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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ

ДОНЕЦКОЙ НАРОДНОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКИ


ГОУ ВПО «Донецкий национальный университет»
Факультет иностранных языков
Кафедра теории и практики перевода

И. М. Подгайская

Практикум по анализу научных


и публицистических текстов

I. Podgaiskaya

Practice in Text Analysis:


Scientific and Publicistic Texts

Учебное пособие

для студентов направления подготовки


45.04.02 Лингвистика, магистерская программа «Теория перевода и
межкультурная коммуникация (английский язык)»,
специальности 45.05.01 «Перевод и переводоведение»

Донецк 2019
УДК 811.111’255.2(075.8)
ББК Ш12=432.1*9*50я73
П441

Рекомендовано к изданию Ученым советом


ГОУ ВПО «Донецкий национальный университет»
(протокол № 3 от 02.04.2019)

Подгайская И. М.
Практикум по анализу научных и публицистических текстов =
Practice in Text Analysis: Scientific and Publicistic Texts: учебное
пособие для студентов направления подготовки 45.04.02
Лингвистика, специальности 45.05.01 Перевод и переводоведение /
Авт.-сост. И. М. Подгайская. – Донецк: ДонНУ, 2019. – 108 с. – на
англ. яз.

Рецензенты:
Тымчук Е. В., доктор филологических наук, доцент, профессор
кафедры иностранных языков № 1 ФГБОУ ВО «Кубанский
государственный технологический университет»
Воеводина А. В., кандидат филологических наук, заведующая
кафедрой языковой подготовки ГОУ ВПО «Донбасская юридическая
академия»

Учебное пособие направлено на формирование и развитие навыков анализа


аутентичного научного и публицистического текста как целостного
произведения, созданного с учетом традиций и норм иноязычной культуры, на
основе лингвостилистического и текстлингвистического анализа текста.
Рекомендуется для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов
направления подготовки 45.04.02 Лингвистика, магистерская программа
«Теория перевода и межкультурная коммуникация (английский язык)»,
специальности 45.05.01 «Перевод и переводоведение»

УДК 811.111’255.2(075.8)
ББК Ш12=432.1*9*50я73

© Подгайская И. М., 2019


© ГОУ ВПО «Донецкий национальный
университет», 2019
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Основной целью пособия «Анализ научного и публицистиче-


ского текста» является формирование и развитие у студентов навы-
ков анализа текста как целостного произведения, созданного с уче-
том традиций и норм иноязычной культуры, на основе лингвостили-
стического и текстлингвистического анализа текста. В пособии пред-
ставлены аутентичные тексты двух функциональных стилей совре-
менного английского языка – научного и публицистического.
Учебное пособие может использоваться как для аудиторной,
так и для самостоятельной работы студентов в процессе подготовки к
лабораторным занятиям, модульному контролю и зачёту.
Пособие включает три части. В первой – вводной – части
(Introductory Notes) описана последовательность процедуры анализа
текста, которая предполагает интегрированный подход к тексту,
объединяющий традиционный лингвостилистический анализ текста
и анализ текста с точки зрения основных текстовых категорий.
Вторая часть Scientific Prose Style и третья часть Publicistic
Style посвящены анализу научных и публицистических текстов со-
ответственно. Эти части структурированы одинаково и включают не-
сколько разделов. В первом разделе каждой части изложены теоре-
тические основы анализа текста рассматриваемого функциональ-
ного стиля. Такие разделы завершаются вопросами для само-
контроля. В последующих разделах даны конкретные тексты для
анализа. К каждому тексту предложены вопросы для проверки по-
нимания содержания текста и разработаны задания для лингвости-
листического и текстлингвистического анализа.
Приложения имеют справочный характер и призваны помочь
студентам в процессе самостоятельной работы при подготовке к
аудиторным занятиям. В Приложении А содержится информация об
основных категориях текста. В Приложении Б дан краткий перечень
основных стилистических приемов английского языка.
Овладение материалом пособия способствует расширению
лингвистического кругозора студентов, необходимого для осуществ-
ления их профессиональной деятельности и подготовки выпускной
квалификационной работы.
Учебное пособие рекомендуется для студентов направления
подготовки 45.04.02 Лингвистика, магистерская программа «Теория
перевода и межкультурная коммуникация (английский язык)»,
специальности 45.05.01 «Перевод и переводоведение».
3
CONTENTS

Introductory Notes……………………………………………………. 6

Part One. SCIENTIFIC PROSE STYLE………………………….. 8

Unit 1. Linguostylistic, Paralinguistic and Textlinguistic


Peculiarities of a Scientific Text…………………………………... 8
1. General Notes……………………………………………………. 8
2. Lexical-grammatical Peculiarities of a Scientific Text…….. 9
3. Rhetorical Organization of a Scientific Text…………………. 15
4. Paralinguistic Peculiarities of a Scientific Text…………….. 17
5. Text Categories in a Scientific Text…………………………… 18
Check Yourself Issues……………………………………………………. 21
Unit 2. Steven Pinker. An Instinct to Acquire an Art ………. 24
1. Text Comprehension Questions……………………………….. 28
2. Assignments for Text Analysis………………………………… 29
Unit 3. Peter Stockwell. Conceptual Dependency……………. 33
1. Text Comprehension Questions……………………………….. 35
2. Assignments for Text Analysis………………………………… 35
Unit 4. Henry Widdowson. The Relevance of Linguistics...... 39
1. Text Comprehension Questions……………………………….. 42
2. Assignments for Text Analysis………………………………… 43

Part Two. PUBLICISTIC STYLE………………………………….. 46

Unit 1. Linguostylistic peculiarities of a publicistic text…... 46


1. General Notes…………………………………………………….. 46
2. Lexical-grammatical and Stylistic Features of Oratory……. 47
Check yourself issues ……………………………………………………. 48
Unit 2. Benjamin Disraeli. Conservative Principles…………. 50
1. Text Comprehension Questions……………………………….. 55
2. Assignments for Text Analysis………………………………… 55
Unit 3. Winston Churchill. Blood, toil, tears and sweat…...... 58
1. Text Comprehension Questions……………………………….. 62
2. Assignments for Text Analysis………………………………… 63

4
Unit 4. John F. Kennedy. Inaugural Address …………………. 65
1. Text Comprehension Questions……………………………….. 71
2. Assignments for Text Analysis………………………………… 72
Unit 5. Martin Luther King. I Have a Dream ………………….. 75
1. Text Comprehension Questions……………………………….. 80
2. Assignments for Text Analysis………………………………… 81
Supplement A. Main Categories of the Text…………………… 85
Supplement B. Stylistic Devices…………………………………… 90
Literature………………………………………………………………… 106

5
Introductory notes

INTRODUCTORY NOTES
The course of text analysis is aimed at developing students’ skills
of professional reading, understanding and interpreting authentic texts
belonging to different functional styles. Analysis of the text is based on
an integrated approach to the text which combines a traditional
linguostylistic analysis, mainly focusing on linguistic peculiarities of the
text predetermined by its style and genre, and a textlinguistic analysis
dealing with the text as an integral communicative unit.

An outline of text analysis

To carry out the integrated analysis of the text it is recommended


that students should do the tasks offered below:

1. Read the text thoroughly for the gist of it.


2. Look up information about the author. Knowledge of facts of
the author’s life, work, views will supply you with the information that
can be most helpful in your better understanding of the text.
3. Decide what functional style the text belongs to. As each
functional style has its own goals and expressive means, the knowledge
of these will facilitate the understanding of the text. Make a conclusion
concerning the genre of the text under consideration.
4. Read the text a second time for the full comprehension of it.
5. Formulate the main concern of the text, characterize the type
of information the text conveys and the author’s attitude towards it.
6. Analyse the arrangement (layout) of the information conveyed
(the division into physical and logical paragraphs).
7. Write a summary of the text, presenting in brief the most
essential factual information.
8. Dwell upon the most salient linguostylistic features of the text
in question, including lexical, morphological, syntactic and
paralinguistic (if any) ones.
Note: All language levels are relevant in a text. The most
expressive and meaningful is the lexical level. It is the word which
renders the author’s message in the most conspicuous way by being
deliberately foregrounded either explicitly or implicitly. Repeated
lexical units, thematic and key words, favourite words, artistic detail,

6
Introductory notes

lexical stylistic devices should be given special and careful consider-


ation.
The syntactic level involves sentence length, sentence structure
and syntactic stylistic devices. The syntax of different types of narrative
should be regarded separately.
The phonemic and morphemic levels should not be ignored as
they can be foregrounded and can offer clues to understanding the
concept of the text.
9. Comment upon linguostylistic peculiarities of a headline and
subheadings (if any). In all functional styles this text element fulfils a
very special task: it frames the text and conveys its concept in the most
condensed way.
10. Analyse the text in terms of textlinguistic categories focusing
on such important text categories as informativity, presupposition,
pragmatics and cohesion turning, first of all, to various lexical means of
cohesion which contribute to the logical-semantic wholeness of a text.
11. Compose and write a coherent essay summing up your
observations on the linguostylistic and textlinguistic peculiarities of the
text under study.

7
Scientific prose style

Part One
SCIENTIFIC PROSE STYLE
Unit 1
LINGUOSTYLISTIC, PARALINGUISTIC AND TEXTLINGUISTIC
PECULIARITIES OF A SCIENTIFIC TEXT1

1. General Notes

The language used in texts belonging to different branches of


knowledge, both sciences and humanities 2), is considered to be one of
the major functional varieties of Modern English which is generally
referred to as scientific functional style or scientific prose style.
Like any functional style of a literary language scientific prose
style is characterised by the following extralinguistic styleforming
factors:
 a certain functional-communicative aim,
 a form of cognition of objective reality underlying it,
 a certain sphere of application.
The scientific functional style aims at transmitting (passing on) a
certain amount of scientifically relevant information in an objective,
logically consistent, precisely formulated, matter-of-fact way.
The form of perceiving and knowing the world and its internal
laws underlying the language of science is the process of scientific
cognition on the basis of analysis and generalization of different
phenomena of reality.
The sphere of application of scientific functional style is scientific
and academic communication, both, written (different kinds of scientific
publications) and oral ones (presentations of scientific information in
public at conferences, symposia, congresses, lectures at Universities,
etc.).
1 Аналітичне читання художнього, газетного і наукового текстів /
С. Т. Богатирьова та ін.. ; Донецький нац. ун-т, ф-т інозем. мов. – Донецьк :
ДонНУ, 2011. – с. 146-162.
2)
Mind that the Russian word науки may refer both to science subjects such
as chemistry, biology, physics, etc. and to humanities subjects such as history,
literature, philosophy, linguistics, etc., while in English there are two different
words: sciences vs humanities.

8
Scientific prose style

The requirements of objectivity, precision and logical consistency


result in quite a definite range of language means typical of this
functional style which tend to be devoid of any implicit, indirect,
allegorical modes of expression, and are characterized by striving for
stereotype, clichéd, i.e. regularly reproduced forms of conveying
information in order to avoid ambiguity and misunderstanding.
This predetermines general linguostylistic peculiarities of a
scientific text on all levels of its lingual structure, namely, lexical,
morphological, syntactical ones. Besides, certain paralinguistic features
of a scientific text also result from the above mentioned factors.
The functional style of scientific prose is characterized by its own
genre specificity which appears to be one of its most noticeable
differential features. Among the most important genres of scientific
style are a monograph, a journal article, a thesis and its synopsis, a
review, a paper presentation (at a conference).

2. Lexical-grammatical peculiarities of a scientific text

Lexical features of a scientific text


It has been shown by numerous investigations in the field that the
vocabulary of a scientific text comprises the following three lexical
strata (layers):
1) terminological layer;
2) general scientific layer;
3) general literary language units.
1. Terminological layer is the most conspicuous layer in the
vocabulary of a scientific text, and it comprises the following three
subgroups of terms: 1) special terminology, 2) general scientific
terminology, 3) consubstantial terminology.
Special terminology. Though special terms, i.e. terms belonging
to this or that branch of knowledge seem to be the most salient feature
of a scientific text, they constitute only 20% of the lexical units of a ST.
The majority of special terms are expressed by nouns, that is why
special terminology is said to be mostly nominal in character.
Nevertheless, verbs, adjectives can also be used as special
terminological units. Special terminology is characterized by a tendency
to make up certain derivational series comprising different parts of
speech with the same root-morpheme: e.g. to absorb (v.), absorption (n.),
9
Scientific prose style

absorbable, absorptive (adj.).


Special terminology can be expressed both by individual
terminological lexemes, e.g. laser, velocity, plasma, and terminological
word-combinations, as well, e.g. laser pulse, phase velocity, active
plasma medium, etc.
General scientific terminology, i.e. terms, denoting the most
general notions of all sciences and humanities, are found in any
scientific text irrespective of a branch of knowledge they refer to, e.g.
system, structure, process, hierarchy, correlation etc.
Consubstantial terminology is a specific group of terms within
a scientific text which by their graphic and sound form coincide with
corresponding words of general literary language, but they function in a
scientific text as either 1) special terms, e.g. linguistic terms: rhythm,
melody, sound, speech, physical terms: pulse, speed, field, or as
2) general scientific terms, e.g. feature, variant, pattern, level, etc.
2. General scientific layer, first and foremost, diagnoses a text
as a scientific one, as the amount of its units in the vocabulary of a
scientific text is much greater than that of special terminology. General
scientific units constitute 60% in the vocabulary of a scientific text and
are characterised by:
 their obvious distinction from special terms, as they are found in
different texts belonging to different branches of science;
 their regular reproductivity as ready-made units in different
scientific and humanities texts;
 specific general scientific meaning different from that in general
literary language, e.g. the noun look denoting an optical process in
general literary language acquires quite a different general scientific
meaning within a scientific text, e.g. in to have a close look at smth., the
noun look is used to denote a mental process. In to draw a comparison
between smth., to draw a conclusion the verb to draw is used to denote
mental, intellective operations, too.
General scientific units can be expressed by:
1) individual lexemes, functioning as adverbial connectors of
various semantics, among them:
 parentheses, e.g. nevertheless, thus, hence, anyhow, indeed, etc.;
 conjunctions, e.g. but, while, whereas, whereby, etc.;
 adverbs, e.g. similarly, respectively, consequently, etc.
10
Scientific prose style

2) word-combinations, or word-groups of various


character:
 verbal word-combinations: to draw a conclusion, to focus on
smth, to be concerned with smth, etc.;
 substantive word-combinations: the literature on the subject, a
close correlation between smth, the problem under consideration, etc.;
 adjectival word-combinations: finely graded, clearly marked, etc.
3) predicative polylexemic units, i.e. syntagmatic units which
be extracted from the text as ready-made segments of sentences, and
thus possess a Subject + Predicate structure, e.g. It would be more
accurate to say that … ; a good example of this is … ; we can all
recognize that … ; this is not merely a question of … but that of …, etc.
3. Units of general literary language are found in any
functional style, among them:
 functional words – auxiliaries, modal and link verbs, articles,
prepositions, conjunctions;
 words of general use, e.g. verbs of saying, thinking, etc.
Since the main function of the language of science is that of
intellective communication, the general mode of scientific reasoning is
unemotional, generalized, devoid of the author’s stylistic idiosyncrasy.
Hence the following general features of scientific vocabulary:
1. Words are mainly used in their direct nominative, not
transferred meanings to ensure the adequate perception of scientific
information. Hence a very important feature of scientific vocabulary –
its stylistic neutrality.
2. Alongside stylistically neutral lexical units, bookish words of
Greek, Latin or French origin are also used as part and parcel of a
scientific text vocabulary. They are found both, within special and
general scientific terminology, on the one hand, e.g. amplification,
acceleration, method, analysis and in the general scientific stratum, on
the other, e.g. heterogeneous, simultaneous, hierarchy, milieu, etc.
But it does not mean to say that stylistic neutrality ousts
expressivity and stylistic imagery from a ST altogether. Means of
expressivity are not entirely excluded, but they are of a specific
character:
1) quantitative expressivity predominates in a scientific text
and is often conveyed by:
11
Scientific prose style

 adjectives in the Comparative or Superlative Degrees, e.g. much


more numerous, finer differences, the most obvious distinctions, etc.;
 emphatic and limiting adverbs and particles: very, merely,
simply, really, far (more), mainly, mostly, exactly, entirely, e.g. really
effective, very far from conservative, much the same, etc.;
2) metaphorical and metonymical imagery which is found in
general scientific layer of the scientific vocabulary is mostly trite, e.g.
to cast (throw) light on smth., to bear in mind, to draw a parallel, to
exhaust a problem, the untrained ear, etc. All these units are
traditionally used in a scientific text as stereotype, clichéd expressions.
Metaphorical imagery may also serve as a basis for creating new
terms in different scientific areas, e.g. in medicine Adam’s apple, in
electronics a black box, in linguistics an empty morph, etc.
Rather a rare use of genuine imagery in a scientific text should be
treated as the manifestation of the author’s stylistic individuality.
3) expressivity can take a form of subjective modal evaluation,
as in expressions of certainty/doubt, possibility/impossibility,
necessity/absence of necessity, usefulness/futility, e.g. there can be no
doubt whatsoever that …, it is hardly acceptable that…, it is worth
noting that …, it will be futile to …, it is quite possible to assume that…;
4) expressivity can be also presented by certain emotive
lexemes, i.e. words with inherent expressive-evaluative connotations,
e.g. It should be emphasized that …, the most interesting thing about
it is that …, one of the striking peculiarities of … is …, etc.
However varied means of expressivity in the vocabulary of a
scientific text may be, they never aim at rousing the reader’s aesthetic
feelings. They are used to favour the cogency of scientific reasoning and
to facilitate eliciting scientific information, otherwise stated, they
directly serve the main functional-communicative aim of the scientific
functional style.

Morphological peculiarities of a scientific text


Morphological features of scientific English similarly to lexical
ones result from general impersonality and stereotypeness of expression
in a scientific text. While analysing the text it is necessary that we
should take into account the following morphological peculiarities
typical of English scientific writings:

12
Scientific prose style

1. One of widely-quoted stereotypes of scientific English grammar


is an extensive use of Passive Voice constructions which can be
regarded as a helpful way of ensuring objectivity and generalization in
presenting scientific facts and ideas.
It should be noted that impersonal Passive Voice constructions
with the verbs suppose, assume, infer, point out, etc., as in It can be
inferred, It must be emphasized are also frequently used.
2. A concern for objectivity and generalization also results in a
wide use of impersonal constructions with the pronoun one, as in
one may assume, one can really see, one cannot help noticing, etc.
3. The use of the personal pronoun of the 1st person plural
we can also be selected as an example of a generalized form of
expression in scientific writings. It serves to reflect a joint, collective
nature of scientific research, on the one hand, but it can also aim at
involving the specialist reader into the process of scientific reasoning
and demonstration, on the other. It is sometimes regarded as a means
of “the author’s modesty”.
4. The prevalence of present tense-forms of the verb in
scientific reasoning, mostly the Present Indefinite or the Present
Perfect, e.g. Here we consider the case of exact resonance, Organic
geochemical procedures and contamination controls have been developed
to be applied to the samples containing minute amounts of organic
compounds.
5. Rather an extensive use of various Subjunctive Mood
forms as means of making scientific statements, assumptions,
inferences sound less straightforward, e.g. If this were done for each
parameter, the resulting normal equations would be nearly diagonal …
and the convergence of the least-squares process would be accelerated, It
would be more accurate to say that diffraction is not the only influence
which limits the performance of a spectrometer.
6. Another fairly typical feature of scientific English is a
frequent use of non-finite forms (Infinitive, Participle, Gerund) in
different syntactic functions within a sentence and within certain
predicative complexes, especially, Subjective-with-the-Infinitive,
Objective-with-the-Infinitive, Absolute Participial Construction, e.g.
The electrisation of bodies is expected to be given account of in terms of
atomic structure. The equation seems to hold only for symmetrical
13
Scientific prose style

molecules. The existing data being limited, no definite conclusions could


be made.

