET

1?.>"/.?BG --
i Yo~o-·~--:~~---1- D
11/02.S ---
EXHIBIT 10-22 Examples of Downcomer Trays

a. Single-Pass Downcomer Tray b. Double-Pass Downcomer Tray

EXHIBIT 10-23 Tower Transítíon Sectíon EXHIBI't 10-25 Opposíng Downcomers

Dow~e>Mé2. E.\li!IJ-..._,M&e.11.a.o
CO W"41 .t:t:> M &.liie.S

EXHIBIT 10-24 Chimney Tray Arrangement EXHIBIT 10-26 Reboíler Arraagemem

L!G1 ...ll D Packed Tower
Dl?TIZ.l~úTo~ Components



a. Packed Bed Sectíon

b. liquid Dístríbutor c. Packíng Support Grid

especially those wíth enlarged sections, could change vessel sketch (Exhibir 10-20) shows that the reboiler
from single-pass to double-pass tray configurations. draw-off nozzle is located directly below the down-
Exhibit 10-23 shows a rypícal arrangemem at a tower comer of tray 27, and the plan arrangernent (Exhibit
transitíon sectíon. The chímney tray, íf specified, is 10- lOb) indicates that the reboíler is located on the
another devíce that could change the tray configura- west side of the tower and that the maintenance road
tíon. The chímney tray is a solid plate wíth a central is south of the tower, Therefore, because the tower
chimney sectíon and is usually used at draw-off sec- reboíler nozzle is generally on the same side as the
tíons of the tower. Exhibit 10-24 identifies a rypícal reboíler and the maintenance access way is besr lo-
chimney tray arrangement. cated on the maimenance side, the trays are autornatí-
The plant layout designer must orient the trays cally posítioned about a north/south centerlíne. Ex-
along with the tower nozzles to suít the best exterior hibit 10-26 illustrates a plan view of the arrangement,
arrangement. The trays can be at any angle as long as The principal dífference between trayed and
the downcomers directly oppose each other. Exhibit packed towers is that the packed tower uses metal
10-25 shows a typical example of opposíng down- rings ínstead of trays for vapor-líquíd contact. The
comers. metal rings are durnped or packed ínto specífic sec-
Two main íterns that ínfluence tray orientatíon are tions of the tower, called beds, and supported by cross
maíntenance access ways and reboilers. The process gríd bars spaced to prevent the rings from falling
Elevatíon and Oríentatíon
Reqaírements for
Maintenance Accesses

eia t.avEI. v..11iM

ToP <'F PA.::.¡.¡:1t.16

a. Maintenance Access Elewtions

'5:11~61..S DOW~ME.'Z ~e1..s DOWN'-OMe~

i~Á."f NA.::(

b, Maintenance Aecess Oríentañons

through, The supports are desígned to allow vapor to operatíonal needs. Thelr positíon must also facilitate
rise and líquid to flow down. Liquid is fed ínto the econorníc and orderly interconnectíon of pípíng be-
vessel at the top of each bed through a liquíd distribu- rween the tower and related equípment,
tor. Unlike the trayed tower, there are no specíal con- A maíntenance access is usually located in the bot-
sideratíons for orientatíon of the beds, the dístríbutor, tom: top, and intermedíate sections of the tower and is
or the packíng supports, Exhibit 10-27 shows these used to gaín entry to the tower duríng shutdowns for
three packed tower components. interna! inspectíon and component removal, Maínte-
nance accesses must not be located at downcomer
sections of the tower. Care must be taken at sectíons of
NOZZLE ELEVATION AND the tower that contaín internal pípíng to avoíd block-
ORIBNTATION íng the maíntenance . access entrance. Exhibir 10-28
shows typícal elevation and orientatíon requírernents
Nozzles must be elevated to meet the interna! requíre- for maíntenance accesses,
ments of the tower and oríented for maíntenance and Feed connectíons to trayed towers usually must be

EXHIBIT .10-29
Reñux: Alternatíve

N022J..é Dli\METE.Q.
+ sª/.tZ? M!t-.llMuM

located in a specífic area on the tray by means of

EXHIBIT 10-30 Peeds: Alternatíve Arrangement interna! pípíng, which can restricr nozzle orientatíon
options. The restrictions are minimized by optíonal
routing of the interna! pípíng to facilitare the most
economic exterior arrangernent, Interna! feed pípíng
to packed towers is piped directly to the distributor
and can be oriented at any angle. Exhibits 10-29
and 10-30 illustrate severa! options for interna! feed
If specífied, reboíler connections are usually lo-
...l... ..!.. cated ar the bonorn section of the tower. For the hor-
izontally mounted therrnosíphon reboíler, the draw-
off nozzle is located [ust below the bottorn tray. For
the vertícally rnounted recirculating thermosiphon re-
boíler, the draw-off nozzle is located ar the bottom
head. For both systems, the return nozzles are located
just above the liquid leve!. Exhibir 10-31 shows both of
these arrangements.
The vapor outlet is usually a vertical nozzle locared
on the top head of the tower. It is usually a single
nozzle, but in certain cases (e.g., towers with very
large díameters ), more than one nozzle is specífied.
On large-diameter vapor lines, the vessel connectíon
could be butt-welded ínstead of flanged. In addition,
ALTCfil.NA.TI~ the vent and relief valve could be located on the top
$INGLE No"Z.:Z..lE c:::>R.15....,TA'T•ON head ínstead of attached to the overhead piping. Ex-
i'WO OPTION~ hibit 10~32 shows a typical top head arrangernent.
The liquid outlet is located on the bottom head of
the tower. If the tower is supported by a skirt, the
nozzle is routed outside the skírt. As with the vapor
outlet, more than one nozzle may be specífied, The
elevation of the nozzle is dictated by the constraints
díscussed previously in this chapter. The orientation
can be at any angle, but generally it is díctated by
pump suction píping flexibility, Exhibir 10-33 shows a
\ typical bottorn head arrangernent.
Ternperature- and pressure-ínstrument connec-
~ tíons are located throughout the tower. The tempera-
fJ1;.JGiLI!. "­A<:n:z.1..e. O~lf;MTATlc>t.J
ture probé must be located in a liquid space, and the
MUl.."l'tP!..E OPTION~
pressure connection in a vapor space. Exhibit 10-34
shows the preferred Iocatíon for both connections.

Process Plant Layout and Piping Design

Reboiler Connectíons

g~ !2c:'.• L. E &l
a. Horizontal Reboíler

loº ("4Al< IMl.IM)

Ai A"-Jy
\\161:\ \JQu¡p O I< 1 E."-l"TAl10i.J

\t A.l.Tel21;JATl\IE

b. Vertical Reboiler
Al.T!:1<,,..¡A¡1v! VE.$-S..EI.. EXHIBIT 10-32
\j¡-;.:¡:¡:-[O'""c.A T 1 OÑ Top Head Arrangement

~E.\..!E.F VbJ..VE.
Al..TEIZNAllVE:: Tb......i C::d::.J.,J"'f A:::i1NT
VAf12!('. o unf?.T 1--...,,,-...,......,.........1-----1--1 ALTE.12'.i.J.ll.TIVE:
t..o_~.!11.2(.,::1"4'-;;+ftt::t:~ f'!.El..!E.F Vb.1..''VE

Bottorn Head
TAl>JC::r~T L1NE:
f.oTTOM ;.e:E: HEAD
01.lTl..ET __ ....._ _,__ O! M E:.t-J ::'.710 N?

41f.l.-,o t--11t-.J 1 MUM


Process Plant Layout and Piping

Temperature and
Pressure Locations

FIZOM.~E.l. ALT~Nti:,.1va Li='lle..l.. F.XHIBIT 10-35

IN~Tí2uMf-1.,1T '&k:.i?..TC.14 ~Tlí?:uM~T Lo.::.ATtC>o.J~ Level Instrument
11:: e-AFFL.é 1~ 1=....11z¡...¡1~++1.~D Locations

"""'" .

t Re&orL~e

Pi2.f;;FE..!ói;'l4ED LéVEI..
Hl..I... :: Hlú.M UGlt..J•D LE.Vg.J. '~-~·ni.wMr=: .... rT ~TIO_~_s
...iu.: i...loRMb.l. L1(ll.1.J1Pl..E.V~I..

EXHlBIT 10-36 Tray Support Beam Sizes


--q;í~d/.~1$ 4' ,,~.:;

71. o'l /ZJoo 4~1.)C.C
1d-o'' /;pe;;,o ~w /.J5o
t '21-0w /$.~o s• /.?.oo
'"'-d /4_e.80
2&;1. o" / oo
lou /.1t;o

512.E. ':::ffAt-JDou"T i2AT1tJC::i EXHIBIT 10-37
~u iso*e;. Sooii Nozzle Standouts
111ío 911/').~o
411 To '2011 111'/.?>oc ~0-!t:"

2411 l?l/.?:>?..? '(:)º*

HIU$1DE. &.l022.l.E'!:>
~NO Fl.Áto::.C.D

Pel'J éic;;?A110"-I s

'2.:1 ElLIPil C.b..L Head Dimensions

hJTEg,t.JAI.. DIAMéT.f

Y.. E:'$$ E.\. . li-JIE.R.1-..lAf.. D1MEt-iSION-F
2'-c> 11
31-011 -~'º
41­01' 1a.zo ~I/
:;'-o'' 1.;2? lo" .'2S"o
t;:,l­011 1,e.io 1111 .3oo
!:>'·º~ 2.44o 1711 .4-~o
Ido' ~pSo 2111 .s~s
l'l~d' ;¡,¡,o %/1 .'160
14~o" 4)~7 ~2.n • lb!?

Level instruments are located in the liquid sectíon of flange. To set top- and bottom-head nozzle elevations,
the tower, usually at the bottom. The elevatíon of the the rype of head must be specífied. This information is
nozzles is dictated by the amount of líquid being con- highlighted in the process vessel data. · The two most
trolled or measured and by standard controller and commonly used are flanged-and-dished and 2 : 1 ellip-
gauge glass lengths. This information is furnished on tical heads. Exhibit 10-38 shows approxírnate dimen-
the instrurnent vessel sketch. Exhibit 10-35 íllustrates sions for these heads. ·
level ínstrument requirements. As an exarnple, the nozzle .elevations shown in Ex-
When nozzles, especíally those with interna! pip- hibit 10-39 have been set using the following guíde-
íng, are positioned, the plant layout designer rnust línes:
allow adequate clearance at tray support steel. Exhibit
10-36 illustrates approximate tray support beam sizes. • Process vessel sketch (Exhibit 10-20):
Standouts, shown in Exhibir 10-37, are measured from • Tray details (Exhibir 10-21).
the interna! díameter of the vessel to the face of the • Type of heads-2: 1 elliptical.

Process Plant layout ami Piptng Design


Nozzle Blevaríons

_ '1:EL • 170L 511

1'2.IA6S tfD PL.lt.TS:o~ &.L·

fil E.L..14-::!>1_911
liil i;E:1..141 -s• 1 . ~ c::bE.L..14'2~411 §]
11 '2-" :2 $ 11 '2. '30?
1 -.;..;...,,¡

[íl4:-~1..14d-~· Pl.A"TF02M su ..
11'2.S4S 1~'9 -011
u..o ai<
P! E.L...11 1_ 11
r::l 104­9~0
_Ae.1...1171-'211 [O]
4: i;1.. 11e¡.1.1)11_fill
D 104-PM
@•U;:L. ll!>'·f»"

10~.f,60 ·-..--..r----l
- ""ª' ¡o4:eoo
1101- .1
~ Pl,.AríFl!>ftM a.
'T·I. .1:1...
1 '· "
........-+---1- 4: r:1... toe,!.o11 [FJ 1 09 L o
1oiA­oo 10~.14-c>
'l,'5.¡.:.1g1 ~..::;e.:;&..;:;.._~¡_ 1 FF a. lo7Lo 11 [§]
~ E;.I,., 10'2 l-~W IO'l,100
Po~ e1..101'-o"-,.C::==~


\ / P>ZEFetzRf:.P ~"!'!~ lle¿;.~ Typícal Platform

;:F:_1;&D . . · fr--WOt'\ l..Apoe"' To

----~~{ >t~-~--
__- ~~Ps ~ 1...eve1..~

M A.11 ..rrr::,1..J ANC. E


• Bortorn tangent líne elevatíon (Exhíbít 10-19). artached to rhe side of the tower, Generally, access to
• Nozzle sumrnary (Exhibir 10-20). platforms is by ladder. Exhíbít 10-40 depícts a typícal
• Instrument vessel sketch (Exhibit 10-58). platform arrangement.
Platform elevations for towers are set by the items
., Píping and instrumentatíon diagram (Exhibir 10-56).
that require operation and maíntenance and by a rnax-
" Plant layout specification-Chapter 2. imum ladder run of 30 ft (9,150 mm). Exhibir 10-41
'" Insulation-s-None requíred, shows platform and ladder elevation requirements.
Platform widths are díctated by operator access. For
íntermediate platforms with no controls required and
PIATFORM ARRANGEMENTS platforrns with controls Iocated to the side or the edge
of the platform, the width must be a mínimum of 3 ft
Platforms are required on towers for access to valves, (915 mm). At congested platforms wíth controls lo-
ínstruments, blínds, and maintenance accesses, Plat- cated over the platform, the width must be a mínimum
forms are usually circular and supported by brackets of 3 ft (915 mm) plus the width of the controls or

Process Plant Layout ana Piping Design

EXHIBIT 10-4 i
Tower Platform and
Ladder Elevaticn
M_Alt.Ji"é.W~E4 f:,1.11\JI)
,--;----_......,+'--_,,// A-e:t:. E::$>~

-T 1~11 TO ~1 -9-
.4?o To 't.o?o
_AL. í1!!:2~1'1V& VAJ..':J_G
~é.'5>$> Wl'TH ~
WITHC>i..l'T S.)("T'f'"'°''ÍIOioJ

