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QUIZ 1 Condenser Circulating Pumps are used to pump cooling

water through the condenser,

Air preheater or air heater general term to describe any
device designed to heat air before another process (for Condenser has its main purpose of condensing the
example, combustion in a boiler) with the primary objective exhaust steam from the turbine for reuse in the cycle and to
of increasing the thermal efficiency of the process. maximize turbine efficiency by maintaining proper vacuum.
Cooling Tower extracts heat from water by evaporation into
Arched Dam are curved in plan, arching between a moving air stream to provide significant cooling to the rest
the two abutments of the valley, with the convex face of that water stream; Do the job of decreasing the
on the water side. This type is suitable for sites with temperature of the cooling water after condensing the steam
narrow gorges and steep stops of solid rock which in the condenser
support the dam against water pressure
Crest Control simplest way of limiting head water and may
Atmospheric relief valves provide automatic protection be affected by flash boards, timber needles, stoplogs or
of costly condenser equipment. tilting or drum gates, but these devices are adaptable in
Balanced Draft is obtained through use of both case of small dams only
induced and forced draft. Cross compound turbine arrangement features two or
Base Load the plant will supply this at the time of low more shafts not in line driving two or more generators that
water flow, because maximum capacity of the station is often operate at different speeds.
based on the minimum flow of water, and hence it Deaerating feed tank If the tank is designed to remove
becomes uneconomical; Generating units work on dissolved oxygen from the condenser
almost constant load and their operating efficiency is usually Dampers are used to control the quantity of air admitted
high to the furnace.
Boiler Feed Pump this pump closes the boiler, Deaerator special case of the opern feedwater heater
steam and condensate loop by returning the wchich is specifically designed to remove non-condensable
condensate back into the system for reuse. gases from the feedwater.
British Standard BS845:1987 describes the methods Detention Dams are constructed primarily to store flood
and conditions under which a boiler should be tested water. A real detention dam is to kept empty to receive the
to determine its efficiency. flood waters when the floods are anticipated
Bulb Turbine the generator is enclosed in a water fight Direct contact Condensers condense the turbine exhaust
housing (or bulb like casing), to protect it from water; steam by mixing it directly with cooling water
Very high speed axial flow runners with adjustable
Direct Method Testing also known as”input-output
blades, are used for very low heads (3 to 10m) method” due to the fact that it needs only the useful output
Butterfly Valves consists of a circular lens shaped disk, (steam) and the heat input (i.e. fuel) for evaluating the
mounted usually on a horizontal shaft in a flame, having efficiency.
diameter equal to that of the penstock Diversion Dams are constructed to raise the water level
Carry over velocity The loss of energy due to its higher and to divert the river flow in another direction
exit velocity Diversion Tunnels are constructed when the flow of river
Chute Spillways simple in design and construction and required to be diverted away from the construction when the
are adoptable to almost all foundation conditions; The flow of river required to be diverted away from the
type of spillway is provided through the abutments of the construction operation
dam when it is not possible to pass floods over the dam
Draft Tube is a diverging passage from the point of runner
as in the case of earthen and rock fill dams.
exit down to the tail race
Closed feedwater heaters typically shell and tube heat Drum or Cylindrical Gates consists of a segment of a
exchangers where the feedwater passes throughout the cylinder which can fit in the top of spillway.
tubes and is heated by turbine extraction steam.
Earth Fill Dams are used for smaller capacity power plants.
Closed loop (or closed circuit) cooling tower systems They are more economical for sites where excavation of the
also called indirect cooling tower systems, do not allow the foundation soil is considerable.
water to come into contact with any outside substance,
Field Assembled Towers are shipped in pieces and
therefore keeping the water more pure due to the lack
assembled on site by a highly qualified and certified
of foreign particles introduced.
installation team.
Combustion Rate Determined by the rate at which Fill Dams or Embankment Dams may be earth fill or rock
parcels of rate unburned gas are broken down into fill dams. These dams need over ten times the material is
smaller ones (create sufficient interfacial area between required for concrete or masonry dams are often quite long
unburned mixture & hot gases to enable reaction) in span
Combustion efficiency The effectiveness of the burner Flash Boards are wooden boards placed in the series on
only and relates to its ability to completely burn the fuel. the dam crest to raise pond level
Flumes used when it becomes difficult or expensive to
Condensate pumps those kinds of pumps that are used to construct canals
collect and transport condensate back into a steam system
for reheating and reuse or to remove unwanted condensate.
Forebay or head pond it is where the water carried by the
Open Cycles the working fluid is renewed at the end of
power canals is distributed to various penstocks leading to
each cycle instead of being re-circulated
the turbines
Full Reservoir Level (FRL) the spillway does not start Over flow dams the dams over which water is allowed to
discharging till the water reaches a predetermined level flow
Guide wheel controls the flow to the turbine and distribute it Penstock the pipe connecting the forebay or the surge tank
axisymmetrically to the runner and the scroll case of the turbine.
Head Race Water surface in the storage reservoir Pondage water behind the dam at the plant; Collection of
High pressure feed water heaters are used in feedwater the water behind a dam near the plant and increases stream
system between the boiler feed pump discharge and the capacity for short periods
boiler, and utilize high pressure turbine extraction steam for
heating the feed water. Pumped Storage Plants are special type power plants
Hotwell at the bottom of the shell, where the condensate which work as ordinary conventional hydro power stations
collects, an outlet is installed. for part of the time
Hybrid Draft they are equipped with mechanical draft fans
to augment airflow. Rock fill-Dam It has high resistance to earthquakes
Impulse Turbine has fixed nozzles that orient the steam because of its flexible character which permits considerable
flow into high speed jets. movement
Indirect Method Testing the efficiency can be measured
easily by measuring all the losses occurring in the boilers Rolling Gates consist of cylindrical drums which span the
using the principles to be described. piers and to which attached facings which act as water
Induced Draft this is obtained one of three ways, the first
Rotors the primary purpose is to carry the moving blades
being the “stack effect” of a heated chimney, in which the
that convert the steam’s kinetic energy to rotating
flue gass is less dense than the ambient air surrounding the
mechanical energy.
boiler.; Removes flue gases from the furnace and forces
draft the exhaust gas up the stack Safe Yield Method where it is intended to provide enough
storage so as to be useful even during the worst dry periods
Isentropic Efficiency used to determine machine
performance trends and effects of maintenance activities Shaft packing glands prevent the leaking of steam out of
or air into the turbine casing where the turbine rotor shaft
Kaplan turbine (propeller type) The blades are pivoted at extends through the turbine casing
the hub and the angle turbine is changed automatically to
suit the operating conditions
Shaft Spillway or Morning Glory Spillway The water
Low Head Plants or Canal Power Plants when the drops through the vertical shaft and passes through a
operating head is less than 30 meters horizontal conduit passing through the dam at the bottom
Low pressure feed water heaters are used in the which conveys the water to the downward site of the dam
condensate system between the condensate pump
Shell is the condenser’s outermost body and contains the
dischage and boiler feed pumps, and utilize low pressure
heat exchanger tubes
turbine extraction on auxiliary turbine exhaust steam for
heating the condensate. Side channel spillways In this type, the flow being carried
over the crest passes in a channel almost parallel to the
Maximum continuous rating Steam boiler's rated output
Maximum Water Level (MWL) the highest level up to which Single Casing Units are the most basic style where a
the water is allowed to rise in the reservoir even during high single casing and shaft are coupled to a generator.
Sluices opening for withdrawal of water, and are provided
Mechanical Draft Towers uses fans (one or more) to move with gates called sluice gates to control discharge
large quantities of air through the tower. Solid Gravity Dam bulky and derives its stability against
forces by virtue of its weight
Mechanical Efficiency index of the external losses Soot Blowers control the formation of soot and reduce its
Natural Draft Towers are typically about 120 m high, corrosive effects and reduce the water softening capacity to
depending on the differential pressure between the cold a considerable extent.
outside air and the hot humid air on the inside of their tower
as the driving force. Spillway acts as a safety valve for a dam. The part of the
dam which discharges the flood flow to the downstream side
Non-over flow dams are dams on the top of which water
is not allowed to flow
Stationary plate regenerative preheater The heating plate
Open (or direct-contact) feedwater heater is basically a
elements in this type of regenerative air preheater are also
micing chamber, where the steam extracted from the
installed in a casing, but the heating plate elements are
turbine mixes with the feedwater exiting the pump.
stationary rather that rotating.