Syntactic peculiarities of a scientific text


The language of science has developed a complex, extended
syntactic structure, as it tends to integrate several relevant issues into
a single statement. The following syntactic features of a scientific text
should be given special attention to:
1. The overwhelming majority of sentences in a scientific text are
complex ones, often comprising a number of different subordinate
clauses, because logical unfolding of scientific reasoning in a scientific
text simply requires the use of that, because, as, if, but, although, etc.
clauses.
2. The relations between words within a sentence and between
clauses and sentences are often made explicit through the abundant use
of various conjunctions, conjunctive words and parentheses.
Double correlative conjunctions are also fairly typical of scientific
writing, e.g. not merely… but also, whether … or, both … and, as … as,
etc. It will not be an exaggeration to say that in no other functional
style do we find such a developed and varied system of connectives as in
scientific prose.
3. Simple sentences, both unextended and extended ones, are
not numerous, but the very compactness of their structure brings out
their informative significance against the background of the structural
complexity of the rest of the sentences.
4. The necessity to present scientific information in an as
complete and detailed way as possible gives rise to a wide use of
different types of attributes, both prepositive and postpositive ones,
among them prepositive attributive groups comprising strings of
nouns of the type N+N+…+N, e.g. world-population-growth rate,
shock-wave-velocity measurement, anti-aircraft-fire-control systems.
Many nouns are modified by attributive Participial, Gerundial
or Infinitive constructions for the same reason, e.g. The first effect to
consider in solving the problem is the additional heat. The aim of this
paper is to find a proper value for the indices involved. The mere fact of
there being a written constitution in the USA does not mean by itself the
solution of the problem.

14
Scientific prose style

5. The word-order on the sentence level is mostly direct, though


there are cases of grammatical inversion which serves as a means of
cohesion with the above-said, e.g. Between the receptor and the
connector stands an intermediate set of elements.
6. The unusual word-order of some adjectives or adverbs is
observed in certain syntactic constructions where it is used for emphatic
purposes:
 However + Adj / Adv + S + P…, e.g. However often we may
observe pieces of gold to dissolve, we must still allow it to be possible
that…;
 Adj + as + S + P…, e.g. Impressive as these objections appear,
when all collected together, they would nevertheless seem to be answered
by the formulation of Mach’s principle;
 the emphatic construction It is… that…, e.g. It is this vibration
that reemits the light by which we see the objects around us;
 points of contrast or similarity are rhetorically balanced by such
syntactic devices as the more … the less, the bigger … the smaller,
the more … the more, e.g. The more daring any particular judgement
happens to be, the less it is likely to constitute reliable evidence of
international law.
7. One of the most important syntactic features of scientific
English is the logical sequence of utterances which finds its
expression in the way a scientific text itself is structured. Any scientific
text is visually manageable due to its orderly division into paragraphs
ranging in length rather widely. Paragraphs fit together well due to a
developed system of sentence-connecting items, so that they form a
united logical-semantic whole. Most paragraphs begin with a general
thematic point, and later sentences elaborate. The theme of the next
paragraph then derives from the previous one’s elaboration. Many
sentences have a cross-reference back to a previous sentence or clause.
This makes it clear that a given subject is still being discussed, which
reduces the scope of vagueness.
3. Rhetorical Organization of a Scientific Text
A scientific text is characterized by certain rhetorical organization
which finds its expression in the use of various rhetorical patterns,
i.e. functionally significant syntagmatic sequences expressed by general

15
Scientific prose style

scientific units and closely associated with certain reasoning processes


of scientific communication. Rhetorical patterns have been worked out
by the language of science as the optimum stereotype forms of
expression which serve to reflect certain recurrent types of content, on
the one hand, and certain compositional stereotypes of a scientific text,
on the other.
The following two main types of traditionally used rhetorical
patterns can be distinguished in a scientific text:
 those concerned with certain stages and procedures of scientific
cognition as such;
 those pertaining to the structural-compositional arrangement of
a scientific text.
Rhetorical patterns connected with the process of scientific
cognition comprise rhetorical patterns of definition, classification,
generalization, experiment description, formulating a
hypothesis and others.
Structural-compositional rhetorical patterns are expressed by
general scientific units which serve as scientific text organizers for
ordering and arranging different parts of scientific reasoning:
 aims and purposes, e.g. we shall consider briefly (in detail) the
problem of…; this book is meant to show…; what we are aiming at is…;
 generally recognized facts, e.g. it is common knowledge
…that… ; it is generally believed that…; it is commonly held that…;
 beginning of reasoning, e.g. we shall begin by saying that…;
we will begin with a brief consideration of…; the first point to be made is …;
 connection with the above said, e.g. as has been already
pointed out …; it has already been stated above …; we began by saying
that …; so far we have considered only …;
 transition to the ensuing part of reasoning, e.g. we shall
now proceed to show…; it follows from what has been said that…; the
next point to be made is that…; we now move to…; let us now consider…;
 adding on information, e.g. it should be added in this
connection that…; it requires an additional remark…; in addition it may
be useful (necessary) to…;
 digression, returning to the above said, e.g. here a
digression is called for…; to see the point we must go back to…; it brings
us back to…;
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Scientific prose style

 specification of information, e.g. by this we mean (don’t mean)


that…; this is not to say that…; in other words…; to clarify the point…;
 drawing conclusions, e.g. we may now summarize… by saying
that…; it enables us to make a conclusion that…; in conclusion we would
like to say that…;
 bringing out the most important points, e.g. we should lay
special emphasis on…; it should be borne in mind that…; it is noteworthy
that…; it is worth pointing out that…; it seems essential to emphasize
that…;
 exemplification, e.g. this may serve as a good illustration of…;
here are some examples of…; two or three examples will suffice to show
that…;
 expression of certainty, e.g. it can hardly be doubted that…;
it goes without saying that …; we have every reason to believe that …;
 expression of doubt, e.g. it is doubtful that…; it is hardly
acceptable…; there is no reason to think that …;
 expression of possibility/impossibility, e.g. it is quite
possible that…; we are now in a position to show …; it is easy enough to
show…; it would be no less erroneous to believe that …;
 expression of necessity/absence of necessity, e.g. it is
necessary to …; we find it necessary to …; it is pointless to state that …;
 expression of desirability, usefulness, e.g. it would be most
helpful to begin with…; it seems worthwhile to remind that….
The rhetorical patterns of both types are regularly correlated with
certain lexical units which serve as their direct markers, e.g. it is
common knowledge …; it is a matter of common observation…; we
would like to focus on …; this book is intended to show …; as has
been explained above …; a further point to be made …; to clarify
the point; by this we mean to say that…, etc.

4. Paralinguistic peculiarities of a scientific text

The informativity of a scientific text is created not only by purely


verbal means, but also by paralinguistic ones. Here belong certain
semiotic devices used as bearers of additional scientific information in
such branches of knowledge as mathematics, physics and chemistry.
For example, in physics and mathematics the following symbols are
used on a par with verbal means of conveying information: figures,
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Scientific prose style

letter designations: e.g. ∫ – integral, d – differential, υ – velocity, c –


the speed of light; signs of the four arithmetic operations: + , – , : ,
× ; in chemistry: symbols of the periodic system of elements and
others.
Graphs, pictures, drawings, figures and diagrams can serve
as visual means of presenting scientific information, as well.

5. Text Categories in a Scientific Text

Since the main functional-communicative aim of a scientific text is


that of conveying purely intellective information, the category of
informativity is confined to the factual information only.
Like in any functional variety of the language the volume of the
factual information in a scientific text can be widened at the expense of
some facts relevant in terms of another textlinguistic category, that of
presupposition. As any scientific or humanities text is addressed to
the specialist reader, the category of presupposition finds specific forms
of expression, namely, through references, foot-notes and quotations.
The volume of the scientific information conveyed can be
considerably enlarged by the use of in-text references. These
sometimes may occupy as much as half a page when some sources are
quoted or paraphrased. In some specimens of scientific prose references
are placed at the back of the book and shaped as an appendix. In that
case reference numbers will be found in the body of the book.
References have a definite compositional pattern, namely, the
name of the writer referred to, the title of the work quoted or simply
referred to, the place and the year it is published, the name of the
publishing house, the page of the excerpt referred to or quoted.
Another feature of scientific prose which makes it distinguishable
from other functional styles is a frequent use of footnotes, not of a
reference kind, but digressive in character. Foot-notes do not merely
refer us to some authors and their books, but they clarify some facts or
notions dwelling upon them not within the text, as it can interrupt the
smooth flow of the author’s thought, but they are usually placed at the
bottom of a page.
In terms of the category of segmentability the structure of a
scientific text can be described through two basic units of its logical-

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Scientific prose style

semantic divisibility – physical and logical (or conceptual)


paragraphs.
The logical paragraph within a scientific text may coincide with
the corresponding physical paragraph marked on a page by spacing or
indentation. But more often than not, the size of the logical paragraph
extends across the boundaries of more than one physical paragraph, as
several physical paragraphs may be united and held together by some
common idea. So, the logical paragraph can be considered the main unit
of the logical-semantic structure of a scientific text as an integral
structural-semantic whole.
The Category of Cohesion in a Scientific Text. It is generally
held that among various means of text cohesion it is lexical means of
cohesion that, first and foremost, contribute to the logical-semantic
integrity of the text, as they appear to be the most explicitly expressed
means of cohesion which facilitate the identification and the
establishment of logical-semantic links between different
informationally significant parts of a text.
It is also common knowledge that the lexical cohesion of any text
finds its expression in:
 the recurrence of key-words which reflect the most important
content points of a text;
 the use of words pertaining to certain lexical-semantic groups
united by some common notions;
 the use of words and word-combinations making up certain
thematic groups on the basis of common underlying notions;
 the use of words logically associated with the key-words;
 the use of synonyms proper and contextual ones;
 the use of antonyms, both antonyms proper and contextual ones;
 the use of words built up by some common word-building
elements (derivatives, compounds, conversion pairs, etc.).
But it should be specially stressed that a scientific text is
characterized by one more means of lexical cohesion inherent only in
this functional variety of language and very important from the point of
view of explicit logico-semantic integration of different parts of a
scientific text. These linking devices can be referred to as coheremes
which function as certain discourse markers to ensure that a scientific

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Scientific prose style

text is coherent and cohesive.


Coheremes can be grouped according to their usual functions in a
scientific text into:
 coheremes of immediate linear joining which reflect the
progressive development of the author’s reasoning;
 coheremes of deictic character based on the close
association between an antecedent, i.e. the primary designation of
something in a text, and a means of its secondary nomination.
As far as coheremes of immediate linear joining are
concerned, they can be expressed by certain ‘guide words’ and ‘guide
word-groups’ which serve:
 to sequence ideas, e.g. firstly, secondly, finally, first of all,
next, lastly;
 to express contrast, e.g. but, however, nevertheless, yet, in
spite of, as distinct from;
 to state results, e.g. thus, as a result, consequently, therefore,
hence;
 to provide reasons, e.g. in order to…, so as not to…, so that…,
the reason for this is…;
 to add further support, e.g. besides, furthermore, moreover, in
addition;
 to generalize the above said, e.g. in brief, in a word,
generally speaking;
 to express similarity, e.g. similarly, likewise, in the same way,
on analogy.
Some coheremes of immediate linear joining are directly
correlated with their counterparts among structural-compositional
rhetorical patterns, the former serving as means of lexical cohesion, the
latter used as traditional formulae of scientific speech, e.g. we shall
begin by saying that…; another point to be made is…; from this we can
conclude that…; it is a matter of common observation that… .
The sum total of coheremes of immediate linear joining expressed
both by guide words and guide word-groups forms the logico-semantic
network of a scientific text, which ensures proper and complete
comprehension of the scientific information conveyed.
As for coheremes of deictic character, they are closely
connected with the process of secondary nomination of something
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Scientific prose style

mentioned in the previous part of a scientific text.


The nomenclature of deictic coheremes is presented by:
 some guide words and guide word-groups, which in a
compressed form, correlate the above said (i.e. the antecedent) with its
secondary designation, e.g. the former, the latter, the above-mentioned,
the above example, etc.
 nouns of broad semantics, which in a generalized form, refer the
reader to the antecedent which they replace, among them the nouns:
thing, problem, picture, phenomenon, practice, theory,
procedure, case, question, approach, etc., e.g. This is not merely a
question of…, but…, as long as this legal theory is maintained, there
seems to be little difficulty in maintaining the distinction between the
two approaches to the problem in question.
The characteristic features of the language of science described
above do not cover all the peculiarities of the functional style of
scientific prose, but they are the most essential ones.

Check yourself issues:

1. What main extralinguistic styleforming factors is scientific


functional style characterized by?
2. How do the requirements of objectivity, precision and logical
consistency affect the language of a scientific prose style?
3. What lexical layers does the vocabulary of a scientific text
consist of? Briefly characterize each of them.
4. Why is special terminology said to be mainly nominal in
character and what tendency is it characterized by?
5. What do general scientific terms denote and what units are
they mainly expressed by?
6. Comment on the difference between general scientific and
special terminology.
7. What features are general scientific layer units characterized
by and what units can they be expressed by?
8. Why is the general mode of scientific reasoning said to be
unemotional and devoid of the author’s stylistic idiosyncrasy?
9. What means of expressivity are characteristic of a scientific
prose style?

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Scientific prose style

10. How can rare instances of genuine imagery in a scientific text


be treated?
11. What morphological peculiarities of a scientific text result
from general impersonality and stereotypeness of expression in it?
12. Characterize the grammar of scientific writing in terms of the
categories of Tense and Mood and the non-finite forms.
13. Comment on the peculiarities of the syntactic structure of the
language of science and account for its complexity.
14. What syntactic means contribute to the explicit character of
the logical relations between words in a sentence and between clauses
and sentences in a scientific text?
15. What syntactic constructions serve to present scientific
information in a scientific text in an as complete and detailed way as
possible?
16. Comment on the unusual word-order in certain emphatic
construction typical of a scientific text.
17. What makes any scientific text visually manageable, and
what is the logical sequence of utterances ensured by?
18. What are the main units of the rhetorical organization of a
scientific text?
19. Comment on the peculiarities and functions of the structural-
compositional rhetorical patterns and those closely associated with
certain stages of scientific cognition used in a scientific text.
20. What nonverbal means of conveying information is a scientific
text characterized by?
21. Why is the category of informativity in a scientific text
confined to the factual information only?
22. Which forms does the category of presupposition find in a
scientific text?
23. What devices can the volume of the scientific information
conveyed be enlarged by in a scientific text?
24. What is the difference between references and footnotes of a
digressive character as bearers of additional information in a scientific
text?
25. What are the two basic units of the logical-semantic
segmentability of a scientific text?

22
Scientific prose style

26. What are the peculiarities of the logical paragraph as the


main unit of a scientific text informational structure?
27. Why do lexical means of cohesion, first and foremost, make for
the logical-semantic integrity of the text?
28. What specific means of lexical cohesion inherent in a scientific
text is it characterised by?
29. What is the difference between the coherems of immediate
linear joining and the deictic ones? Describe the nomenclature of the
coheremes of both types.
30. What units of the rhetorical organization of a scientific text
are some coheremes of immediate linear joining directly correlated
with?

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Scientific prose style

Unit 2
AN INSTINCT TO ACQUIRE AN ART
from
Steven Pinker. The Language Instinct
Steven Arthur Pinker is a Canadian-American
cognitive psychologist, linguist and popular
science author. He is Johnstone Family Professor
in the Department of Psychology at Harvard
University, and is known for his advocacy of
evolutionary psychology and the computational
theory of mind.
Pinker’s academic specializations are visual
cognition and psycholinguistics. His experimental
subjects include mental imagery, shape
recognition, visual attention, children’s language
development, regular and irregular phenomena in
language, the neural bases of words and
grammar, and the psychology of cooperation and
communication, including euphemism, innuendo,
emotional expression, and common knowledge. He has written two technical books
that proposed a general theory of language acquisition and applied it to children’s
learning of verbs.
Pinker is also the author of eight books for general audiences. His earlier works
argue that the human faculty for language is an instinct, an innate behavior shaped
by natural selection and adapted to our communication needs.
The Language Instinct is a book written by Steven Pinker for a general audience in
1994. Pinker argues that humans are born with an innate capacity for language. He
deals sympathetically with Noam Chomsky’s claim that all human language shows
evidence of a universal grammar, but dissents from Chomsky’s skepticism that
evolutionary theory can explain the human language instinct.
The Language Instinct received the William James Book Prize from the American
Psychological Association and the Public Interest Award from the Linguistics
Society of America.
The following text is an excerpt from the introduction to this famous book by Steven
Pinker.