~...__.._1l'2~l~oo ~1t-J1M1..1i:t1

C:.O..i f.?.ol- 111.l e<.>MENT

4 M.&.INT!e.lJAl<Jc.t!. "'"-E.~

EXHIBIT 10-42 Platform Width Requírements EXHIBIT 10-43 Malatenance Access Arrangernents

>-IE MAINT~~ Tc:>F HE.e.O MAINjf!,.Jb.N<:.G

l>ú:.é~'> DtAMETE!i ACC..E:'°I">

Toe. Pi.ATe
\le ~EL. Cl.1 c:::.~ul<? PI.ATE.


must be from three sides. Exhibít 10-43 displays typi-

cal rnaíntenance access arrangements. Top head plat-
forms are requíred for access to vents, instruments,
and relief valves and are supported from the head by
trunnions. Exhibit 10-44 shows typical top head plat-
form arrangernents. Access between towers, if layout
perrníts, is provided by common platformíng. The
platform elevatíons can be wíthín a máximum díffer-
ence of 9 in (230 mm) but must be connected by
mechanícal joint. Exhibir 10-45 shows a common top
head platform arrangement.
Brackets for síde-mounted platforms are evenly
l\Jl!)TM spaced around the tower and, when possible, straddle
both the main axes. Oddly angled brackets can be
used for small platform extensíons as long as the
bracket clip does not ínterfere with the adjacent sup-
port. Exhibit 10-46 is an approximate guíde to bracket
projections. Exhíbít 10-42 shows these rwo arrange- spacíng,
ments. When a common ladder serves two or more
At maíntenance access platforms, adequate space the Iadder rungs must be Ievel with the
must be províded to swíng the maintenance access forros they serve. The platforrn elevations must be in
cover flange open for storage agaínst the face of the even increments to suit the standard 12-in (300-mm)
tower. Top head-rnounted maintenance accesses ladder rung spacíng. Exhibir 10-47 illustrates this re-

EXHIBIT 10-44 Typícal Top Head Platforrn Arrangements



\ ~¡~·bl Ml_~_!..lluM
M1 ... 1o.AtJM


a. Mínimum Top Head Platform b, Multínozzle Top Head Platform

For example, the platform elevatíons shown on the

EXHIBIT 10-45 Cornrnon Platforms process vessel sketch in Exhibit 10-39 are the mini-
mum requírements far instrurnent, valve, and maínte-
nance access. Exhibir 10-50 displays a platform ar-
rangement for the tower usíng the information in
Exhibir 10-39 and the guidelines in this chapter.

Tower pípíng is locared in conjunction wíth tray, noz-
zle, and platform orientation. When possíble, the pip-
quírement, Ladders at tower transitíon sectíons and at ing is grouped for ease of support and posítíoned to
flared skírts may be sloped, if required, to a máximum accommodate interconnection wíth related equip-
angle of 15º from the vertical. Offsets in ladders ment and the pipe rack. Exhibir 10-51 shows the pre-
should be avoided. Exhibit 10-48 shows a typícal slop- ferred areas of division for pípíng, platforming, and
íng ladder arrangernent. ladders.
On very wide platforms or those that support heavy Adequate space must be provided berween pípíng
pípíng loads, knee bracíng is required in addítion to and between the back of pípíng and the tower shell to
the usual platform steel, as íllustrated in Exhibit 10-49. facílítate the ínstallatíon of pipe supports, which are
The potentíal obsrructíon immediately under the knee attached to the tower. Exhibir 10-52 displays sorne typ-
brace must be kept in mind duríng platform design. ical supports for tower pípíng.
EXHIBIT 10-46 Bracket Spacing EXHIBIT 10...48 Slopíng Ladder


va~e.i.. X y
IJP' 'TO 4 1-o11 ?xiº bol'.>
4'·<:;)11To e.1-01' EXHIBI1' 10-49 Platform Knee Brace

1!11c 1~4o 2~1t 4S0

ei1.o•:;o 171-011
1r;º 5rl
171-011 To '2?'-011 ------·
SJ8o 7/o'2c:> 11'/t 'l~'f.i

EXHIBIT 10-47 Iadder Rung Spacíng

- PIATFo2M E.L.14~-1 IPll

,,-- +-; 11;.o~'"'

¡;-· - Pl...ATFe>l2M EL.1~~1•


Pt..A.i'ñ::>ll.M E':L. I~~
ill l
> 11!
ul ti
F'l..6.iFCl2M EL, 11,1-
LAl)D~ 1

- - PL~T~ eb.1101-

r- ,.._"".DE. e..i.. loo1-c
~~ 100.000

Process Plant layout and Piplng Design

N EXHmIT 10-50

Platform Oríentatíon
o Q

Pl...ATFOIZ M E.L .178~ 111 '* Afove


Pl.ATFo!ZM l:;l.to,1-o'To 139L:::::id
102-.740 - 111.2'90
EXHIBIT 10-51 Tower Areas of División EXHIBIT 10-52 Tower Pípíng Supports

~.!t>O IA¡>JIMúM
1 1- lol~ul.AT•ON

' .~

»­;: ~
1 11/z." IJTILITt P1f11.J6

! 1 i l

Eio Pm &A~ ai;. P11"'!!.

........___ Ce:>1.ll.4CoJ !3-2.f"
l.c:>.:.ATl!!:Q F'1Ptt>JG

Tower piping should be arranged with sufficient

flexíbllity to accommodate tower growth and to allow
ínterconnectíon to equípment during regular operar-
ing conditions. Exhibits 10-53 and 10-54 show rypical
overhead vapor line and pump suction arrangements. TOWER INSTRUMENTS
Relief valve systems that are open to the atmo-
sphere are located at the top of the tower: closed sys- Level, pressure, and ternperature instruments control
terns are located a mínimum dístance above the relief the operation of the tower and rnust be placed in a
header. Exhibir 10-55 shows a typícal arrangement for position that enhances operation and maíntenance
both systems. wíthout obstructing operator access. Instrument re-
As an example, the piping arrangernent shown in quirements for towers are usually híghlíghted on an
Exhibít 10-57 has been designed using the followíng ínstrument vessel sketch furnished by the instrument
information and the guidelines in thís chapter. engíneer, Exhibir 10-58 is a typical instrument vessel
" Process vessel sketch (Exhibit 10-20). Leve! controllers, swítches, and gauges are either
" Tray detaíls (Exhibir 10-21). located individually or grouped on a common bridle
• Nozzle elevations (Exhibit 10-39). or standpípe, The controller must be operable from
" Instrument vessel sketch (Exhibir 10-58). grade ora platforrn, gauges and swítches may be oper-
• Píping and instrumentation díagram (Exhíbít 10-56).
able from a ladder if no platform is avaílable. Exhibit
10-59 íllustrares arrangernents for leve! ínstruments,
• Equipment arrangement (Exhibit 10-lOb).
Like leve! gauges, temperature and pressure instru-
" Platform arrangernent (Exhibir 10-50). ments can be operable from a ladder if a platform is
" Nozzle summary (Exhibít 10-20). not available at the required elevation, They can be
" Plant layout specification-Chapter 2. read locally or in the main control room. Locally

and Plplng Design

Overhead Arrangernent



Process Ptping Design



Relief Valve Systerns

~ SAi:'ETy

-+-'--f----.'.'....:/).T:.!.... Mo:.::::.?..Pl•H;~1 e:. ~ l.IE F VAL.VE.

e:t~::::t~ P2.ei:e.~R.éD 1..o.::.~110N

Ci.O?la!/ S ~'TE::M IZE.l.IE'=:

Vt:i.\.V E Pi:z.e FER2.é.O Loé'..ATIOtJ
(e, ~~es¡ Av~L~ P1..o.¡f%M
~ R.e.uE.F VAL.VE \.lEAt>E~)

~E:WEF Vt..\..\JS


Tower Pipíng
IJTIL..l'T'y L•N~

PLl>.N EL. IU!.1-111 tf Af>ovE Pl.b..lJ EL..1'-~~o1 'T2 17i:.1

11~eco lilP~ ~

.. Qº.
~ -
tl. f-

PLAN l\i:l.C,~ti.DE. To l?;!!)Lo" Pt.A...i e.1.. 10~1-011 To 1"1~'-o'

100.000 111,890 111.&20 1'1.to~o
mrnmrr 10-ss
Instrument Vessel Sketch

Tl-::: TAt-J6e.....iT L1NE.

"T"- O =. T1.uü:.A. O S. O
RF ~ 12AI"'; '6.D F-A.C..I!.

í'l __ .ITii\

-- ll


~ d\~(l
l.'2. -

1h,11TW9 \

rnounted indícators are available in a variety of styles, • Platform arrangement (Exhibit 10-50).
wtth straíght or swível heads that can be positioned for " Pipíng arrangement (Exhibít 10-57).
dear dial vísíbílíty, Exhibir 10-60 shows typical tern- " Level instrument Iocatíons (Exhíbít 10-35).
perature and pressure connectíons,
The instrumem arrangernent shown in Exhibír
10-61 has been desígned usíng the following informa- MAINTENANCE
tíon and the guídelínes in thís chapter:
Tower maíntenance is usually límíted to rernoval of
" Nozzle elevatíons (Exhíbít 10-39). exterior items (e.g., relief or control valves) and inte-
" Instrument vessel sketch (Exhíbít 10-58). rior components (e.g., trays or packíng ríngs), Han-

Process Plant !Ayout ami Ptptng Design

EXllIBIT 10-59
Arrangements for Leve!

b, Single-Mounted Level Gauge and Switch

of these items is achíeved by fixed devices (e.g., the back of the tower that is accessíble from the plant
davíts or beams) or by mobíle equípment (e.g., auxíliary road. Exhíbír 10-62 depícts a typícal davít ar-
cranes), When davíts or beams are used, they are lo- rangement, Exhibir 10-63 shows a typícal trolley bearn
cated ar the of the tower, accessible from a arrangernent, Exhíbit 10-64 portrays a planned drop
and desígned to lower the heavíest removable zone, and Exhibit 10-65 shows rnobile equípment,
ítem to a desígnated area at When mobile In certain cases, stíffeníng are specífied as
,.,...,.,,, .... ,,,. is a clear space rnust be provided at addítíonal strengtheníng for the tower shell, especíally
Ternperature and
loc..t:.1.1.y MOLJP-J,-e..Q Pressure Instrument
t)I b.l. 'Tl-lE!i:.MO METG;;.IZ

íEMPE:.eti..,-t..&flE l>.Jo'Z.'1.1..~$
Cl-4~ FO~ AD~G..JA'T1...
~l:-~~e c::;;>F P~P..;>E
W1TI-1 _ _!;bwtJC:::OMEe WAU..-

EXHIBIT 10-61 Common Bridle-Level Instrurnent



EL. 1091­oM

Process Plant Layout and Plping Design

Typícal Tower Davit

Qb.Vl'T' :!il.JppolZ,,T
F¡;¡:o M VE~SEI.


Typical Tower Trolley
Beám Arrangement

- rr=n TF mm !in rwr,

Planned Drop Zone



axarsrr 10-65
Mobíle Equípment

for towers in vacuum service. Care rnust be taken in íngs show the locatíon of weld searns, Exhibir 10-67
posítíoníng the rings to allow adequate clearance at illustrates typícal weld seams,
nozzles, platforms, ladders, and clips. A tower sectíon Utility stations are requíred ar tower platforrns that
wíth stíffening ríngs ís shown in Exhibít 10-66. Be- have rnaíntenance accesses. Steam and aír rísers are
cause of síze, towers can be shop fabricated in two or the rwo servíces requíred and must be posítíoned dur-
more sections for shíprnent in one píece or in sectíons íng the towerlayout stage so that adequate clips can be
for field weiding. As with stíffeníng ríngs, allowances furnished for support, Exhibit 10-68 shows utiliry sta-
for dearances rnust be rnade between weld seams and tion requirements. Such towers as demethanízers op-
attached fittíngs. The vendor's vessel fabricatíon draw- erate under extremely cold conditions and sometímes

EXHIBIT 10-66 Stíffeníng Ríngs EXHIBIT 10-68 Utilíty Statíon Requírements

EXHIBIT 10-67 Tower Weld Seams

require increased standout dip)en9ions for nozzles,

platforrns, and ladders to clear extra-thíck insulatíon
and to prevent frost on supportíng steelwork. Polyure-
thane insulators are usually fumíshed between trun-
nions and support brackets, Exhibit 10-69 shows typi-
cal cold-service tower requirements.
The dirnensions, clearances, and guidelínes hígh-
lighted in this chapter are an example of those to be
used for tower arrangernents. The plant layout de-
sígner, however, must be familiar with company and
clíent tower standards before proceedíng with tower
layout and should coordínate the effort with such sup-
portíng groups as vessel, systems, process, and instru-
rnent engíneeríng,
Cold-Service Tower
Pipe Racks