Open Cooling Towers also called direct cooling towers,
allow the water to come into contact with outside air.
Steam Turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal Waterbox The tube sheet at each end which tube ends
energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary rolled, for each end of the condenser is closed by a
motion. fabricated box cover
Storage Water held in upstream reservoir Wheeled Gates when flat plain gates are supported on self-
Storage Dams are mainly for storing water and using it aligning roller bearing wheels
subsequently as and when required for various uses such Yearly Used Method where it is intended to provide just
as hydro power, irrigation and water supply sufficient storage (taking losses into account) for one year
only so that there is no carryover water for the next season
Storage Plants or Reservoir Plants they can supply water
at a constant rate which is substantially higher than the
minimum natural flow of the stream
Storage water held in upstream reservoir
Substructure used to support the hydraulic and
electrical equipment
Sump Pump this pump is installed in compartments to
remove the unwanted build-up of water
Super structure mostly is a building, housing an operating
equipment; House and protect equipments
Surge Tanks are additional storage space near the power
unit, usually provided in high head or medium head plants
when there is a considerable distance between the water
source and the power unit, necessitating a long penstock
Surge Tanks Serves to regulate the flow of water through
the conveyance system, to relieve water hammer pressures,
and to improve performance of the machines by providing
better speed regulations
Tail Race a passage for discharging the water leaving the
turbine into the river and certain cases, the water from
Tandem Compound are used where two or more casings
are directly coupled together to drive a single generator.
Thermal Efficiency is the effectiveness of the heat transfer
in a boiler. It does not take into account boiler radiation and
convection losses.
Trash Racks remove floating or submerged debris directly
at the intake entrance
Tube Sheets provided at each end of the shell with
thickness usually made of stainless steel with holes and for
the tubes to be inserted and rolled.
Tubular Preheaters consist of straight tube bundles which
pass through the outlet ducting of the boiler and open at
each end outside of the ducting.
Tunnel made by cutting the mountains where canal or pipe
cannot be used due to topography; act as open channels
when flowing partially full and act as pressure conduits when
flowing fully
Turbine runner a wheel having vanes or buckets along its
Unit System or Direct System So called from the fact that
each burner or a burner group and pulveriser constitutes a
Vapor Cycles the working fluid exists in the vapor phase
during one part of the cycle and in the liquid phase during
another part.

Water Hammer sudden increase of pressure in the

penstock due to sudden decrease in the rate of water flow to
the turbine when the load on the generator decreases
Adiabatic compression of the working fluid i.e.,air (gas)
DIESEL PLANTS along a-b; the temperature and pressure are increased.
Heat addition along b-c constant pressure; the gas
Diesel plants are more efficient than any other heat temperature and volume are increased.
engine of comparable size. These plants are cheap by Adiabatic expansion along c-d, work is done by the
way of initial cost, can be started and stopped quickly expanding gas, and, the temperature and pressure
and can burn a wide range of fuels. decrease.
Diesel plant does not require any warming period; it Heat removal (rejection) along d, a at constant volume,
need not be kept running for a long time before peaking the pressure and temperature decrease,and the gas is
up loads. As a result, there is no standby losses. Another restored to its initial condition at a. Here cycle is
advantage of such a plant is that it does not need large completed.
amount of water for cooling. Intake or Suction The piston moving downward (i.e.,
Diesel plant can be commissioned in such a much little out of the cylinder) draws air into the cylinder by way of
time compared with a hydro, steam or nuclear power the open intake valve. The exhaust valve is closed
station. (operation oa).
Diesel station is suitable for localities where fuel costs Compression The intake valve is closed and piston
are low,where water supply is limited, where oil is moving upward (i.e., into the cylinder) compresses the
cheaper than coal and where loads are of such air. The pressure is increased to about 35 to 40 atm.
magnitudes that they can be handled by a plant of small (3:5 to 4MPa), and the air temperature rises to 450 to
capacity. 500°C.
Diesel plant provides the most economical means of Power Just before the point of maximum compression,
generating electricity on small scale particularly where with both valves closed, a spray of very small droplets
there is no convenient site for micro-hydro plants, of fuel is injected into the top of the cylinder. At the
cheap fuels are not available and load factors are existing high temperature of the air the fuel burns
considerably large. rapidly and produces extremely hot compressed gases.
Diesel electric power plants have been chiefly used as The gases expand and push back the piston; this is the
peak load and standby units, for the hydroelectric power stroke in which mechanical work is done. Not all
power plants. These are used as emergency standby of this work is available, however since part is utilized in
units which normally remain idle and are run only the other strokes, especially in the compression stroke.
where there is a failure of the central station and where Exhaust The piston moving upward pushes the
key industrial processes cannot be interrupted to avoid somewhat cooled gases out through the open exhaust
financial loss. valve.
3.2. DIESEL ENGINE: WORKING PRINCIPLE AND Diesel Fuels A diesel engine can use a wide variety of
GENERAL DESCRIPTION fuels, ranging from natural gas to fairly heavy petroleum
Internal combustion engine in which the fuel is ignited distillate oils which are cheaper than gasoline. High-
by injecting it into air that has been heated to a high speed diesel engines use lighter fuels than do those
temperature by rapid compression; hence, diesel operating at lower speeds. The heavier fuels require
engines are also called compression-ignition engines. larger times to be injected and to vaporize prior to
The concept of ignition compression was patented by combustion and hence are more suited to low speed
Rudolf Diesel in 1892, and first demonstrated in an engines.
engine, five years latter. Mixture of liquid hydrocarbons used as fuel in diesel (CI)
Compression ignition engine is a heat engine (i.e. one engines.
that converts heat partially into mechanical work) Diesel fuels are either various distillates obtained in
operating on an approximation to the idealized Diesel petroleum refining operations or blends of such
cycle in which combustion of the fuel, that is, the heat distillates with residual oil. The boiling range (200-360°C)
addition stage, occurs at essentially constant pressure. and specific gravity (0 82 to 0-92; 40 to 20 AP) are
Diesel cycle A repeated succession of operations(or higher than for gasoline; diesel fuels are also more
cycle) representing the idealized behaviour of the viscous.
working fluid in the diesel engine form of heat engine. An important criterion of diesel fuel is the ignition
Suction operation at constant pressure in which air is quality as indicated by the cetane number.
sucked inside the cylinder from atmosphere at nearly Cetane numbers of diesel fuels are usually in the range
atmospheric pressure. of 30 to 60. A high cetane number is desirable for easy
starting and smooth operation.
In practice, short time, called the ignition delay, elapses Fuel transfer pumps are required to transfer fuel from
between the start of fuel injection and ignition in a delivery point to storage tanks and from storage tanks
diesel engine. to engine.
Ignition delay is usually not more than a few Strainers (filters) are needed to ensure clean fuel.
thousandths of a second (i.e. a few milliseconds), but a Heaters for oil may be required especially during winter
relatively long delay time, may be accompanied by Fuel oil delivered to the power plant is received in
difficult starting from cold and, rough and noisy storage tanks.
operation. The property of a diesel fuel that affects Oil is pumped from storage tanks and supplied it to the
ignition delay is expressed by the cetane number; an smaller day tanks from where it is supplied to engine.
increase in the cetane number decreases the ignition Storage tank may be located underground. Greater
delay, facilitates cold tarting and makes the engine run amount of impurities settle down in the storage tank
more smoothly. and rest are removed bypassing oil through the
The essential components of a diesel electric plant are: Air injection system, a multistage compressor is used to
1. engine. supply air at a pressure of approximately 60-80 kg/cm
2. engine air intake system. into the fuel nozzle. This system is now rarely used. The
3. engine fuel system. fuel delivered to the nozzle by the fuel pump thus,
4. engine exhaust system. discharged into the combustion chamber. The
5. engine cooling system. governing is affected by controlling the operation of the
6. engine lubrication system. fuel pump.