... Language is so tightly woven into human experience that it is


scarcely possible to imagine life without it. Chances are that if you find
two or more people together anywhere on earth, they will soon be
exchanging words. When there is no one to talk with, people talk to
themselves, to their dogs, even to their plants. In our social relations,
the race is not to the swift but to the verbal – the spellbinding orator,
the silver-tongued seducer, the persuasive child who wins the battle of
wills against a brawnier parent. Aphasia, the loss of language following

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brain injury, is devastating, and in severe cases family members may


feel that the whole person is lost forever.
This book is about human language. Unlike most books with
“language” in the title, it will not chide you about proper usage, trace
the origins of idioms and slang, or divert you with palindromes,
anagrams, eponyms, or those precious names for groups of animals like
“exaltation of larks”. For I will be writing not about the English
language or any other language, but about something much more basic:
the instinct to learn, speak, and understand language. For the first time
in history, there is something to write about it. Some thirty-five years
ago a new science was born. Now called “cognitive science”, it combines
tools from psychology, computer science, linguistics, philosophy, and
neurobiology to explain the workings of human intelligence. The science
of language, in particular, has seen spectacular advances in the years
since. There are many phenomena of language that we are coming to
understand nearly as well as we understand how a camera works or
what the spleen is for. I hope to communicate these exciting discoveries,
some of them as elegant as anything in modern science, but I have
another agenda as well.
The recent illumination of linguistic abilities has revolutionary
implications for our understanding of language and its role in human
affairs, and for our view of humanity itself. Most educated people
already have opinions about language. They know that it is man’s most
important cultural invention, the quintessential example of his capacity
to use symbols, and a biologically unprecedented event irrevocably
separating him from other animals. They know that language pervades
thought, with different languages causing their speakers to construe
reality in different ways. They know that children learn to talk from
role models and caregivers. They know that grammatical sophistication
used to be nurtured in the schools, but sagging educational standards
and the debasements of popular culture have led to a frightening
decline in the ability of the average person to construct a grammatical
sentence. They also know that English is a zany, logic-defying tongue,
in which one drives on a parkway and parks in a driveway, plays at a
recital and recites at a play. They know that English spelling takes
such wackiness to even greater heights – George Bernard Shaw
complained that fish could just as sensibly be spelled ghoti (gh as in
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Scientific prose style

tough, o as in women, ti as in nation)1) – and that only institutional


inertia prevents the adoption of a more rational, spell-it-like-it-sounds
system.
In the pages that follow, I will try to convince you that every one
of these common opinions is wrong! And they are all wrong for a single
reason. Language is not a cultural artifact that we learn the way we
learn to tell time or how the federal government works. Instead, it is a
distinct piece of the biological makeup of our brains. Language is a
complex, specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously,
without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without
awareness of its underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every
individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process
information or behave intelligently. For these reasons some cognitive
scientists have described language as a psychological faculty, a mental
organ, a neural system, and a computational module. But I prefer the
admittedly quaint term “instinct”. It conveys the idea that people know
how to talk in more or less the sense that spiders know how to spin
webs. Web-spinning was not invented by some unsung spider genius
and does not depend on having had the right education or on having an
aptitude for architecture or the construction trades. Rather, spiders
spin spider webs because they have spider brains, which give them the
urge to spin and the competence to succeed. Although there are
differences between webs and words, I will encourage you to see
language in this way, for it helps to make sense of the phenomena we
will explore.
Thinking of language as an instinct inverts the popular wisdom,
especially as it has been passed down in the canon of the humanities
and social sciences. Language is no more a cultural invention than is
upright posture. It is not a manifestation of a general capacity to use
symbols: a three-year-old, we shall see, is a grammatical genius, but is
quite incompetent at the visual arts, religious iconography, traffic signs,
and the other staples of the semiotics curriculum. Though language is a
magnificent ability unique to Homo sapiens among living species, it
does not call for sequestering the study of humans from the domain of
biology, for a magnificent ability unique to a particular living species is
far from unique in the animal kingdom. Some kinds of bats home in on
flying insects using Doppler sonar2). Some kinds of migratory birds
26
Scientific prose style

navigate thousands of miles by calibrating the positions of the


constellations against the time of day and year. In nature’s talent show
we are simply a species of primate with our own act, a knack for
communicating information about who did what to whom by
modulating the sounds we make when we exhale.
Once you begin to look at language not as the ineffable essence of
human uniqueness but as a biological adaptation to communicate
information, it is no longer as tempting to see language as an insidious
shaper of thought, and, we shall see, it is not. Moreover, seeing
language as one of nature’s engineering marvels – an organ with “that
perfection of structure and co-adaptation which justly excites our
admiration”, in Darwin’s words3) – gives us a new respect for your
ordinary Joe4) and the much-maligned English language (or any
language). The complexity of language, from the scientist’s point of
view, is part of our biological birthright; it is not something that
parents teach their children or something that must be elaborated in
school – as Oscar Wilde said, “Education is an admirable thing, but it is
well to remember from time to time that nothing that is worth knowing
can be taught”5). A preschooler’s tacit knowledge of grammar is more
sophisticated than the thickest style manual or the most state-of-the-
art computer language system, and the same applies to all healthy
human beings, even the notorious syntax-fracturing professional
athlete and the, you know, like, inarticulate teenage skateboarder.
Finally, since language is the product of a well-engineered biological
instinct, we shall see that it is not the nutty barrel of monkeys 6) that
entertainer-columnists make it out to be. I will try to restore some
dignity to the English vernacular, and will even have some nice things
to say about its spelling system.

Explanatory Notes
1)ghoti is often cited to support English spelling reform, and is often
attributed to George Bernard Shaw, a supporter of this cause. However,
the word does not appear in Shaw’s writings, and a biography of Shaw
attributes it instead to an anonymous spelling reformer. Similar
constructed words exist that demonstrate English idiosyncrasies, but
ghoti is the most widely recognized.

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Scientific prose style

2) Doppler sonar – a kind of sonar that utilizes the Doppler effect to


detect moving underwater objects. The Doppler effect (or the Doppler
shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to
an observer who is moving relative to the wave source. It is named after
the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who described this
phenomenon in 1842.
3) “thatperfection of structure and co-adaptation which justly
excites our admiration” – Steven Pinker quotes Charles Darwin, an
English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his
contribution to the science of evolution, without mentioning the exact
source.
4) ordinary Joe is the term used primarily in North America to refer to
a completely average male person, typically an average American.
5) “Education is an admirable thing, but it is well to remember
from time to time that nothing that is worth knowing can be
taught” – one of witty quotes O. Wilde, a famous Irish poet and
playwright, is also known for.
5) Barrel of Monkeys is a toy game. There are toy barrels in blue,
yellow, red, purple, orange, gray or green. The barrel contains 12
monkeys but can hold 24, their color usually corresponding to the
barrel’s color. The instructions state: “Dump monkeys onto table. Pick
up one monkey by an arm. Hook other arm through a second monkey’s
arm. Continue making a chain. Your turn is over when a monkey is
dropped”. In the text under analysis the name of the game is used
metaphorically.

1. Text comprehension questions

1. Why is it scarcely possible to imagine life without language?


2. What is aphasia?
3. What, from the author’s point of view, do most books with
“language” in the title describe?
4. What is the main concern of this book? What will the author
be writing about?
5. What science was recently born? What tools does it combine?
6. What does Steven Pinker mean by recent illumination of
linguistic abilities?

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Scientific prose style

7. What do most educated people know about language? Does


the author support these statements?
8. What example does the author provide to illustrate
irregularities in English spelling and pronunciation?
9. How does S. Pinker define language?
10. How do cognitive scientists describe language? For what
reasons?
11. Which term does the author prefer? What idea does this term
convey?
12. What does S. Pinker compare people’s knowledge how to talk
to?
13. Why does thinking of language as an instinct invert the
popular wisdom in the author’s opinion?
14. What examples from the animal world does the scholar give to
prove his point of view?
15. What claims does the author prove quoting Charles Darwin
and Oscar Wilde?

2. Assignments for Text Analysis

2.1. Linguostylistic peculiarities of the text


1. Comment on the terms used in the text:
 pick out words and word-combinations which can be regarded
as special terms and group them according to the sphere of their use;
 select words which can be regarded as general scientific terms;
 find terminological units of the text which can be regarded as
consubstantial terms; state which of them function as general scientific
terms and which function as special linguistic terms;
 state which terminological units prevail in the text.
2. What can you say about the use of general scientific units in
the text under consideration? Are they found in abundance? Account for
the fact.
3. What units of general literary language are observed in the
present text? Provide the examples.
4. Make a conclusion as for stylistic reference of the vocabulary
in the text in question. What stylistically coloured words (apart from

29
Scientific prose style

terms) are traced in the text and which stylistic layers do they
represent?
5. Comment on the expressivity of the text on the lexical level:
 find the units of the text which serve as means of quantitative
expressivity (adjectives in the Comparative and Superlative degrees,
emphatic and limiting particles);
 look for the instances of figurative language in the text; state
whether they illustrate trite or genuine imagery;
 pick out from the text the examples of subjective modal
evaluation as another form (that) expressivity can take in a ST;
 select the words with inherent expressive-evaluative and
emotional connotations.
6. Analyse the morphological peculiarities of the text under
consideration paying attention to the use of voice, mood and tense-
forms.
7. Dwell upon the use of personal pronouns I and we in the text.
Is the use of personal pronoun of the 1st person singular I typical of
scientific prose writing? Account for its use in the text under analysis.
8. What for does the author resort to the use of personal
pronoun you in the text? Provide examples illustrating its use.
9. Make a conclusion concerning the syntactic peculiarities of
the present text taking into account the following means (if any) and
identifying the role they play in the text:
 sentence length and sentence structure;
 word-order;
 attributive constructions of different types;
 parenthesis, conjunctions, conjunctive words.
10. What types of repetition are employed in the extract (lexical
and/or syntactic)? What are the functions of various types of repetition
in scientific prose?
11. Comment on the rhetorical organization of the text under
discussion taking into account that it is an excerpt from the
introduction to the book.
12. What can you say about nonverbal means of conveying
information in the text?

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Scientific prose style

2.2. Textlinguistic categories

The Categories of Informativity, Presupposition and


Pragmatics

1. Present the text taking into account the branch of knowledge


it belongs to, the source it comes from, its title and the author. Identify
its genre.
2. Which type of information is the text in question
characterized by?
3. Formulate the main concern of the text.
4. Say into how many logical paragraphs the factual information
of the text falls. Briefly summarize each of them, making up an outline,
the items of which serving as key points of each logical paragraph.
5. Find facts of socio-historic character pertaining to the
background information and relevant in terms of the category of
presupposition.
6. Comment on the background information of cultural and
scientific significance in respect to the following names mentioned in
the text: George Bernard Shaw, Doppler, Charles Darwin, Oscar Wilde.
7. What means are employed by Steven Pinker to influence his
readers and make them accept his point of view? Are those means direct
or indirect?

The Category of Cohesion

1. What words can be treated as the key-words supporting the


logical-semantic wholeness of the text? In what way does their
recurrence contribute to the integrity of the text?
2. Find words and word-combinations in the text the key-word
language is synonymically related to. Are they synonyms proper or
contextual synonyms?
3. Distinguish thematic and/or lexical-semantic groups of words
and word-combinations united by the common notions of:
 language;
 education;
 science;
 world of animals.

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Scientific prose style

4. Think of other thematic and/or lexical-semantic groups of


words and word-combinations observed in the text. How do they make
for text cohesion?
5. Which way of word-building can be regarded as the most
productive one in the text? Select derivational pairs and series of words
illustrating the role of word-building means in the lexical cohesion of
the text. Comment on the way affixation contributes to the cohesive
potential of the key-words.
6. Are synonymy and antonymy (proper or contextual or both) as
means of lexical cohesion typical of the text under consideration? Find
examples (if any).
7. Look for the examples of parallel constructions used in some
parts of the text. Is syntactic parallelism enhanced by lexical repetition?
Comment on the cohesive potential of syntactic parallelism.
8. Select coheremes of immediate linear joining which serve:
 to add information;
 to oppose and contrast ideas;
 to sequence ideas.
List other coheremes of immediate linear joining, if there are any.
9. In the examples below distinguish the deictic coheremes
which in a compressed form substitute for the information mentioned
above. Find the antecedents they correlate with: I hope to communicate
these exciting discoveries…; For these reasons some cognitive scientists
have described language as a psychological faculty … . Pick out other
cases of deictic coheremes (if any) and comment on the way they make
for the logical-semantic unity of the text.

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Scientific prose style

Unit 3
CONCEPTUAL DEPENDENCY

from
Peter Stockwell. Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction

Peter Stockwell is a well-known contemporary


English scholar, PhD (Liverpool, 1991). As he puts
himself, he is a stylistician at the University of
Nottingham, where he holds the Chair in Literary
Linguistics. He is interested in using the best recent
knowledge about language to explore textuality and
texture of literary works. He is most closely
identified with the approach known as “cognitive
poetics”, which he sees as the latest rich
development in stylistics.
In Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction published in
2002 the reader is encouraged to re-evaluate the
categories used to understand literary reading and
analysis. Covering a wide range of literary genres
and historical periods, the book encompasses both
American and European approaches.
Peter Stockwell’s publications include Sociolonguistics: A Resource Book for
Students, Contextualized Stylistics: An Introduction to the Nature and Functions of
Language (with Howard Jackson), The Poetics of Science Fiction and others.
The text given below is a fragment of the chapter “Conceptual Dependency” and
deals with some aspects of cognitive poetics.

The main obstacle to artificial intelligence is the fact that


language exhibits conceptual dependency. That is, the selection of
words in a sentence, and the meanings derived from sentences, depend
not on a dictionary-like denotation of these strings of words but on the
sets of ideas and other associations that the words suggest in the minds
of speakers and hearers. Often, both speaker and hearer are familiar
with the situation that is being discussed, and therefore every single
facet will not need to be enumerated for the situation to be understood.
Similarly, human eyes looking at a set of visual patterns will link
elements together or see shapes and features that are derived from
previously encountered experiences. In the visual field, the context
brought by viewers to disparate objects is called a frame. In the
linguistic field, the conceptual structure drawn from memory to assist
in understanding utterances is a schema that was first called a script.

33
Scientific prose style

For example, I live in Britain and have a “going to the pub” script
which I will need when I finish this chapter later on today. Until it
occurred to me to use this as an example just now, the “going to the
pub” script was not at the forefront of my mind. Later on, I will go not
to the pub down the road but to a pub in the countryside not far from
here, where I have never been before. However, I know that when I get
there I will know exactly what to expect and what to do. My pub script
has elements that I expect to see (a bar, a person behind the bar, tables,
beer pumps, bottles, glasses, and so on). Besides these objects, my pub
script includes procedures that I can use in order to get a drink. I know
that I have to go and stand at the bar. I know what form of words to use
and what the other person will say. I know how to reply to the various
questions I am asked. I understand how to pay for the beer there and
then, and I know where I am allowed to sit, the sorts of behaviour that
are appropriate, and so on.
Of course I was not born with this knowledge: my pub script has
been learned from experience. Neither is it a static script: I have
expanded it and refined it through experience of a range of different
sorts of pubs – pubs that are also restaurants, pubs that have adopted
the continental European practice of having waiting staff, pubs that
have only bottled beers, pubs that shade into bars, cafes, nightclubs,
social clubs, working men’s clubs, Labour clubs. And I have had to
apply my pub script adaptively to a range of situations – in beer tents,
at private parties, at barbecues, buying a beer on an aeroplane, on a
boat on the Danube, in a bar in Tokyo, in a late-night drinking den in
Liverpool, at a Basque festival by catching cider in a glass from an
enormous vat with a pinhole in the side, and so on. All of these are
examples of different tracks through the pub script.
It should be apparent from these examples that a script is a
socioculturally defined mental protocol for negotiating a situation.
Miscues in script application can explain the confusion caused to the
French family waiting in an English pub to be served at their table, or
expecting to pay as they leave rather than there and then, or my
confusion when I seemed to have paid for an empty glass at the Basque
festival.
Scripts such as the pub script are situational scripts. We use
these to negotiate commonly experienced events such as being in a
34
Scientific prose style

restaurant, taking the bus, or weeding the garden. Additionally, we


have scripts that are personal, such as what to do and say in order to
be a complaining passenger, a husband or wife, or how to talk to
someone you have never met before. Lastly, we have instrumental
scripts such as how to light a barbecue, how to switch on the computer,
how to read, and so on.

1. Text comprehension questions

1. What do you know about Peter Stockwell? What trend in


modern linguistics does he represent?
2. What does the author mean by conceptual dependency?
3. How does he define the terms schema and script?
4. What example does Peter Stockwell provide to illustrate the
notion of a script?
5. What elements does the “going to the pub” script have?
6. What procedures does the author’s pub script include?
7. Is a script inborn and static?
8. What examples of different tracks through the pub script does
the author give?
9. What can miscues in script application explain?
10. What types of scripts does the author distinguish?

2. Assignments for Text Analysis

2.1. Linguostylistic peculiarities of the text

1. Comment on the terms used in the text (special linguistic


terms, general scientific terms, consubstantial terms). Which of them
prevail? What role do the terms play in a scientific text?
2. Dwell upon general scientific units in the text paying
attention to their structure (individual lexemes, word-combinations,
predicative polylexemic units). Does the text under analysis abound in
such units?
3. What units of general literary language are observed in the
present text? Provide the examples.
4. Is the vocabulary of the text in question stylistically
homogeneous? Which stylistically marked words can be traced in the
text?

35
Scientific prose style

5. Deal with the expressivity of the text on the lexical level:


 look for instances of trite imagery in the text (if any), think
how the words with transferred meanings contribute to the expressivity
of the text;
 pick out from the text the examples of subjective modal
evaluation.
6. Analyse the morphological peculiarities of the text under
consideration. How do passive constructions contribute to the objective
tone of the narration? Comment on the use of the personal pronouns I
and we, the possessive pronoun my and various modal words.
7. Comment on the syntactic structure of sentences and their
length. Do the sentences contain several subordinate clauses and a
great number of homogeneous members, as is typical of scientific
writings?
8. Give the examples of various connectives used in the text.
What is their function?
9. What types of repetition are employed in the extract (lexical
or syntactic)? What are the functions of various types of repetition in
scientific prose?
10. Comment on the rhetorical organization of the text under
analysis.
11. What is the function of graphical means in scientific prose?
What types of print are used in the text under analysis?

2.2. Textlinguistic categories

The Categories of Informativity, Presupposition and


Pragmatics

1. Present the text taking into account the branch of knowledge


it belongs to, the source it comes from, its title and the author.
2. Which type of information is the text in question
characterized by? Can you say that informativity of this text is confined
to the factual information only?
3. Formulate the main concern of the text.
4. Say into how many logical paragraphs the factual information
of the text falls. Briefly summarize each of them, making up an outline,
the items of which serving as key points of each logical paragraph.

36
Scientific prose style

5. Identify and comment on the facts of socio-historic character


relevant in terms of the category of presupposition. Can you say that in
the text under analysis the category of presupposition finds forms of
expression typical of scientific texts addressed to the specialist reader?
Is any background knowledge required on the part of the reader to
understand the text in all its details?
6. What means are used by Peter Stockwell to influence his
readers and make them accept his point of view? Are those means direct
or indirect?

The Category of Cohesion

1. What words can be treated as the key-words supporting the


logical-semantic wholeness of the text? Explain your choice. In what
way does their recurrence contribute to the integrity of the text?
2. Distinguish thematic groups of words and word-combinations
united by the common notions of:
 a pub;
 procedures to get a drink;
 tracks through the pub script.
3. Find lexical units pertaining to the lexical-semantic groups of:
 nouns denoting places to have a drink;
 nouns denoting geographical names;
 verbs of mental activity;
 adjectives derived from geographical names.
4. Find lexical units in the text the key-word script and the key-
word pub are synonymically related to. Are they synonyms proper or
contextual synonyms?
5. Identify other synonyms proper and contextual synonyms (if
there are any) and comment on their role in the lexical cohesion of the
text.
6. Is antonymy (proper or contextual or both) as a means of
lexical cohesion typical of the text under analysis?
7. What means of grammatical cohesion are found in the text?
Give the examples.
8. Are the words built up by common word-building elements
(derivatives, compounds, conversion pairs etc.) as means of text
cohesion illustrative of the text under consideration?
37
Scientific prose style

9. What role do various connectives play in achieving cohesion of


the text? Select coheremes of immediate linear joining which serve:
 to express similarity
 to oppose and contrast ideas
 to add information
 to specify facts
 to sequence ideas
 to state results.
8. Are the deictic coheremes which in a compressed form
substitute for the information mentioned above observed in the present
text? If so, provide the examples.