A pipe rack is the rnain artery of a process unit, It rnentatíon diagram issues covers only commodity, line
connects ali equípment with lines that cannot run number, and preliminary sízes.
through adíacent áreas. Because it is located in the Process flow diagrams provide insight to operating
middle of rnost plants, the pipe rack must be erected ternperatures and identlfv the need for insularíon.
first, befare it becomes obstructed by rows of equip- Once the routing diagram is complete, the develop-
rncnt, The correspondíng pípíng drawings are also re- ment of rack width, bent spacíng, and numbers of
quíred early for the same reason. Pipe racks ..:arry levels and elevations may proceed.
process and utiliry pípíng and may also include instru-
ment and electrical cable trays as well as equiprnent
Bent Spacíng
mounted over ;.1 of these. This vital area requires
considerable planning and coordination with other A pipe bent consists of a vertical column or columns
technology groups regarding construcríon because and a horizontal structural member or members rhar
costs are so hígh. carry píping systerns, usually above headroorn. The
This chapter explaíns what is required to ñnalíze Iíne sizes that are ínstalled in the rack establish the
the pipe rack wídth, number of levels and elevatíons, bent spacing, Exhibir 11-2 is a rypícal pipe span chart
and bent spacing and addresses pipe flexíbiliry and and shows how far a particular line can span on the
access and maintenance concerns for each ítem lo- basis of size, schedule, liquid or vapor, and insulated
cated within the pipe rack area. or bare pipe. Pipe racks are tailored to a specífic plant;
The primary data required for the detaíled develop- pipe sízes in chemícal plants are smaller than those
ment of a pipe rack includes the followíng: found in refinery units, If a plant requires a Ió-ft
( 4,900-mm) spacíng, the variation in Exhibit 11-3 al-
" Plot plan. lows for a 32-ft (9,700-mm) spacing by adding ínter-
• Pípíng and instrumentatíon diagrams. mediare bents supported from spandrels. Spandrels
• Plant layout specíficatíon. are horizontal structural members located along the
longitudinal centerline that are used for structural sta-
.. Client specíficatíon.
bílíty, pipe support, or Intermediare pipe bents. Dou-
• Constructíon materials. blíng the column spacing as shown in 2A of Exhibit
• Fireproofing requirements. 11-3 may be requíred to cross roadways or avoid un-
derground obstructíons. The civil and structural engi-
neers should be consulted to revíew the economics of
AND ELEVATIONS Settíng the width of the pipe rack may then pro-
ceed. With the routing diagram, a dimensioned cross
The first step in the development of any pipe rack is section is developed at the bent that will carry the
the generation of a líne-routíng díagram, shown in rnost píping, whích is bent No 12 in the example
Exhibít 11-1. A líne-routing diagram is a schematíc rep- shown in Exhibir 11-4. Usually, pipe racks carry pro-
resentation of al! process piping systerns drawn on a cess lines on the lower leve! or levels, and the utílíry
copy of the plot plan. Although it disregards exact lines on the top level, Instrurnent and electrícal trays
locations, elevations, or ínterferences, it locates the are integrated on the utiliry leve! if space permits or
most congested piping bent in the pipe rack Usually, on a separare leve! above al! pipe levels. Any pipe rack
the information available on early piping and instru- design should provide for 20% future growth. When

EXHIBIT 11-1 Líne-Routíng Díagram



c. ~q ___ é·'l!>7 1
1 T .. '2-!PJ

..J:·'ll<é -
f-217 ~"'1-1 'Z
- é-jJ.L
__ T:'2.09
_T. Zo2
-- 1

Plant Layout ami Ptping Design'


EXHHUT 11·2 Basic Pipe Span

Vapor Une Uquid Une

tnsutauon Insulatíon Bare Pipe (Span)
Size Schedule Corros ion 3''il° to 601º to 351° to 6ol°to Empty Water Filled Size
(Inehes) (toches) Allowance To 350° F 600º F 750° F To 350º F 600º F 750° F (to 350° F) (to 3'.>0° F) (tncnes)

314 40 005 12 11 8 12 10 7 14 13 314

40 0.05 14 13 10 14 12 9 16 14 1
1 1/2 40 0.05 18 14 14 17 15 12 19 17 1 112
40 0.10 18 16 11 17 15 11 21 18 2
2 1/2 40 010 23 19 16 19 18 15 25 21 2 l/2
3 40 O.JO 24 21 18 21 19 16 26 22 3
4 40 0.10 27 25 22 24 23 19 29 25 4
6 40 O.JO 33 31 28 29 27 25 34 29 6
B 40 O.JO 39 36 33 33 32 29 40 33 8
10 40 O.JO 44 42 39 37 35 34 46 38 10
12 3/8w 0.10 47 45 42 39 38 36 49 40 12
14 3/8w O.JO 49 47 44 40 39 37 52 41 14
16 318w O.JO 53 50 47 42 41 39 55 43 16
18 318 w 0.10 56 54 50 44 43 40 59 45 18
20 3/Bw O.JO 59 57 53 46 45 41 62 46 20
24 318w O.JO 65 62 58 48 47! 43 68 49 24
314 80 0.10 12 10 7 11 10 6 14 13 3/4
80 0.10 14 12 10 13 12 9 16 14 l
1 1/2 80 0.10 17 16 14 16 15 13 10 17 1 1/2
80 0.10 19 17 14 18 16 13 21 19 2
21/2 80 O.JO 22 20 18 20 19 17 23 21 21/2
3 80 0.10 24 22 20 22 21 19 25 23 3
4 80 0.10 27 26 23 25 24 22 29 26 4
6 80 O.JO 34 32 30 31 29 28 35 31 6
8 1/2 w 0.10 39 37 35 35 33 32 40 36 8
10 1/2 w 0.10 44 42 39 38 37 35 45 39 10
12 1/2 w 0.10 47 45 43 41 40 38 49 42 12
14 l/2w O.JO 50 48 45 42 41 40 51 44 14
16 1/2 w O.JO 53 51 49 44 43 42 55 46 16
18 112 w 0.10 57 55 52 47 46 44 59 48 18

20 112 w O.JO 59 57 55 49 47 46 62 49 20
24 1/2 w O.JO 65 63 60 52 50 49 68 52 24
1 xxs 0.25 14 13 10 13 12 10 15 14
l 1/2 xxs 0.25 17 16 14 16 15 14 18 17 11/2
2 xxs 0.25 20 18 15 18 17 15 21 19 2
2 112 160 0.25 21 19 17 19 18 16 23 21 21/2
3 160 0.25 24 22 20 22 21 19 25 23 3
4 120 0.25 27 26 23 25 24 22 29 26 4
6 80 0.25 33 31 28 28 27 26 35 29 6
8 1/2 w 0.25 38 34 33 32 30 40 34 8 8

10 112 w 0.25 43 41 38 36 35 33 45 37 10
12 112 w 0.25 47 45 41 38 37 35 49 39 12
14 1/2 w 025 49 47 44 39 38 37 52 40 14
16 112 w 0.25 52 50 48 41 40 39 55 42 16
18 1/2 w 0.25 56 53 50 43 42 40 59 47 18
20 1/2 w 0.25 59 56 53 45 44 42 62 45 20
24 1/2 w 0.25 64 60 58 47 46 45 68 48 24
Pipe Rack Column

Pipe Rack Cross Secuon
( at Column 12)

Process Plant Layout and Plping Deslgn

~~º Pipe Rack Composíte




the elecrrical conduit trays are Iocated on the top leve! ft (6,100 mm) rather than 19 ft 3 in (5,850 mm). To
and a row of moror-driven pumps is located beneath íllustrate, if the pipe requires a much greater area in
the rack at grade, a 6-in (150-mm) slot should be pro- the rack, the designer would work wíth the structural
vided to allow the conduit to run in the rnost direct engíneers to determine whether the pipe rack should
manner and avoid running to the outsíde of the rack be rwo 30-ft (9,150-mm) wide levels or three 20-ft
and back to the pumps. This feature is illustrated in (6,100-mm) wide levels. This decisión affects the cost
Exhibir 11-5. Once future rack growth and conduit of the structure and pipe and must be rnade carefully.
have been allowed for in the plan, the spacing rnay be Afier the bent spacing, rack width, and number of
set with the line spacing chart in Exhibir 11-6. levels are establíshed, the elevation of the levels rnust
When flanges or flanged valves are required on rwo be set. As discussed in Chapter 2, the plam layout
adjacent lines, the flanges are staggered as depicted in designer must know the mínimum clearances to set
Exhibir 11-7. Therrnal expansion or contraction rnust the elevatíons, Plant roads, rype of mobile equiprnent,
be accommodated, as shown in Exhibir 11-8. When al! and equipment located beneath the pipe rack can in-
the dístances have been establíshed berween ali lines fluence the pipe rack elevatíon. Usually, space is al-
on each level, including allowances for future growth lowed below the pipe rack for equiprnent, with a míni-
and conduít, the only remaining dímension to be set is mum clearance of 10 ft (3,050 mm).
the distance from the first líne in the rack to the verti- The next factor to consider is the dimension be-
cal column cenrerline. Column sízes are furnished by tween the bottorn of a líne in the rack and the bonorn
the cívíl/structural engineers. of a branch as it Jeaves the rack. For example, if a
The last step is to add up ali the dimensions and review of the largest lines in the entire pipe rack
round off to the next whole number-for example, 20 indicares that there are two or three large-diameter

EXHIBIT 11-6 Une Spacing Chart

l.l~e- tt:;io#~Ge' "º~~

, 1 ., 1
1 \Yt 'Z ~ 4 G 8 10 lt 1.4 l~ lb fo 1A. 1 1!4 "l. ~ 4 ~ !>
'" 11. 11 14 f~ lb ·'Zt:' .'?4
1 l e. "?) lo 1'2. I~
14 I? lió IS 1 1 l 1 1 e, '?>
, 'º11 I~ t+ lt; IG.i t8
1 11 1
1 1 ,e' l:> lo 1'2 I? 14 ! i;.
~ !! 1'2. I?
14 17 """l(é.
1 1
1 i
e lo I~

' 11 "ri ¡:; ,, '~

14 1 s. I~
14 I? 11
1!> to
18 ti
; i b ~ 10 11 I? 14 Ir:;. l.~ 11 1 f!> ~
"11 'e> 'Z.I
'~ ,,
4 8 ~ to !'2 I? 14 11? 11 'te
11 1:; 14 1; 11 11 IC) 'Z 1
'º l"l
'" '? lo 11 l"l. 14 lt? l.& 1t
~ (t..
11 12 I~ 1; IC... 11 18!) 'Zo 'Z?
'"11 ,, 1e. .'l 14
, , _
:z 14 17 !!; !<?> ti ,.... ¡:~ ¡~ lb 'to 'ti it4
.3 10

5 l'Z14
10) 1.~ ·-i--
1;. 11
l!) -ir -ti. ..·t;

lj IS. ~ to 'fZ ·211 !~ 1ei> ­ti 'Z? 'ZGt
!") .zo '11 'Z:Z 1-4 - -
1.1 't't t.~ 114
~ I~ 21 'ZZ ~ :zi; ~i t?> ·-z,r;. 't.1
6 MIN. ·-·-
u;, f2e>
lf; 1; 24 1't 'Z4
I Zo i'Z!? 111 1.1
u ~ ?!

t:1eft'Z=. 'SPt\CI~~ ,~ ~ o¡.J ¡;¡:'~~ Pf Pl!'f:: Tº rl.óNGe:-+ 11o-i?.

· • ~f l.11-JE= Wl'"!'l4 l~~ ~IJG.é DICM.A~> flt-.10 t.Q~ L.t!Jf: ~ZE f
tx::~ Tº p!iJO' ~'íel:Z'l...!!·J!':-~2\...1'-.ll!'; Dll-A~~I~ .... 11-J !NCHe:$.
• to.Ju~ Dl~a..J-::.1a....1 1.: :> !tJ"f 1...i'S(Ji.aT101-J n-1~~-
~U~TC: -r:;p.cc.p.JG \M.-~E:: P1f'!: izx.K ~ ~ti.í'E. ~ Wi..AITG!./.
~u~r ~

- bl?JU~l--1~ rci ~ t..161 ~ iu~L e'X~l-.JS>IOhJ tX2 ú:*JitzA:::."flc'N


Líne Spacing

Process Plant Layout and P{plng Des!gn

Planning for Une Growth

M""~l-::1 N¡'..

Large-Díameter Lines




Process Plant Layout and Piping Design


EXHIBlT 11-11
Pipe Rack Meter Runs

lines (e.g., 18, 20, or 24 in) and the rernainíng lines are is an example of a typical layout
12 in, the exit leve! above and below the rack can be 3 A common arrangement of a standard process unit
ft (915 mm). The dirnensíon from the end of a 90º pipe rack is one in whích the process línes are on the
butt-weld elbow to the centerlíne of a 12-in líne is 18 lower leve! or levels, The utility piping is on the top
in ( 457 mm). Exhibir 11-9 illustrates how to handle the level, whích carries pípíng Electrical and instrument
large-díameter Iines by using a 45º elbow or trimming cable trays are located on the top leve! with the utility
an elbow to a more shallow angle. If the ínstrurnent píping or on a separate leve! above the utility pípíng,
and electrícal conduít are ínstalled on a separare level, depending on the extent of cable tray area requíred.
the estírnated dímensíons of each tray must be ob- The plant layout desígner must consult the electrícal
taíned from the ínstrument and electrícal engineers to and ínstrument engíneers early in the pipe rack layout
ensure that adequate space is provided.' to establísh these requírernents.
The desígn of the pipe rack is now complete wíth When locatíng línes in the rack, the plant layout
the exceptíon of installing equíprnent over the rack. desígner should run the largest lines near the outsíde
where possíble to reduce the overall load on the sup-
portíng beams. Meter runs should be ínstalled directly
SETTING UNE, VALVE, AND next to the columns so that access is available by porta"
INSTRUMENT LOCATIONS ble ladder or mobile platforrn, as shown in Exhibit
11-11. Meter runs are located in the pipe rack only
Many factors rnust be consídered when locating each when absolutely necessary,
line, valve, and instrurnent in a pipe rack Exhibir 11-1 O Many relief headers rnust be located above the top
Relief Header Location

lllllll 2

EXHIBff 11-H Alternative Rack Expansión EXHIBIT 11-14 Hose Station ata Pipe Rack Column

leve! of the rack to allow the line to drain to the blow-

down drum. The desígner should avoid locaríng the
line over the centerlíne of the column for support so
that the columns can be extended for future rack ex-
dead spaces. The designer can minimize runs in the
pansion. Exhíbít 11-12 shows a suggested location for rack by consulting with the adíacent-area designers to
the relief header that does not impede future expan- identify which línes can run wíthin the áreas. Because
sion. the developrnent of a pipe rack often íncludes swap-
Shut-off valves at utility headers are located inside ping lines, it is advísed that the desígner draw the lines
the rack area in the horizontal position, directly above lightly until satisfied with the design. Once the layout
the header if room permits. Operating valves must be is optímízed, the line definítíon can be finalízed.
accessíble frorn platforrns or by chaín operators. The A pipe rack composite is shown in Exhibit 11-5.
location of the valve must also permit the chaín to fall Thís view highlights features mentioned prevíously
free of obsrrucnons that would hamper operation. An and darifies addítíonal consíderatíons. For example,
additional 20% of space must be allowed for future the width of the access way is deterrníned by the space
pipe rack growth. An alternative approach to such ex- needed to maintain the equípment located ar grade
pansion is shown in Exhibir 11-13. below the pipe rack. For process or cost reasons, shell
Because space in the pipe rack is lirnited once the and tube exchangers may be located under a pipe rack
design is set, it is important to route lines to avoid in certain process units. Allowances must be rnade to

Process Plant Layout and Piplng Design

maintain such uníts (e.g., providing a hitch point over
the channel end to facilitare íts removal), Once agaín, EXHIBI1' 11-15 Battery Limit Valving: Single-leve! Rack
it is extremely important to know exactly what kind of (Process/Off-Síte Common Elevation)
mobile handling equiprnent the plant will use.
The vertical drop of línes outsíde the rack, although
usually 2 ft (610 mm), is once again set by the average
line size in the unít. If the average line size is 2 in, a 12-
in (300-mm) drop may be sufficíenr. This view also
shows how the elecrrtcal conduit can be run dírectly
to the pump starter switch.
Exhibir 11-14 shows a typical arrangernent for a
hose station, Banery limit valvíng for a single-leve!
pipe rack is shown in Exhibit 11-15. The valves are
staggered on eíther side of the carwalk, and hand-
wheel extensión sterns are furníshed when necessary
to facílítate operation. Exhibir 11-16 also displays a
single-leve! rack Here, however, an elevation change
is requíred between the process unit and the off-site pLAN
pipe rack This desígn has the block valves installed in
the vertical portian of the line, which allows for rela-
tíve ease of operation.
Exhibir 11-17 illustrates a rwo-level process unit
pipe rack; the elevation change to the off-site area is
either above or below the process unir pipe rack.


