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Briefly discuss various sampling techniques used for the collection of sample
from a population, give examples.

The characteristics of sampling techniques should be that it is cheap , saves time , is

reliable,it should be suitable for carrying out different surveys and scientific in nature.
A probability sampling method is any technique of sampling that utilizes some form
of random selection.
Following are some sampling techniques used for collection of sample from a
Simple random sampling.

In this case each individual is chosen entirely by chance and each member of
the population has an equal chance, or probability, of being selected.

Simple Random Sampling (SRS) occurs when every sample of size “n” from a
population of size “N” has an equal chance of being selected.

Following are the advantages of it

Minimal Knowledge of Population needed, external validity ,high Internal

validity ,high statistical estimation of error and easy to analyze data.

EXAMPLE An example of a simple random sample would be the names of 25

employees being chosen out of a hat from a company of 250 employees. In
this case, the population is all 250 employees, and the sample is random
because each employee has an equal chance of being chosen.

Systematic sampling

Systematic sampling is a type of probability sampling method in which sample

members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting
point but with a fixed, periodic interval. This interval, called the sampling
interval, is calculated by dividing the population size by the desired sample

EXAMPLE As a hypothetical example of systematic sampling, assume that in

a population of 10,000 people, a statistician selects every 100th person for
sampling. The sampling intervals can also be systematic, such as choosing a
new sample to draw from every 12 hours.


The Strata are the homogenous subpopulation groups of the population. •

Strata should be internally homogenous. • Strata should be externally
heterogeneous • Strata should be mutually exclusive and collectively
exhaustive such that every population element should be assigned to one and
only one stratum and no population element should be omitted.

EXAMPLE That means each strata sample has the same sampling fraction. If
you have 4 strata with 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 respective sizes and the
research organization selects ½ as sampling fraction. A researcher has to
then select 250, 500, 750, 1000 members from the respective stratum.


It is one of the basic assumption in any sampling procedure that states thats
population can be divided into a finite number of distinct and identifiable units,
called “Sampling Units”.

• The Smallest Unit into which the population can be divided are called

The groups of such elements are called Clusters. CLUSTER RANDOM


EXAMPLE; A researcher wants to survey academic performance of high

school students in Spain. He can divide the entire population (population of
Spain) into different clusters (cities). Then the researcher selects a number of
clusters depending on his research through simple or systematic random


What are the various techniques (methods) one can use to conduct an
effective literature review?
First and foremost we have to figure out the types of literature review.
There are many different ways we can conducts effective literature review

The first method or technique I will be sharing is methodological review. It includes

those of theory, substantive fields, research approaches, and data collection and
analysis techniques

The second technique would be systemic review in which we map out and
categorize existing literature from which to commission further reviews and primary
research by identifying gaps in research literature.It may or may not include quality
assessment. It is typically narrative and the analysis may be
chronological,conceptual or thematic.

There are many other ways to write a literature review like meta analysis, qualitative
systematic review or qualitative evidence synthesis.
Integrative review, historical review and theoretical review.


Education serves as a basis for the mind of young people in our society.The
teachers, students and parents make a system where learning is the main focus for
a child.Teachers believe that a child's ability is inherited by their parents(.
Arcidiacono et al.,2015).A growing body of research suggests that a positive school
climate and Principal leadership are pivotal to building parent-school partnerships
and supporting parent engagement in child learning more generally.(R.A. Bjork et al.,
2013)Apart from that there was a noticeable difference in mind growth between
children who enjoyed reading than those who don't.(P.A. Alexander et al.,2011)It is
very important for the child to enjoy the process of learning.Pre-service teachers’
belief systems regarding the self-regulation of learning were investigated from a
conceptual change perspective.(S. Grant et al., 2008)Conceptual change research
examines the learning that takes place when individuals are exposed to new
information that requires substantial revision of prior knowledge.Self-regulation leads
to learning characterise students as active agents, capable of setting goals for
themselves and modifying their behaviours to achieve these goals. From this point of
view, student learning and achievement is determined to a substantial extent by the
actions that students take to regulate their learning.
Apart from all that there is a major issue of peer pressure that is instilled in pupils'
brains.(J.H. Borland et al.,)It is to determine the relation between student
performance and centrality in a peer network, when the quality of the student
network (i.e., the peer performance) is taken into account.How they function under
pressure is all taken under notice.There are many other issues that come to educate
and all problems must be kept under mind when introducing a system.


1:P. Arcidiacono, S. Nicholson
Peer effects in school
Journal of Public Economics, 89 (2) (2005), pp. 327-350

2:R.A. Bjork, J. Dunlosky, N. Kornell

Self-regulated learning: Beliefs, techniques, and illusions
Annual Review of Psychology, 64 (2013), pp. 417-444

P.A. Alexander, E. Fox
Adolescents as readers
M.L. Kamil, P.D. Pearson, E.B. Moje, P.P. Afflerbach (Eds.), Handbook of Reading
research, Routledge, New York, NY (2011), pp. 157-176

4:J. Baker, S. Grant, L. Morlock

The teacher–student relationship as a developmental context for children with
internalizing or externalizing behavior problems
School Psychology Quarterly, 23 (1) (2008), pp. 3-15

J.H. Borland, L. Wright
Identifying Young, Potentially Gifted, Economically Disadvantaged Students
Gifted Child Quarterly, 38 (4) (1994), pp. 164-171