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READINGS IN PHILIPPINE HISTORY

MIDTERMS

CASE STUDY 1: WHERE DID THE FIRST FILIPINO MASS TAKES PLACE IN THE PHILIPPINES?

Butuan

- Believed to be the site of the First Mass for three centuries. Culminating from the fact there is a
erection of a monument in 1872 near Agusan River.

TWO PRIMARY SOURCES FOR THE FIRST MASS:

Francisco Albo

- A pilot of one of Magellan’s ship, Trinidad.


- He was one of the 18 survivors who returned with Sebastian Elcano on the ship Victoria after
they circumnavigated the world.

Antonio Pigafetta

- Wrote the Primo Viaggio Intorno Al Mondo (First Voyage Around the World).
- A member of the Magellan Expedition.

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Miguel A. Bernad

- Wrote an article about the topic “Butuan or Limasawa? The Site of the First Mass in the
Philippines: A Reexamination of the Evidence” in 1981.

PRIMARY SOURCE: Albo’s Log

- On the 16th of March, as they sailed in a westerly coast of Ladrones, they saw lands towards the
northwest; but owing to many shallow places they did not approach it. They found later that its
name is Yunagan.
- They went instead that same day southwards to another small island named Suluan, and there
they anchored.
- Departing from those two islands, they sailed westward to an uninhabited island of “Gada”
where they took in a supply of wood and water. (From Pigafetta’s testimony, this seems to be
the “Acquada” or Homonhon, at 10 degrees North latitude).
- From that island they sailed westwards towards a large island names Seilani that was inhabited
and was known to have gold. (Seilani-Albo:Ceylon-Pigafetta, was the island of Leyte).
- Sailing southwards along the coast of that large island of Seilani, they turned southwest to a
small island called “Mazava”. That island is also at a latitude of 9 and two thirds degrees North.
- “Subu” was the island of Cebu.

PRIMARY SOURCE: Pigafetta’s Testimony

- (March 16 1521) Magellan’s Expedition sighted a high land named Zamal which was some 300
leagues westward of Ladrones (Marianas) Islands.
READINGS IN PHILIPPINE HISTORY
MIDTERMS

Homonhon (Humunu)

- Watering Place of Good Omen

Hibuson

- An island east of Leyte’s southern tip.

Boloto

- Small boat

Balanghai

- Large boat

First Mass

- Father Pedro De Valderrama


- March 31, 1521
- Limasawa

CASE STUDY 2: CAVITE MUTINY

Two Events that Happened in 1872:

- GOMBURZA (Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, Jacinto Zamora)


- Cavite Mutiny

Jose Montero Y Vidal

- Historian in which he is biased


- He centered on how the event was an attempt to overthrow the Spanish Government

Governor Rafael De Izquierdo

- The reason why the Cavite mutiny took place.

Joaquin Pardo De Tavera

- Filipino Spaniard that held the meeting in his house

Polo Y Servicios

- Forced labor

January 20, 1872

- Cavite Mutiny

Fernando La Madrid

- Led the Cavite Mutiny


READINGS IN PHILIPPINE HISTORY
MIDTERMS

Sentenced to Death:

- Joaquin Pardo De Tavera


- Antonio Ma. Regidor
- Pio Basa

February 17, 1872

- GOMBURZA was executed

Trinidad Pardo De Tavera

- A Filipino scholar and researcher, who wrote a Filipino version of the bloody incident in
Cavite.

Edmund Plauchut

- French writer who complemented Trinidad’s works.

CASE STUDY 3: Did Jose Rizal Retract?

Four Iteration of Jose Rizal’s retraction:

- La Voz Espanola
- Diario de Manila (Dec 30 1896)
- La Juventud (Barcelona, Spain)
- Vicente Balaguer (February 14 1897)

Fr. Vicente Balaguer

- In his statement, Jose Rizal’s Actions were questionable

Cuerpo De Vigilancia

- Report of the last hours of Rizal


- Written by Federico Moreno

Senor Taviel De Andrade

- Biased lawyer of Rizal

March and Vilaclara

- Jesuit priests who presents the retraction letter

Pio Valenzuela

- Visited Rizal in Prison


READINGS IN PHILIPPINE HISTORY
MIDTERMS

CASE STUDY 4: Where did the Cry of Rebellion Happen?

Cry of Rebellion

- El Grito De Rebellion
- 1896 of August
- Northeast of Manila

Teodoro Agoncillo

- Said that the Cry started when the Filipinos tore their cedula

Olegario Diaz

- August 25 1896, Balintawak

Teodoro Kalaw

- Kangkong, Balintawak. Last week of August 1896

Santiago Alvarez

- Son of Mariano Alvarez


- Leader of Magdiwang Faction
- Bahay Toro, Quezon City August 24, 1896

Pio Valenzuela

- Pugadlawin, August 23, 1896

Gregorio Zalde

- Balintawak, August 26 1896

Teodoro Agoncillo

- Pugadlawin, August 23 1896

Guillermo Masangkay

Memoirs of the Revolution

- Pio Valenzuela

Blood compact 

- (Spanish: Pacto de sangre, Filipino: Sanduguan) was an ancient ritual in the Philippines
intended to seal a friendship or treaty, or to validate an agreement. The contracting parties
would cut their wrists and pour their blood into a cup filled with liquid, such as wine, and
drink the mixture.
READINGS IN PHILIPPINE HISTORY
MIDTERMS