7. engine starting system. The solid/mechanical-injection systems are available in
Diesel engine This is the main component of the plant three types:
which develops power. Generally,engine is coupled 1. The common rail system;
directly to the generator. 2. The distributor-injection system; and
Diesel engine may be a four stroke or a two stroke 3. The pump and pressure operated nozzle systems.
engine. Four stroke engine is generally preferred as it The last is the most often used.
has higher efficiency, lower specific fuel consumption Common rail injections This method uses a multi-
and more effective lubrication than a two stroke engine. cylinder fuel pump to maintain a constant high pressure
Other things which may be specified in diesel engines in the fuel discharge line which supplies fuel to all
are: arrangement and number of cylinders used, simple injector valves of the engine,these valves being always
aspiration or supercharging, efficiency and economical under pump pressure.
fuel consumption. High pressure header or 'common rail' is supplied by a
Engine air intake system This includes air filters, ducts single pump with built in pressure regulation which
and supercharger (an integral part of the engine). The adjusts pumping rate to maintain the desired injection
system supplies the required quantity of air for pressure.
combustion. Air requirements of large diesel plants are Pressure relief and timing valves regulate the injection
considerable, around 4-8 m° per kwh. Air is drawn from time and amount.
outside the engine room and delivered to the intake Spring loaded safety valve acts merely as a check.
manifold through the air filters which remove the dust When injection valve lifts to admit high pressure fuel to
and other suspended impurities from air. spray valve, its needle rises against the spring when the
Filter catch any air borne dirt as it otherwise may cause pressure is vented to the atmosphere, the spring shuts
the wear and tear of the engine. The filter should be the valve.
cleaned periodically. Filters may be of dry type (made Distribution system It is also called unit injector
up of cloth, felt,glass wool etc) or oil bath type. method, in which the whole process of metering,
Oil bath types filter the air is swept over or through a pressurizing timing, and injection take place in a pump-
bath of oilin order that the particles of dust get coated. cum-atomizer unit, called the unit injector, one such
Supercharger increases the pressure of air supplied to injector being used for one cylinder. The high pressure
the engine so that it could develop an increased power fuel pipes are eliminated and the device is fitted in the
output. Superchargers are generally driven by the cylinder head, actuated by a push rod and rocker arm in
engine. a way similar to the operation of
Fuel system This include fuel storage tanks,fuel transfer the overhead valve. In the distributor block, cam-
pumps, strainers, heaters and connecting pipe work. operated poppet valves feed fuel to the cylinders in
proper firing order by opening just before injection.
Controlling a by-pass valve in the pump or in the pump circulate in the system. As the water is cooled in the
discharge line or varying the time of closure of the fuel radiator is descends while the hot water in the jacket
pump inlet valve generally provides the governing effect. rises and flows to the radiator at the top. This system is
Pump injector method A typical pump and pressure simple,but the motive force producing circulation of
operated nozzle system.. In this system fuel nozzle is water is small and can provide only slow rate of
connected to a separate injection pump. The measuring circulation, necessitating larger cooling elements.
of the fuel charge and control of the injection timing are Sometimes a water tank of sufficient apacity may be
done by the pump itself. The delivery valve in the nozzle used instead of the radiator to provide thermo-siphon
is actuated by fuel oil pressure. The atomizers or the cooling.
injection valves which are spring loaded inject the fuel Forced circulation, indirect cooling system is most
into the combustion chamber in a fine spray. widely used in large and medium sized units. Cold water
Engine Exhaust System The function of the exhaust is passed through the cylinder jacket with the help of a
system is to discharge the engine exhaust to the pump usually mounted on the engine frame and getting
atmosphere outside the building. This includes silencers the power from the engine crank shaft. The hot-water is
(muffler) and connecting ducts/ pipes. A good exhaust sent to a cooling device, such as, cooling tower or a
system should keep the noise at a low level, exhaust spray pond, whence it is taken in again for circulation
well above the ground level to reduce the air pollution after being cooled.
at breathing level and should isolate the engine Open or single circuit system in this system pump
vibrations from the building by using a flexible selection draws the water from cooling pond and forces it into
of exhaust pipe. The exhaust pipe is provided with a the main engine jackets. After circulating through the
muffler to reduce pressure in the exhaust line and engine jacket, water is returned to the cooling
reduces the noise level. pond.This system may subject to corrosion in the
Exhaust stack usually stands on the muffler top. As the cylinder jackets because of dissolved gases in the cooing
temperature of the exhaust gases is suificiently high, water.
heat of these gases is utilized in heating oil or air Closed or double circuit system In this system raw
supplied to the engine. The heat of exhaust gases may water is made to flow through the heat exchanger when
also be waste-heat boilers for steam recovered in it takes up the excess heat of the jacket water and then
generation. is returned back to cooling pond. The double-circuit
Engine Cooling System This includes coolant pumps, system largely eliminates internal jacket corrosion but
spray ponds, water treatment or filtration plant and may have corrosion in the raw water circuit of the heat
connecting pipe work. The purpose of the cooling exchanger.
system is to carry heat from engine cylinder to keep the Lubrication system This system is of great importance
temperature of the cylinder within safe limits. The extra for diesel engines. High pressure and small clearances
heat, not used for doing useful work, has to be removed necessitate a good lubrication system for a diesel
from the engine, otherwise this extra heat may engine. The life of the engine and the efficiency depend
disintegrate the lubricating oil film on the cylinder walls largely on the lubrication system.
and damage the cylinder liners,heads, walls, piston and Lubricating oil to lubricate the moving parts, to remove
rings. Small engines maybe air-cooled, but large the heat from the cylinders and the bearings, to help
stationary engines use water circulating in cylinder the piston rings to sea! the gases in the cylinder and to
jacket with the help of a pump. The hot water is cooled carry away the solid dirt particles from the rubbing
in a spray pond and recirculated. parts. The parts of the engine, which need lubrication
Direct air cooling method employs fins casted on the include piston and cylinders,gears, crankshaft, and
cylinder head to increase the exposed surface of connecting rod, bearing etc. piston and cylinder need
contact with air. Air for cooling the fins, may be special-lubricating oil.
obtained from a blower or fan driven by the engine. Air Settling, i.e. allowing the oil to stand undisturbed for a
movement relative to engine may be used to cool the time till impurities settle down at the bottom of the
engine as in case of motor cycle engine. tank or container,
Direct air cooling is employed in small industrial Centrifusing, in it the oil is centrifuged through
engines,motor cycle engines and air craft engines. centrifuges. Centrifuging widely used, gives excellent
Indirect cooling system may use natural circulation purification when properly done.
(thermosiphon) or forced circulation of water. Filtering, filtration through strainers and filters of
Thermo-syphón method the change in the density of absorbent and non-absorbent type.The effectively
water duct to change in temperature causes it to
remove small amounts of impurities but are costly for BHP or Brake horse power is defined as the net power
large amounts. available at the crank shaft. It is measured on the brake
Chemical-reclaiming This uses a combination of heat drum of a dynamometer,which gives it the name of
activated clays. brake horse power(bhp).
Modern lube oils have additives to act as oxidation Torque resist the motion of the brake drum of the
inhibitors, foam reducing agents, pour point dynamometer
depressants, and other agents. Dopes and additives Frictional Horse power (FHP) The difference of IHP and
may be used in oils to refresh them. BHP. It is utilised in overcoming frictional resistance of
Engine Starting system Because of the high rotating and sliding parts of the engine.
compression pressure, even a small diesel engine in a Mechanical efficiency The ratio of BHP and IHP
power plant cannot be started by hand cranking. The Indicated thermal efficiency The efficiency of
various methods used for starting are: conversion of the heat energy of fuel into work. It is the
(1) Compressed air starting for medium and large ratio of heat equivalent of IHP per minute to heat
capacity stationary and mobile units, energy supplied in fuel per minute.