38
Scientific prose style

Unit 4
THE RELEVANCE OF LINGUISTICS
from
Henry Widdowson. Linguistics
Henry Widdowson (born May 28, 1935) is a British
linguist and an internationally acclaimed authority in
applied linguistics and language teaching.
H .Widdowson previously held chairs at the
University of London and the University of Essex, was
Professor at the University of Vienna. Now he is
Emeritus Professor of Education, University of
London and holds an Honorary Professorship
(Department of English and American Studies),
University of Vienna. He began his career with the
British Council, working in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and
Bangladesh, before taking up an academic career in
Edinburgh where he obtained his doctorate (PhD) in
1973.
H .Widdowson is the Applied Linguistics adviser to
Oxford University Press and series adviser of Oxford
Bookworms Collection.
The scholar is best known for his contribution to communicative language teaching.
However, he has also published on other related subjects such as discourse analysis
and critical discourse analysis, the global spread of English, English for Special
Purposes and stylistics. His publications include Stylistics and the Teaching of
Literature; Teaching Language as communication; Explorations in Applied
Linguistics; Text, Context, Pretext: Critical Issues in Discourse Analysis; Handbook
of Foreign Language Communication and Learning and others.
His book Linguistics has 38 editions between 1996 and 2014 in English and Korean.
This book surveys the discipline of linguistics, the study of human language. An
outline of the ways in which language has been defined, described, and explored is
provided, and readers are guided towards further exploration. The text that follows
is a part of Chapter 6 Current Issues entitled The Relevance of Linguistics.

From questions of validity we turn now to questions of utility.


What is linguistics for? What good is it to anybody? What practical uses
can it be put to? One response to such questions is, of course, to deny
the presupposition that it needs any practical justification at all. Like
other disciplines, linguistics is an intellectual enquiry, a quest for
explanation, and that is sufficient justification in itself. Understanding
does not have to be accountable to practical utility, particularly when it
concerns the nature of language, which, as was indicated in Chapter I,
is so essential and distinctive a feature of the human species.

39
Scientific prose style

Whether or not linguistics should be accountable, it has been


turned to practical account. Indeed, one important impetus for the
development of linguistics in the first part of this century was the
dedicated work done in translating the Bible into languages hitherto
unwritten and undescribed. This practical task implied a prior exercise
in descriptive linguistics, since it involved the analysis of the
languages (through elicitation and observation) into which the
scriptures were to be rendered. And this necessarily called for a
continual reconsideration of established linguistic categories to ensure
that they were relevant to languages other than those, like English,
upon which they were originally based. The practical tasks of
description and translation inevitably raised issues of wider theoretical
import.
They raise other issues as well about the relationship between
theory and practice and the role of the linguist, issues which are of
current relevance in other areas of enquiry, and which bear upon the
relationship between descriptive and applied linguistics.
The process of translation involves the interpretation of a text
encoded in one language and the rendering of it into another text
which, though necessarily different in form, is, as far as possible,
equivalent in meaning. In so far as it raises questions about the
differences between language codes it can be seen as an exercise in
contrastive analysis. In so far as it raises questions about the
meaning of particular texts, particular communicative uses of the
codes, it can be seen as an exercise in discourse analysis. Both of
these areas of enquiry have laid claim to practical relevance and so to
be the business of applied linguistics.
With regard to contrastive analysis, one obvious area of applica-
tion is language teaching. After all, second language learning, like
translation, has to do with working our relationships between one
language and another: the first language (L1) you know and the second
language (L2) you do not. It seems self-evident that the points of
difference between the two codes will constitute areas of difficulty for
learners and that a contrastive analysis will therefore be of service in
the design of a teaching programme.
It turns out, however, that the findings of such analysis cannot be
directly applied in this way. Although learners do undoubtedly refer the
40
Scientific prose style

second language they are learning (L2) to their own mother tongue (L1),
in effect using translation as a strategy for learning, they do not do so
in any regular or predictable manner. Linguistic difference is not a
reliable measure of learning difficulty. The data of actual learner
performance, as established by error analysis, call for an alternative
theoretical explanation.
One possibility is that learners conform to a pre-programmed
cognitive agenda and so acquire features of language in a particular
order of acquisition. In this way they proceed through different interim
stages of an interlanguage which is unique to the acquisition process
itself. Enquiry into this possibility in Second Language Acquisition
(SLA) research has been extensive.
There is another possibility. It might be that the categories of
description typically used in contrastive analysis are not sufficiently
sensitive to record certain aspects of learner language. Learners may be
influenced by features of their L1 experience other than the most
obvious forms of the code. Contrastive analysis has been mainly
concerned with syntactic structure, but as we have seen in Chapters 4
and 5, this is only one aspect of language, and one which, furthermore,
inter-relates with others in complex ways. So it may be that the
learners’ difficulties do correspond to differences between their L1 and
L2 but that we need a more sophisticated theory to discern what the
differences are, a theory which takes a more comprehensive view of the
nature of language by taking discourse into account.
Discourse analysis is potentially relevant to the problems of lan-
guage pedagogy in two other ways. Firstly, it can provide a means of
describing the eventual goal of learning, the ability to communicate,
and so to cope with the conventions of use associated with certain
discourses, written or spoken. Secondly, it can provide the means of
describing the contexts which are set up in classrooms to induce the
process of learning. In this case it can provide a basis for classroom
research.
But the relevance of discourse analysis is not confined to language
teaching. It can be used to investigate how language is used to sustain
social institutions and manipulate opinion; how it is used in the
expression of ideology and the exercise of power. Such investigations in
critical discourse analysis seek to raise awareness of the social
41
Scientific prose style

significance and the political implications of language use. Discourse


analysis can also be directed to developing awareness of the
significance of linguistic features in the interpretation of literary texts,
the particular concern of stylistics.
In these and other cases, descriptive linguistics becomes applied
linguistics to the extent that the descriptions can be shown to be
relevant to an understanding of practical concerns associated with
language use and learning. These concerns may take the form of quite
specific problems: how to design a literacy programme, for example, or
how to interpret linguistic evidence in a court of law (the concern of the
growing field of forensic linguistics).
But other concerns for relevance are more general and more
broadly educational. We began this book by noting how thoroughly
language pervades our reality, how central it is to our lives as
individuals and social beings. To remain unaware of it what it is and
how it works is to run the risk of being deprived or exploited. Control of
language is, to a considerable degree, control of power. Language is too
important a human resource for its understanding to be kept confined
to linguists. Language is so implicated in human life that we need to be
as fully aware of it as possible, for otherwise we remain in ignorance of
what constitutes our essential humanity.

1. Text comprehension questions

1. What do you know about Henry Widdowson? What trend in


modern linguistics does he represent?
2. What is linguistics, like other disciplines?
3. When does understanding not have to be accountable to
practical utility?
4. What was one important impetus for the development of
linguistics in the first part of the 20th century?
5. What did descriptive linguistics involve?
6. What do the practical tasks of description and translation
raise?
7. How is the process of translation connected with contrastive
analysis and discourse analysis?
8. What does second language learning have to do? What is
meant by L1 and L2?
42
Scientific prose style

9. Where will a contrastive analysis be of service? Can the


findings of such analysis be directly applied in second language
learning?
10. Why is difference not a reliable measure of learning difficulty?
What possible explanations do the data of actual learner performance,
as established by error analysis, call for?
11. What theory do we need to discern what the differences
between L1 areL2 are?
12. In what other ways is discourse analysis potentially relevant
to the problems of language pedagogy?
13. Where else can discourse analysis be used?
14. In what cases, from the author’s point of view, does
descriptive linguistics become applied linguistics?
15. What is the main concern of forensic linguistics?
16. How does language pervade our reality? Ia language an
important human resource?

2. Assignments for Text Analysis

2.1. Linguostylistic peculiarities of the text

1. Comment on the terms used in the text (special linguistic


terms, general scientific terms, consubstantial terms). Which of them
prevail? What role do the terms play in a scientific text?
2. Dwell upon general scientific units in the text paying
attention to their structure (individual lexemes, word-combinations,
predicative polylexemic units). Is the text under analysis characterized
by an abundant use of such units?
3. What units of general literary language are observed in the
present text? Provide the examples.
4. Comment on the stylistic reference of the vocabulary of the
text in question. Can stylistically marked words (apart from terms) be
traced in the text?
5. Deal with the expressivity of the text on the lexical level:
 find the units of the text which serve as means of quantitative
expressivity (adjectives in the Comparative and Superlative degrees,
emphatic and limiting particles);

43
Scientific prose style

 look for the instances of figurative language in the text; state


whether they illustrate trite or genuine imagery;
 pick out from the text the examples of subjective modal
evaluation;
 select the words with inherent expressive-evaluative and
emotional connotations.
6. Analyse the morphological peculiarities of the text under
consideration taking into account the use of voice, mood and tense-
forms. Comment on the use of the personal pronoun we. Is the personal
pronoun I used by the author?
7. Dwell upon the syntactic structure of sentences and their
length. Do the sentences contain several subordinate clauses and a
great number of homogeneous members, as is typical of scientific
writings?
8. Give the examples of various connectives used in the text.
What is their function?
9. Are any types of repetition employed in the extract (lexical or
syntactic)? What are the functions of various types of repetition in
scientific prose?
10. What is the function of graphical means in scientific prose?
What types of print are used in the text under analysis?

2.2. Textlinguistic categories

The Categories of Informativity, Presupposition and


Pragmatics

1. Present the text taking into account the functional style and
genre it belongs to, the source it comes from, its title and the author.
2. Which type of information is the text in question
characterized by?
3. Formulate the main concern of the text.
4. Say into how many logical paragraphs the factual information
of the text falls. Briefly summarize each of them, making up an outline,
the items of which serving as key points of each logical paragraph.
5. Comment on the facts of socio-historic character relevant in
terms of the category of presupposition (if there are any).

44
Scientific prose style

6. What means are used by Henry Widdowson to convince his


readers and make them accept his point of view? Are those means direct
or indirect?

The Category of Cohesion

1. What words can be treated as the key-words supporting the


logical-semantic wholeness of the text? Explain your choice. In what
way does their recurrence contribute to the integrity of the text?
2. Distinguish thematic and/or lexical-semantic groups of words
and word-combinations based on common underlying notions which are
traced in the text under consideration.
3. Are synonymy and antonymy (proper or contextual or both) as
means of lexical cohesion typical of the text under consideration? Find
examples (if any).
4. Comment on the use of words built up by some common word-
building elements (derivatives, compounds, conversion pairs etc.) as
means of text cohesion.
5. What means of grammatical cohesion are found in the text?
Give the examples.
6. What role do various connectives play in achieving cohesion of
the text? Select coheremes of immediate linear joining and group them
according to their function.
7. Are the deictic coheremes which in a compressed form
substitute for the information mentioned above observed in the present
text? If so, provide the examples.

45
Publicistic style

Part Two
PUBLICISTIC STYLE
Unit 1
LINGUOSTYLISTIC PECULIARITIES OF A PUBLICISTIC TEXT
1. General Notes
The publicistic style began to be recognized as a separate style
in the middle of the 18th century.
The general aim of publicistic style, which makes it stand out as a
separate style, is to exert a constant and deep influence on public
opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation
given by the writer or the speaker is the only correct one and to cause
him to accept the point of view expressed.
Persuasion, as the most obvious purpose of publicistic style, is
achieved by logical argumentation, on the one hand, and emotive
appeal, on the other. As a result, this style in all its varieties has
features in common with the scientific prose style as well as with the
belles-lettres style.
From scientific prose it takes:
 coherent and logical syntactic structure;
 expanded system of connectives: hence, inasmuch, therefore;
 careful paragraphing;
 brevity of expression.
From imaginative writing it takes its emotional appeal,
achieved through the use of:
 emotionally coloured words;
 imagery and other stylistic devices typical of belles-lettres style.
Publicistic style is characterized by variety of genres (or
substyles). According to I. R. Galperin, here belong:
 oratory speech, radio and TV commentary;
 essays, pamphlets, book reviews;
 journalistic articles.
In this manual one of the most interesting publicistic genres
comprising features of the written and spoken varieties of language,
oratory, is presented. The persuasive function in oratory is considered
46
Publicistic style

to be most effective, for here the most powerful instrument of


persuasion, the human voice, is brought into play.

2. Lexical-grammatical and Stylistic Features of Oratory

Oratory originated as an oral variety of the publicistic style but


today speeches are mostly first written and then made. Therefore, in its
leading features oratorical style belongs to the written variety of
language, though it is modified by the oral form of the text and the use
of gestures.
As any other publicistic genre, oratory is aimed at influencing the
public by catching their attention, by persuading them that the
speaker’s interpretation is the only correct one and by making them
accept the speaker’s point of view and act in the desired way.
Persuasion is achieved both by logical argumentation and emotive
appeal, which results in the combination of the features typical of
scientific prose style, on the one hand, and fiction, on the other. So, all
the features characteristic of any publicistic text mentioned above are
observed in oratory as well.
Apart from these, oratory is characterized by a number of its own
lexical-grammatical and stylistic peculiarities predetermined not only
by its main goal but also by the combination of both the written and
spoken varieties of the English language typical of this publicistic
substyle. These peculiarities find their expression in the use of the
following means:
 the personal pronoun of the 1st person singular I to justify
a personal approach to the problem treated (I’m no idealist to believe
firmly in, I’m confident that);
 the personal pronouns you, your, we, our and the forms of
direct address (Your Worship, Mr. Chairman, with your permission)
to come into direct contact with the audience; the forms of direct
address may be repeated in the course of the speech and can be
expressed differently (dear friends, my friends, Mark you! Mind!);
 special obligatory forms to open and end an oration
(Ladies and gentlemen, Mr. Chairman in the beginning of the speech
and Thank you very much, In the name of God do your duty, God bless
you at its end);

47
Publicistic style

 colloquial words and contractions (I’m, we’ve) as forms


characteristic of colloquial speech;
 various kinds of repetition (lexical, synonymic, syntactic) to
enable the listeners to follow the speaker and retain the main points of
his/her speech or/and to convince the audience, to add weight to the
speaker’s opinion; repetition can be regarded as the most typical
means of English oratorical substyle;
 similes and sustained metaphors to make speech more
emotional and expressive, but they are generally traditional ones, as
fresh and genuine stylistic devices may divert the attention of the
listeners away from the main point of the speech;
 allusions that depend on the content of the speech and the
level of the audience;
 syntactic stylistic devices: parallel constructions, antithesis,
suspense, climax;
 rhetorical questions to arouse audience’s interest;
 all type of questions to promote closer contact with the
audience;
 such phonetic stylistic devices as alliteration and assonance;
 pauses to attract the listener’s attention;
 the change of intonation to break the monotony of the
intonation pattern and revive the attention of the listeners;
In oratory linguistic means and stylistic devices are closely
interwoven and mutually complementary thus building up an intricate
pattern.
The most obvious characteristic features of oratory can be
observed in speeches on political and social problems of the day,
addresses made on solemn occasions, such as public weddings, funerals
and jubilees, in sermons and debates, etc.

Check yourself issues:

1. When did the publicistic style begin to be recognized as a


separate style?
2. What is the general aim of publicistic style?
3. What is persuasion as the most obvious purpose of oratory
achieved by?

48
Publicistic style

4. What other functional styles does publicistic style have


features in common with?
5. What features does publicistic style take from scientific prose?
6. What features does it take from imaginative writing?
7. What publicistic genres are distinguished by I. R. Galperin?
8. Why is the persuasive function considered to be most effective
in oratory?
9. Why does oratory in its leading features belong to the written
form of language?
10. What is the main aim of oratory?
11. What features typical of any publicistic text are observed in
oratory?
12. What factors predetermine lexical-grammatical and stylistic
peculiarities of oratory?
13. What do these peculiarities find their expression in?
14. What means are used in oratory to justify a personal approach
to the problem treated and to come into direct contact with the
audience?
15. What means is considered to be the most typical of English
oratorical substyle?
16. Why are similes and metaphors in oratory generally traditional
ones?
17. What syntactic stylistic devices are typical of oratory?
18. What questions are found in oratory? What for are they used?
19. What phonetic devices and means are traced in oratory?
20. Where can the most obvious characteristic features of oratory
be observed?

49
Publicistic style

Unit 2

Benjamin Disraeli
Conservative Principles
April 3, 1872

Disraeli Benjamin, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (1804-


1881) is a British Conservative politician and novelist
who twice served as Prime minister of the United
Kingdom, in 1868 and in 1872-80.
The Conservative Party organization is his creation.
He established Conservative Central Office, the
prototype of modern party organizations. Disraeli is
remembered for his influential voice in world affairs,
his political battles with the Liberal Party leader
William Ewart Gladstone. He made the Conservatives
the party most identified with the glory and power of
the British Empire. His imperialist policies brought
India directly under the crown, and he was personally
responsible for purchasing control of the Suez Canal.
He is famous for his witty and effective speeches.
This speech, which contains the program of the
Conservative party, was given at Manchester on April
3, 1872 in response to the accusation from the Liberal Party that “the Conservative
Party has no programme of policy”. In it Disraeli not only emphasizes the place of
Crown, Lords, Commons, and Church in government but he utilizes an opportunity
to point out that The Liberal Party – in power since 1868 – practices policies in both
domestic and foreign affairs that deserve public opprobrium. The extract that
follows is the beginning of this programme speech (abridged).

