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Advance Computer Networks

Pintu R Shah
Classroom Rules

 Please Switch off your mobile phones or put it in


a silent mode.

 Late comers are not allowed.

 Maintain Discipline in the class.

 No cross talk is allowed during the lecture.


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Assignments

 Assignments are due at the beginning of class.


 Late assignment will be given less grade.
 Submit a hard copy as well as soft copy
(whenever told) of your assignment with your
name, class, roll no. date on it. Mail soft copy at
prshah80@rediffmail.com

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Test

 Two Class test will be conducted during the


trimester.
 First test will be in the fifth week and second
test will be in 9th week.
 Dates for the test will be finalized in first
lecture in consultation with students.
 Kindly note that no third test or retest will be
conducted.

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Attendance

 It is expected that students will attend all


classes. Attendance will be checked at the
beginning of each class so make sure to be in
on time; tardiness disturbs everyone. If you miss
any classes, it is your responsibility to learn any
missed material and then discuss your doubts
with the faculty.
 Missing number of classes more than the
percentage allowed by the institute regulations
will result in a defaulter for the student.
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Ask Question!

 I appreciate people asking questions during my lectures - it lets me know


which concepts you are having difficulty with. Any question student asks is
an important question regardless how he/she or others feels about it. Ask
any question you think of directly or not directly pertinent to the lecture, I
would be happy to entertain them during or/and at the end of the class.

 Sometimes I don't know the answer, but I'm happy to dig around and report
back at the beginning of the next class.

 I've learned a lot over the years as a result of student questions!

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Frequency of Meeting

 4hrs of lecture per week

 2hrs of practical per week

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Evaluation

 Term end exam - 50marks


 Term work – 30 marks (includes lab work,
assignment, attendance, conduct etc.)
 Class test – 20 marks
 - 1st test on 12 /11/10
 - 2nd test on 10/12/10
 Note: best of the two test will be considered.

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Scribe note

 A group of student will scribe and submit the same within


three days after completion of lecture.
 What I expect for the scribe requirement is for you to
give a written summary of the lecture, probably about 4-5
pages. The scribed lecture must be given in doc/docx
format . It is important that you not only write what was
said in lecture, but also clarify things, as these scribe
notes provide the text for the class.
 Scribe must include the reference in the end.

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Let’s Start..
Syllabus

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Unit 1: Introduction and Overview

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In this unit..

 The motivation For Internetworking,


 OSI model
 The TCP/IP protocol suite
 IP addressing (Classful and classless)

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Motivation for internetworking

 A desire to withstand a potential nuclear strike. This


explains the need for packet switching, in which
routes from sender to receiver can vary as needed,
as long as a valid route exists. Hence the
requirement for robust and reliable delivery of data.
 A desire to permit different kinds of computer
systems to communicate easily with one another.
 A need to interconnect systems across long
distances.
 Cisco Video

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The Origins and History of TCP/IP

 1969
 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
funded research for packet-switched networking
 ARPANET
 Network built as a result of this project
 In a packet-switched network
 Sender and receiver are identified by unique
network addresses
 History of Internet

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What is network?

 Connection of systems capable of


communicating.

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Advantages

 Connectivity and Communication


 Data Sharing
 Hardware Sharing
 Internet Access & Sharing
 Data Security and Management
 Performance Enhancement and Balancing
 Entertainment

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Disadvantages

 Network Hardware, Software and Setup


Costs
 Hardware and Software Management and
Administration Costs
 Undesirable Sharing
 Illegal or Undesirable Behavior
 Data Security Concerns

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What are Protocols?