(2) Electric-motor starting for small high-speed gasoline Brake thermal efficiency or overall efficiency is the
and diesel engine, and ratio of heat equivalent of BHP per minutea nd heat
(3) Auxiliary-engine starting for medium capacity energy supplied through the fuel per minute.
mobile units. Specific fuel consumption (SFC) of a diesel engine is an
Compressed air system is mostly used for starting important parameter of engine performance and is
diesel engines in power plants. calculated to judge the economy in production with a
Electrical starting system Includes electric motor which particular engine,using a particular fuel. It is defined as
drives a pinion which is engaged a toothed rim on the amount of fuel burnt per b.h.p. brake power per
engine flywheel. A small electric generator driven from hour.
the engine supplies electric for the motor. Storage Heat Balance Account A study of heat distribution in a
battery (12 to 36volts) may also be used to supply given engine will give sufficient indication as to how
power to the electric motor for small plants. As soon as efficiently the engine is working and the general
the engine is started, electric motor disengages distribution of heat in an1.C. engine as shown below.
automatically. Plant maintenance depends on various factors. It is
The use of auxiliary engine usually petrol driven in this usual to maintain a correct record of instrument
method a small petrol engine is connected to the main readings and condition of operation at regular intervals,
engine through clutch and gear arrangements. The say every half hour. Such records form log sheets. For
clutch is first disengaged and the auxiliary engine proper plant maintenance various temperatures,
started by hand, or by a self-starter motor. When it has pressures electric load etc.
warmed up and runs at normal speed the drive gear is 3:8. SUPER CHARGING
engaged through the clutch, and the main engine is thus Super charging the method of increasing the air
cranked. Automatically disengagement of clutch takes capacity of an engines.
place after the main engine has started. Supercharging the supply of air is pumped into the
3.5 DIESEL PLANT EFFICIENCYAND HEAT BALANCE cylinder at a pressure greater than the atmospheric,
Indicated horse power (IHP) of a diesel engine is usual rap-ge being 0-28 to 1-4 kg/cm.
computed on the basis of the indicator diagram. The Supercharger The apparatus used to increase the air
work done in the engine cylinder per cycle equals the density. It is rarely a compressor which provides a
net area of the indicatord iagram (i.e. area of positive denser charge to the engine, thereby enabling the
loop less area of negative loop). From the area of consumption of a greater mass of the charge with the
indicator diagram it is possible to find an average gas same total piston displacement.
pressure which while acting on piston throughout one Power is required to drive the supercharger. This is
stroke would account for the net work done. usually taken from the engine and thereby removes,
Indicated mean effective pressure is calculated by from over-all engine output, some of the gain in power
finding the mean height of the indicator diagram, and obtained through supercharging.
multiplying it by the spring constant of the indicator Positive displacement superchargers may be further
spring. The work done on the piston in each working divided into the piston and cylinder, the rotary, and the
stroke is calculated from the mean effective pressure 'screw' types.
the area of the piston and length of the stroke.
Piston and cylinder arrangement, a piston compresses Refrigeration effect - is usually produced by transferring
air in a cylinder in much the same manner as it, heat from a low temperature source to a high
compresses the air in a C.I.engine. temperature source by spending mechanical work.
Rotary type, the air may be compressed by a meshing To produce this effect requires certain machinery,
'gear' arrangement(exemplified by a Roots, blower), or hence, the method is called mechanical refrigeration.
by a rotating vane element. The working media of such machines are called
"Screw' arrangement traps air between the inter refrigerants.
meshing helical shaped gears' and forces it axially Classification of Refrigerators
toward the outlet end. The 'gears' are in some cases Refrigeration - implies the cooling of a system. It may
designed so that the volume of the pocket of entrapped be obtained by adopting the following methods.
air is reduced as it proceeds through the axially thus 1. Natural methods.
compressor producing compression of the air. 2. Artificial or mechanical methods
Centrifugal compressor is widely used as the Mechanical refrigerators found wide industrial
supercharger for reciprocating engines, as wen as the applications. They may be further classified as
compressor for gas turbines. It is found in both 1. Air refrigerators
stationary plants and in the power plants for vehicles. It (a) Reversed carnot cycie; (b) Bell
is almost exclusively used as the supercharger with coleman cycle
reciprocating power plants for aircraft,because it is 2. Vapour refrigerators
relatively light and compact, and produces continuous (a) Vapour compression refrigerator; (b)
flow-rather than pulsating flow as in some positive Vapour absorption refrigerator
displacement types. 4.2 METHOD OF REFRIGERATION
Axial flow compressor consists of several stages of Refrigeration effect - may be produced by bringing the
alternating fixed and moving blades which compress the substance to be cooled in direct or indirect contact with
air as it moves axially along the compressor. While it is cooling medium such as ice. The common methods of
seldom used to supercharge reciprocating engines, it is refrigeration are as follows.
widely used as the compressor unit of gas turbines. 1. Ice refrigeration systems - consist of an insulated
For maximum advantage the supercharger blower may cabinet equipped with a tray or tank at the top, for
be coupled to an exhaust turbine and by driven by the holding blocks of ice pieces.
velocity of exhaust gases. Such a combination is known Refrigeration by ice - is the most common form of
as "Turbo-charger' and is used in many heavy diesel artificial cooling.
engines. In this, the following methods are used:
a) Direct Method - the ice is kept in the same
REFRIGERATION compartment with the articles to be cooled. This
method is used in hotels for cooling the drinks.
Natural ice - was used for Refrigeration purposes which b) Indirect Method - the ice is isolated from the storage
was quite inconvenient and inadequate for large space and cooling of the articles is carried by circulation
requirements. (in olden days) of brine. This system is more suitable for large plants
Refrigeration - is the process of removing heat from a and no danger of food infection by impure ice.
space or substance to reduce and maintain temperature 2. Dry lce Refrigeration – the dry ice in the form of
lower than its surrounding. flakes or slabs is placed on the cartons containing food
Ferdinand Carre - devised vapour absorption system. stuffs, when dry ice sublimates, it will absorb heat from
(1859) food stuff in the cartons and thus keeps them in a
Ammonia -water cycle - still used in absorption type frozen condition. This is used for preservation of frozen
domestic refrigerators foods and ice creams in storage and transportation. It
Thomas Midgely and his associates Henne and McNary has twice the heat absorbing capacity of ice
– discovered dichlorodifluoromethane methane, CCL2F2 refrigeration. However, its cost is high.
(Freon-12 which was) confirmed as super refrigerant Dry ice - is the solidified form of CO2. It evaporates
with low -level of toxicity and non-flammable. directly from solid to vapour without liquid phase. This
Principle of Refrigeration phenomenon is called sublimation.
Refrigeration - is defined as the production of 3. Air Expansion Refrigeration - In this method, air is
temperature lower than those of the surrounding and compressed to 5 bar and cooled down at constant
maintain the lower temperature within the boundary of pressure. It is then expanded adiabatically to a pressure
a given space.
of 1 bar. This gives the maximum temperature refrigerating systems as household refrigerator or small
reduction. capacity coolers.
4. Evaporative Refrigeration - water evaporates by The main parts of a sealed unit are Electric motor,
absorbing latent heat from the surrounding air. Thus, Compressor, Muffler, Dome.
the air is cooled, and circulated to the cold chambers. 2. Condenser - is a heat exchanger in which heat
5. Gas Throttling Refrigeration - there is no change in transfer takes place from high temperature vapour
enthalpy and also for a perfect gas, there is no change refrigerant to low temperature air or water which is
in temperature. However, for actual gases there is a used as cooling medium. Its purpose is to convert all the
substantial change; usually a decrease in temperature. vapour refrigerant to liquid refrigerant delivered by the
This temperature drop depends upon the Joule- compressor.