Although conductíng the final stress analysis is the re-
sponsíbílíty of the mechanícal or stress engíneer, the
pipe rack desígner makes preliminary calculations us-
íng relevant books and nomograms to ensure that the
desígn will not requíre majar rework duríng the for -
mal stress check. Exhibir 11-18 highlights the steps
involved in a prelímínary flexíbílíty check,
which are díscussed in the following sectíons.

'"'"'"'""'" ...'"J'; potentíal flexibility problems The lines

that would most likely requíre expansión loops
should be defined. Steam headers in the top leve! of
the pipe rack are such examples.

zxmerr 11-16
Bauery Umit
Síngle-Level Rack
Elevatíon Change )

r~ t"'~~--
1--rb l-~+-===----+

Layout and Piping

Battery Lírnit Valving:
Two-Level Rack
Elevatíon Change)

r'rcxunmv Check

MUL.1!F'l'( e.qe'fflC.l!:Nf ef ~5\oJ ~~JU q ~1...iS:.

-"--''-'--""""-"- ~1....i~ b!i-Je G!@:zWfH ~ T.iJ~e k11Je:?

I )( 1 T I ~
l 1 \
rrzy ~alaz
C?JJE12 .:::;>r w...ie.
171:!~1 ~t;- W~g? ~É ~ fe!U'f
_Wll.. 1-WEflC[::

Process Plant Layout Design


Pipe Rack Anchor Bent

Determining líne growth The growth of such utility two anchor points approximately one-quarter of the
headers should be deterrníned by multiplying the co- dístance from each end of the header should be tried.
efficíent of expansíon by the length of the line. The Using the nomograms, the desígner can calculare the
coefficíent of expansión is based on a particular mate- amount of expansíon leg required to satísfy all flexibil-
rial operatíng ata specífic ternperature, Upset ternper- ity requirernents.
atures take precedence over operating ternperatures.
Arrangíng lines in proper sequence The líne that
Determíníng whether one anchor poínt will suffice requíres the largest leg rnust be Iocated on the outside
Assurning that an anchor is located in the center of the of the loop. Placing the headers along one síde of the
header, the designer should calculare the growth of pipe rack allows the expansion loops to sit with a
various branches to determine whether they have slíght overhang along the adiacent síde of the pipe
enough flexíbílíty to absorb the header growth, If not, rack. Exhibir 11-19 shows such an arrangement, As a

Steam Líne Dríp Legs

Proper Une Support

EXHIBIT 11-22 Intermediare Pipe Supporr

an adjacent line or column, because it will act as a line
stop and could cause a problem. Enough space rnust
be provided for the líne to move íts máximum
distance and stíll have an ample clearance of 3 in
(75 mm).
Exhibir 11-21 shows the correct way to support a
líne that has exceeded its allowable span. A common
místake is to extend the 10-in process line over the
rack bent and cap it, when the line should have been
run as if a support problem did not exíst, A smaller
result of imposíng stop loads on a particular bent, píece of pipe or dummy leg could then be welded to
bracíng may be requíred to grade, prohíbítíng the lo- the elbow for support (a hole should not be cut in the
cation of any equipment in that particular bay. A process line ).
means of removing condensate buíld-up rnust be pro- Exhibit 11-22 shows how larger línes in a pipe rack
víded on either síde of the expansíon loop. The most are used to support a group of srnaller lines that may
common way to accomplish this is to add drip legs and not be adequately supported because of the bent spac-
traps, as shown in Exhibit 11-20. ing. The uninsulated line is U-bolted to the supportíng
Header growth causes another problem that is of- steel, the insulated line has írs shoe welded to the
ten nor as obvíous. The line spacíng chart may have steel. The smaller lines then rest on the steel. When an
been used to set dístances between lines, or lines may ínsulated line is used for support, the growth of the
have been set close to a column. Exhibir 11-8 reveals line at the proposed support point must be checked.
that the movernent of a line rnust not be restrícted by Its growth could become restrkted by this type of

Process Plant layout and Piping

axmarr 11.23
Pipe Rack Spandrel

Pipe Rack Spandrel

support, and it may be better to use another line for member far the spandrel support. The spandrel also
thís application. has an embedded steel member that is bolted to the
column and eventually grouted in. An installation se-
quence for a precast pipe rack is also shown in Exhibit
Such equipment as drums and deaerators is often
Most lines require support when leaving or entering a located above pipe rack columns. To avoid wasting
pipe rack. Structural members called spandrels are the valuable rack space with the large support columns,
most common rneans of satísfyíng this requirement. the inside face of the pipe rack column must line up
After ali the lines have been run in the pipe rack, the wíth the inside face of the equípment support column,
plant layout designer must begin to locate the span- as shown in Exhibir 11-26. This approach also allows
drels necessary to support ali of these lines. Exhibit the feed-water outlet pipíng to run vertícally down to
11-23 shows how the requírernent can be handled, If the pump befare the expansíon loop is added.
the structural engineers require additíonal spandrels Fireproofing of pipe rack columns is shown in Ex-
for stability of the pipe rack, they should bring this hibit 11-27. If hydrocarbons are prevalent, it is corn-
requirement to the attention of the plant layout de- mon to fireproof the columns to a leve! [ust below the
sígner. Exhibir 11-24 shows sorne variations of span- lower rack support beam. If aír coolers or other
drel design. equípment is located above a pipe rack, the fireprcof-
The plant layout desígner should be aware that pre- ing is extended to the equípment support beam, This
cast concrete pipe racks require structural members íssue must be reviewed with the client; allowances
that are much larger than most designs. Exhibir 11-25 may need ro be made far as muchas 4 in (100 mm) of
illustrates a precast column wíth an embedded steel fireproofing.

Pipe Rachs
Precast Concrete
Rack Constderaríons

a. Precast Concrete Pipe Rack

b, Installatíon Sequence

Process Plant Layout ami Ptplng Design'

Equípment Support
Column Location

EXlllBIT 11-28
90° Rack Turns

Rack Intersection

a. Rack Intersectíon Layout

on the left síde of the rack must remaín constant as

long as flar turns are used. A dífferent elevatíon must
Occasíonally, a situation arises in which a flat-turn be used at a 90º turn in the rack if the sequence must
rack may be This near a change, as shown on the side of the
dead-end area where the potential for problems is This approach rnust be well thought out befare it is
mtnímal. As shown in Exhibir 11-28, the line sequence used.

Rack Intersection ( Cont)

b. Rack Intersectíon Detall

The secondary pipe rack intersection is shown in

EXHIBIT 11-30 Pipe Rack Addítíons
Exhibit 11-29. There is a ríght and a wrong way to set
thís location. Although it may seem more uniform to
set the secondary rack directly south of the main
north/south rack during the plot plan developmem
stage, Exhibit 11-29 also clearly shows why thís should
be avoided. The lines heading north off the main east/
west rack restrict the línes from the south frorn en-
tering this common area. Therefore, the secondary
rack should be shifted east one bay to elímínate the
Altematíve pipe rack expansión of the individual
levels can be accomplished by addíng a cantilever
beam as requíred on the outside of the column. The
only problem wíth thís approach is that, if not planned
for, the vertical risers commonly found outside the
pipe rack use a considerable amount of the space of 1
the extension, as shown in Exhibit 11-13.
Pipe rack addítions are shown in Exhibir 11-30.
Area A shows a standard two-level pipe rack, as
planned. Because it is always possíble for the pipe rack
uº·ºººº .... T1

to be expanded in the future, the area over the
columns rnust be kept free of píping and conduit, The
future expansión may include another new leve! (B),
an aír cooler ( C), or a series of shell and tube exchang-
ers (D). The preferred location of a relíef header
above a pipe rack is íllustrared in Exhibir 11-12.
Lighting panels and welding receptacles also must
Operator Access

be planned for duríng the early stages of a pipe rack the desígner should avoíd blockíng access from under
layout. They are mounted directly on pipe rack the pipe rack to adjacent equíprnent areas by Ieavíng
colurnns, theír locatíon must be recorded on the ap- clear space, as illustrared in Exhíbít 11-32.
plícable documents. Electrical engíneers designare Overall pipe rack desígn must meet the current
where the regular and emergency panels are located, needs of a clíent as well as any expansíon plans with-
constructíon personnel select the preferred locatíon out makíng majar modíficatíons to existíng facilities.
for the weldíng receptacles (see Exhibir 11-31). When Avaílable space in the pipe rack must be considered
locanng piping rnanífolds, control statíons, ínstru- valuable and used to the utmost advantage of present
rnents, and pull boxes along the pipe rack columns, and furure needs.


Structures are used in most industrial facilities to ac- maíntenance platforms.

comrnodate equípment and associated cornponents to '" Structures that contain equipment thar does not
suít specífic process, real estate, clímatic, and clíent need daily operator attention can be servíced by
requirements. A structure can be desígned to support ladders,
one or two pieces of equíprnent or an entire process " Equípment requíríng operator anendance is
and can be open or enclosed. The principal ob- serviced by stairways,
in the layout of structures are to optírníze all
., Servíce to structures may requíre an elevator
avaílable space and to support safery, rnaíntenance,
or traveling belt Iíft.
operatíon, cost, and constructabíhty.
This chapter híghlíghts the general requirements • Because equípment may need to be removed far
for structure It covers the most common struc- majar rnaíntenance (e.g., exchanger bundles), struc-
rural detaíls and díscusses equípment placement, tural members or handraíl sectíons rnay need to be
rnaíntenance, and operational conslderatíons. removable.
" Monoraíls or hltch points may be requíred far maín-
DESIGN FEATURES " Main structures of concrete do not use bracing but
should be constructed wíth a rígíd frame desígn.
Many desígn features must be considered befare a • When fireproofed steel constructíon is used, pipe
structure layout is begun, includíng: support steel rnust be ínstalled before the steel
columns, beams, and braces are fireproofed. Other-
• Steel or concrete desígn. wíse, the fireproofing must be chipped away down
" Open or enclosed structure. to the steel mernber. Thís chíppíng is costly and
• Siding requírernents. should be avoíded.
• Type of flooríng.
= Access.
" Braced or rígíd frame,
" Fireproofing requírernents. Terms commonly used in structure layout are defined
• Equiprnent rnaíntenance. in the following sectíons,
• Type of roof.
Braced .or rígíd frames The desígn of any elevated
After these basíc parameters have been establíshed, structure must take into account the size and weíght of
the layout may proceed, Besídes real estate restríc- the equipment to be supported and operation and
tíons, allowable pressure drop, gravity flow condí- maintenance requirements as well as wind load and
tíons, and NPSH requirernents may require equípment earthqúake zone considerations. Of mese points, op-
to be elevated, however, each píece of equípment eration and maintenance play a large role in determin-
must be set as clase to grade as possíble to minímize the need for a rigid or braced frame. A rigid frame
the overall heíght of the structure. If the structure is to design requires no additional horizontal or vertical
be elevated, the following poínts rnust be addressed: cross bracing, permitting maxi.mum access to equip-
ment and piping. The plant layout designer must rec-
., Handraíls are requíred around all operation and ognize frame requirements early in the development
EXHIBI'f 12-1
Typícal Ladder Detall

of a structure and consult with the structural engíneer

EXHIBIT 12-2 Preferred Posítíons for Ladders,
befare proceedíng with the desígn.
Staírways, and Ramps

Equipment load This is the weíght of equiprnent

with ali dead load attachments.

Dead load Dead load is the weíght of all structural

members wíthín the structure, íncludíng the fireproof-

Live load This compríses the superímposed loads on

platforms or floors as a result of operation and rnain-
tenance. It is usually a mínimum of 50 lb per square
foot. Líve load does not include the weíght of equíp-
ment, pipíng, or storage of materials.