Gentlemen, the Chairman has correctly reminded you that this is


not the first time that my voice has sounded in this hall. But that was
an occasion very different from that which now assembles us together –
was nearly thirty years ago, when I endeavoured to support and
stimulate the flagging energies of an institution in which I thought
there were the germs of future refinement and intellectual advantage to
the rising generation of Manchester1)...
There was also another and more recent occasion when the
gracious office fell to me to distribute among the members of the
Mechanics’ Institution2) prizes which they had gained through their
study in letters and in science. Gentlemen, these were pleasing offices,
and if life consisted only of such offices you would not have to complain
of it. But life has its masculine duties, and we are assembled here to

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fulfil some of the most important of these, when, citizens of a free


country, we are assembled together to declare our determination to
maintain, to uphold the Constitution to which we are debtors, in our
opinion, for our freedom and our welfare.
Gentlemen, there seems at first something incongruous that one
should be addressing the population of so influential and intelligent a
county as Lancashire3) who is not locally connected with them, and,
gentlemen, I will frankly admit that this circumstance did for a long
time make me hesitate in accepting your cordial and generous
invitation.
But, gentlemen, after what occurred yesterday, after receiving
more than 200 addresses from every part of this great country, after the
welcome which then greeted me, I feel that I should not be doing justice
to your feelings, I should not do duty to myself, if I any longer
considered my presence here to-night to be an act of presumption...
Subjunctive
Our opponents assure us that the Conservative party have no
political programme... If by a programme is meant a plan to despoil
churches and plunder landlords, I admit we have no programme. If by a
programme is meant a policy which assails or menaces every institution
and every interest, every class and every calling in the country, I admit
we have no programme...
Gentlemen, the programme of the Conservative party is to
maintain the Constitution of the country. I have not come down to
Manchester to deliver an essay on the English Constitution; but when...
the fundamental principles of our institutions are controverted – I
think, perhaps, it may not be inconvenient that I should make some few
practical remarks upon the character of our Constitution – upon that
monarchy... which, under the title of Queen, Lords and Commons, has
contributed so greatly to the prosperity of this country, and with the
maintenance of which I believe that prosperity is bound up.
Gentlemen, since the settlement of that Constitution, now nearly
two centuries ago, England has never experienced a revolution, though
there is no country in which there has been so continuous and such
considerable change. How is this? Because the wisdom of your
forefathers placed the prize of supreme power without the sphere of
human passions.
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Whatever the struggle of parties, whatever the strife of factions,


whatever the excitement and exaltation of the public mind, there has
always been something in this country round which all classes and
parties could rally, representing the majesty of the law, the
administration of justice, and involving, at the same time, the security
for every man’s rights and the fountain of honour.
Now, gentlemen, it is well clearly to comprehend what is meant by
a country not having a revolution for two centuries. It means, for that
space, the unbroken exercise and enjoyment of the ingenuity of man. It
means, for that space, the continuous application of the discoveries of
science to his comfort and convenience. It means the accumulation of
capital, the elevation of labour, the establishment of those admirable
factories which cover your district; the unwearied improvement of the
cultivation of the land, which has extracted from a somewhat churlish
soil harvests more exuberant than those furnished by lands nearer to
the sun. It means the continuous order which is the only parent of
personal liberty and political right. And you owe all these, gentlemen, to
the Throne.
There is another powerful and most beneficial influence, which is
also exercised by the Crown. Gentlemen, I am a party man. I believe
that, without party, Parliamentary government is impossible. I look
upon Parliamentary government as the noblest government in the
world, and certainly the most suited to England.
But without the discipline of political connection, animated by the
principle of private honour, I feel certain that a popular Assembly
would sink, before the power or the corruption of a minister.
Yet, gentlemen, I am not blind to the faults of party government.
It has one great defect. Party has a tendency to warp the intelligence,
and there is no minister, however resolved he may be in treating a great
public question, who does not find some difficulty in emancipating
himself from the traditional prejudice on which he has long acted. It is,
therefore, a great merit in our Constitution that before a minister
introduces a measure to Parliament, he must submit it to an
intelligence superior to all party, and entirely free from influences of
that character.
I know it will be said, gentlemen, that, however beautiful in
theory, the personal influence of the Sovereign is now absorbed in the
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responsibility of the minister. Gentlemen, I think you will find there is


great fallacy in this view.
The principles of the English Constitution do not contemplate the
absence of personal influence on the part of the Sovereign; and if they
did, the principles of human nature would prevent the fulfilment of
such a theory...
Take the case of a Sovereign of England who accedes to his throne
at the earliest age the law permits and who enjoys a long reign – take
an instance like that of George III4). From the earliest moment of his
accession that Sovereign is placed in constant communication with the
most able statesmen of the period, and of all parties. Even with average
ability it is impossible not to perceive that such a Sovereign must soon
attain a great mass of political information and political experience.
Information and experience, gentlemen, whether they are
possessed by a Sovereign or by the humblest of his subjects, are
irresistible in life. No man with the vast responsibility that devolves
upon an English minister can afford to treat with indifference a
suggestion that has not occurred to him, or information with which he
had not been previously supplied.
But, gentlemen, pursue this view of the subject. The longer the
reign, the influence of that Sovereign must proportionally increase. All
the illustrious statesmen who served his youth disappear. A new
generation of public servants rises up. There is a critical conjuncture in
affairs – a moment of perplexity and peril. Then it is that the Sovereign
can appeal to a similar state of affairs that occurred perhaps thirty
years before.
When all are in doubt among his servants he can quote the advice
that was given by the illustrious men of his early years, and though he
may maintain himself within the strictest limits of the Constitution,
who can suppose when such information and such suggestions are made
by the most exalted person in the country that they can be without
effect? No, gentlemen, a minister who could venture such influence with
indifference would not be a Constitutional minister, but an arrogant
idiot.
Gentlemen, the influence of the Crown is not confined merely to
political affairs. England is a domestic country. Here the home is
revered and the hearth is sacred. The nation is represented by a family
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– the Royal Family; and if that family is educated with a sense of


responsibility and a sentiment of public duty, it is difficult to
exaggerate the salutary influence they may exercise over a nation.
It is not merely an influence upon manners; it is not merely that
they are a model for refinement and for good taste – they affect the
heart as well as the intelligence of the people; and in the hour of public
adversity, or in the anxious conjuncture of public affairs, the nation
rallies round the Family and the Throne, and its spirit is animated and
sustained by the expression of public affection.

Explanatory Notes
1)Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater
Manchester, England. The recorded history of Manchester began with
the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or
Mancunium, which was established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff
near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell. It is historically a
part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River
Mersey were incorporated in the 20th century.
2) Mechanics’ Institutions are educational establishments, originally
formed to provide adult education, particularly in technical subjects, to
working men. They were often funded by local industrialists on the
grounds that they would ultimately benefit from having more
knowledgeable and skilled employees. The Mechanics’ Institutions were
used as libraries for the adult working class, and provided them with an
alternative pastime to gambling and drinking in pubs.
3) Lancashire – one of the counties in the North West of England which
takes its name from the city of Lancaster, and is sometimes known as
the County of Lancaster. Lancashire is sometimes referred to by the
abbreviation Lancs, originally used by the Royal Mail. The population
of the county is 1,449,700. People from the county are known as
Lancastrians.
4)George III – was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25
October 1760 until the union of two countries on January 1, 1801, after
which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland until his death on January 29, 1820. He became King
at the age of 22 and reigned for almost 60 years.

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1. Text comprehension questions

1. What do you know about Benjamin Disraeli? What is he


famous for?
2. What problems does B. Disraeli touch upon in his speech?
3. On what occasion did Disraeli’s voice sound in the hall for the
first time? When did it happen?
4. What was another and more recent occasion?
5. Why are the speaker and his listeners assembled together?
6. Is the speaker locally connected with the audience? How did it
influence his decision to accept the invitation of Lancashire population?
What made him stop hesitating?
7. What kind of political programme do the Conservatives not
have?
8. What does Disraeli mean by political programme of the
Conservative Party?
9. What contributed greatly to the prosperity of England from
his point of view? Why did England experience no revolution?
10. What is meant by a country not having a revolution for two
centuries?
11. What is another powerful and most beneficial influence
exercised by the Crown?
12. What defect does party government have? And what is a great
merit in the English Constitution?
13. What does Disraeli think about the personal influence of the
Sovereign? What example does he provide to illustrate such an
influence?
14. Why does the influence of the Sovereign proportionally
increase the longer the reign?
15. Is the influence of the Crown confined merely to political
affairs? What do the members of the Royal Family also affect?

2. Assignments for Text Analysis

2.1. Linguostylistic peculiarities of the text

1. Comment on the beginning of the text. Are there any


obligatory forms to open the oration?

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2. What forms of direct address are used by the speaker? How


many times does the word gentlemen occur in the text? Dwell upon the
use of the personal pronoun you. Is it frequently used?
3. Identify the function performed by the Imperative form: Take
the case of a Sovereign of England… Provide more examples (if any).
4. Look for examples illustrating the use of the personal
pronoun I and pronouns we, our having the meaning ‘my audience and
me’. Think of their function in the text.
5. Find in the text two-member synonymic constructions3 of the
kind: To support and stimulate (the flagging energies of…); (the population
of so) influential and intelligent (a county as Lancashire). Is the use of
synonyms in these constructions enhanced by any phonetic device?
6. Find other instances of two-member synonymic constructions
in the text. Comment on their structure and stylistic function. Mind
that constituents of such constructions may be both synonyms proper
and contextual synonyms. Think of the role the words emphasized by
means of these constructions play in the speech under analysis.
7. Deal with the lexical peculiarities of the text in question. Is it
characterised by quite an extensive use of evaluative and emotionally-
coloured words? If so, provide examples and analyse them.
8. What synonyms are used to denote monarchy in the text?
Explain their use.
9. What syntactic stylistic device underlies the fourth paragraph
of the speech? Is it used to enumerate circumstances that took place
before the speaker’s coming to Manchester? Or is it used by the speaker
to show off?
10. Pick out from the text other instances of syntactic parallelism
the speaker resorts to in his speech. Is this device frequently used?
What effect does it produce?
11. Comment on the syntactic structure of sentences and their
length. Account for the use of the following simple sentences: And you
owe all these, gentleman, to the Throne. Gentlemen, I am a party man.
12. Look for interrogative sentences in the text. What is their
function? Are they rhetorical questions?

3Such constructions are also referred to as synonymic condensation – the use of


words bearing on the same idea for the sake of emphasis: sick and tired, clean and
neat, really and truly
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2.2. Textlinguistic categories

The Categories of Informativity, Presupposition and


Pragmatics

1. Present the text taking into account the functional style it


belongs to, its genre, the source it comes from, its title and the author.
2. Which type of information is the text under analysis
characterized by?
3. Formulate the main concern of the text.
4. Analyse the arrangement of the information conveyed (the
division into physical and logical paragraphs). Briefly summarize each
logical paragraph.
5. Identify and comment on the facts of socio-historic character
relevant in terms of the category of presupposition.
6. What means are used by the speaker to convince his
audience? Do you think his speech is persuasive?

The Category of Cohesion


1. What words can be treated as the key-words holding together
logical-semantic wholeness of the text? How does their recurrence
contribute to the integrity of the text?
2. What words and word-combinations are these key-words
associated with?
3. Distinguish thematic groups of words and word-combinations
united by the common notions of:
 the speaker;
 the audience;
 the Conservative party;
 political programme;
 monarchy.
4. Identify synonyms proper and contextual synonyms and
comment on their role in the lexical cohesion of the text.
5. How do means of supraphrasal cohesion, i.e. different
conjunctions and adverbial connectives, contribute to the perception of
the speech as a logical-semantic whole?

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Unit 3
Winston Churchill
Blood, toil, tears and sweat
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30
November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British
politician, army officer, and writer. He was Prime
Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945,
when he led Britain to victory in the Second World
War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill
represented five constituencies during his career as
a Member of Parliament. Ideologically an economic
liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was
a member of the Conservative Party, which he led
from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was a
member of the Liberal Party.
Winston Churchill, in addition to his careers of
soldier and politician, was a prolific writer under the pen name “Winston
S. Churchill”. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his mastery of
historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending
exalted human values.
The text below is the first speech given by newly appointed British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill on May 13, 1940 to the British Parliament. In this speech he
prepares his audience for the long battle against Nazi aggression at a time when
the very survival of England was in doubt. The speech is sometimes known by the
phrase blood, toil, tears and sweat that became famous. It was delivered in the
House of Commons in Westminster.
On April 26, 2013, the Bank of England announced that beneath a portrait of
Churchill the phrase I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat was to
adorn the new 5-pound note. It was issued in September 2016.

Mr. Speaker,

On Friday evening last I received His Majesty’s1) commission to


form a new Administration. It is the evident wish and will of
Parliament and the nation that this should be conceived on the broadest
possible basis and that it should include all parties, both those who
supported the late Government2) and also the parties of the Opposition.
I have completed the most important part of this task.
A War Cabinet has been formed of five Members3), representing,
with the Liberal Opposition4), the unity of the nation. The three party

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leaders have agreed to serve either in the War Cabinet or in high


executive office5). The three Fighting Services6) have been filled. It was
necessary that this should be done in one single day, on account of the
extreme urgency and rigour of events7).
A number of other key positions were filled yesterday, and I am
submitting a further list to His Majesty tonight. I hope to complete the
appointment of the principal Ministers during tomorrow. The
appointment of the other Ministers usually takes a little longer, but I
trust that, when Parliament meets again, this part of my task will be
completed, and that the administration will be complete in all respects.
Sir, I considered it in the public interest to suggest that the
House8) should be summoned to meet today. Mr. Speaker agreed, and
took the necessary steps, in accordance with the powers conferred upon
him by the Resolution of the House. At the end of the proceedings today,
the Adjournment of the House will be proposed until Tuesday, the 21st
of May, with, of course, provision for earlier meeting, if need be. The
business to be considered during that week will be notified to
Members9) at the earliest opportunity.
I now invite the House, by the Resolution which stands in my
name10), to record its approval of the steps taken and to declare its
confidence in the new Government.
Sir, to form an administration of this scale and complexity is a
serious undertaking in itself, but it must be remembered that we are in
the preliminary stage of one of the greatest battles in history, that we
are in action at many other points in Norway and in Holland11), that we
have to be prepared in the Mediterranean12), that the air battle is
continuous and that many preparations have to be made here at home.
In this crisis I hope I may be pardoned if I do not address the House at
any length today.
I hope that any of my friends and colleagues, or former colleagues,
who are affected by the political reconstruction, will make all
allowances for any lack of ceremony with which it has been necessary to
act.
I would say to the House, as I said to those who have joined this
Government13), “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and
sweat”14). We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We
have before us many, many long months of struggle and suffering.
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You ask, what is our policy? I can say: it is to wage war, by sea,
land, and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God can
give us; to wage war against a monstrous tyranny, never surpassed in
the dark and lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy.
You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word: Victory,
Victory at all costs – Victory in spite of all terrors – Victory, however
long and hard the road may be. For without Victory there is no survival.
Let that be realised. No survival for the British Empire, no survival for
all that the British Empire has stood for, no survival for the urge and
impulse of the ages, that mankind will move forward toward its goal.
But I take up my task in buoyancy and hope. I feel sure that our
cause will not be suffered to fail among men. At this time I feel entitled
to claim the aid of all, and I say, “Come then, let us go forward together
with our united strength”.

Winston Churchill – May 13, 1940

Explanatory Notes
1)His Majesty – George VI, King of the United Kingdom and the
Dominions of the British Commonwealth, who reigned from 1936 to
1952. He was best known as a symbol of British determination to win
the Second World War against Germany no matter the hardships.
2)The late government – Churchill refers here to the administration
of Neville Chamberlain (1869–1940), who served as Prime Minister
from 1937 to 1940, overseeing the early years of the war.
3) AWar Cabinet has been formed of five Members – Churchill’s
war cabinet consisted of three members of the Conservative Party –
Churchill himself (Prime Minister, First Lord of Treasury, Minister of
Defence), Neville Chamberlain (Lord President of the Council), Edward
Wood, Lord Halifax (Foreign Secretary) – and two members of the
Labour Party – Clement Attlee (Lord Privy Seal) and Arthur
Greenwood (Minister without Portfolio).
4)the Liberal Opposition – Churchill means Sir Archibald Sinclair,
the leader of the Liberal Party, appointed Secretary of State for Air.
Also see the next note.
5) The three party leaders have agreed to serve either in the
War Cabinet or in high executive office – the three primary
political parties in Great Britain in 1940 were the Conservative Party,
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founded in 1834; the Labour Party, founded in 1900; and the Liberal
Party, founded in 1859. The party leaders Churchill refers to are
Neville Chamberlain, who helmed the Conservative Party until
handing over the reins to Churchill in October of 1940, Clement Attlee
of the Labour Party, and Sir Archibald Sinclair of the Liberal Party. As
Churchill notes here, these three party leaders served key posts in the
wartime administration. Neville Chamberlain served as Lord President
of the Council, Clement Attlee as Lord Privy Seal, and Sir Archibald
Sinclair as Secretary of State for Air.
6)The three Fighting Services – the Royal Navy, the Royal Air
Force, and the British Army are meant.
7)on account of the extreme urgency and rigor of events – here
Churchill makes reference to the German invasion of France and the
Netherlands known as the Battle of France. This invasion began three
days before this speech, on May 10th, 1940, the day Churchill became
Prime Minister. Churchill foresees Germany’s attacks on Britain which
became a reality in July of 1940 when Germany sent its Luftwaffe
across the channel to besiege southern England with a year-long
barrage of aerial bombings.
8)the House – the House of Commons, an elected body consisting of
650 members known as Members of Parliament (MPs).
9) Members – Members of Parliament.
10) I
now invite the House, by the Resolution which stands in my
name – The resolution Churchill mentions here deals with the
adoption of a new administration to lead the British into war: “That
this House welcomes the formation of a Government representing the
united and inflexible resolve of the nation to prosecute the war with
Germany to a victorious conclusion”. This resolution was put to the
vote after Churchill’s speech and the House voted unanimously in
favour of Churchill’s new government.
11)that we are in action at many other points in Norway and in
Holland is the reference to the following historical facts. In April of
1940 German troops went into Denmark and Norway. Denmark folded
almost immediately. Norway put up some resistance aided by British
troops, but also soon folded. The British military’s failure in Norway
led to the Norway Debates of May 7th and 8th of 1940. Those debates
revealed the widespread dissatisfaction with Neville Chamberlain’s
leadership among members of all parties, including Chamberlain’s own

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Conservative Party. N. Chamberlain resigned and was replaced by


W. Churchill.
12)that we have to be prepared in the Mediterranean – Churchill
alludes to the situation in Italy, where Benito Mussolini was preparing
his nation for war and securing ties with Adolf Hitler.
13) those who have joined this Government – Ministers who have
joined this government are meant.
14) Ihave nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat – this
Churchill’s sentence is called a paraphrase of one uttered on July 2,
1849 by Giuseppe Garibaldi when rallying his revolutionary forces in
Rome: “I offer hunger, thirst, forced marches, battle, and death”. As a
young man, Churchill considered writing a biography of Garibaldi. The
circumstances under which Garibaldi made that speech – with the
revolutionary Roman Republic being overwhelmed and Garibaldi
needing to maintain the morale of his troops towards a highly
hazardous retreat through the Apennine Mountains – were in some
ways comparable to Britain’s situation with France being overwhelmed
by the German offensive.
1. Text comprehension questions

1. What is Winston Churchill famous for? What is his


significance for the history of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland?
2. When and on what occasion was this speech pronounced?
3. What mission did Winston Churchill receive from King
George VI?
4. What part of this task did Churchill complete before his
speech? And what part of this task will be completed when Parliament
meets again?
5. What will be notified to MPs at the earliest opportunity?
6. What does Churchill invite the House to do?
7. How does the speaker describe the current situation? In what
connection does he mention Norway, Holland, the Mediterranean?
8. What words does W. Churchill say to the House?
9. How does he see the nearest future?
10. What is Britain’s policy as it is seen by Winston Churchill?
11. What is Britain’s aim?
12. Why does Churchill take up his task in buoyancy and hope?
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2. Assignments for Text Analysis

2.1. Linguostylistic peculiarities of the text

1. Comment on the beginning of the text. How does the speaker


open his speech?
2. What means of address does Winston Churchill use? How
does he come into contact with his audience?
3. Does the personal pronoun I frequently occur in this speech?
Comment on its use.
4. Comment on the stylistic reference of the vocabulary of the
text in question. What stylistically marked words are traced in the text?
5. What creates the emotional impact of the speech? What
lexical means make for its emotionality?
6. Is Churchill’s speech full of words used figuratively? Dwell
upon metaphors and metonymies used in the speech (if any).
7. Pick out from the text cases of lexical repetition. What effect
do they help to achieve? What can you say about the repetition of the
word Victory?
8. Select the cases of alliteration and comment on their function
in the text.
9. Deal with the usage of tenses. What idea is supported by
them?
10. How is the idea of urgency communicated with the help of
modal verbs and mood forms, lexical units, adverbs of time?
11. Comment on the syntactic structure of sentences and their
length. Look for interrogative sentences in the text. What is their
function? Are they rhetorical questions?
12. Find in the text examples of syntactic parallelism. Is the
speech under consideration characterised by an abundant use of such
constructions? What effect do these constructions produce?

2.2. Textlinguistic categories

The Categories of Informativity and Presupposition

1. Present the text taking into account the functional style it


belongs to, the source it comes from, its title and the author.
2. Which type of information is the text under analysis

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characterized by? Is the text characterized by factual information only?