Thomas coefficient, the pressure drops, and the initial Types of Condenser
state of the gas. a) Air Cooled Condensers - Air is used as the cooling
6. Steam - Jet Refrigeration - is based on the principle medium. Heat transfer takes place air convection
that the boiling point of water is lowered as the around the condenser surface.
pressure is reduced. In this, water is a refrigerant and a Natural air-cooled condensers - large condensing
steam ejector is used to lower the pressure and to surface area is required as the circulated air quantity is
reduce the boiling point of water. less. This type of condensers is used in domestic
Steam ejector - draws evaporated vapour from the refrigerator, deep freezer, etc.,
chamber and sends the fluid to condenser at a high Forced air cooled condensers - air is circulated by
velocity. means of a fan air-cooled or blower. This type of
Water as refrigerant is very safe and widely used in air condensers is compact in design and are relatively more
conditioning system. efficient
7. Liquid gas refrigeration - It is filled in a well-insulated b) Water Cooled Condenser - condenser which cooled
cylinder which is connected to a pipe with intermittent by water. These are always preferred where adequate
perforations. This method is used for cooling fluids, supply of and inexpensive means of water disposal are
vegetables, meat, fish and other food stuffs place in the available.
cold storage. This type of cooling is also used in There are three types of water-cooled condenser.
transporting vehicles carrying food stuffs. (i) Shell and Tube Condenser - consist of a cylindrical
The quantity of nitrogen is regulated by means of valve. shell, in which a large number of parallel tubes are
4.3. REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT fitted and connected with tube sheets on both ends of
1. Compressor - is that part in mechanical refrigeration these tubes. These tubes are made of steel or copper
system which sucks the refrigerant vapours at low tubes.
temperature and at low pressure and compresses it to a (ii) Shell and Coil Type Condenser - is used for small
lower volume at higher temperature and at higher tonnage low pressure units. It consists of shell that
pressure. Moreover, it creates the flow of refrigerant contains a coil for circulating the water. These are
from one place to another. preferable where clean water is available because its
Compressor - is located near the condenser. coil cannot be cleaned easily.
There are mainly two types of compressor are used. (iii) Double tube type Condenser – has condensing
They are water tube inside the refrigerant tube. The refrigerant
a) Open type Compressor – is that in which the prime flows in the space between the tubes while water is
mover drives the compressor by means of belt. in such a pumped through inner tube. These condensers are
unit the prime mover and compressor are separately difficult to clean and do not provide enough space for
serviceable. In this, the compressor is enclosed in crank separation of gas liquid.
case and crank shaft projects out through the The scales formed in tubes are removed by chemical
compressor housing. treatment.
These compressors are used in the plants employed for Since copper tubes cannot be used with ammonia.
ice making, cold storage and food processing These are made of steel pipes for ammonia.
applications. c) Evaporative Condenser - combines the function of
b) Hermetically Sealed Compressor - the compressor the condenser and cooling tower. It works on the
and motor are enclosed in one housing which known as principle of Evaporative cooling. In this, both air and
Hermetically sealed compressor. These types of water are used as the cooling media. These are used
compressors are normally used for small capacity where there is scarcity of water, draining facilities are in
adequate. It is suitable for refrigerant plants above 100- tubes. The fluid to be cooled flows through innertube
ton capacity. whereas the refrigerant flows through the annual space
3. Evaporator - is a device in which the heat is removed between the two tubes. These are used in dairy,
from the substance to be cooled. It is part of the system beverages and oil plant.
in which the refrigerant evaporates or boils. It is the 4. Expansion Device or Valve - A device which reduces
cooling unit and sometimes called the cooling coil or the pressure of the refrigerant coming from the
freezing coil or liquid cooler. condenser and temperature as per the requirement of
(i) Flooded type Evaporator - a constant refrigerant system. It regulates the flow of refrigerant as per the
liquid level is maintained. It consists of shell into which loan on the evaporator.
the refrigerant liquid is fed through the float valve. It The various types of evaporators are:
provides rapid cooling and used in large capacity a) Capillary Tube - is a coil or length of fine tube that
equipment. has a very small orifice usually 0.5to 2.25mm inside
Float valve - is used as throttling device which diameter and length is about 1 to 6 m. It is a constant
maintains a constant liquid level in the evaporator. restrict type expansion device, because the opening
(ii) Dry -Expansion Evaporation - In this, the liquid through which the refrigerant flow is constant. It
refrigerant is fed by expansion valve. controls the flow of refrigerant into the evaporator.
Feeler bulb - is provided to control the flow of b) Pressure Control or Automatic Expansion Valve - is a
refrigerant into the evaporator. constant pressure regulator. It is designed and
(iii) Bare tube Evaporator - are constructed of either constructed to maintain a constant evaporating
steel pipe or copper tubing. Steel pipes used for large pressure.
evaporators and copper tubes used for small c) Thermostatic Expansion Valves - These valves are
evaporator. These are used where the temperature is similar in general design to automatic valves but having
maintained below 0°C. the space above the bellows or diaphragm filled with
(iv) Finned Tube Evaporator - are bare tube coils upon the liquid refrigerant used in the main system and
which metal plates or fins are installed. These connected by capillary tube to a remote bulb. These
evaporators are mostly used in Air-Conditioning system. valves are the most commonly employed and are
Fins - increase the surface area of the evaporator and suitable for the control of systems where changes in the
there by improves effective cooling. loading are frequent.
Number of fins - depends on the capacity of evaporator. d) Solenoid Valve - is shut off valve that is actuated by
(v) Plate Surface Evaporator - In this, the coils are an electromagnetic coil when the coil is energized.
welded together at the edges. It is easily clean and Solenoid valve - is installed in the liquid line just a head
defrosted manually. It is used in domestic Refrigerator of the expansion valve. They are used to control the
or freezer. condensing fluid whenever solenoid valve is used in a
(vi) Shell and Tube Evaporator – it consists a steel system, it is essential that the strainer should be
cylindrical shell fitted with a large number of parallel installed ahead of it to prevent the entry of any
tubes. These are used for chilling water or brine. These contaminants.
are mainly two types: e) High Side Float Valve - maintains the liquid level
Flooded shell and tube type evaporator – In this, the constant in a float chamber that is connected to the
fluid to be cooled flows through the tubes and condenser on the high-pressure side.
refrigerant flows over the tubes. (f) Low Side Float Valve - metering device that controls
Non-Flooded shell and tube evaporator - the the flow of a sail on the side of low pressure metering
refrigerant flows inside tubes and evaporates as it valve. It maintains a constant level of liquid in the
abstract heat from the fluid being cooled flows over the evaporator
tubes. In this, the baffles are provided to improve the 4.4 REFRIGERATIONAPPLICATION
heat transfer. 1. Domestic Refrigerator - works on vapour
(vii) Shell and Coil Evaporator – it consists of shell and compression cycle. It is compact and more efficient in
helical coil. The fluid to be cooled enters at the top and use of electric energy. The refrigerant used in this is
leaves the bottom of the shell. The refrigerant flows Freon 12. Its main function is to the space for provide
through the coil. The fluid to be cooled, comes in direct low temperature preservation of food. The domestic
contact with coil. These are used in water cooler and Refrigerator is also used in medical shops, hospitals,
small capacity units ranging from 2 to 10-toncapacity. hotels, offices, laboratories etc.
(viii) Tube - in - Tube Evaporator - These are called as Thermostat - is provided to control the temperature in
double tube evaporators. It consists two concentric the freezer.