 Syntax:concerns the format of the data


blocks
 Semantics: Includes control information for
coordination and error handling
 Timing: Includes speed matching and
sequencing

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Layered architecture

 Divide and conquer approach


 Separates networking hardware concerns from
those related to networking software

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Advantages

 Easier to learn
 Easier to develop
 Multi vendor interoperatibility
 Modular engineering

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OSI Model

 OSI reference model


 A network reference model
 Formally known as ISO/OSI
 Designed to replace TCP/IP
 Standard way to explain how networks operate
 TCP/IP is the open standard protocol suite of
choice

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OSI Model

Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Datalink
Physical

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How Protocol Layers Behave

 Layers
 Exist to encapsulate or isolate specific types of
functionality
 Provide services to the layer above
 Deliver data to or accept data from the layer
below
 Protocol Data Units (PDUs)
 Include “envelope information” in the form of
specific headers and trailers

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Physical Layer

 Includes the physical transmission medium


 Job is to activate, maintain, and deactivate
network connections
 Manages communications with the network
medium going down the protocol stack
 Handles conversion of outgoing data

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Data Link Layer

 Situated between the Physical layer and the


Network layer in the reference model
 Job is to
 Enable reliable transmission of data through the
Physical layer at the sending end
 Check reliability at the receiving end
 Manages point-to-point transmission across
the networking medium

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Network Layer

 Handles logical addresses associated with


individual machines on a network
 Uses addressing information to
 Determine how to send a PDU
 Embodies notion of multiple simultaneous
connections between different IP addresses
 Flexible enough to
 Recognize and use multiple routes between a
sender and a receiver

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Transport Layer

 Ensures reliable end-to-end transmission of


PDUs
 Includes end-to-end error-detection and
error-recovery
 Segmentation
 Involves cutting up a big message into a
numbered sequence of chunks, called segments
 PDUs used at the Transport layer are called
segments, or data segments

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Session Layer

 Defines mechanisms to
 Permit senders and receivers to request that a
conversation start or stop
 Keep a conversation going even when traffic may
not otherwise flow between the parties involved
 Checkpoints
 Define the last point up to which successful
communications are known to have occurred

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Presentation Layer

 Handles transforming data from


 Generic, network-oriented forms of expression to
more specific, platform-oriented forms of
expression
 A redirector or network shell
 Special computer facility that resides here
 Can supply special data-handling functions
for applications

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Application Layer

 Defines an interface that applications can use


to request network services
 Defines a set of access controls over the
network
 PDUs
 Generically called Application PDUs

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TCP/IP Model

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Addresses in TCP/IP

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IP addresses : Classful
Addressing
Introduction

 IPv4 addresses are 32 bit address


 IP addresses are unique
 Address space of IPv4 is 4,294,967,296 (232)

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Notation

 Binary notation
01110101 10010101 00011101 11101010
 Dotted Decimal notation

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Hexadecimal Notation

0111 0101 1001 0101 0001 1101 1110 1010


75 95 1D EA

0x75951DEA

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Example 1

Change the following IP address from


binary notation to dotted-decimal notation.
10000001 00001011 00001011 11101111

129.11.11.239

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Example 2

Change the following IP address from


dotted-decimal notation to binary notation.
111.56.45.78

01101111 00111000 00101101 01001110

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Example 3

Find the error, if any, in the following IP


addresses:
111.56.045.78
75.45.301.14

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Classful addressing

 Class A
 Class B
 Class C
 Class D
 Class E

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Occupation of the address space

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Finding the class in binary notation

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Finding the address class

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Finding the class in decimal notation

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Netid and hostid

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Blocks in class A

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Network Addresses
The network address is the first address.

The network address defines the network to


the rest of the Internet.
Given the network address, we can find
the class of the address, the block, and the
range of the addresses in the block
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Example

Given the network address 17.0.0.0, find the


class, the block, and the range of the addresses.

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Solution

The class is A because the first byte is


between 0 and 127. The block has a netid of
17. The addresses range from 17.0.0.0 to
17.255.255.255.

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Mask

A mask is a 32-bit binary number that gives the


first address in the block (the network address)
when bitwise ANDed with an address in the
block.

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Other issues

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Multihomed devices

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Special Addresses

 Network address
 Directed broadcast address
 Limited broadcast address
 This host on this network
 Specific host on this network
 Loopback address

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Network addresses

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Example of direct broadcast address

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Example of limited broadcast address

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Example of this host on this address

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Example of specific host on this network

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Example of loopback address

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Private Addresses

A number of blocks in each class are assigned


for private use. They are not recognized
globally. These blocks are depicted in Table

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Private Addresses
Class Netids Blocks

A 10.0.0.0 1

B 172.16 to 172.31 16

C 192.168.0 to 256
192.168.255
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Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast
Addresses

Unicast communication is one-to-one.