3. Formulate the main concern of the text.
4. Analyse the arrangement of the information conveyed (the
division into physical and logical paragraphs). Briefly summarize each
logical paragraph.
5. Identify and comment on the facts of socio-historical and
geopolitical character which enlarge the volume of the information
conveyed and appear to be relevant in terms of the category of
presupposition.
6. What means are employed by the speaker to create the mood
he intends to convey and to convince his audience?
The Category of Cohesion
1. What words can be treated as the key-words holding together
logical-semantic wholeness of the text? How does their recurrence
contribute to the integrity of the text?
2. What words and word-combinations are these key-words
associated with?
3. Distinguish thematic and/or lexical-semantic groups of words
and word-combinations united by the common notions of:
 Parliament;
 war;
 speaker’s actions;
 speaker’s suggestions;
 geographical names.
4. Think of other thematic and/or lexical-semantic groups of
words and word-combinations observed in the text. How do they make
for text cohesion?
5. Identify synonyms proper and contextual synonyms and
comment on their role in the lexical cohesion of the text.
6. Look for stylistic means of cohesion in the speech under
analysis. Comment on their cohesive nature.
7. How do means of supraphrasal cohesion (different
conjunctions and adverbial connectives) contribute to the perception of
the speech as a logical-semantic whole?

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Unit 4

John F. Kennedy
Inaugural Address
John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 –
November 22, 1963), often referred to by initials
JFK, is an American politician who served as the
35th president of the United States from January
1961 until his assassination in November 1963. His
policy is known as the New Frontier. He served at
the height of the Cold War, and the majority of his
presidency dealt with managing relations with the
Soviet Union.
Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts and
graduated from Harvard University in 1940.
During World War II he served in the Navy and
was awarded the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for
his service. After the war, Kennedy, a member of
the Democratic Party, represented the district of
Massachusetts in the U.S. House of
Representatives from 1947 to 1953. He was subsequently elected to the U.S. Senate
and served as the junior Senator from Massachusetts from 1953 to 1960. While in
the Senate, he published his book Profiles in Courage, which won a Pulitzer Prize
for Biography. In the 1960 presidential election, Kennedy narrowly defeated
Republican opponent Richard Nixon, who was the incumbent vice president. At age
43, he became the youngest person elected president.
On January 20, 1961 John F. Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th president and
delivered one of the most famous inaugural addresses in U.S. history. In his
address, he spoke of the need for all Americans to be active citizens. He asked the
nations of the world to join together to fight what he called the “common enemies of
man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself”.
The address reflected Kennedy’s confidence that his administration would chart a
historically significant course in both domestic policy and foreign affairs. The
contrast between this optimistic vision and the pressures of managing daily political
realities at home and abroad would be one of the main tensions running through
the early years of his administration.

Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President


Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman1), Reverend
Clergy, fellow citizens2):

We observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of


freedom3) – symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning – signifying
renewal, as well as change. For I have sworn before you and Almighty

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God the same solemn oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century
and three quarters ago.
The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal
hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of
human life4). And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our
forebears fought are still at issue around the globe – the belief that the
rights of man come not from the generosity of the state, but from the
hand of God.
We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first
revolution5). Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend
and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of
Americans6) – born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a
hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage – and unwilling to
witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this
Nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed
today at home and around the world.
Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we
shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any
friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of
liberty.
This much we pledge – and more.
To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share 7),
we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. United, there is little we cannot
do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is little we can do –
for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder.
To those new States8) whom we welcome to the ranks of the free,
we pledge our word that one form of colonial control shall not have
passed away merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. We shall
not always expect to find them supporting our view. But we shall
always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom – and
to remember that, in the past, those who foolishly sought power by
riding the back of the tiger ended up inside.
To those people in the huts and villages across the globe
struggling to break the bonds of mass misery9), we pledge our best
efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required –
not because the Communists may be doing it, not because we seek their

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votes, but because it is right. If a free society cannot help the many who
are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.
To our sister republics south of our border10), we offer a special
pledge – to convert our good words into good deeds – in a new alliance
for progress – to assist free men and free governments in casting off the
chains of poverty. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become
the prey of hostile powers. Let all our neighbors know that we shall join
with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the
Americas. And let every other power know I that this Hemisphere
intends to remain the master of its own house.
To that world assembly of sovereign states, the United Nations,
our last best hope11) in an age where the instruments of war have far
outpaced the instruments of peace, we renew our pledge of support – to
prevent it from becoming merely a forum for invective – to strengthen
its shield of the new and the weak – and to enlarge the area in which its
writ may run.
Finally, to those nations who would make themselves our
adversary12), we offer not a pledge but a request: that both sides begin
anew the quest for peace, before the dark powers of destruction
unleashed by science engulf all humanity in planned or accidental self-
destruction.
We dare not tempt them with weakness. For only when our arms
are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond doubt that they
will never be employed.
But neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take
comfort from our present course – both sides overburdened by the cost
of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by the steady spread of the
deadly atom, yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror
that stays the hand of mankind’s final war.
So let us begin anew – remembering on both sides that civility is
not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject to proof. Let us
never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.
Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of
belaboring those problems which divide us.
Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise-
proposals for the inspection and control of arms – and bring the

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absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all
nations.
Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its
terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate
disease, tap the ocean depths, and encourage the arts and commerce.
Let both sides unite to heed in all corners of the earth the
command of Isaiah – “to undo the heavy burdens... and to let the
oppressed go free”13).
And, if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of
suspicion, let both sides join in creating a new endeavor – not a new
balance of power, but a new world of law – where the strong are just
and the weak secure, and the peace preserved.
All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days14). Nor
will it be finished in the first one thousand days15); nor in the life of this
Administration; nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let
us begin.
In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the
final success or failure of our course. Since this country was founded,
each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to
its national loyalty. The graves of young Americans who answered the
call to service surround the globe.
Now the trumpet summons us again – not as a call to bear arms
we need – not as a call to battle, though embattled we are – but a call to
bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, a year in and year out,
“rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation”16) – a struggle against the
common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease and war itself.
Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance,
North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for
all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort?
In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been
granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I
do not shrink from this responsibility – I welcome it. I do not believe
that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other
generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this
endeavor will light our country and all who serve it. And the glow from
that fire can truly light the world.

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And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do
for you; ask what you can do for your country.
My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for
you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.
Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the
world ask of us here the same high standards of strength and sacrifice
which we ask of you. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with
history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we
love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth
God’s work must truly be our own.
Friday, January 20, 1961

Explanatory Notes
1) Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice,
President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman
– Kennedy begins his speech addressing some dignitaries in attendance:
Vice President Johnson – Lyndon Baines Johnson, the new vice
president then, who became the 36th president of the USA after the
assassination of John Kennedy; Mr. Speaker – Sam Rayburn, the
Speaker of the House of Representatives, Johnson’s mentor; Mr. Chief
Justice – Earl Warren, an American politician and jurist who served as
Chief Justice of the United States from 1953 to 1969; President
Eisenhower – Dwight D. Eisenhower, the outgoing president, an
American army general and statesman who served as 34th president of
the United States from 1953 to 1961; Vice President Nixon – Richard
M. Nixon, the outgoing vice president and Republican candidate for
president against Kennedy who lost the elections but who later on
became the 37th president of the USA; Harry Truman – the 33rd
president of the United States (from 1945 to 1953), the only other
former president present at the ceremony.
2)fellow citizens – this way of address to the rest of the audience is
considered to be a reference to the first inaugural address in the history
of the USA, on April 30, 1789, when George Washington began his
speech with the words “Fellow Citizens of the Senate and of the House
of Representatives”.
3)We observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of
freedom… – this part of speech resembles Winston Churchill’s V-E
Day speech on May 8, 1945, in which he said: “This is not a victory of a

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party or of any class. It’s a victory of the great British nation as a


whole”.
4) For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all
forms of human poverty and all forms of human life – John
Kennedy makes reference to scientific progress, on the one hand, and
the threat of nuclear war, on the other, which thrilled and terrified his
contemporaries.
5)first revolution – The American Revolution was a colonial revolt
which occurred between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the
Thirteen Colonies defeated the British in the American Revolutionary
War (1775–1783) with the assistance of France, winning independence
from Great Britain and establishing the United States of America.
6) the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans –
it is probably the speaker’s reference to George Washington’s “sacred
fire of liberty” in his first inaugural address.
7)To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we
share – by old allies John Kennedy means Western Allies, a political
and geographic grouping among the Allied Powers of the First World
War and Second World War. It generally includes the British Empire,
the United States, France and various other European and Latin
American countries, but excludes China, the Russian Empire and the
Soviet Union, as well as some other countries which became socialist.
8)To those new States – John Kennedy means newly established
states – Alaska (January 3, 1959) and Hawaii (August 21, 1959).
9) To those people in the huts and villages across the globe
struggling to break the bonds of mass misery – here the speaker
probably means developing countries of Asia and Africa, newly
independent former colonies, that during the Cold War, were referred to
by the term Third World (this term has become relatively rare because
of the end of the Cold War).
10) Toour sister republics south of our border – the countries of
Latin America are meant.
11)our last best hope – it is the allusion to the first inaugural address
of the third US president Thomas Jefferson delivered in 1801 where he
said: “This Government, the world’s best hope”. Variations of this
phrase are also found in Abraham Lincoln’s annual message to

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Congress (1862) – “the last best hope of earth”; in Eisenhower’s second


inaugural address (1957) – “the best hope of our age”.
12)Finally, to those nations who would make themselves our
adversary – finally and most significantly John Kennedy directs his
message to the Soviet Union and other socialist states.
13) “to
undo the heavy burdens... and to let the oppressed go free”
– quotation from Isaiah 58:6 (King James Version of the Holy Bible)
14)All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days – it
is an allusion to the first three months of Franklin Roosevelt’s
administration which were a great success. These three months are
remembered today as “The Hundred Days”. Roosevelt led the Congress
to pass more important legislation during this short period than most
presidents pass during their entire term. One reporter for the New York
Times newspaper observed that the change from President Hoover to
President Roosevelt was like a man moving from a slow horse to an
airplane.
Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days – here
15)

Kennedy borrows from Winston Churchill’s June 1940 speech to the


House of Commons, which reads in part, “Let us therefore brace
ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British
Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will say,
“This was their finest hour”.”
16) “rejoicing
in hope, patient in tribulation” – Romans 12:12 (King
James Version of the Holy Bible).
1. Text comprehension questions

1. What do you know about John F. Kennedy and his


presidency? What is he famous for? What is his significance for the
history of the United States?
2. Where, when and on what occasion was this speech
pronounced?
3. What is a celebration of freedom for John Kennedy?
4. What does he mean by saying that the world is very different
now?
5. In what connection does the speaker mention American
Revolution?

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6. What will Americans do in order to assure the survival and


the success of liberty?
7. Who are the old allies and the faithful friends the President
speaks about? Who are the foes?
8. What does the speaker pledge on behalf of his nation to the
old allies? To new States? To the people of the Third World? To Latin
America? To the United Nations?
9. What does he offer to the nations who would make
themselves an adversary to the USA?
10. What common situation do two great and powerful groups of
nations find themselves in?
11. What does John Kennedy suggest that both sides do?
12. In whose hands will the final success or failure of this course
rest?
13. What are the common enemies of man?
14. What will light the United States and all who serve it, from
John Kennedy’s point of view?
15. Which of the utterances in Kennedy’s speech addressed to his
fellow Americans has become highly aphoristic? Can it apply to people
from other countries as well? What do you think of these words?
16. What does the President call all developed nations for?

2. Assignments for Text Analysis

2.1. Linguostylistic peculiarities of the text

1. Comment on the beginning of the text. How does the speaker


open his speech? Whose names does he mention directly?
2. Analyse the way John Kennedy addresses his audience. What
means does he use? How does he come into contact with his audience?
3. Deal with the use of the personal pronouns I and we. Which
one prevails? What effect does it produce?
4. Comment on the end of the text. Does it follow custom and
call on God to bless and assist citizens of America and the world?
5. What are the grammatical and lexical markers of the present,
past and future in the text? What do you think about the role of
retrospective insertions in Kennedy’s speech? What are the most
recurrent words used in the flashbacks?

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6. Comment on the stylistic reference of the vocabulary of the


text in question. What stylistically marked words are traced in the text?
7. What creates the emotional impact of the speech? What
lexical means make for its emotionality? Does the speaker use logical or
emotional appeal more?
8. What is the role of anaphoric repetition in referring to
different countries and peoples? Can these countries and groups of
people be easily identified?
9. Pick out from the text cases of lexical repetition. What effect
do they help to achieve? What can you say about the repetition of the
words pledge, freedom, friend, nation?
10. What metaphors are used by the speaker? Are they simple o
sustained? Genuine or trite? Is their implication transparent enough?
11. Find parallel constructions in Kennedy’s Address. Are they
enhanced by lexical repetition? Do they add to the strength of his
speech?
12. Comment on the syntactic structure of sentences, their
length, word-order. What is the role of rhetorical questions in the text?
13. What stylistic device underlies the following statement: ask
not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your
country? Does it contribute to the expressivity and emotionality of the
text? Are there any other examples of this kind in the text under
analysis?
14. Select the cases of gradation and antithesis. Comment on
their function in the text.

2.2. Textlinguistic categories

The Categories of Informativity and Presupposition

1. Present the text taking into account the functional style it


belongs to, the source it comes from, its title and the author.
2. Which type of information is the text under analysis
characterized by? Is the text characterized by factual information only?
3. Formulate the main concern of the text.
4. Comment on the structure of Kennedy’s Address. What
logical parts does the text fall into and what temporal planes do they
present? Briefly summarize each logical paragraph.

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5. Identify and comment on the facts of socio-historical and


geopolitical character which enlarge the volume of the information
conveyed and appear to be relevant in terms of the category of
presupposition. What kind of allusions is the text in question
characterised by?
6. What means are employed by the speaker to make his
speech more vivid and eloquent? Do you think he succeeds in convincing
his audience?
The Category of Cohesion
1. What are the most recurrent words in Kennedy’s speech?
Which of them can be called the key words of the text?
2. What words and word-combinations are these key-words
associated with?
3. Distinguish thematic and/or lexical-semantic groups of words
and word-combinations based on common underlying notions which are
traced in the text under consideration.
4. Are synonyms and antonyms (proper or contextual or both) as
means of lexical cohesion typical of the text under consideration? Find
examples (if any).
5. Comment on the use of words built up by some common word-
building elements (derivatives, compounds, conversion pairs etc.) as
means of text cohesion.
6. What means of grammatical cohesion are found in the text?
Give the examples.
7. How do means of supraphrasal cohesion (different
conjunctions and adverbial connectives) contribute to the perception of
the speech as a logical-semantic whole?
8. What stylistic means of cohesion are found in the speech
under analysis? Comment on their cohesive nature.

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Unit 5
Martin Luther King
I Have a Dream
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4,
1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist
who became the most visible spokesperson and leader
in the civil rights movement from 1955 until his
assassination in 1968.
King’s most memorable speech from his life as an
activist, “I Have a Dream”, was delivered on August
28, 1963 before more than 200,000 people in front of
the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. as part of
the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. The
speech not only helped to galvanize the already
growing civil-rights movement across the country at
the time, it also became one of the most influential and
inspirational pieces of rhetoric in American history.
Remarkably, midway through his delivery, King
suspended his pre-scripted text and began to
improvise; what resulted was the speech’s most
recognizable section, the passage in which the words I have a dream are
passionately repeated.
Indeed, King’s background as a Baptist preacher in the South instilled in him a
keen awareness of the urgency of the moment and the ability to make sudden
alterations to his plans. This skill helped King establish a rapport with his ever-
changing audience so that he could consistently communicate on a meaningful level,
a skill that was demonstrated at the March demonstration.
What is also apparent in I Have Dream is King’s deep commitment to scholarship
(he earned a PhD from Boston University). King was clearly well versed in both
American history and religious scripture, and he seamlessly weaves references to
both into the fabric of his oration.
Overall, I Have a Dream can be held up as a masterful creative work in itself;
its dramatic structure coupled with its image-laden content render a remarkably
moving piece of American literature that when read even outside of its original
context still strongly resonates today.

I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history


as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.
Five score years ago1), a great American2), in whose symbolic
shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation3). This
momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of
Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice.
It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.

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But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One
hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the
manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred
years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of
a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro
is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself
an exile in his own land. So we’ve come here today to dramatize a
shameful condition.
In a sense we’ve come to our nation’s capital to cash a check.
When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the
Constitution and the Declaration of Independence4), they were signing a
promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was
a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be
guaranteed the “unalienable rights”5) of “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of
Happiness” 6). It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this
promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead
of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people
a bad check; a check which has come back marked “insufficient funds”.
But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We
refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of
opportunity of this nation. So we’ve come to cash this check – a check
that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of
justice.
We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the
fierce urgency of Now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling
off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to
make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the
dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial
justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial
injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make
justice a reality for all God’s children.
It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the
moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro’s legitimate discontent
will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and
equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end but a beginning. Those who
hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content
will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual.
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There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is
granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to
shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice
emerges.
But there is something that I must say to my people who stand on
the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice. In the process
of gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds.
Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the
cup of bitterness and hatred. We must ever conduct our struggle on the
high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative
protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must
rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force.
The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro
community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many
of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have
come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they
have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our
freedom. We cannot walk alone.
And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always
march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the
devotees of civil rights, “When will you be satisfied?” We can never be
satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of
police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy
with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the
highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as
a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he
has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied and we will
not be satisfied until “justice rolls down like waters and righteousness
like a mighty stream”7).
I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great
trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail
cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom
left you battered by the storms of persecutions and staggered by the
winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative
suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is
redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to
South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the
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slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this
situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of
despair, I say to you today, my friends. And so even though we face the
difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream
deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out
the true meaning of its creed: We hold these truths to be self-evident
that all men are created equal.
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of
former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit
down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state
sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of
oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a
nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by
the content of their character. I have a dream today!
I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious
racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of
“interposition” and “nullification”; one day right down in Alabama little
black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white
boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today!
I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and
every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be
made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, “and the glory
of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together”8).
This is our hope. This is the faith that I will go back to the South
with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of
despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the
jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brother-
hood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together,
to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom
together, knowing that we will be free one day. And this will be the day,
this will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with
new meaning:
My country ‘tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing.
Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim’s pride,
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from every mountainside, let freedom ring! 9)


And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true.
And so let freedom ring – from the prodigious hilltops of New
Hampshire.
Let freedom ring– from the mighty mountains of New York.
Let freedom ring – from the heightening Alleghenies of
Pennsylvania.
Let freedom ring – from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.
Let freedom ring – from the curvaceous slopes of California.
But not only that.
Let freedom ring – from Stone Mountain of Georgia.
Let freedom ring – from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee.
Let freedom ring – from every hill and molehill of Mississippi,
from every mountainside, let freedom ring!
And when this happens, when we allow freedom to ring, when we
let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and
every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s
children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and
Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old
Negro spiritual,
Free at last! Free at last!
Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!10)
August 28, 1963

Explanatory notes
1) Fivescore years ago means ‘a hundred years ago’ (a score ‘twenty’).
It is a deliberate allusion to the famous Abraham Lincoln’s address
given on November 19, 1863 at the ceremony at Gettysburg which
began with the words “Four score and seven years ago” (that is, 87
years ago).
2) agreat American – Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15,
1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th
president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in
April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its
bloodiest war and its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis.
He preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal
government, and modernized the U.S. economy.