Chiller tray - is provided below the freezer to prevent 4.5. REFRIGERATION CYCLE
the accumulation of water drops in the freezer. Ton refrigeration - the standard unit of refrigeration is
The various functions of the components of domestic imply ton denoted by TR. It is to the rate of heat
refrigerator are: transfer needed to produce 1 ton (2000 lbs) of ice at
Compressor - In this, rotary type compressor is used 32°F from water at 32 °F in one day, 1.e., 24 hours.
and is sealed unit. It compresses the refrigerant gas to 144 Btu/lb - the enthalpy of solidification of water from
high pressure and temperature. and at 32F in British thermal unit is. Thus,
Evaporator - The evaporator cools the air in its 1 TR means 200 Btu of heat removal per minute.
surrounding in the cabinet. The convection currents are Refrigeration effect - is an important term in
formed in the cabinet which enable the maintain of refrigeration that defines the amount of cooling
uniform temperature. produced by a system.
Drier - is connected between the receiver and the Coefficient of performance (COP) - is the ratio of the
evaporator to eliminate the traces of moisture, if any. refrigeration effect to energy input.
Accumulator - It is connected between the evaporator Vapour Compression Cycle - is an improved type of air
and compressor, which accumulates liquid droplets of refrigeration cycle in which a suitable working
the refrigerant and prevent the compressor from any substance, termed as refrigerant, is used.
possible damage. The refrigerants generally used for this purpose are
Capillary Tube – it is a throttling devise used in ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and Sulphur-
domestic refrigerator. In this, the pressure equalizes dioxide (SO2).
throughout the system during off- cycle, and hence a Simple Vapour Compression Refrigeration System
low starting torque motor can be used. It consists of the following essential parts:
2. Water Cooler - is a device which is used to cool and Compressor - The low pressure and temperature
supply this water at temperature about 7 to13 C. vapour refrigerant from evaporator is drawn into the
Storage type water cooler - a cooling coil is wrapped compressor through the inlet or suction valve A, where
around the water storage tank and the cold water is it is compressed to a high pressure and temperature.
available always in the tank. This high pressure and temperature vapour refrigerant
Instantaneous water cooler - the cooling coil is are discharged into the condenser through the delivery
wrapped around the pipeline. Water is cooled to or discharge valve B.
desired temperature and reaches the tank. Condenser - The condenser or cooler consists of coils of
3. Ice Plant – it is where ice is made. The ice is produced pipe in which the high pressure and temperature
by natural form and artificial system. vapour refrigerant is cooled and condensed.
Snow - the ice is produced with contact of cold air at The refrigerant, while passing through the condenser,
the peak mountain. gives up its latent heat to the surrounding condensing
Frost - when water freezes on the tree, plant etc. with medium which is normally air or water.
the coldness of air in plant. Receiver - The condensed liquid refrigerant from the
Crystal ice - ice making is to freeze the simple water condenser is stored in a vessel known as receiver from
Compressor - It pumps the refrigerant vapour towards where it is supplied to the evaporator through the
the condenser by which condenser coverts the vapour expansion valve or refrigerant control valve.
into liquid form. Expansion Valve - It is also called throttle valve or
Expansion Coil - It is a direct expansion freezing coils refrigerant control valve. It allows the liquid refrigerant
and the coil is in U form. The refrigerant is circulated in under high pressure and temperature to pass at a
this coil. controlled rate after reducing its pressure and
Liquid Receiver - It is a storage tank which the liquid temperature.
refrigerant from the condenser receives and supplies it Evaporator - consists of coils of pipe in which the liquid-
to evaporator according to the requirement. vapour. refrigerant at low pressure and temperature is
ammonia - is used as primary refrigerant and evaporated and changed into vapour refrigerant at low
brine - as secondary refrigerant. pressure and temperature.
Ammonia - is colorless liquid. It is a combustible or
explosive when mixed with air in certain proportion and AIR-CONDITIONING
much more so when mixed with the oxygen. It is very Air-conditioning is necessary to provide a
toxic and requires heavy steel fittings. controlled atmosphere in buildings where industrial
4. Cold Storage - is a process of preserving perishable process are to be carried out and in private and public
food stuffs on the large scale by refrigeration.
buildings such as offices and cinema halls for human Specific Humidity or Humidity Ratio is defined as
comfort. the ratio of the mass of water vapour to the mass of dry
Humidity of air was to be responsible for air in a given volume of the mixture.
human comfort and number of experiments were Dew Point Temperature If a sample of such
conducted with variable humidity and temperature and unsaturated moist air containing superheated water
it was found that a particular temperature and humidity vapour is cooled (at constant temperature), the mixture
of air was comfortable for large percentage of people. will eventually reach the saturation temperature td of
Air-conditioning is used in industries for efficient water vapour corresponding to its partial pressure pv,
functioning of machines, in cold storage to preserve at which point the first drop of dew will be formed,i.e.,
food products, in textile industry for better product the water vapour in the mixture will start condensing.
quality and pharmaceuticals. Superheated state when the water vapour existing
Air-conditioning is a process by which the at temperature T of the mixture and partial pressure PV
temperature, humidity, flow and purity of the air is of the vapour in the mixture
controlled simultaneously to meet the requirements of
the conditioned space. *Moisture can be removed from humid air by bringing
Control of temperature means maintaining of the air in contact with a cold surface or cooling coil
temperature for human comfort, i.e, it needs increasing whose temperature is below its dew point temperature.
the temperature in winter whereas decreasing the During the process of cooling,the partial pressure pv of
temperature in summer. water vapour and specific humidity remain constant
Control of humidity means increasing or decreasing until the vapour starts condensing.
the moisture content in the air. Degree of Saturation is a measure of the capacity of
Moisture content in the air increases in winter and air to absorb moisture. The ratio of the actual specific
decreases in summer. humidity to the specific humidity of saturated air at
Cleanliness of air means improving the purity of air by temperature T is termed as the degree of saturation.
removing dust and undesirable elements. Saturated air the air containing moisture in such a
Distribution of air means the circulation of pure state
air through the controlled space or room. Relative Humidity is defined as the ratio of the
Psychrometric properties are the properties of mole fraction of water vapour in moist air to mole
moist air fraction of water vapour in saturated air at the same
Psychrometry the subject which deals with the temperature and pressure.
behaviour of moist air Enthalpy of a mixture of perfect gases can be
Moist air is a mixture of dry air and water vapour. obtained by the net summation of the enthalpies of the
They form a binary mixture. respective constituents
Mixture of two substances requires three Enthalpy of the moist air is equal to the
properties to completely define its thermodynamic summation of the enthalpies of dry air and of the water
state vapour associated with the air
Pure substance requires only two properties to Humid Specific Heat It is the specific heat of
completely define its thermodynamic state moist air (1 + ω) kg per kg of dry air
Water vapour is present in the atmosphere at a very Dry bulb thermometer is directly exposed to the air and
low partial pressure. At this low pressure and measures the actual temperature of air and is called dry
atmospheric temperature, the water vapour behaves as bulb temperature
a perfect gas. Wet bulb temperature the temperature which is
Partial pressure of dry air is also below one measured by the wick-covered bulb of such a
atmosphere which may also be considered to behave thermometer indicates the temperature of liquid water
very much as a perfect gas. in the wick. It is an indirect measure of the dryness of
Gibbs-Dalton laws of perfect gas mixture can be air.
applied to the moist air. Wet bulb depression(WBD) the difference between
Since the water vapour part is continuously variable, all the dry bulb and wet bulb temperature
calculations in air conditioning practice are based on the Thermodynamic wet bulb temperature or Adiabatic
dry air part. saturation temperature is The temperature at which
Dry bulb temperature (DBT) the actual temperature the air can be brought to saturation state, adiabatically,
of moist air the total pressure P which is equal to the by the evaporation of water into the flowing air.
barometric pressure is constant.
Extra water or Make-up Water is added to the conditioning system. They deliver any quantity of air
chamber at this temperature to make the water level over greater range of operating pressure. The
constant. centrifugal force produces in it so the air passes rapidly
Adiabatic saturation process when the partial pressure and spread to all sides. Such fan has one or two inlets,
of vapour increases, although the Total pressure of the which fan has only one inlet is called exhauster and
air-vapour mixture remains constant. which have two inlets are called blowers.