Multicast communication is one-to-many.

Broadcast communication is one-to-all.

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Subnetting

 Reduced network traffic


 Optimized network performance
 Simplified network management
 Facilitated spanning of large geographical
distances.

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Steps to create subnets

For example refer class work

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Variable length subnet mask (VLSM)

 Consider a corporation that has been assigned the


Class C network 195.214.32.0. The corporation has
the requirement to split this address range into five
separate networks each with the following number of
hosts:
 Subnet 1: 50 hosts
 Subnet 2: 50 hosts
 Subnet 3: 50 hosts
 Subnet 4: 30 hosts
 Subnet 5: 30 hosts

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VLSM design

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Design VLSM addressing scheme for the
given scenario

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Step I for VLSM design

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Step II: fill the chart

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Supernetting
and
Classless Addressing

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A network with two levels of
hierarchy (not subnetted)

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A network with three levels of
hierarchy (subnetted)

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Addresses in a network with
and without subnetting

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SUPERNETTING

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A supernetwork

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Rules:
** The number of blocks must be a power of 2 (1,
2, 4, 8, 16, . . .).
** The blocks must be contiguous in the address
space (no gaps between the blocks).
** The third byte of the first address in the
superblock must be evenly divisible by the number
of blocks. In other words, if the number of blocks is
N, the third byte must be divisible by N.

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Example

A company needs 600 addresses. Which of


the following set of class C blocks can be
used to form a supernet for this company?
198.47.32.0 198.47.33.0 198.47.34.0
198.47.32.0 198.47.42.0 198.47.52.0 198.47.62.0
198.47.31.0 198.47.32.0 198.47.33.0 198.47.52.0
198.47.32.0 198.47.33.0 198.47.34.0 198.47.35.0

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Solution

1: No, there are only three blocks.


2: No, the blocks are not contiguous.
3: No, 31 in the first block is not divisible by 4.
4: Yes, all three requirements are fulfilled.

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In subnetting,
we need the first address of the
subnet and the subnet mask to
define the range of addresses.

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In supernetting,
we need the first address of
the supernet
and the supernet mask to
define the range of addresses.

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Comparison of subnet, default,
and supernet masks

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Example
We need to make a supernetwork out of 16
class C blocks. What is the supernet mask?
Solution
We need 16 blocks. For 16 blocks we need to
change four 1s to 0s in the default mask. So the
mask is
11111111 11111111 11110000 00000000
or
255.255.240.0
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Example

A supernet has a first address of 205.16.32.0 and a


supernet mask of 255.255.248.0. A router receives three
packets with the following destination addresses:
205.16.37.44
205.16.42.56
205.17.33.76
Which packet belongs to the supernet?

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Solution

We apply the supernet mask to see if we can find


the beginning address.
205.16.37.44 AND 255.255.248.0  205.16.32.0
205.16.42.56 AND 255.255.248.0  205.16.40.0
205.17.33.76 AND 255.255.248.0  205.17.32.0
Only the first address belongs to this supernet.

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Example
A supernet has a first address of 205.16.32.0 and a
supernet mask of 255.255.248.0. How many blocks are in
this supernet and what is the range of addresses?

Solution

The supernet has 21 1s. The default mask has 24


1s. Since the difference is 3, there are 23 or 8
blocks in this supernet. The blocks are 205.16.32.0
to 205.16.39.0. The first address is 205.16.32.0.
The last address is 205.16.39.255.
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CLASSLESS
ADDRESSING

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Variable-length blocks

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Number of Addresses in a Block
There is only one condition on the number
of addresses in a block; it must be a power
of 2 (2, 4, 8, . . .). A household may be given
a block of 2 addresses. A small business
may be given 16 addresses. A large
organization may be given 1024 addresses.