Process Plant layout and Piping Design

Stairway Dimensional

Pipe load Pipe load refers to the weight of ali piping, Dynamíc loadíng This is the response of structures
valves, fittíngs, and insulation, including the weight of and their components to the cyclical loadíng pro-
contents during test or regular operatíon, whíchever is duced by rotatíng or recíprocatíng equípment,

Barthquake load This is the specífic seisrníc data for STRUCTURAL DETAILS
a particular site,
A typícal ladder detall is shown in Exhibit 12-1. Lad-
Wind load Measured in miles per hour, wind load is
ders wíth elevatíons of a maximum of20 ft (6,100 mm)
the force applíed to a structure at a gíven site,
above grade do not requíre a safety cage. An 8-in (200-
Bxchanger bundle removal load This is half the mm) open area behínd ladder should be maín-
weíght of the tube bundle. taíned far toe cléarance. Any obstructíon within thís
dístance is a potentíal tríppíng hazard.
Thermal expansíon load The effects of therrnal ex- The preferred positíons far ladders, stairways, and
pansíon rnust be accommodated by equíprnent sup- ramps are íllustrated in Exhibít 12-2. It is recom-
port structures and elernents. rnended that ladders be run vertically to a máximum
angle of 15º. Stairways should be Iímíted to a maxi-
Pipe anchor load The force calculared to resíst load- mum angle of 50º off the horizontal plane, but they
ing in anchored pípíng systems, the pipe anchor load should not be used for less than a 15º indine. Ramps
is added to the therrnal expansión loads of the should be límíted to a 15º maximum indine. A staír-
ment, way dimensional detall is shown in Exhibit 12-3. The

locatíon of the are usually set by the structural

Exhíbit 12-4 shows a travelíng belt líft, Thís devíce
consísts of an electríc dríve belt with steps and hand
gríps, It is constantly in motíon at a slow rate. The
provides rapíd access to a large structure without the
need for a standard elevator,
A grating platform is depícted in Exhibir 12-5. When
this type of platform is used, the platform top-of-steel
elevation does not ínclude the thíckness of the grating.
Moderare pipe loads can be imposed on this
desígn, holes for should be banded for reín-
forcement, A deck plate platform is shown in Exhibir
12-6. Thís commonly used form of deckíng is I/4 in (10
mm) thíck,
Fireproofed sreel is shown in Exhibir 12-7. The
plant layout designer obtains the requíred fireproof-
ing thickness for particular structure at the outset of
the design. Fíreproofing thíckness usually varíes from
2 in (50 mm) to 4 in (100 mm). Bracíng, íllustrated in
Exhibit 12-8, is fabrícated from a variety of struetural
shapes or pípíng, Because the size of the gusset plates
varíes widely, final dimensional data must be obtaíned
to check for possible ínterference between piplng and
steel gussets,
A concrete platform is illustrated in Exhibir 12-9.
Líke steel platforms, the concrete platform has a 4-in
(100-mm) toe plate ínstalled around íts edge, A con-
crete platforrn for acid servíce is shown in Exhibit
12-10. Acid-resístant bríck is used when specífically
requíred, as shown in Exhibir 12-11. A curbed area is
províded around the equiprnent most likely to leak
during operatíon and rnaíntenance. Shields are pro-
víded for flanges in acid service outsíde the curbed
Exhíbít 12-12 íllustrates structural sídíng. Sídíng
may be fabricated from lightweight alumínum or Lu-
cite. Siding support steel should never be used to sup-
port piping, Píping may penetrare the síding through
an openíng slíghtly Iarger than the pipe or ínsulatíon,
if applícable.

ProcesaPlant Layout and Plping

Grating Platform

illlll!lllJ &&:mlllllill
Deck Plate Platform
•·Pnrr.noTPn Steel



sxnrerr 12.9
Concrete Platforrn

Concrete Platforrn for
Acid Servíce
EXHUUT 12-11
Acid-Bcaring Equíprnent

Structural Sidíng


EXHIBIT 12··14
Monorail Layout

i -- ,.1 .

\1 ~rw]
1;1 ¡

1 •

'( 1

¡ j
1.J \.

Exhibir 12-13 provides three varíations of equip- load to be maintained by the monoraíl.
ment support. Detaíl A is a kettle supported on lugs at A pipe chase, shown in Exhíbít 12-15, is usually
floor level, the majar portian of the vessel sits below found within a building or structure wíth concrete
the supporting íloor. Detail B illustrates an exchanger floors. The chase on each floor is lined up free of any
supported by lugs below the floor, wíth a steel frame obstructíons and allows utility and process piping to
hung above the equípment to secure it at the required run between all floors with mínima! changes in dírec-
elevation. Detall C shows a common method of sup- tíon, Individual línes should penetrare the floor ar the
portíng horizontal equipment. In thís application, the desired locatíons and do not use a pipe chase.
main structural steel members must be located under
the saddles. Addítíonal steel may be required between
the supportíng beam and the saddle to achíeve the SMALL STRUCTURES
desíred elevation, or the exchanger saddle may sít di-
rectly on the structural beam. Exhibits 12-16 through 12-20 show variatíons of small-
A monorail layout is depicted in Exhibir 12-14. structure design. The physical síze of any structure
When equípment requires constant maintenance, a should be strictly limited to the space requíred for
rnonoraíl is often used to service ít, not necessarily in a equípment operatíon and rnaintenance. The first
straíght líne. Cliem input is required before thís fea- small-structure scheme, in Exhibít 12-16, illustrates a
ture is added, because mobíle handling equíprnent common approach, in whích one píece of equípment
may be an alternatíve to thís approach. When a mono- is set above another to accomrnodate a gravíry-flow
raíl is planned, the plant layout desígner highlights the system. Although the desígn appears reasonable, there
lifted load on the drawing to signify the máximum may be an alternative to consider.

In Exhibir 12-17, the exchanger is set above the
EXHIBIT 12-16 Small Structure drum as in the previous desígn, but it is supported in a
completely dífferent manner, By consulting with the
vessel engíneer, the plant layout designer may be able
to support the exchanger and platform from the vessel
shell as shown, wíth the drum supported from con-
crete píers. Thís applicatíon should be considered
whenever it is economícally practícal.
A síngle-level, one-bay structure is shown in Exhibir
Gi!ZAVl((k: fl..OW 12-18. In this desígn, the elevatíon of the upper-level
e platform is determined by the followíng condítíons:

" The drum elevation must adhere to NPSH require-

ments .
.. The platform on top of the drum must allow ade-
quate headroom for operatíons personnel and space
for the pípíng and for the structural beam.

A síngle-level, rwo-bay structure is illustrated in Ex-

hibir 12-19. As prevíously mentíoned, equípment sad-
EXHUUT 12-17
Small-Structure Desígn

EXI-m.nT 12-18
Síngle-Level, One-Bay
Small Structure



Ert-Jtz VI F'W

dles are located on maín structural beams whenever must project out to allow mobile equiprnent to pick
possible to minimize the need for additional steel, At up the bundle and lower it to grade.
grade, equíprnent is Iined up along a regular equíp-
ment líne, however, equipment in strucrures must fol-
low an equípment líne that accommodates the maín MEDIUMaSIZED STRUCTURES
support locatíon, which may vary. Removable hand-
rails must be províded in front of shell and tube ex- When desígníng a structure, a plant layout desígner
changers when tube bundles must be removed. must often satísfy restrictíve process condítíons (e.g., a
A rwo-level structure is shown in Exhibir 12-20.The rninimal pressure drop within a systern). Exhibits
exchanger tube bundle maintenance on leve! I is the 12-21 and 12-22 show how one equípment arrange-
focal point of thís exhibit. The size of the exchanger to rnent may satisfy that requírernent. Preferab!y, the
be maintained determines the need for a tube rernoval shell and tube exchangers (El through E6 in Exhibir
structure. If such a structure is required, it should have J 2-22) are set vertically in the structure, whích uses
a beam dírectly opposite the exchanger from whích the least amount of platform and may sígníficantly re-
the bundle can be pulled, The structure must also duce the area needed for the maíntenance of the ex-
have a trolley beam across the top of the upper level changers. Although the tube bundle rernoval structure
and directly over the exchangers. If a tube removal is for the vertical configuratíon, the drop zone
structure is not used, a trolley beam Iocated dírectly at is at its absolute mínimum.
over the channel end of the exchangers on leve! I As illustrated in Exhibir 12-22, the platforrn area for

ProcessPlant Layout ami Piping Design

sxamrr 12-20
Two-Level Small

EXHUUT 12-21
Horizontal Arrangement

EXHffUT 12-22
Vertical Arrangernent

the vertical layout is significam!y smaller than for the gravity-flow systems and a great deal of srnall piping
horizontal one. If a traveling crane is used in the hori- need the natural support that a large structure can
zontal arrangement, a slíghtly larger drop zone is offer. Exhibit 12-2.3 illustrates a large structure. Factors
needed. If individual trolley beams are used over each that must be considered during the development of an
exchanger, the area required at grade is significantly equiprnent arrangement and pípíng layout in a pro-
increased and can becorne a costly real estate prob- cess plant include.
lem. Solving it requires the participation of the struc-
rural engineer and the exchanger engineer. " Finished grade within a structure should be 12 in
(300 mm) higher than grade outsíde to avoid drain-
age problems.
LARGE STRUCTURES • Pipe racks and electrical a~d instrument cable trays
should be located in the same general area, prefera-
Many process plants have equipment located in large bly down the middle of the structure,
structures. The reason these structures are preferred • Freestanding process towers should be located adja-
over grade-rnounted installations is that a sígnífícant cent to the strucrure to facilitare operator access
number of small píeces of equíprnent are used. Many from the tower platforms to the structure.

Process Plant Layout and Piping Deslgn

EXH.llUT 12-24
Structure Cross-Secríon


• A clear access way is needed for equipment mainte- structural engíneer's ínforrnation, Main pipe routíng
nance or removal. elevations must be establíshed early. Flat piping turns
• Adequate cíearance should be provided around ali should be used with caution. The use of pipe chases
equípment for operatíon, maintenance, and safety. for grouped pípíng configurations should be consíd-
• Adequate staírways and escape ladders are needed ered for structures that have concrete floors to mini-
to rneet OSHA requirements. rnize individual holes through the floor.
When desígníng a large structure, the plant layout
Open-síded and enclosed structures fall under díffer- designer rnust observe how various píeces of equip-
ent governing codes, ment are erected during construction. Exhibit 12-25
Hítch points and trolley beams are also required to shows one such sequence. The lift structure is erected
facilitare rnaíntenance. The lifted load requirernent adjacent to the process structure, and a ternporary
should be indicated on the layout drawing (as shown track is run berween them. The vessel is brought into
in the structure cross section in Exhíbit to show and lifted off the raíl, It is then raísed to the
the maximum weíght to be lifted at that point for rhe desired elevauon. With the outsíde beams ver to be

Process Plant Layout and Ptping. Design

Settíng Heavy Equipment
in a Iarge Structure

installed, the vessel is moved Iaterally ínto place; the need to route lines and support thern from theír re-
beams are then ínstalled. Thís is one method far set- spective towers. The structure should be looked at as a
ting large or heavy equípment in structures. vertical pipe rack and used to its maxímum advantage
to allow suffieíent flexíbílíty in the piping systems
between the statíonary structure and the movable

When complex equipment ( e.g., a converter and frac-

tíonator in a fluid catalytic cracking unít) is designed, a DRILL STRUCTURES
staír structure with a vertical pipe rack must be located
between both vessels, as shown in Exhibít 12-26. Al- Exhíbit 12-27 Illustrates two varíatíons of the structure
though elevators are often used, clíent approval must generally found in a coker unit, As can be seen, the
be obtaíned befare they are included. The optímum main operatíng valve platform is the only platform
layout íncludes arrangíng the vessel platforms far easy supported from the elevated concrete deck in both
access from the structure. Clearance between the ves- arrangements. In one varíatíon, the operator's pent-
sel and structure platforms must accornrnodate the house is supported from the top of the vessel, along
of the vessels, which should be calculated to with the entire drill structure above the penthouse,
satísfy safety concerns, This structure elírnínates the This layout requires the coke drums to be designed to

Stair Structure

Process Plant Layoutand Ptptng Design

Structures in a Coker

~ L.L Z!:tX:.]Je:E;-
~t ~PB?g¡]O
support the penthouse and dril! strucrures as well as
EXHIBIT 12-28 Operatíons Structure the pípíng loads.
The alternative arrangernent is one in whích the
entíre structure is supported from the elevated con-
crete deck. Although the vessel wall can be thinner
than in ihe first arrangernent, this desígn requíres
more steel and greater attention to pipe support and
flexibility because the tower operatíon is cydic as a
result of decokíng requírements. The coke that builds
up during operation is removed by hígh-pressure wa-
ter flowíng through a pipe rope supported wíthín the
dril! structure. Befare either of these arrangements is
used, an economic study must be performed and re-
viewed by the clíent


Most large vertical vessels have platforms that are sup-

ported dírectly from the vessel shell. Sorne vessels
have a great deal of associated pipíng and instrumenta-
tíon; Exhibir 12-28 illustrates how much platform may
be required for operatíon and maíntenance, The top
head platforrn is necessary for catalyst loadíng, and the
monorail is used to hoist the catalyst from grade. At
each level, the pípíng and instrumentation require-
rnents need constant operator attention, Supporting
large platforrns from the vessels is often ímpractícal,
and a structure such as the one shown in thís exhibir is
best suited for support.

Underground piping applies to any píping system lo- TERMINOLOGY
cated below grade. Buried or in trenches, under-
ground pipíng systerns within a processing complex Terms used in underground píping systerns are de-
consíst of gravity flow draínage systems that carry pro- fined in the following section.
cess waste, spills, hydrocarbons to be reclaimed, and
sanitary and storm water, along with pressurized water Invert elevation This term, usually associated with
systerns for process, fire, and drínkíng to rneet the any underground líne, refers to the elevatíon of the
operatíonal needs of the facilíty. ínside bottom of the sewer line, as shown in Exhibir
Thís chapter highlights the general step-by-step 13-1. Because of the wíde range of rnateríals used in
procedures to follow for each system when an under- drainage pípíng systerns with varying wall thícknesses,
ground piping layout is being developed. Local codes it is the constant that is used to set the elevation on
and regulatíons and specífic clíent requírements gov- construction drawings.
ern the design of any underground pípíng system.
Sewer maín Thís is the primary draín line in a sys-
tern: ít is separated into sections for safety reasons by

The following líst represents the most commonly used Iaterals Laterals are drain línes collecting from two
índustry standards for developíng underground pip- or more sublaterals. They díscharge ínto the sewer
íng systerns: main through a seal.