Psychrometric Chart consists of summarized data for Duct system conveys the conditioned air from the
the complete thermodynamic and psychrometric air-conditioning system to the space being conditioned
analysis of air-conditioning processes. The chart is and carry the return air from rooms or conditioned
normally constructed for a standard atmospheric space to the air conditioning equipment for
pressure of 760 mm Hg or 1.01325 bar, corresponding reconditioning and recirculation
to the pressure at the mean sea level. Fan has to deliver the required quantity of air
ω-t Chart the chart which is most commonly use. A overcoming the resistance offered by the various
chart which has specific humidity or water vapour components in the air distribution system, such has
pressure along the ordinate and the dry bulb cooling coil / air-washer, filters, supply and return air -
temperature along the abscissa. outlet, dampers and the resistance offered by the duct
Saturation Line represents the states of system.
saturated air at different temperatures. Initial cost depends on the size of the duct. A
Relative humidity is defined as the ratio of the smaller sized duct has low cost. But with a smaller duct
mole fraction of water vapour in moist air to mole the air velocity will increase and so pressure loss due to
fraction of water vapour in saturated air at the same friction also will increase.
temperature and pressure Ducts are defined as the passage way provided for
Relative humidity lines are curved lines and follow the conveying the conditioned air to specified location in
saturation curve order to provide comfort conditions. Smooth surface is
Saturation curve represents the 100% relative desirable for ducts as they offer minimum resistance to
humidity the flow of air. The system should also be air tight so
Constant specific volume lines are obliquely that the conditioned air does not leave out to the space
inclined straight lines and uniformly spaced. These lines not being conditioned.
are drawn up to the saturation curve. Ducts are usually made of Galvanized Iron sheets or
Wet bulb temperature lines are inclined straight aluminum sheets. Ducts are also made with non-
lines and non-uniformly spaced. Any point on the metallic material such as glass fibre,cement asbestos.
saturation curve,the dry bulb and wet bulb Glass fibre ducts are easy to manufacture to the
temperatures are equal. required shape and size. They are used in low velocity
Enthalpy (or total heat) lines are inclined straight applications.
lines and uniformly spaced. These lines are parallel to Cement asbestos ducts used for underground air
the wet bulb temperature lines, and are drawn up to distribution and for exhausting corrosion materials.
the saturation curve. Some of these lines coincide with These are made in circular, rectangular, square cross-
the wet bulb temperature lines also. sections.
Fans and Blowers are used for circulation of air in Circular ducts are preferred because they carry more
Air- Conditioning plants which create positive pressure air in less space
in the air and maintained desired speed and rate in the Rectangular ducts are easier to manufacture and are
desired space or room. preferred for good look
Fan is used to handle small quantity of air Supply air duct carry the conditioned air from
Blower is used to handle large quantity of air. equipment to the space or room to be conditioned
Axial fan are those in which air flows in the direction Return air duct Return duct carry the return air
parallel to impeller shaft. These are used for handling from the space or room to the equipment for
large quantity of air at low pressure. They possess reconditioning or recirculation.
higher efficiency but these are not suitable for duct air Fresh air duct carries the atmospheric air into the air-
conditioning system. conditioned equipment
Centrifugal fan blades are fitted to impeller or rotor Low pressure duct In this, the static pressure is less
that rotates with in spiral casing. In centrifugal fan the than 50 mm of water gauge.
air enters the impeller axially and is charged radially at Medium pressure duct In this, the static pressure is
the periphery. These fans are used for duct air from 50mm to 150 mm water gauge.
High pressure duct In this, the static pressure is ash, dust, and dirt. The return air contains contaminants
from 15Omm to 250 mm of water gauge. such as dust, lint, soot ash etc.
Low velocity duct In this, the velocity of air less Dry filters or mechanical filters are used to remove
than 600 m/min dust particles above certain size. These are constructed
High velocity duct In this, the velocity of air is by fibrous materials such as felt, fabric, cotton, wool, or
more than 600m/ min metallic filters. The air to be cleaned is passed through
Supply air outlets where the conditioned air these filters. The filters trap the dust particles from the
enters the conditioned space. These are designed to air passing through it. The surface area of the filter
distribute air uniformly and prevent noise. should be large to eliminate the pressure drop. To clean
Grill or grill outlets is a perforated covering for an this dust, the plates are taken out and are turned round
air inlet or outlet, and is made of screen. It can be in the opposite direction with any support, in such a
adjustable type which consists of a set of horizontal and way all the dust is cleaned. These filters are not suitable
vertical vanes. In this, the air flow can be controlled to remove smoke and have little effect on small
both in vertical and horizontal directions. particles.
Fixed bar type grilles the vanes are not adjustable, Viscous filters consist of a metal frame which
but they are either straight or inclined at an angle. is filled with wool or fiber, wire screen etc. These
Grills are used in high side wall location. They are not materials are coated with sticky oil which capture and
suitable for ceiling locations as they cause draft holds the dust particles from air that flows through the
conditions. Grilles are provided with various accessories filter. The dust particles must be uniformly distributed
for uniform distribution. throughout the filter area. These filters have a large
Register a combination of a grill and a damper dust holding capacity and require less maintenance.
Slot Diffuser It consists one or more slots and are However, their efficiency. is low and are expensive.
installed in a continuous length. The maximum height of These are suitable for industrial applications where a
outlet is 75 mm with aspect ratio of 25:1. They are used high degree of atmospheric pollution.
in high side wall location or perimeter installation in the Replaceable type filters It is made of cheap material,
floor. They should not be installed in ceiling. discarded after specific period of use.
Ceiling diffusers are mounted in the ceiling. The Manual cleaned type filters It can be cleaned and
most common types are round, square and rectangular reused; Cleaned filters must be coated with viscous oil
diffusers. They consist of series of flaring rings or Automatic or self-cleaned type filters are made in
louvers which form a number of air passages. They may the form of a continuous roll of material coated with oil.
also be fitted with dampers. It is driven by a motor across the airstream. The roll
Perforated ceiling outlets use the confined space passes over the rollers and moves through a trough of
above the ceiling as a supply plenum. The plenum oil and airstream. The oil trough serves the dual
pressure ranges from 0.025 to 3.5mm of water purpose of cleaning the dirt and recoating the filter with
gauge, and flow rates are from 0.3 to 4.5 cub.mm/sq m clean oil.
of floor area. These outlets have perforated face and Wet Filters In this, the air to be conditioned is
deflection aids to discharge air in any desired direction. made wet by water spray. The dust particles in air gain
They are suited to large zones of uniform temperature. additional weight and fall down in the water surnp.
Return air outlets are the openings in 2 room Wet filters are used in industrial area where dust and
space which allow the exhaust air to enter the return smoke particles likely to be present in the air.
duct. Electronic filters are based on the principle of
Return duct may be connected to air conditioning electrostatic on which unlike electrical charges attract
equipment if recirculation is necessary to the one another. The air to be cleaned is passed between
atmosphere if the system is designed for 100 percent parallel plates, one set charged positively and other set
fresh air. They can be mounted on ceiling, walls or floor. of plates negatively charged. The dust particles in the
The selection of outlets depends on the size of the room, air stream acquire positive charge and are attracted to
quantity of air required and discharge velocity of air. the negative charged plates or collector plates. It works
Filters and dust collectors are installed in air- effectively on finer dust particles. It is useful in large
conditioning system to clean the contaminated air. Air installations where adequate safety measures can be
used in an air conditioning system must be filtered to taken because of the high voltage involved.
clean the contaminated air, outside air contains always Sticky adhesive coating is given to collector plates to
contaminants such as bacteria, pollens ,insects, soot, hold the dust particles. These plates must be cleaned
periodically.These are very efficient.
Heating and Cooling Coils are used to increase changed every year and water tank should be cleaned
and decrease the temperature of air respectively. from time to time.
Heating and Cooling of air without changing its moisture Headers have holes through which water trickles down
content is termed as sensible heating and sensible and pass through pads fitted on three sides of the
cooling respectively. cooler. Air sucked through pads from three sides gets
Sensible cooling of air takes place when it flows over cooled.
cooling coil whose surface temperature is lower than Sturdy design air cooler is made of thermoplastic
the temperature of air. The cooling medium may be material having excellent aesthetic appeal and
chilled water or brine as the secondary refrigerant. corrosion free life.