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Beginning Address
The beginning address must be evenly divisible
by the number of addresses. For example, if a
block contains 4 addresses, the beginning
address must be divisible by 4. If the block has
less than 256 addresses, we need to check only
the rightmost byte. If it has less than 65,536
addresses, we need to check only the two
rightmost bytes, and so on.

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Example
Which of the following can be the beginning address of a
block that contains 16 addresses?
205.16.37.32
190.16.42.44
17.17.33.80
123.45.24.52
Solution

The address 205.16.37.32 is eligible because 32 is


divisible by 16. The address 17.17.33.80 is eligible
because 80 is divisible by 16.
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Slash notation

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Example
A small organization is given a block with the beginning
address and the prefix length 205.16.37.24/29 (in slash
notation). What is the range of the block?

Solution
The beginning address is 205.16.37.24. To find the
last address we keep the first 29 bits and change the
last 3 bits to 1s.
Beginning:11001111 00010000 00100101 00011000
Ending : 11001111 00010000 00100101 00011111
There are only 8 addresses in this block.
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Example
What is the network address if one of the addresses is
167.199.170.82/27?

Solution
The prefix length is 27, which means that we must
keep the first 27 bits as is and change the remaining
bits (5) to 0s. The 5 bits affect only the last byte.
The last byte is 01010010. Changing the last 5 bits
to 0s, we get 01000000 or 64. The network address
is 167.199.170.64/27.
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Example
An organization is granted the block 130.34.12.64/26.
The organization needs to have four subnets. What are the
subnet addresses and the range of addresses for each
subnet?

Solution

The suffix length is 6. This means the total number


of addresses in the block is 64 (26). If we create
four subnets, each subnet will have 16 addresses.

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Solution (Continued)
Let us first find the subnet prefix (subnet mask).
We need four subnets, which means we need to add
two more 1s to the site prefix. The subnet prefix is
then /28.
Subnet 1: 130.34.12.64/28 to 130.34.12.79/28.
Subnet 2 : 130.34.12.80/28 to 130.34.12.95/28.
Subnet 3: 130.34.12.96/28 to 130.34.12.111/28.
Subnet 4: 130.34.12.112/28 to 130.34.12.127/28.
See Figure Pintu R Shah MPSTME SVKM's NMIMS 100
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Example
An ISP is granted a block of addresses starting with
190.100.0.0/16. The ISP needs to distribute these
addresses to three groups of customers as follows:

1. The first group has 64 customers; each needs 256 addresses.


2. The second group has 128 customers; each needs 128 addresses.

3. The third group has 128 customers; each needs 64 addresses.

Design the subblocks and give the slash notation for each
subblock. Find out how many addresses are still available
after these allocations.
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Solution
Group 1
For this group, each customer needs 256 addresses.
This means the suffix length is 8 (28 = 256). The
prefix length is then 32 − 8 = 24.
01: 190.100.0.0/24 190.100.0.255/24
02: 190.100.1.0/24 190.100.1.255/24
…………………………………..
64: 190.100.63.0/24190.100.63.255/24
Total = 64 × 256 = 16,384
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Solution (Continued)
Group 2
For this group, each customer needs 128 addresses.
This means the suffix length is 7 (27 = 128). The
prefix length is then 32 − 7 = 25. The addresses
are:
001: 190.100.64.0/25 190.100.64.127/25
002: 190.100.64.128/25 190.100.64.255/25
003: 190.100.127.128/25 190.100.127.255/25
Total = 128 × 128 = 16,384
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Solution (Continued)
Group 3
For this group, each customer needs 64 addresses.
This means the suffix length is 6 (26 = 64). The
prefix length is then 32 − 6 = 26.
001:190.100.128.0/26 190.100.128.63/26
002:190.100.128.64/26 190.100.128.127/26
…………………………
128:190.100.159.192/26 190.100.159.255/26
Total = 128 × 64 = 8,192
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Solution (Continued)

Number of granted addresses: 65,536


Number of allocated addresses: 40,960
Number of available addresses: 24,576

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