., ASTM A74-Cast íron soil piping and fittíngs, Sublaterals These collect branch línes and sealed
• ASTM Al20-Steel, black and hot-dipped, zinc- sewer boxes into laterals,
coated (galvanized), welded and seamless pipe, for
ordinary use. Branches Branches collect ali the various drain
" ASTM A746-Ductile iron gravity sewerpipe. points with.in a plant (e.g., frorn catch bastas and drain
hubs) and ríe into sublaterals,
" ASTM C425-Compression joints for vitrified clay
pipe and fittings.
Llft statíon This is an underground structure ( e.g., a
"' ASTM C700-Vitrified clay pipe (extra strength, stan-
sump) used to pump effluent to a hígher elevation,
dard strength, and perforated).
whích rnay be in a gravity sewer system, or to the
., ASTM Di785-Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe banery lirnit,
(schedules 40, 80, and 120).
• ASTM D3034-Type PSM PVC sewer' pipe and fit- Catch basín Thís devíce is used to collect surface
tíngs. draínage, wíth an outlet liquid sea! arid sediment trap.
• DIN 1230-Clayware for sewerage systems.
• SAS 14~Pipes of unplasticized plastíc (polyvinyl Cleanout A cleanout is a píping connectíon · in a
chloríde) for potable water. sewer system that is located ar grade level for inspec-
• SAS 236-Clay pipes for draining sewage and water. tions or for cleaníng the systern.

eas must have a 4-in vent line that discharges to the
EXHIBIT 13·1 Pipe Elevations atmosphere at a safe location.

Ali línes entering sewer boxes within a process unit

must have a 6-in (150-mm) mínimum water sea!. For
off-síte sewer boxes, a straíght-through flow for sewer
mains is perrnitted, provided that laterals from other
areas do not enter the sewer box or mains. The inside
top of the outlet line is installed at or lower than the
elevatíon of the inside top of the lowest inlet line
before sealing.

Draín hub Usually a 4-in open pipe connectíon lo- Seals These devices isolate the potentíal spread of
cated approximately 4 in (100 mm) above grade or fire from one area of a plant to another in a sewer
platforrn in a concrete structure, a draln hub is used to system.
collect drips or effluent from pumps, pípíng, or equip-
ment draíns, Angle of repose Concrete foundations rnust remain
on undisturbed soil and must not be undermined by
Trench This is usually a three-síded concrete trough underground piping or conduit. In Exhibir 13-2, the
located in the ground whose top is flush with grade. It angle of repose extends down at a 45° angle from the
is used to house pipíng systems below grade and may outer extremity of the foundatíon, nothing should be
require heat tracing or operator access. located wíthin this area. Projects that use piles under
foundatíons do not need to consider the angle of re-
Sewer boxes Used in oily water sewer systerns, pose because the piles are carrying the load of the
sewer boxes: foundatíon, as depicted in Exhibit 13-3.
" Permít access for inspectíon and cleaning the sewer
" Allow a lateral to be sealed as It ties into a main
sewer. This section focuses on the various types of under-
• Are requíred at intersections and changes of line ground systems used in processing plants.
size in sewer rnaíns every 200 ft (61 m) in process
units and every 400 ft (122 m) in off-síte areas. Uncontamínated Storm Water
• Are sized to permit a worker to enter and ínspect or This systern generally collects all service water from
remove any obstruction-They should have a míni- process equipment areas, access ways, and roadways
mum diameter of 48 in (1,200 mm). adjacent to such equípment. This collectíon is
" Do not require ladders as part of the design. achíeved through the use of area drains, catch basíns,
• Must have sealed covers in all sewer systerns, with roof leaders, dítches, or swales. Spent process water is
the exceptíon of those in storm water sewers located injected into this system if it is proved to be free of
in nonhazardous areas, which may have open grat- hydrocarbon contaminatíon, In addition, the systern
ing covers-Sewer boxes located in hazardous ar- must be sized to accommodate rain or fire water,

Process .Pfant layout and Píping Design

Angle of Repose

///7//)i"'0'~ /


whichever is greater. In most cases, the latter will gov- fully identify all such equípment and provide a drain
ern the líne-sizing criteria. hub at each ítem,

Contamínated Storm Water Chemícal Sewers

This system collects surface draínage from areas con- This systern recovers acíd or chemical draíns from
taining hydrocarbon-bearing equípment. Thís water equípment and pípíng as well as surface drainage
must pass through a treatment facility before being around such equípment and pípíng through the use of
discharged into an uncontamínated system or natural curbed areas and draín hubs. This systern may be
body of water (e.g., a river or stream). routed to a sump for disposal or may be passed
through a neutralízatíon facility and discharged into an
oily water system.
Oily Water Sewer
This system collects waste, dríps, and leaks from
Combíned Sewer
equipment and píping in areas that contain process
equípment in noncorrosive services. The plant layout Process oily water sewers and srorrn water may be tíed
designer rnust consult with the systems engineer to into a common systern.
IDrnIBIT 13.. 3

Sanítary Sewer draínage from a furnace. This sewer box has an air-
tíght cover and vents to the atmosphere íf located
Thís system collects raw waste from lavatories. If not
withín a mínimum dístance of 50 ft (15 m) from a fired
díscharged to the unit limit or líft station for disposal,
it is routed to a septic tank or leechíng field,

Pump-Out System
Blowdown System
Thís systern is shown on the pípíng and Instrumenta-
Thís system pícks up drains around boílers and steam tíon diagrams. Although it does not need to slope,
drums and is run as a separare system, preferably to pockets rnust be avoided. Because It is common to
the battery limit, It is perrníssíble to tíe into a sewer pump out hot pípíng systerns, adequate rneans must
box in the oily water sewer systern as long as ít is be províded to allow for line expansión or growth.
located downstream from any sewer box that collects Although trenches are generally used, buried pump-

Process Piptrig Design

out línes are covered with a mixture of sand and ver- • Stainless steel=-For closed chemícal drains,
mículíte. • Cast íron (or grey iron)-Often used in handling
storm and oily water drains, Cast iron is very resís-
Sohrent Collectíon System tant to corrosión. The hub and spigot design is fabrí-
cated in 5- and 10-ft lengths, which may be modífied
Many solvents are used to remove C02 from gas wíth a specíal cuníng tool.
strearns. These solvents are reclaímed in a separare ., Ductile íron=-Has a hígher stress value than cast
draínage system and are also shown on the pípíng and iron. It is also used for hub and spígot as well as
instrurnentation díagrams. The pipe is usually made of process water service.
carbón steel and is run to an underground sump,
" Concrete pípe=-Used for surface draínage and for
where it is eventually pumped out
15-in and larger pipes. Although it is avaílable in
smaller sizes, economícs may límit its use.
Coolíng Water • Fíberglass reínforced pipe-Used in corrosíve ser-
This systern supplíes water to such process equípment vice. It is límíred to low-pressure and low-ternpera-
as surface condensers, coolers, and pumps through an ture systems, When fabricated, ít is designed to meet
underground header system. very spedfic needs. For example, ít may need to be
able to wíthstand outdoor exposure or burying or
may need to be sun retardant or rnade to project-
FireWater specífic dímensíons,
This systern consists of a loop around a process unit or " PVC pipe-Commonly used for corrosive service.
equípment, with branches as requíred for hydrants or • Vítrífied day pipe-Used in gravíty draín systems
monitors, to protect the unit in case of fire. that handle sanítary or surface draínage, It cannot be
subíected to any sígníñcant loads (e.g., under buíld-
íngs, paved areas, or roadways). It generalíy has a
Potable Water maxírnum operatíng temperature of 200º F (93º C).
Thís water is used for drínkíng, emergency eyewashes, " Glass pipe-Used for floor draíns in processíng
and shower facilities. plants, especíally for acíd servíce.


Materials selectíon is the responsibilíty of the pípíng
specíficatíons engíneer and depends on servíce, oper- The inicial layout of any oily or storrn water under-
ating pressure and temperature, durability, eco- ground pípíng system usually takes place after the pre-
nomícs, and availability, Sorne of the rnaterials and liminary plot plan is generated, Even though sorne
their uses commonly found in underground systerns equipment locatíons may be tentatíve, the plant layout
include: desígner can begin to spot the oily water and storm
water mains, locate sewer boxes, and establish the
" Carbón steel=For closed drain systems, coolíng, ínvert elevation of these systems at each end of the
and fire water. unit.

Underground Piplng

píping is routed underground.

EXHIBIT 13-4 Below-Grade Obstructíons
• Fire water requirements.
• The type of system required (e.g., separare or com-
bined oily and storm water system).
" The invert elevatíon of lines at the process unit bat-
tery limit, as preferred by the client.
• The extent of paving.
• The extent of pipe trenches that carry heat-traced
draín systems.
" Preliminary foundatíon sizes and depths.
" Continuous process díscharge that enters the sys-

Using a copy of the plot plan, the pípíng designer

should outlíne ali underground obstructions, ínclud-
ing equipment and structure foundatíons, proposed
routing of majar electrícal and ínstrument ducts as
developed by the electrícal and instrument engineers,
or any existing underground piping, trenches, and

~1##~~~J0] light pole stanchions. A typical exarnple is shown in

Exhibit 13-4.
A decision must be made on whether to route the
Ptll.N oily and storm water drains as separare systerns or
combine them. A combined systern is. the most .COIU"
mon. It requires seals to prevent the spread of hydro-
carbon vapors or tite throughout the unít. A combined
As with any pípíng layout, information for an under- system must pass through a treatrnent facility outsíde
ground gravity flow drain system is often less than the process unit before enteríng any outsíde body of
what is required ar the outset of a project. A líst of the water. Because the sewer musr be run past the cooling
most preferred informatton ineludes: water systern, under the pipe rack, along with sorne
electrical ducting and the major portion of the cooling
" The underground specíficatíon, system run outside the equípment, the combíned oily
• The plot plan. and storrn water sewer sysiem is routed between the
• Above-ground piping studies. pipe rack columns and the equípment. The extent of
ali paving, curbed and diked areas, roadways, access
• Local codes and regulations.
ways, and equipment lay-down areas should be
• The location of potential site obstructions, shown.
• Local site data, including topographic information, A high point of paving of 100 ft 1 in (100.025 mm) is
maximum desígn raínfall, and frost deprh. set down the center of the area directly below the pipe
• Electrícal and instrument conduít locations íf the rack befare the unit is subdivided imo areas serviced

Process Plant layout ami Plpiflg Desigñ


EXHlBIT 13·5
Catch Basin

by a single catch basin. The area under the pipe rack When possible, catch basins are located near the cen-
roward the center of the high point is included in each ter of the draínage area, preferably not under staír-
atea run-off calculation. The suggested maximum area ways, structures, or equípment. A typícal catch basín is
per catch basín is 5,500 sq ft (510 sq m) far paved íllustrated in Exhíbít 13-5, and the extent ofthese áreas
areas and 3,500 sq ft (325 sq m) for unpaved areas. is shown in Exhibít 13-6.
Cricket lines are drawn around each area to indi- A tentatíve location and invert elevatíon of the drain
cate the high point of paving or grade. The diagonal . systern is establíshed at the unit battery limit from the
cricket lines from the corners of the area to the catch site data supplied by the clíent, If the information is
basin must slope at a rate of 1 in per 120 in; the unavailable, the end of the unit that the system exits
máximum allowable drop should not exceed 6 in ( 150 should be obtaíned from the client. The west battery
mm). The máximum lengrh of this diagonal cricket limit andan invert elevation of 94 ft 6 in (99.850 mm)
must not exceed 60 ft ( 18.25 m). Its length and eleva- is used as an example, The rwo sewer mains running
tion difference is calculated point to point and does east and west through the unit are located in the most
not account for such obstructíons as equípment foun- dírect route possíble, wíth the depth of ali under-
dations. ground obstructíons on the way taken ínto consider-
In paved áreas with a high concentration of equíp- atíon, The desígner rnust avoid locatíng any line below
rnenr, the allowab!e area per catch basín should not the angle of repose of a foundatíon. Another concern
exceed 3,000 sq ft (270 sq m). When practical, these is possíble interference at the poínt at whích any two
areas are arranged to collect drainage from common underground lines intersect. It may not be obvious
equipment. Catch basíns are located as requíred, pro- what the exact elevation of each gravíry drain líne is at
víded that the dífference berween the long and the the poínt of Intersectíon. The following crítería deter-
short diagonal cricket líne is no greater than 2 to 1. mine the need for sewer boxes:
IDrnIBrf 13-6 Plot Subdivided ínto Draínage Arcas

• At the beginning and at the end of each main, Sewer boxes should be made of precast reinforced
• At the intersection at which a branch line must be concrete pipe a mínimum of 48 in (1,220 mm) in
sealed from the header. diameter. The systern engineer establishes the need
• At any change in dírectíon or elevatíon in the rnaín. for sealed sewer boxes. Those contaíníng clean storm
or fire water do not require sealing, but toxíc hydro-
0 Every 300 ft (91 m) for línes of 15 in and larger. carbon-bearíng run-off requires a sealed sewer box
" Every 200 ft (61 m) for lines of 12 in and smaller. that is vented to a safe locatíon, as shown in Exhibit

Process Plant Layout and Piping Design

Sewer Box Detall

+ EXHIBIT 13-8
Cleanout Connectíon

13-7. " Provisíon should be rnade for the rernoval of foreign

Before the gravity draín system is routed, the fol- matter that may block a sewer--This is achieved by
lowíng basic rules must be applied: rodding or flushíng,
" Main lines should be rodded or flushed between
" Draín hubs should be provided at ali equíprnent sewer boxes.
except that equipment whose contents flash at atmo-
spheric temperature or equípment that carries water • Branch sewer línes that termínate at maín sewers
or highly viscous materials (e.g., slurry). may be rodded or flushed from the hub where they
• Míscellaneous small bore drains that are used ínfre-
quently do not require hubs, as long as there is a • When the curnulative total of bends in a sewer line
hub within 50 ft (15 m) and they can be servíced through which rodding or flushíng is performed ex-
with a hose. ceeds 180º, an additional cleanout rnust be pro-
vided, as shown in Exhibit 13-8.
• Sanitary tees should be used instead of laterals in
free-flowíng sewers to eliminare the need for addí- • Cleanouts for branch sewers should be located
tíonal fittíngs. more than 100 ft (30 m) apart.
• P traps rnust not be used. • Connections used for cleanout only are sized as fol-
Mínimum Cover for
Buried Piping


é-X'l"tzA-~et..JGTI1 c.l.Ay p¡pie.