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3) Emancipation Proclamation was issued by President Abraham


Lincoln on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of
bloody civil war. The proclamation declared “that all persons held as
slaves” within the rebellious states “are, and henceforward shall be
free”.
4) United States Declaration of Independence is an important
document in the history of the United States of America. It was ratified
on July 4, 1776. It says that the Americans were no longer under
British rule. Instead, the thirteen British colonies came together to
become a new country.
5), “unalienable rights”, 6) “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of
Happiness” Here M. L. King directly quotes United States Declaration
of Independence. The source text reads in the following way: “We hold
these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they
are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that
among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness”.
7)“justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a
mighty stream” is an allusion to a book of the Bible containing the
prophecies of Amos (5:24)
8) “and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall
see it together” is an allusion to King James Version of the Holy Bible
(Isaiah 40: 4-5)
9) “America (My Country, ‘Tis of Thee)” is an American patriotic
song, the lyrics of which were written by Samuel Francis Smith. The
melody used is the same as that of the national anthem of the United
Kingdom, “God Save the Queen”. The song served as one of the de facto
national anthems of the United States (along with songs like “Hail,
Columbia”) before the adoption of “The Star-Spangled Banner” as the
official U.S. national anthem in 1931.
10) Free at last! – an American Negro Song.
1. Text comprehension questions

1. What is Martin Luther King famous for? What is his


significance for the history of the USA?
2. When and on what occasion was this speech pronounced?
3. What place was chosen by the participants of the march to
demand their rights? Why?

80
Publicistic style

4. What decree was signed five score years ago? Who signed it
and why did it come as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro
slaves?
5. What happened to the Negro in the USA in 100 years from
M. L. King’s point of view?
6. Who, according to M. L. King, are the architects of the
republic and what did they do for the colored population of the USA?
7. Did America default on its promise insofar as her citizens of
color are concerned?
8. What does M. L. King mean by the fierce urgency of Now?
What great task does he set before America’s citizens of color?
9. Why would it be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency
of the moment?
10. How must colored people conduct their struggle? What must
they not allow?
11. What does M. L. King mean saying: We cannot walk alone?
12. What answer does the speaker give to the question: When
will you be satisfied?
13. What does King’s dream consist in?
14. What will American colored citizens be able to do with the
faith and hope?
15. What will happen when they allow freedom to ring?

2. Assignments for Text Analysis

2.1. Linguostylistic peculiarities of the text

1. Comment on the beginning of the text. How does the speaker


open his speech?
2. Analyse the way M. L. King addresses his audience. What
means does he use? How does he come into contact with his audience?
3. Does the personal pronoun I frequently occur in this speech?
Comment on its use.
4. Compare the words of M. L. King’s speech Five score years
ago... with those in A. Lincoln’s “The Gettysburg Address” Four score
and seven years ago… What for does M. L. King employ the same
archaic way of representing the year of 1863?

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Publicistic style

5. Consider paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 of the text. Pick out the


expressive linguistic means and stylistic devices describing the hard life
of black Americans. Which prevail? Are all of them expected in oratory?
Why does M. L King resort to them? What effect does he achieve?
6. Is there another passage in the speech where the speaker
deals with the hard life of black Americans again? What expressive
means and stylistic devices are used in this description?
7. Comment on the use of the noun Negro in the form of the
common case, singular, preceded by the definite article. What other
words and word combinations does the speaker use to designate the
colored citizens of the USA?
8. Find banking terms in the speech. What images do they
evoke? What is their stylistic value in the text? How are these terms
connected with the notion of “American Dream”?
9. Deal with evaluative and emotionally-coloured words. Are
they found in abundance in the text under analysis? What is their
stylistic function?
10. Comment on the repetition of the adverb now in the
paragraph beginning with the sentence: We have also come to this
hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now. Explain
why the speaker opens four sentences with it. Name the stylistic device
employed.
11. Dwell upon metaphors used by the speaker and their
peculiarities. Are they trite or genuine? Are they simple or sustained?
In the latter case identify central and contributory images. How do
these metaphors enhance the overall impact of the speech in question?
12. Find in the text examples of syntactic parallelism. Is the
speech under consideration characterised by an abundant use of such
constructions? What effect do these constructions produce?
13. Is syntactic parallelism in the present text combined with
lexical repetition? Pick out from the text cases of lexical repetition and
those illustrating the combination of syntactic parallelism and lexical
repetition. Do the latter serve as a refrain? Comment on them.
14. Comment on the syntactic structure of sentences and their
length. What effect is produced by multiple shifts in sentence lengths
and the use of questions and exclamations?

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Publicistic style

15. Look for inversion and emphatic constructions used in the


text. Speak of their stylistic value.

2.2. Textlinguistic categories

The Categories of Informativity and Presupposition

1. Present the text taking into account the functional style it


belongs to, its genre, the source it comes from, its title and the author.
2. Which type of information is the text under analysis
characterized by? Is the text characterized by factual information only?
Is there anything in the text which is implied? If so, what devices are
used to create implication?
3. Formulate the main concern of the text.
4. Analyse the arrangement of the information conveyed (the
division into physical and logical paragraphs). Briefly summarize each
logical paragraph.
5. Identify and comment on the facts of socio-historic character
relevant in terms of the category of presupposition. Find in the text
allusions to Abraham Lincoln and his speech pronounced in 1863, the
Declaration of Independence, the Bible, popular songs.
6. In what specific ways does King call forth his experience as a
preacher to lend persuasive power to the speech? What stylistic means
does he use to convince his audience and make them follow his appeal?

The Category of Cohesion

1. What words can be treated as the key-words holding together


logical-semantic wholeness of the text? How does their recurrence
contribute to the integrity of the text?
2. What words and word-combinations are these key-words
associated with?
3. Distinguish thematic and/or lexical-semantic groups of words
and word-combinations united by the common notions of:
 colored citizens of the USA;
 King’s dream;
 hard life of black Americans;
 geographical objects;
 geographical names.

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Publicistic style

4. Think of other thematic and/or lexical-semantic groups of


words and word-combinations observed in the text. How do they make
for text cohesion?
5. Identify synonyms proper and contextual synonyms and
comment on their role in the lexical cohesion of the text.
6. Look for stylistic means of cohesion in the speech under
analysis. Comment on their cohesive nature.
7. How do means of supraphrasal cohesion (different
conjunctions and adverbial connectives) contribute to the perception of
the speech as a logical-semantic whole?

84
Supplement A. Main Categories of the Text

Supplement A

Main Categories of the Text4

Any text irrespective of its belonging to a certain functional style


is an integral communicative unit characterized by a number of specific
text categories constituting it and thus inherent in it. There is no
generally recognized nomenclature of text categories in linguistics.
Their types and number vary. Nevertheless the most relevant of them
are the categories of informativity, presupposition, depth, pragmatics,
implication, integrity, cohesion, continuum, prospectiveness.
In fact, almost all these text categories have a combined
structural-semantic character, as they affect both the plane of
expression and the plane of content. All of them interact with one
another, and the character of their interaction can have functional-
stylistic significance, as it changes depending on a text type.
1. The aim and purpose of any text is to create and pass on a
certain amount of information, which finds its expression in the
category of informativity, one of the most essential categories of a
text. There are two types of information conveyed by the belles-lettres
text – factual and conceptual ones.
Factual information is explicitly presented in a text. It unfolds
gradually and includes the description of facts, objects, phenomena,
portraits of personages, landscapes, the development of events. It is a
linear, surface information which has time and space duration. It
makes up the theme of a text.
Conceptual information, or the author’s artistic message, is a
more complex type of information, as it is implicit and is deduced from
the text as a whole. It makes up the idea of the text, and can be treated
as a text deep message which must be understood and explicated by the
reader.
The conceptual information of the text, its message may correlate
with its title. It may either fully correspond to it or oppose it, but in any
case, the title of a text is closely associated with its conceptual
information, or the author’s artistic message.
4 Аналітичне читання художнього, газетного і наукового текстів /
С. Т. Богатирьова та ін.. ; Донецький нац. ун-т, ф-т інозем. мов. – Донецьк :
ДонНУ, 2011. – с. 11-15.
85
Supplement A. Main Categories of the Text

Note: texts of newspaper, publicistic, scientific and official


document functional styles are mainly characterized by factual
information. Conceptual information is an indispensable feature of any
belles-lettres text and is elicited from it in different ways by different
recipients, i.e. readers.
2. In some texts the category of presupposition is clearly
manifested. It is closely connected with the category of informativity, as
the volume of the information conveyed by a text is extended by certain
facts relevant in terms of the category of presupposition, and therefore
they require a certain amount of background knowledge on the part of
the reader. They include:
 facts of general social-historical and cultural significance, e.g.
reference to certain historical events, facts from the cultural, economic,
political life, national traditions and customs of the society described,
famous figures etc.
 allusions to works of world literature including the Bible,
ancient mythology, and their characters.
The category of presupposition finds specific forms of expression in
scientific texts addressed to the specialist reader. In such texts it can be
expressed through references, foot-notes and quotations.
3. Other semantic categories – the category of depth and the
category of implication – correlate with the conceptual information
of the text. The former makes the subtext of the text, the latter widens
the limits of the text forming its depth, enhancing its expressivity and
enriching its conceptual information. The category of implication is
created by various stylistic devices on the lexical, syntactic, phonetic
levels. These categories are typical of fictional texts only.
4. The category of pragmatics is the influence on the reader’s
perception of the information conveyed, his/her emotions, feelings. This
category reflects the author’s attitude towards the events described,
his/her impact upon the readers, his/her intention to convince them.
The author may influence his/her readers directly (by means of his/her
direct address to the reader, digressions, meditations, direct
characterization) or indirectly (with the help of different stylistic
devices and expressive means). As a result, the author’s influence

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Supplement A. Main Categories of the Text

makes the reader accept his/her vision of life, and agree or disagree
with it.
5. One of the most essential and universal categories of any text
is its integrity, or unity which finds its expression on two different,
though interconnected levels: formal-structural and semantic ones, the
former correlated with the grammatical cohesion, the latter – with
the lexical cohesion of the text.
It is generally recognized that among various means of text
cohesion it is lexical means of cohesion that play the most important
role because they, first and foremost, contribute to the logical-semantic
integrity of the text.
The structural interrelation between different parts of the text
(sentences, paragraphs, supraphrasal unities) is achieved due to
various formal markers, referred to as grammatical means of
cohesion:
 various adverbial connectors including conjunctions, conjunctive
words, parentheses;
 personal and demonstrative pronouns referring to objects
mentioned above;
 various prop-words, which serve as means of secondary
nomination of things, persons, facts, phenomena, already mentioned
above;
 the Definite Article before the noun already mentioned above;
 the unity of tense-forms in different parts of a text etc.
Lexical means of cohesion comprise:
 the recurrence of key-words which reflect the most important
content points of a text;
 the use of words pertaining to certain lexical-semantic groups
united by some common notions;
 the use of words and word-combinations making up certain
thematic groups on the basis of common underlying notions;
 the use of words logically associated with the key-words;
 the use of synonyms proper and contextual ones;
 the use of antonyms, both antonyms proper and contextual ones;
 the use of words built up by some common word-building
elements (derivatives, compounds, conversion pairs etc.).

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Supplement A. Main Categories of the Text

Note: The lexical cohesion of a belles-lettres text is closely related


to its integrity and can be expressed by such stylistic means of
cohesion, as:
 any stylistic device based on different types of repetition:
anaphora, epiphora, anadiplosis (catch repetition), framing, or ring
repetition, parallelism, antithesis;
 tropes and other lexical stylistic devices and expressive means;
 phonetic stylistic devices of alliteration and assonance.
The integrity of a text is also achieved by:
 the repetition of semes (the elementary lexical meanings):
synonyms, antonyms, morphological derivatives, words with common
emotional, evaluative or functional stylistic connotations;
 the thematic repetition when images, symbols, themes,
scenes are repeated in the text, thus, making it a connected whole;
hence, the integrating images of the text.
 means of foregrounding which serve to attract the reader’s
attention to the conceptually important pieces of information. Here
belong:
 the so-called false anticipation i.e. the occurrence in the text
of a unit which stands out against the background of homogeneity of the
text or a part of it. A unit like this produces the effect of
unexpectedness, and thus, attracts the reader’s attention. False
anticipation is realized on any language level. On the lexical level it can
be expressed by archaic words, borrowings, the author’s neologisms,
words with specific connotations, words used in an unusual stylistic
function, words belonging to different stylistic strata;
 stylistic convergence – accumulation of different stylistic
devices and expressive means in one small part of the text (a sentence
or a paragraph) for the same stylistic purpose.
6. The category of continuum is achieved through cohesion
and integrity and the unity of place, time and events. Continuum does
not admit of any interruptions. If the narration is interrupted by the
author’s digressions or meditations we speak of discontinuum.
Discontinuum is typical of fiction, written in the so-called ‘stream of
consciousness’ method.

88
Supplement A. Main Categories of the Text

7. The category of prospectiveness is created by forward and


consecutive development of the information conveyed by the text
without any retrospective digressions. If the author makes a step back
in narration to supply the reader with all the foregoing facts and events
which are necessary for understanding the events described in a text we
speak of retrospectiveness.

89
Supplement B. Stylistic Devices

Supplement B

Stylistic Devices5

1. Lexical Stylistic Devices

Metaphor Understatement
Simile Oxymoron
Personification Zeugma
Metonymy Periphrasis
Synechdoche Pun (play on words)
Epithet Antonomasia
Irony Paradox
Hyperbole (overstatement)

2. Syntactic Stylistic Devices

Parallelism Suspense (retardation)


Chiasmus Climax (gradation)
Asyndeton Anticlimax (bathos)
Polysyndeton Antithesis
Detachment Litotes
Repetition

3. Phonetic Stylistic Devices

Alliteration
Assonance
Onomatopoeia

5 Advance in Reading English Fiction: учебное пособие по второму


иностранному языку (английскому) / Е. С. Сарбаш, О. В. Волосюк. – Донецк:
ДонНУ, 2013. – 73-84.
90
Supplement B. Stylistic Devices

1. Lexical Stylistic Devices

a lexical stylistic device resulting from the logical


association of similarity between two objects, in
which words or phrases denoting one object are
Metaphor transferred to others in order to indicate a
resemblance between them:
e.g. He was flooded with happiness.
Dear Nature is the kindest Mother still (Byron).

Metaphor is the most widely used trope. A distinction is usually


made between lexical (dead, trite, hackneyed, stale) metaphors and
poetic (fresh, original, genuine) metaphors. Lexical metaphor is a
commonly reproduced lexical unit. It gradually loses its expressiveness
often becoming just another entry in the dictionary, as in the leg of a
table or a ray of hope. Poetic metaphor, on the contrary, is based upon a
discovery of some new, fresh and striking analogy between two things.
Poetic metaphor is always an individual creation. e.g. Her eyes were
two profound and menacing gun-barrels (A. Huxley).
By its structure metaphor can be simple (elementary) or
sustained (extended, prolonged). When the speaker (writer) in his
desire to present an elaborated image does not limit its creation to a
single metaphor but offers a group of them, each supplying another
feature of the described phenomenon, this cluster creates a sustained
metaphor. e.g. Mr. Dombey’s cup of satisfaction was so full at this
moment, however, that he felt he could afford a drop or two of its
contents, even to sprinkle on the dust in the by-path of his little
daughter (Ch. Dickens).

a lexical stylistic device based upon an analogy


between two unlike objects belonging to two different
Simile classes:
e.g. And there was a pink cloud like a watchful
cherub floating above their heads (K. Mansfield).

A simile has a structure of three elements: two objects


compared and a connective (like, as, as though, as like, as if, such as, as
... as, etc.). e.g. He stood immovable like a rock in a torrent (J. Reed).
Notional words (e.g. verbs to resemble, to seem, to recollect, to remember,
91
Supplement B. Stylistic Devices

to look like, to appear) as well as suffixes (-like, - wise) can also have the
function of a connective in a simile. e.g. She seemed nothing more than
a doll (A. Huxley). ... with ape-like fury, he was trampling his victim
under foot (R. Stevenson).
Simile, as an imaginative comparison, should not be confused
with an ordinary (logical) comparison. Compare: 1) The boy seems to be
as clever as his mother; 2) Maidens, like moths, are ever caught by fire
(Byron).
A simile, often repeated, becomes trite and adds to the stock of
language phraseology. In the English language there is a long list of
hackneyed similes pointing out the analogy between the various
qualities, states or actions of a human being and he animals supposed
to be the bearers of the given quality, etc. e.g. treacherous as a snake,
sly as a fox, busy as a bee, industrious as an ant, blind as a bat, to work
like a horse, etc.

a lexical stylistic device which endows an inanimate


object or idea with features peculiar of a human
being:
Personification
e.g. the face of London
My impatience has shown its heels to my
politeness (R. Stevenson)

Personification is regarded as a kind of metaphor since it is based


on relations of likeness between inanimate and animate objects.
e.g. Autumn comes
And trees are shedding their leaves,
And Mother Nature blushes
Before disrobing (N. West).

a lexical stylistic device based on contiguity of


objects or phenomena:
Metonymy
e.g. crown (= king, queen), hand (= worker), cradle
(= infancy, earliest stages, place of origin).

Metonymic relations imply that there is an objectively existing


relationship between the object named and the object implied.
Transference of names in metonymy does not involve a necessity for
two different words to have a common component in their semantic
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Supplement B. Stylistic Devices

structures, as is the case of metaphor, but proceeds from the fact that
two objects (phenomena) have common grounds for existence in reality.
Metonymic relations are varied in character:
 the container for the thing contained: e.g. Will you have another
cup? The hall applauded;
 the instrument for the action: e.g. a writer who earns his living
by his pen (S. Maugham);
 a concrete thing used instead of an abstract notion; in this case
the thing becomes a symbol of the notion: e.g. the crown = the royal
power;
 the material instead of the thing made of it: e.g. satin = skirt.
Traditional metonymical meanings have become rather
common and are fixed in dictionaries, e.g. the press for ‘the personnel
connected with a printing or publishing establishment’ or for ‘the
newspaper and periodical literature which is printed by the printing
press’. Genuine metonymy reveals a quite unexpected substitution of
one word for another, on the ground of some strong impression
produced by a chance feature of the thing.
e.g. Then they came in. two of them, a man with long fair
moustaches and a silent dark man. Definitely, the moustache and I had
nothing in common (D. Lessing) – moustache stands for the man
himself.

a lexical stylistic device, based on a specific kind of


Synechdoche metonymic relations, which may be considered as
quantitative.