Air conditioning is a process by which the temperature, Four-way Air deflection system this feature enables
humidity, flow and purity of the air are controlled uniform circulation of air by motorized louvers to
simultaneously. Control of these factors depends on the maintain same cool temperature throughout the room.
application to which the air conditioning system is Uniform Water distribution pads water is distributed to
employed. wet the wood wool through a p and valve arrangement
Comfort air conditioning intends to provide a that delivers control is provided which controls water to
comfortable environment for human beings round the the shower pipes. Independent humidifier is provided
year. This involves sensible heat gains during summer to controls quantity of water released on the wood
and sensible heat losses in winter. This further involves wool pads.
dehumidification in summer and relative humidity in Speed control Independent controls for three
the conditioned space is allowed to be reduced during different air speeds. LED indicator is used for indicating
winter. Human beings are comfortable in wide range of power on.
relative humidity varying from 30 to 70%.he Special wood wool pads or Wood wool pads are
temperature range for human comfort is22 to 26.5 C. provided for odorless and fresh cool air.
Industrial air-conditioning or Air conditioning Auto water level controller The air cooler when
for industrial application is different, as well connected by the water inlet to the overhead tank
defined inside conditions are strictly to be maintained maintains the required water level in the tank by the
within permissible limit, otherwise the work to float valve arrangement.
performed suffers. A few applications of industrial Water level indicator: An easy to view water level
applications are computer centers,research laboratories, indicator on the front panel. You can easily check the
control rooms, in power generating stations, operation water level in the tank.
theatres in hospitals, electronic industrial Safe The body is electrical shock proof plastic
establishments etc. material and earthing is provided on the fan motor.
Air Cooler For conditioning the room is also used Air-conditioning system consists of assembly of
instead of air conditioner. These are called as space different component to produce design conditions of air
cooler. within the required space.
Air humidified when quantity of water mixed with dry Summer air-conditioning is used to provide
air and humid air is cold than dry air. In this, quantity of comfort conditions during summer seasons. The
water will be more needed. There is no use of comfort conditions required are 24 C and 60% relative
refrigerant as the air conditioner. humidity, irrespective of outdoor conditions.
Air cooler works on the principle of evaporating cooling. Winter air conditioning the air is heated and
In this, water is used as a cooling medium. The humidified to achieve designed conditions.
temperature of air is decreased by the water when air is Year-round air conditioning this system consists of
brought in contact with water. Water absorbs heat from heating and cooling equipment with automatic control
the air and evaporates. to produce desired conditions irrespective of climatic
Make-up water is added to compensate the loss of conditions.
water due to evaporation. In winter, heating and humidification of air achieved by
Electrical driven pump it pumps the water from the the heating coils and humidifier and cooling is made
bottom tank to the top headers. The cool air is inoperative. The conditioned air is distributed into the
discharged by the motor driven fan into the room or space to be conditioned. In summer, Cooling and
space to be cooled. The direction of air flow can be dehumidification is achieved by a cooling coil whose
adjusted with the help of grills fitted on the discharge DBT is below the dew point temperature of entering
side of the cooler. For better performance pads to be air.In this case heating coil is made inoperative.
The conditioned air circulated through the space to be Window air conditioners are available in sizes up to 2
conditioned. ton capacity. It is employed to condition the air of a
Comfort air conditioning or Human comfort air- given space such as office rooms, salons, bed rooms,
conditioning means to provide the inside conditions drawing offices etc.
which are comfortable to the occupants. Outdoor part This part consists of hermetically
Industrial air-conditioning provides air at required sealed compressor and motor unit,condenser and
temperature and humidity to perform a specific motor driven fan.
industrial process successfully. Indoor part This part consists of a filter,evaporator,
Unitary system all the components of the unit motor driven fan and remote bulb refrigerant control.
air conditioning system are assembled in the factory Hermetically motor sealed motor and compressor unit
itself. The unit air conditioner is usually installed in or The compressor and motor are mounted on the
immediately adjacent to the space to be conditioned. only one shaft and are enclosed in welded dome.
They are preferred for low capacity requirements. Compressor and motor work one same shaft. There is
Central station system In this system, all the major arrangement so that dirt, moisture, etc. cannot enter in
components are located at the central place, away from this. The refrigerant vapour enters directly in to the
the area to be conditioned. The conditioned air is compressor and then goes to the suction tube fixed
supplied to different rooms by ducts. The exhaust air inside. This tube fitted on the top end of the oil bath
can be returned and partly reused. surface. Oil goes to the tube and the compressor starts.
Window Air-Conditioner also called as room air Condenser In this, the refrigerant vapour comes
conditioner, which is installed on the window of a room from compressor and cool with air or
or wall opening. It works on principle of vapour water or both.
compression refrigeration system. The refrigerant used Fan operating motor A single phase capacitor run
is Freon-12 (R -12) or Freon 22(R-22). motor is fixed to operate the condenser fan, outside air
Construction: It consists of steel chassis. In the center of is forced over the condenser coil by this fan.
it, a hermetically sealed compressor motor unit is fitted. Filters are used for purifying air because the air
The Reciprocating type compressor is used in it. A supplied to the conditioned space must be free from all
discharge line, fin and tube type condenser and remote foreign matter such as dirt,fumes and harmful bacteria.
bulb or capillary tubes are fitted at one end and suction Carbon filters absorbs the smell of different gases.
line and fin and tube type evaporator on the opposite Evaporator absorbs heat and liquid refrigerant changes
end.The complete refrigeration system is charged with into vapour. The heat inside the room absorbs by the
Freon-22 refrigerant. refrigerant and room becomes cold. The pressure of
The shaft is fitted on the both side of the sealed motor. vapour refrigerant becomes less and goes towards
A blower is fitted behind the evaporator on one side of compressor.
the motor shaft and on the other end, a fan with water Evaporator absorbs heat and liquid refrigerant changes
splashing ring or belt his fitted behind the condenser. into vapour. The heat inside the room absorbs by the
Evaporator and blower housing are insulated with the refrigerant and room becomes cold. The pressure of
felt. The bottom tray of the evaporator is connected vapour refrigerant becomes less and goes towards
with the condenser by means of rubber tube. An air compressor.
filter is fitted in front of the evaporator for cleaning the Blower driven by single phase motor and used to draw
air. A grill is fitted on the front portion of the air air through the filter and forces it over the evaporator
conditioner in which having provision for changing the coils. The condenser fan and blower may be operated
direction of the air. by the same motor or each may have a separate motor.
Electric motor drives the fan to circulate air through Split type air-conditioner consists the indoor and
condenser coil and runs a blower. outdoor sections. These are separated into two units.
Blower sucks air through the filter and forces it through The distance between the indoor and outdoor units of a
the evaporator coil which cools as well as dehumidifies split air-conditioner should kept as small as possible
the air. The conditioned air is circulated through the otherwise the increase in distance increases the
room or the space to be conditioned. pressure drop in the suction line and liquid line.
Dampers are used for the appropriate air Indoor unit consists of evaporator,blower, air filter,
distribution in the room. It is also provided with grills etc. and is installed inside the room to conditioned.
thermostat to maintain the desired temperature by It may be ceiling suspended, wall mounted or kept on
means of an on-off control of the compressor. floor as console model.
Outdoor unit consists of compressor, air cooled
condenser, fan and is installed outside the room
Packaged air -conditioner is a self-contained unit
with all needed equipment in a single cabinet. This
available up to 20 ton capacity. In this, the evaporator,
condenser, and compressor are all located in one
cabinet. This is usually placed on roof. Air supply and
return ducts come from indoors through the house
exterior wall or roof to connect with the packaged air
conditioner, which is located outdoor. The system is
usually water cooled. It is used in restaurants,
stores,banks, laboratories etc.