Cd' !!!:>" Id 1'%.' 17 le!> -it" 3r;J
1,1,.& t~G>·
?;1..d' ?>-e:> "
f.!,~w: ~-"" 4-'-<>k

lows. should be ínstalled with the centerlíne of the pipe

=-Cast iron, concrete, and vírrífied clay rile must be located at or below the frost line as índícated in the
4 in. project data.
--Carbon and stainless steel and líned pipe rnust be • Stagnant línes (e.g., fire water or coolíng water not
line size, with a maximum of 3 in and a minimum equípped with an antífreeze bypass) and línes with
of 2 in. Intermíttant flow should be installed with the top of
the pipe located at or below the frosr line.
For ground cover for underground and gravíty pip-
" Branch lines in water service with a constant flow
ing systems, the following information should be used
may be installed above the frost line.
in conjunction wíth the chart in Exhibir 13-9:
• Branch línes in sewer service are installed with the
• Sewers, draín systems, and process water systems centerlíne át or below the frost líne, with the excep-
usually have a mínimum of 12 in (300 mm) of cover, tíon of lines requíred only for housekeepíng draíns,
excepr when foundations (e.g., spread footings) or whích may be ínstalled above the frost line-An ex-
other obstructions located in nontraffic areas díctate ample of. a housekeeping draín is one in whích the
otherwíse. outlet from vessel-level instrurnents is collected and
routed to a draín hub at grade.
" Process and fire water pípíng, without exception,
have a mínimum cover of 2 ft 6 in (750 mm).
The startíng invert is set wíth the equipment draín
" If cast iron, concrete, or clay tíle pipe that passes located the greatest dístarice away from the ultirnate
under roadways and other ruckíng areas does not point of disposal, hub A of Exhibit 13-10. Thís hub is
conform to mínimum cover requirements for load- set wíth a 12-in (300-mm) cover from the low poínt of
íng condítíons, shown in Exhíblt 13-9, the pipe must paving to the top of the pipe.
be encased in a suítable protectíve housíng. As a rule, the slope of sublaterals is set to 1/4 in per
., The frost line is consídered when elevations in foot (6 mm per 300 mm), and laterals are set at I/a in
freezing c!imates are establíshed, per foot (3 mm per 300 mm). All inverts are rounded
., Continuously flowíng main water and sewer línes to the nearest 1/2 in (10 mm) less than the calculated

IDíHUUTH-10 Oily Water and Storrn Water Systern

value as displayed in Exhibit 13-11. before cleanouts are installed. Ali laterals enteríng
The pípíng desígner should locate the oily water sewer boxes are sealed.
draín hubs usíng the above-ground píping studíes, set- Oily or chemícal lines should not be routed over
ting each invert elevatíon and routing sublaterals, Iar- the top of potable water lines, Local plumbing codes
erals, and headers, Each fitting (e.g., Y branches, 1/s should be used for actual requírements. When oily
bends, and I/4 bends) must be ídentífied, Headers and and process systems drain to a sump or storage con-
laterals should be reduced, when possíble, to 4 in tainment, the storage capacity is deterrníned from the
EXHIBIT 13·11 Lateral and Sublateral Detaíl