This is when a part stands for the whole or when the whole stands
for a part, an individual for a whole class, or a whole class for an
individual, etc.:
e.g. As the great champion of freedom and national independence,
he conquers and annexes half the world, and calls it colonization. When
he wants a new market for his ... goods, he sends a missionary to teach
the natives the Gospel of Peace. The natives kill the missionary; he flies
to arms in defence of Christianity; fights for it; and takes the market as
a reward from heaven (G.B. Shaw).
In this extract the author pictures the essence of the English
imperialist spirit (the words italicized stand for the plural).
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Supplement B. Stylistic Devices

a lexical stylistic device which gives an attributive


characterization of a person, thing or phenomenon:
e.g. wild wind, loud ocean, formidable waves,
heart-burning smile.
Epithet The quarrel of the sparrows in the eaves,
The full round moon and the star-laden sky,
And the loud song of the ever-singing leaves,
Has hid away earth's old and weary cry.
(W.B. Yeats)

Epithets show an individual emotional attitude of the speaker


towards the object.
In the overwhelming majority epithets are expressed by adjectives
or adverbs, modifying respectively nouns or verbs,
e.g. the glow of an angry sunset (Ch. Dickens),
carrying himself straight and soldierly (E. Hemingway).
Sometimes epithets may be expressed by nouns, mostly in of-
phrases:
e.g. a dog of a fellow (Ch. Dickens),
They had the spirit of modesty (J. Steinbeck),
... he smiled brightly, neatly, efficiently, a military abbreviation
of a smile (G. Green).
Epithets can be classified from different standpoints: semantic
and structural. Semantically, epithets are divided into affective, or
emotive epithets and figurative, or transferred epithets.
Affective epithets serve to convey the emotional evaluation of the
object by the speaker. This group is formed of epithets which point to a
feature which is essential to the objects they describe: the idea
expressed in the epithet is to a certain extent inherent in the concept of
the object: e.g. dark forest, dreary midnight, careful attention,
unwearying research, fantastic terrors.
Transferred epithets are formed of metaphors, metonymies and
similes expressed by adjectives: e.g. the smiling sun, the frowning cloud,
the sleepless pillow, restless pace, unbreakfasted morning, merry hours,
a disapproving finger.
According to their structure, epithets are divided into simple,
pairs, chains (strings), two-step structures, and phrase epithets.

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Supplement B. Stylistic Devices

Simple epithets are ordinary epithets.


Pairs are formed by two epithets joined either asyndetically or by
a conjunction. e.g. wonderful and incomparable beauty (O. Wilde), a
tired old town (H. Lee).
Chains are made up by a group of homogeneous attributes varying
in number from three up to sometimes twenty or even more: e.g. You’re
a scolding, unjust, abusive, aggravating, bad old creature (Ch. Dickens).
In two-step structures the process of qualifying seemingly passes
two stages: the qualification of the object and the qualification of the
qualification itself: e.g. an unnaturally mild day (A. Hutchinson). Two-
step epithets have a fixed structure of Adverb + Adjective model.
Phrase epithet is a compositional model in which a phrase and
even a sentence may become an epithet if used attributively. e.g. the
sunshine-in-the-breakfast-room smell (J. Baldwin), move-if-you-dare
expression (J. Greenwood). There is a sort of “Oh-what-a-wicked-world-
this-is-and-how-I-wish-I-coulddo-something-to-make-it-better-and-
nobler” expression about Montmorency that has been known to bring
the tears of pious old ladies and gentlemen (Jerome K. Jerome).
A poetic epithet should be distinguished from a simple
adjective (logical attribute). The former creates an image, while the
latter indicates one of the inherent properties of the object in question:
e.g. young Tom, green meadows, white snow, pale complexion.
Through long and repeated use some epithets become fixed, or
conventional. Many of such epithets originated in folklore: e.g. true
love, Merry Christmas, merry old England, wide world.

a lexical stylistic device based on the simultaneous


realization of two logical meanings – dictionary and
Irony contextual, which stand in opposition to each other:
e.g. It must be delightful to find oneself in a
foreign country without a penny in one’spocket.

Thus, ironically used words acquire meanings opposite to their


primary language meanings: ironical good means bad, enough means
not enough, pleased means not pleased.
Irony is generally used to convey a negative meaning or emotion:
irritation, regret, dissatisfaction, disappointment, displeasure, etc.

95
Supplement B. Stylistic Devices

a lexical stylistic device in which emphasis is


Hyperbole achieved through deliberate exaggeration:
(overstatement) e.g. That flat was a fourthfloor one and there
was – O, fifteen thousand stairs! (A. Coppard)

Hyperbole is aimed at exaggerating quantity or quality. It relies on


the foregrounding of the emotive meaning. The feelings and emotions of
the speaker are so ruffled that he resorts in his speech to intensifying
the quantitative or the qualitative aspect of the mentioned object:
e.g. That was fiercely annoying (A. Coppard).
I’d cross the world to find you a pin (A. Coppard).
Like many stylistic devices, hyperbole through frequent repetition
may lose its originality become trite, reproduced in speech in its
unaltered form:
e.g. I have told it to you a thousand times.

a lexical stylistic device which intentionally


underrates the size, shape, dimensions,
characteristic features of the object:
Understatement e.g. He knows a thing or two.
Mr. Ferraro thought at first that it was the
warmth of the day that had caused her to be
so inefficiently clothed (G.Greene).

The mechanism of its creation and functioning is identical with


that of hyperbole. It does not signify the actual state of affairs in
reality, but presents the latter through the emotionally coloured
perception and rendering of the speaker. English is well-known for its
preference for understatement in everyday speech:
e.g. I am rather annoyed (= I’m infuriated).
The wind is rather strong (= There’s a gale blowing outside).
In this case we deal with trite understatement. In creative
writing examples of original understatement can also be observed:
e.g. She wore a pink hat, the size of a button (J. Reed).
She was a sparrow of a woman (P. Strevens).

96
Supplement B. Stylistic Devices

a lexical stylistic device based upon a contrast


between two words:
e.g. sweet sorrow, low skyscraper, nice rascal,
Oxymoron pleasantly ugly face, horribly beautiful.
His humble ambition, proud humility,
His jarring concord, and his discord dulcet
(W. Shakespeare)

Oxymoron presents a combination of two semantically


contradictory notions that help to emphasize contradictory qualities
simultaneously existing in the described phenomenon as a dialectical
unity. e.g. O brawling love! O loving hate! O heavy lightness! Serious
vanity! Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health!
(W. Shakespeare).
Oxymoron usually consists of an adjective and a noun or an
adverb with an adjective, though there are other structures as well: e.g.
to shout mutely, to cry silently, the street damaged by improvements
(O. Henry).
Oxymorons rarely become trite, for their components, linked
forcibly, repulse each other and oppose repeated use. There is a number
of colloquial oxymorons, all of them showing a high degree of the
speaker’s emotional involvement in the situation, e.g. damn nice,
awfully pretty, awfully glad, terribly sorry.

a lexical stylistic device which consists of using a


roundabout form of expression instead of a simpler
one:
e.g. I understand you are poor, and wish to earn
money by nursing the little boy, my son, who has
been so prematurely deprived of what can never
Periphrasis
be replaced (= mother) (Ch. Dickens).
The hospital was crowded with the surgically
interesting products of the fighting in Africa (=
the wounded) (I. Shaw).
His studio is probably full of the mute evidences
of his failure (= paintings) (M. Joseph).

97
Supplement B. Stylistic Devices

A periphrasis is euphemistic when it substitutes a concept or thing


which is considered unpleasant or offensive: e.g. Mr. Du Pont was
dressed in the conventional disguise with which Brooks Brothers cover
the shame of American millionaires (Morning Star). The conventional
disguise stands here for the suit and the shame of American
millionaires – for the paunch. Because the direct nomination of the not
too elegant feature of appearance was substituted by a roundabout
description this periphrasis may be regarded euphemistic.
The often repeated periphrases become trite and serve as
universally accepted periphrastic synonyms: e.g. the gentle / soft /
weak sex (women), my better half (my spouse), man in the street (an
ordinary person), the root of evil (money), the seven-hilled city (Rome).

a lexical stylistic device which consists in the use of


a word in the same grammatical relation to two
adjacent words in the context, one metaphorical
Zeugma
and the other literal in sense:
e.g. And the boys took their places and their
books (Ch. Dickens).

Other examples:
Either you or your head must be off (L. Carroll).
And May’s mother always stood on her gentility; and Dot’s mother
never stood on anything but her active little feet (Ch. Dickens).

a lexical stylistic device emerging as an effect


created by words similar or identical in their sound
Pun (play on form and contrastive or incompatible in meaning:
words) e.g. Her nose was sharp, but not so sharp as her
voice or the suspiciousness with which she faced
Martin (S. Lewis).

Other examples:
When I’m dead,
I hope it may be said:
“His sins were scarlet,
but his books were read” (H. Belloc).
Here the pun is based on two homophones, read and red.

98
Supplement B. Stylistic Devices

“Have you been seeing any spirits?” “Or taking any?”


(Ch. Dickens). The first spirits refers to supernatural forces, the second
one – to strong drinks.

a lexical stylistic device which consists in the use of


Antonomasia a proper name for a common one:
e.g. He is the Napoleon of crime.

Antonomasia is intended to point out the leading, most


characteristic feature of a person or event, at the same time pinning
this leading trait as a proper name to the person or event concerned.
e.g. Scrooge, Mr. Zero, Miss Sharp. Such names may be called token or
tell-tale names.

a literary device which, based on contrast, is a


statement contradictory to what is accepted as a
Paradox self-evident or proverbial truth:
e.g. I think that life is far too important a thing
ever to talk seriously about it (O. Wilde).

The fact that however self-contradictory a paradox may seem, it


contains, nevertheless, a certain grain of truth makes it an excellent
vehicle of satire favoured very much by English and American writers:
“I adore political parties. They are the only place left to us where people
don’t talk politics” (O. Wilde); “Wine costs money, blood costs nothing”
(B. Shaw).

2. Syntactic Stylistic Devices

a syntactic stylistic device based upon a recurrence


of syntactically identical sequences which lexically
Parallelism are completely or partially different:
e.g. What we anticipate seldom occurs; what we
least expect generally happens (Disraeli).

Parallelism strongly affects the rhythmical organization of an


utterance and gives it a special emphasis. Parallel constructions are
often backed up by repetition of words (lexical repetition) and
conjunctions and prepositions (polysyndeton): e.g. They were all three

99
Supplement B. Stylistic Devices

from Milan, and one of them was to be a lawyer, and one was to be a
painter, and one had intended to be a soldier (E. Hemingway).

a syntactic stylistic device based on the repetition


of a syntactical pattern, but it has a cross order of
Chiasmus words and phrases:
e.g. Down dropped the breeze,
The sails dropped down (Coleridge).

The structure of two successive sentences or parts of a sentence


may be described as reversed parallel construction, the word order
of one of the sentences being inverted as compared to that of the other.

a syntactic stylistic device which lies in an


insistent repetition of a connective between words,
phrases or clauses in an utterance:
e.g. And in the sky the stars are met,
Polysyndeton
And on the wave a deeper blue,
And on the leaf a browner hue,
And in the heaven that clear obscure ...
(G. Byron)

The repetition of conjunctions and other connectives makes an


utterance more rhythmical. In addition to this, polysyndeton has a
disintegrating function. It generally combines homogeneous elements of
thought into one whole resembling enumeration. But, unlike
enumeration, which integrates both homogeneous and heterogeneous
elements into one whole, polysyndeton causes each member of a string
of facts to stand out conspicuously: enumeration shows things united;
polysyndeton shows them isolated.

a syntactic stylistic device which consists in the


deliberate omission of connectives:
e.g. No warmth – no cheerfulness, no healful ease,
Asyndeton No comfortable feel in any member;
No shade, no shine, no butterflies, no bees,
No fruits, no flowers, no leaves, no birds,
November! (Th. Hood)

100
Supplement B. Stylistic Devices

Asyndeton makes speech dynamic and expressive. Sometimes it


implies the speaker’s haste, nervousness and impatience.

a syntactic stylistic device consisting in separating


a secondary part of a sentence with the aim of
emphasizing it:
e.g. “I want to go”, he said, miserable (J.
Detachment Galsworthy).
And he walked slowly past again, along the
river – an evening of clear, quiet beauty, all
harmony and comfort, except within his heart
(J. Galsworthy)

The detached part, being torn away from its referent, assumes a
greater degree of significance and is given prominence by intonation.
The secondary members are detached from the rest of the sentence by
commas, dashes, or even a full stop: e.g. I have to beg you for money
(Daily S. Lewis). She told him of Johnsy’s fancy, and how she feared she
would, indeed, light and fragile as a leaf herself, float away, when her
slight hold upon the world grew weaker (O. Henry).

a syntactic stylistic device based on the repeated


occurrence of the same words or word-
combinations:
Repetition
e.g. I wouldn’t mind him if he wasn’t so
conceited and didn’t bore me, and bore me, and
bore me (E. Hemingway).

According to the position occupied by the repeated unit in the


utterance different types of repetition are distinguished:
 anaphora – repetition of the beginning of two or more
successive sentences, clauses or phrases: e.g. I love your hills, and I love
your dales. And I love your flocks a-bleating (J. Keats);
 epiphora – repetition of the final element of two or more
successive sentences, clauses or phrases: e.g. I am exactly the man to be
placed in a superior position in such a case as that. I am above the rest
of mankind, in such a case as that. I can act with philosophy in such a
case as that (Ch. Dickens);

101
Supplement B. Stylistic Devices

 framing (ring repetition) – repetition of the initial part of a


syntactical unit at the end of it: e.g. No wonder his father wanted to
know what Bosinney meant, no wonder (J. Galsworthy);
 anadiplosis (catch repetition or linking or reduplication)
– repetition of the last or any prominent word or phrase in a sentence or
clause at the beginning of the ensuing one, with an adjunct idea:
e.g. We were ... talking about how bad we were – bad from a medical
point of view I mean, of course (J.K. Jerome).
The repetition of the same notion by means of different synonyms,
especially typical of epic poems, is sometimes regarded as another type
of repetition called synonymical: e.g. ... With the dew and damp of
meadows (H. Longfellow).

a stylistic device which consists in the deliberate


sustaining of anticipation by means of postponement
of the completion of the expressed thought:
e.g. If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,
But make allowance for their doubting too;
Suspence ……………………………………………………………
(retardation) If you can dream –- and not make dreams your
master;
If you can think – and not make thoughts your
aim,
……………………………………………………………
Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it,
And – which is more – you'll be a Man, my son!
(R. Kipling)

Suspense helps to hold the reader’s attention, creating the tension


of uncertainty and expectation. The examples of suspense fiction are
detective and adventure stories.
Sometimes the conclusion of the suspended utterance goes
contrary to the aroused expectations, which is a device often practised
for humorous effects.

102
Supplement B. Stylistic Devices

a stylistic device, a figure of speech in which a


number of ideas are so arranged that each succeeding
Climax one rises above its predecessor in impressiveness,
(gradation) force, importance or emotional tension:
e.g. Janet Spence’s parlour-maid was ... ugly on
purpose … malignantly, criminally ugly (A. Huxley)

Proceeding from the nature of the emphasized phenomenon it is


possible to speak of logical, emotive or quantitative types of climax.
Logical climax is based on the relative, objective or subjective,
importance of the component parts looked at from the point of view of
the concepts embodied in them.
e.g. Ne barrier wall, ne river deep and wide,
Ne horrid crags, nor mountains dark and tall
Rise like the rocks that part Hispania's land from Gaul (G. Byron).
Emotional climax is based on the relative emotional tension
produced by words with emotive meaning.
e.g. It was a lovely city, a beautiful city, a fair city, a veritable gem
of a city.
Quantitative climax is based on the increase in the volume of
the corresponding concepts.
e.g. Little by little, bit by bit, and day by day, and year by year the
baron got the worst of some disputed question (Ch. Dickens).

a stylistic device, a figure of speech in which ideas are


arranged in ascending order of significance or emotion
or logical importance accumulated is unexpectedly
Anticlimax
broken and brought down:
(bathos)
e.g. This war like speech, received with many a
cheer, Had filled them with desire of fame, and
beer (G. Byron)

Anticlimax is frequently used to produce a humorous or ironic


effect: e.g. A woman who could face the very devil himself – or a mouse –
loses her grip and goes all to pieces in front of a flash of lightning
(M. Twain).
Sometimes anticlimax is closely connected with paradoxes: e.g.
This was appalling – and soon forgotten (J. Galsworthy).

103
Supplement B. Stylistic Devices

a stylistic device consisting in an opposition or


contrast of ideas expressed by parallelism of
contrasted words placed at the beginning and at the
Antithesis
end of a syntactical unit:
e.g. Some people have much to live on, and little to
love for (O. Wilde)

Antithesis is often based on the use of antonyms and is aimed at


emphasizing contrasting features: e.g. Too brief for our passion, too long
for our peace (G. Byron).
Parallelism is the organizing axis of antithesis. The antagonistic
features of the two objects or phenomena are better perceived when
they stand out in similar structures. Unless antithesis is conspicuously
marked in the utterance, the effect might be lost.

a stylistic device, a type of understatement, which


consists in the use of a negative for the contrary:
Litotes
e.g. He had not been unhappy all day
(E. Hemingway)

Sometimes litotes may serve as a means of expressing irony: e.g.


God has made man in his image, and it was not unreasonable for
Mr. Ferraro to return the compliment (G. Greene).

3. Phonetic Stylistic Devices

a phonetic stylistic device consisting in the use of


words whose sounds imitate those of the signified
object or action:
Onomatopoeia
e.g. hiss, murmur, sizzle
And now there came the chock-chock of wooden
hammers (K. Mansfield)

Imitating the sounds of nature, man, inanimate objects, the


acoustic form of the word foregrounds the latter, inevitably emphasizing
its meaning too. Thus the phonemic structure of the word proves to be
important for the creation of expressive and emotive connotations.
There are two types of onomatopoeia: direct and indirect.
Direct onomatopoeia is the use of words imitating natural
sounds, as ding-dong, buzz, roar and the like.
104
Supplement B. Stylistic Devices

Indirect onomatopoeia (sometimes called echo-writing) is a


combination of sounds the aim of which is to make the sound of the
utterance an echo of its sense: e.g. And the silken, sad, uncertain
rustling of each purple curtain (A. E. Poe). In this sentence the
repetition of the sound [s] produces the sound of the rustling of the
curtain. Unlike alliteration, indirect onomatopoeia demands some
mentioning of what makes the sound, as rustling of curtains in the
example.

a phonetic stylistic device the essence of which lies in


the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of
successive words or accented syllables:
Alliteration e.g. There are twelve months in all the year,
As I hear many men say,
But the merriest month in all the year
Is the merry month of May (Popular ballad)

Alliteration aims at imparting melodic effect to the utterance.


Besides, it is generally regarded as a musical accompaniment of the
author's idea, supporting it with some vague emotional atmosphere
which each reader interprets for himself: e.g. Deep into the darkness
peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing, doubting, dreaming
dreams no mortals ever dared to dream before (A. E. Poe). The
repetition of the sound [d] from the poem “The Raven” prompts the
feeling of anxiety, fear, horror, anguish or all these feelings
simultaneously.
While in Anglo-Saxon verse alliteration of stressed syllables in a
line was a chief metrical device, in modern times alliteration has been
mostly used for onomatopoeic or emphatic effects.

a phonetic stylistic device which consists in the


repetition of similar vowels, usually in stressed
syllables (sometimes combined with likeness in
consonants):
Assonance
e.g. Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered,
weak and weary.
And the Raven never flitting, still is sitting, still
is sitting (E. A. Poe)

105
Literature

LITERATURE

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Англ. мовою.
2. Бурлак Т. Ф., Крохалева Л. С., Кунцевич С. Е. Практикум
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13. The World’s Great Speeches. Edited by Lewis Copeland and


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текста

Учебное пособие

Подгайская Ирина Михайловна