(.91~ ~kfe: Y~jrt'

~~~·~4. '( ~ Y8&

1 /

4'' !HJ~L.~:1)!: tz'AL

~re::&/n" ...-J.á~
UN. e:!..~'·'''
L.w. t:l.. "8~·

inlet and below. Under no condítions should any sys- Líne Sizing
tern run flooded, unless approved by the cllent, Eleva-
tíons for sewer systerns are shown only ar key íntersec- Thís sectíon outlínes the criteria and formulas that are
tions, sewer boxes, and the startíng and terrnínatíon commonly used for developíng line sizing for oily and
points of lines. storrn water sewer systerns.
When ali maíns, laterals, and sublaterals have been Oily water and storrn water sewers are sized to
routed, che Iíne-sízíng calcu!ations can proceed. The handle the calculated raínfall plus process water draín-
system must be checked for excessive quantítíes of age or the fire water plus process draínage, whíchever
hydrocarbons that rnay suddenly discharge ínto the results in the greater quantíry, Rainfall rates are ob-
oily or storrn water draín system as well as for any tained from the project design data, and process water
continuous díscharge that exceeds 100 gallons (378.5 drainage quantítíes are obtaíned from the systerns en-
liters) per minute (gpm). (For simplícity's sake, the gíneer. When client input on fire water quantities is
rernaínder of this chapter deals only wíth gallons.) unavaílable, a decision is made jointly by the systems
These quantítíes are added into the lme-sízíng calcula- and project engineers. When specific consíderatíons
tions and are furnished by the systerns engineer. If (e.g., a deluge system) are not required, the fire water
excessíve díscharges are expected, it may be advanta- flow rate for each area is set at 1,000 gpm. The rnaxi-
geous to run a separate branch line dírectly to the mum fire water figured into line-sizing calculations for
nearest sewer box. The outlet line of a sewer box is a process unit should not exceed 2,000 gpm. Local
sízed based on the total effluent into the sewer box raínfall charts are reviewed befare any line sízes are
from ali sources. calculated.

EXHIBIT H·12 Rainfall Intensíty and Frequency

Fífteen-minute raiafall, in ínches, to be expected Fífteen-minute rainfall, in ínches, to be expected

once in two years, once in five years,

Eventually, the sewer line rnust be sized for a com- The runoff rate for each area, as inítíally outlined in
bínatíon of raínfall and fire water. Sewers contaíning Exhibít 13-5, may now be calculated by using the rnod-
combíned raíníall and process water are desígned to ífied ratíonal formula:
run 75% full, which allows addítíonal capacíty for
short but heavy raínfalls, This amount is calculated by
multíplyíng the actual runoff rate by a factor of 1.1. For where:
example, íf the actual runoff rate were 1,500 gpm, that Q = the runoff rate in gpm ( converting to cubic
figure would be multiplied by 1.1 and the resultíng feet per second can be done by multíplyíng
1,650 gpm would be used in the líne-sízíng calcula- gpm by 0.00223)
tion. Sewers containing combined fire water and pro- K= the conversíon constant (0.01039 for flow in
cess water are desígned to run ful!. The following co- gpm)
efficients are used for surface draínage runoff: I = raínfall íntensity for the storrn duratíon in
ínches (or decímals of an ínch) per hour, as
" Rainwater, paved area-90% (0.9). shown in Exhibit 13-12
• Raínwater, unpaved area-50% (0.5). e= the runoff coefficíent
• Fíre water, ali areas-100% (1.0). A= the area of surface to be draíned in square
Sewers runníng at the rnaxirnum tlow rate are de- For example, the runoff rare for a paved area can be
sígned with a máximum velocíty of9 ft (2,700 mm) per calculated with the following data:
second and a mínimum velocity of 3 ft (900 mm) per
second. The size of pipe depends on the coefficient of • Area = 80 ft x 75 ft {6,000 sq ft).
roughness, n, when run at a gíven slope. Although it is • Raínfall = 5 in per hour.
preferable to stay ar the lower values of n for the rnost • Fíre water = 1,000 gpm.
economícal sízíng, it is ímportant to select the proper • Process water = 150 gpm.
n value on the líne-sízíng chart. Based on these pipe • Pipe material = 4 in to 15 in, cast iron; 18 in and
rypes, the desígn value n is as follows: larger, concrete.

• Clean, coated cast iron-0.012.

• Velocity = 3 to 5 ft per second.

• Clean, uncoated cast iron-0.013. Therefore, K = 0.01039, I = 5 in per hour, C = 0.9

(data was supplied), and A = 6,000 sq ft. The runoff
" Concrete-0.013.
rare in gpm (Q) is cakulated as follows:
• Paínted steel-0.013
" Vitrified day tile-0.013. 0.01039 X 5 in X 0.9 X 6,000 = 280 gpm
• Galvanízed iron-0.015. The total area runoff is the total process water (150
• Corrugated steei-0.025. gpm) plus the total rainfall runoff (280 gpm), or 430

Underground Ptplng
BASED ON MANNING FORMULA (n = 0.013) Manning Formula

.2 .__ ........ _...._.._......, ...... __._,___._~ ...............__._._~~~~

.01 .02 .03.04.05 .l .2 .3 .4 .5.6.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 810
Al/1001-12~ Ul>JE: -~ry:sec.~ 1 l--2.1/1001 ~8"UNE: c.t%EG
1 1 1
1.o/1oo'-1o"Ll1...JE. ·4i;1sec. • .....,
across the chart from left to right at the flow rare preví-
EXHUUT 13-14 Calculation Chart ously calculated, 2.56 cfs. As can be seen on the chart,
several line sízes could handle the flow in the desired
velocíty range of 3 to 5 ft per second. A 12-in line

would flow at 3 ft per second if the slope were set at
AIZ.l:A ~Pf ~PM/t:I? !Za-1tll2\:::? 0.42 ft per 100 ft; a l O-in line would flow ar 4 ft per
1 l&Z/4o second at a slope of 1 ft per 100 ft; and an 8-in line
1! ~ -z.4~ / .~ would flow at 5 ft per second if the slope were set ar
~ (,in;>oD '2.l'lo / .C."l 2.1 ft per 100 ft, Higher velocítíes are artaínable but at
4- 4~ "tlO/ . .(1
··- rnuch greater slopes, which may not be practícal.
S> !:J1t;c> 11?/.~ Therefore, the actual líne-síze selectíon rnust be made
~ ~/1.r:;.i::.,
on the avaílable slope within the systern (from
farthest catch basín to the final ínvert elevatíon at the
·- battery limit) and on the desíred flow rate. It must

"lo ----'--
rernembered that, in thís' exarnple, the flow rate can-.
not be set at less than 3 ft per second.
11 ---·~ The runoff rate calculated in each area of the unir
!',! must be recorded on a chart similar to the one shown
!"'!;> in Exhibit 13-14. Because each section of sewer main
14- is sízed to handle the total accumulation that could
17 possibly enter the líne, ít is írnportant that ali total
flow-rate quantities are recorded not only for líne siz-
íng but for use during a mechanical check or audit of
the system. Sízíng gravity flow draín systerns is a gíve-
and-take sítuation. As the west battery limit is ap-
proached, ít may be necessary to readiust sorne preví-
ously selected líne sízes, flow rates, or slopes to avoíd
gpm. To convert 430 gpm to cubíc ft per second (cfs), an underground obstructíon or other gravíty flow
ít is multíplíed by 0.00223, yíelding 0.959 cfs. draín system within the unit. There are no absolutes,
To calculare the total amount of water that would just many alternatives that must be explored before
result if the pipes were runníng 75% full, 0.959 cfs is the Hne sizing of the oily and storm water drain system
multiplied by 1.1, for a result of 1.05 cfs. The com- is finalized.
bíned fire water and process water is: As the invert elevations of the main at the sewer
boxes are confirmed, the actual elevations are re-
1,000 gpm + 150 gprn = 1,150 gprn, or 2.56 cfs
corded on the orthographic piping plan drawing,
The larger total of the two, 2.56 cfs, would be used for which is shown in Exhibit 13-7.
sízíng. As the details for each sewer box become available
Now that a flow rate of 2.56 cfs has been estab- (e.g., main inlet and outlet sizes and invert elevations,
líshed, the actual líne calculanons can be developed auxiliary inlet elevation, top and bottom elevations,
through the use of graphs based on the Manning for- and the diameter), the information is recorded on a
mula, illustrated in Exhiblt 13-13. First, a line is drawn sewer box schedule, as depicted in Exhibit 13-15.This

Underground Piping
Sewer Box Schedule

information is used to requísítíon the necessary mate- CHEMICAL AND PROCESS

rials and provide the constructíon centractor wíth a (CLOSED) SEWERS
tabulation of ali sewer boxes on the project. As noted,
the mínimum inside díarneter of sewer boxes is 48· in. Many industrial plants have multiple process or chern-
The formula used to size sewer boxes depends on the ical drain systerns. These sysrems are designed to col-
ínlet líne ccnfiguratíon=-a 90º entry and a 45º entry lect ali corrosive or toxic chemical waste as well as
are shown In Exhibir 13-16. surface drainage around the equiprnent bearíng these
For the 90º entry sewer box, the sum of one half the materíals. Exhibit 13-17 displays a typical pípíng and
díameter of each of the largest two lines adjacent to instrumentation diagram for a chemical draín system,
each other is added to 12 in. That sum is then multi- Depicted on chis ílow díagram are those pieces of
plied by 4 and divided by tt (3.1416 is used here): equípment bearing the material to be collected; the
actual number of draíns is determined by the low
(9 in + 6 in + 12 in)4 _ . point in each piping configuration. Exhibit 13-18
3.1416 - 3 4.37 m
shows a plan of the entire systern.
For the 45º entry sewer box, the sum of one half the Because many of these systems are of PVC, carbón,
díameter of each of the largest rwo lines adjacent to staínless steel, or fiberglass reínforced pipe, the key
each other is added to 12 in. That surn is then multi- elevations are set by working point centerlínes, With
plíed by 8 and divíded by tr (3.1416 is used here). the individual sublaterals, or leads, sloped to l/4 in per
foot, the only working poínt elevations requíred for
(9 in + 7.5 in + 12 in)8 . thís particular systern are at the begínnlng or hígh
. 3.1416 = 72.57 in poínt, at the change in dírection at the east battery

ProcessPlant Layout and Plping Design

EXHIBIT 13-16 Sewer Box Sizes

a. Entry b. 45" Entry

EXHIBIT B-17 Process Drains: Closed Systern

lt:'?!-E: IO'C-

and at the poínt at which the header enters the neer. A typícal sump is depícted in Exhibir 13-20. The
sump. Exhibir 13-19 íllustrates a typícal cross section civil engíneer sizes the sump on the basís of the quan-
of what a closed or chemícal draín system consists of. tity expected to be collected, as supplíed by the sys-
The end of the hub, or reducer, is sízed to suit tems engíneer. The díscharge of the sump purnp is
the number of draín leads entering the hub, The re- piped to an on-síte storage tank or to a truck that is
maínder of the system is sized by the systerns engí- brought in períodícally to remove the contents.

EXHIBIT 13'-18 Plan for a Closed Draín System

PROCESS AND POTABLE • Cooling water for ternperature control of process

WATER streams in exchangers,
" Condensing steam exhaust in surface condensers of
Process and potable water are two common cornmodi- low-pressure steam systems.
tíes found in most industrial plants. Sorne uses of pro- " Chemically treated water used as boiler feed water.
cess water ínclude the following. " Cooling water for pump and compressor seals,
Closed Drain Systern:
Cross Section

Closed Drain Systern

Potable or drínkíng water is used by plant personnel not be set above the frost líne as determined by the
and also is supplíed to emergency eyewash and project design data.
shower installations. Parallel coolíng water and hot water return headers
The layout of a comprehensíve pressurízed water must be kept a mínimum of 12 in (300 mm) from the
systern follows sorne basic guídelínes. In freezing cli- outsíde of the pipe díameters, Running these two
mates, the centerline elevatíon of a water line should headers too clase togerher may affecr the temperature

Underground Piptng
of the cooling water supply line, which in turn may
EXHIBIT 13-22 Coohng Water Crossover Piping
hamper the abiliry to control the temperature of the
process stream in the exchanger. As a pressurízed sys-
tern, the pípíng may run as requíred to clear any grav-
ity flow drain systern that crosses its path, by passíng
over or under the obstructíng líne.
An exarnple of process coolíng water and potable
water layout is shown in Exhibir 1.3-21. As with rnost
pípíng Iayouts, the Iines are run in the rnost direct
route possíble to each of the water users (shown
shaded in the exhíbít), The loeatíons where the cool-
íng and hot water línes enter and leave the unit are
usually set by the clíent or by the location of any exist-
supply and return headers. In this case, the west
battery Iimit has been selected. Both lines run at the
same elevation, as shown in Exhibit When
branch línes must cross over supply headers, they
should return to the elevation of the higher branch
unless the dístance is so short that ít would be
ímpractícal to do so.
Because the cooling water ínlet nozzle is located on

ProcessPlant Layout anti Piplng Deslgn

Coolíng Water at


mwm i!llillllll 11 11 llilLLE hfafal

EXHUUT 13-24
Cooling Water at Pumps

the bottom of the exchanger channel, the inlet header agreed to by both the above-ground and the under-
rnust be located directly under this nozzle, as illus- ground plant layout designers.
trated in Exhibít 13-23. This arrangement allows for
the rnost dírect hookup. The underground portian of
the fabricated pipe includes the flange to be bolted to FIRE WATER SYSTEM
the block valve: the hot water outlet line should termí-
nate 12 in (300 mm) above grade with a bevel end, Every industrial plant is protected by a fire water sys-
The above-ground piping takes over from this point, tem that provides water to each piece of equipment
If the water users are located in a structure, the through hydrants, monítors, or deluge spray systems.
underground portian of the lines should termínate Each process unít has its own underground piping
wíth bevel ends 12 in (300 mm) above grade. Cooling loop system, whích is adequately valved to protecr the
and hot water headers to the pumps are run under the system.from a failure in any part ofthe line or isolatíon
pipe rack, between the rows of pumps, as Exhibit 13- because of maíntenance, Although each piece of
24 shows. A self-drainíng hydram valve is used if the equípment must be protected by one hydranr or mon-
ínstallatíon is in a freezíng clímate, thís detall is dís- itor, client specífications often override thís rule and
played in ítem 8 of Exhibir 13-25. requíre two sources of fire water far each píece of
The potable water líne also enters the unit ar the equipment, Basíc fire protectíon equiprnent consísts
west battery limit and is run to the emergency eye- of fire hydrants, hydrants with monítors, grade-level
wash and shower installatíon. A typical arrangernent of and elevated monitors, hose reels, and deluge and
thís facílíty is íllustrated in Exhíbít 13-26. The under- spray systems.
ground portian of thís line should terminare at a point Ali hydrants and monitors and theír shut-off valves

Underground Piping

~~ ~
"' :J ,r.
~7*~~Ñ:i~ ~

Process Plant layoüt and J>lrp·~.ngDesign


Underground Ptping
Emergency Eyewash and

r.o.l';>Le: \V<!>¡E8 l~w::r-


must be located a rninimum of 50 ft ( 15 m) from a

EXHIBIT 13-27 Typical Fire Hydrant potentíal source of fire, A typícal fire hydrant is shown
in Exhibit 13-27. Although the hydrant dímensíon
above grade is standard, the dimension below grade
varíes, depending on the proximity of the líne to ve-
hicular traffic and the potential for freezing. In cold
di mates, the centerline of the inlet to the hydrant rnust
not be above the frost line, which is the lowest poínr
below grade ar which water freezes.
Exhibir 13-28 shows a typical hydrant installation,
Proper draínage of the hydrant barre! after the hydrant
is closed is essentíal to prevent freezing in cold cli-
mates. Drainage is provided by crushed srone around
the base of the hydrant and extending above the lower
barrel flange. The amount of crushed stone requíred
depends on the nature of the soil. Loose sandy soíl
requires a smaller drainage bed than soil,
which absorbs water very slowly. The project civil en-

Process Piping Destgn.


Hydrant Installation

gíneer should be consulted befare thís detail is pre- tank farms or truck loading areas ), hydrams are lo-
pared. If the soil conditíons prohíbít the proper draín- cated every 300 ft (90.5 m).
age around the hydrant, a drain to the nearest dean Fire rnonítors are used to direct streams of water to
water or drainage ditch must be provided. burning píeces of equíprnent in a plant, Before moni-
Exhibir 13-29 íllustrates sorne additional features tors are selected and located, several factors must be
that the plant layout designer should consider when consídered. Fíre monitors are lever operated, have a
selectíng and planning the ínstallation of fire hydrants fuU 360º range, and may be locked in any desired
and rnonítors, íncludíng. posítíon. They may be located at grade, approximately
4 ft (1,200 mm) above the ground, elevated to heíghts
• Protectíng the valve bonnet and extensíon stem wíth of 100 ft (30 m) or more, or rnounted on a hydrant.
a buffalo box, which is a píece of pipe that sits on the The spray pattern of fire monitors depends on water
valve and extends approxirnately 9 in (230 mm) pressure and flow rate. If vendar data is not available
above grade. when preliminary fire water layouts are made, the
• When required, orienríng the pumper connection chart in Exhibir 13-30 can be used to determine the
nozzle toward the fire truck access way. effective fire water monitor range. Thís chart is based
• If hydrants are vulnerable to damage, providing on a water pressure of 150 psi and a flow rare at the
guard posts for protection. nozzle of 500 gpm.
., Coating and wrappmg the buríed portion of the hy- Typical monitors are shown in Exhíbíts 13-31
drant. through 13-33. The grade-rnounted monitor shown in
Exhibit 13-31 has the block valve Iocated above grade,
If not specífied by the client, a typical hydrant has a but it would be buríed below grade in a freezíng cli-
ó-in inlet line size with rwo 21/2-in hose connections. mate. The rnethod of supporting an ínstallatíon of this
Hydrant locations must perrnit clear access during a type is determined by the civil engíneer.
fire and be no more than 25 ft (7.5 m) from where a A typícal elevated monitor is displayed in Exhibit
pumper may be requíred to hook up a suctíon hose. 13-32. When grade-rnounted rnonitors cannot direct
In remete areas of an industrial plant (e.g., around water to all pieces of process equipment because of
Hydrant and Monitor

:. : .·

ProcessPlant Layout ami Plping Destgn

Monitor Range Chart
\ v- »< -- <,
,, ~y
1/ /
-9fl<:~S Atz!: INe.f~ecnve
ee(OIJD ¡¡.ii? \..ttJES l.).«r,ii.lt.111.l6

i 'v
/ pgev~1u~ \1/1...io ~tries-;. -
I /

,___ _,,
¡~ -¡--~-- L T r--_ ¡,

/ \ \
~ ~---
/ / \ 1

-,,_ \

--- --
r-, ~----
1- -- -- ,..l._ ......

-~ 4o
/ j ¿.:::::_'--· !\ \
r> \
~1o V
~ ­i l..? ol..l
1­ I!) \!)
ANél.~ OF­ ­ 1
o -
"'V J ~ ..
¡. '* t.lO!.,Zl.1':. ~tJA'flolJ l z ~~- ~ 11

~• 122r ""' cnfl!lEl!l• t ¡ 11! IPT

EXHHUT 13-31
Typical Grade-Mounted
Fire Monitor


Underground Piptng
EXHffiIT 13--32
Typícal Eleva.ted Monitor

1 -1--
/X------ 1

~Vp.\.ve- L_

obstructions (e.g., large structures), an elevated moni-

EXHIBIT 13-33 Typical Fíre Hydrant with Monitor tor may be requíred, Although nozzles can be set 100
ft (30 m) above grade, the vendar should be consulted
before this design is finalízed. The equipment ar-
rangement drawing shown in Exhibit 13-34 is an ex-
ample of how a large process structure blocks the fire
water from monitor 1, which is directed ar the aír
cooler located over the pipe rack. Therefore, monitor
2, supported from the process structure, may be di-
rected at the air cooler and locked in positíon. A5
illustrated in Exhibit 13-35, monitor 4 may be
to cover additional air coolers or very large process
Monitors and hydrants are the most common indi-
vidual firefighting system components. The clíent,
however, may request that a hydrant and monitor
combínatíon be used, as shown in Exhibits 13-29 and

Process Plant Layout

EXHIBIT 13-34 Selectíng Elevated Monítors

Grade-Mounted and
Elevated Monítors

Underground Piptng
Typícal Deluge and Spray

Deluge and Spray Systerns connections that flood the sphere in the event of fire,
the other has a horizontal 360º ring header and verti-
Deluge and spray systems are generally used when
cal leads that are approximately 6 in (150 mm) from
process equíprnent cannot be reached by fire moní-
the sphere sheil, ali with equal!y spaced spray nozzles.
tors or requires a great quantíry of water to protect ít
This rype of fire protectíon is often subcontracted to
from a fire in the local area. Typical deluge and spray
companies that specíalíze in thís particular service.
systems are shown in Exhibit 13-36. The storage bullet
is protected by a ring header around the vessel, wíth
Fire Water System Layout
spray nozzles equally spaced to provide appropriate
coverage. Two storage sphere arrangements are The layout of a fire water systern in a process unit is
shown in the exhíbit. One has rwo open-ended pipe usually accomplished in the following way:

Process Piping Design

EXHIBIT 13·37 Fíre Water Systern layout

~--~---~~1~-~---1----- . -. ~.~ ....... ~.

m.JDU'T !.:> ~1!12 UZ?Zi EXHIBIT 13·38

Underground Cable Duct
EXHilUT B-39
Cast Iron

a. Quarter Bend b, Eighth Bend c. Sixth Bend d. Slxteenth Bend

e. Quarter Bend f. Quarter Bend g, Quarter Bend h. Quarter Bend

wíth Low Heel Inlet wíth High Hee1 Inlet Reduclng Increasíng

l. Single Hub j. Straight Tee k, Sarutary 'ree l. Sanítary Y

Return Bend

m. Combínaríon Y n. Uprtght Y o. Sanitary Cross p. Tapped v

and Eíghth Bend

• A reproducible copy of the plot plan is used to pre- through vendor data or the chart in Exhibit 13-30-
pare the ínitial layout, as depícted in Exhibit 13-37. If a compass is set to the maximum effectíve range,
• A complete loop is drawn around the unit, with the monitor 1 can be positioned showing its ful! cover-
líne run along the edge of the plant road. age area.
• To provide a margin of safery in the fire water sys- • Monitor 2 is locared east of monitor l to cover ali
tern, the fire water loop is fed from opposite ends of equipment not protected by monitor 1, and monitor
the unit-Enough block valves are provided to en- 3 is located to cover equiprnent nor protected by
sure the overall firefightíng capabílíues of the sys- monitor 2.
tern in the event of a rupture in the fire water loop. • Monitor 4E is an elevated monitor that is trained on
The number ofvalves placed in the header is subjec- the air cooler over the pipe rack, the large process
tive and is submítted to the client for approval. tower, or furnaces.
" The effective fire water range is then establíshed " Monitors 5 and 7 adequately cover the remaining

ProcessPlant layout and Ptping Design

EXHIBIT 13.. 39
Cast Iron Fittíngs ( Cont)

r, Reducer t. Double Hub

q. Double Y
s. 45º Offset

w, Double Hub
u. P Trap

v. Runníng Trap