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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации  

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное  
учреждение высшего образования  
«Иркутский государственный университет»  
Байкальская международная бизнес‐школа 
 
 
 
 
 
Н. В. Копылова, А. Ю. Суслова 
 
 
MASTERING  
TOEFL VOCABULARY 
 
Учебно‐методическое пособие 
 
 
УДК 802.0(075.8)
ББК Ш143.21-923
К65

Печатается по решению
учебно-методической комиссии БМБШ ИГУ

Рецензенты:
А. В. Анненкова, канд. пед. наук, доц.
Н. В. Щурик, канд. филол. наук, доц.

Копылова Н. В.
К65 Mastering TOEFL Vocabulary : учеб.-метод. пособие /
Н. В. Копылова, А. Ю. Суслова. – Иркутск : Изд-во ИГУ,
2018. – 125 с.
ISBN 978-5-9624-1592-5
Цель пособия – расширение у обучающихся словарного запаса,
необходимого для подготовки к международному тесту TOEFL iBT.
Задания предполагают анализ употребления изучаемых слов в ака-
демическом контексте, а также чтение текстов и выполнение соот-
ветствующих заданий формата TOEFL. Разнообразные упражнения
составлены на основе статей из энциклопедий, справочников, толко-
вых словарей, тезаурусов, научно-популярных изданий и других
аутентичных источников. Пособие состоит из шести разделов и при-
ложения, содержащих текстовые материалы из области естествен-
ных, гуманитарных и технических наук.
Пособие предназначено для обучающихся со средним или вы-
соким уровнем владения английским языком, планирующих учиться
или работать в международной академической среде.

УДК 802.0(075.8)
ББК Ш143.21-923

ISBN 978-5-9624-1592-5 © Копылова Н. В., Суслова А. Ю., 2018


© ФГБОУ ВО «ИГУ», 2018
CONTENTS 

Chapter I. Psychology ................................................................ 4

Chapter II. Oceanography .......................................................... 15

Chapter III. Engineering ............................................................ 30

Chapter IV. Literature ................................................................ 44

Chapter V. Geology ................................................................... 58

Chapter VI. Zoology ................................................................... 74

Appendix ................................................................................... 89
Practice Tests
1. Life Success and Satisfaction .......................................... 89
2. Aquatic Schools ............................................................... 95
3. The Rise of Teotihuacán .................................................. 101
4. Beowulf ........................................................................... 108
5. What is an Earthquake? ................................................... 114
6. Distributions of Tropical Bee Colonies ........................... 120


 
Chapter I
PSYCHOLOGY 

Target Words:
attain dominate media
aware dynamic positive
coincide exploit professional
colleague generate role
demonstrate exhibit

Some Frequently Used Collocations: 
to attain the level / equilibrium
to attain freedom
attained accuracy / age
to be aware of / that
to be keenly / painfully / very much aware
to become aware
to coincide with something
to coincide exactly / briefly / roughly
respect from colleagues
to demonstrate beyond doubt /convincingly / adequately / vividly /
neatly
to demonstrate against (the slaughter of dolphins)
to demonstrate for (civil rights)
to dominate completely /entirely / totally
to dominate increasingly / largely / overwhelmingly


 
to be / seem / become / remain dynamic
highly / truly / fully dynamic
increasingly / essentially / fundamentally dynamic
to exploit somebody
to exploit something
to exploit something for something
to generate quickly / automatically / spontaneously
to generate from
to inhibit seriously / severely / significantly
to inhibit from
media attention / coverage / image / publicity
through / via the media
access to the media
the role of the media
absolutely / quite positive
to be positive about
to be / appear / feel / seem / sound / remain positive
perform / play / take a role
in the role

I.  Match  the  words  to  their  definitions.  There  may  be  more  than  one 
definition of every word. Write the letter(s) in the blanks. 
1. attain a) marked by usually continuous and productive ac-
tivity or change
b) having or showing realization, perception, or
knowledge
2. coincide c) to keep (someone) from doing what he or she
wants to do
d) to occupy the same place in space or time
e) to use (someone or something) in a way that helps
you unfairly
3. dominate f) to come to as the end of a progression or course of
movement
g) to have or exert mastery, control, or preeminence
4. exploit h) to be in accord or agreement
i) to be predominant in
5. inhibit j) to correspond in nature, character, or function


 
k) to overlook from a superior elevation or command
because of superior height or position
6. media l) to prevent or slow down the activity or occurrence
m) of (something)
n) to come or arrive by motion, growth, or effort —
usually used with to
7. aware o) to exert the supreme determining or guiding influ-
ence on
p) to get value or use from (something)
8. dynamic q) the radio stations, television stations, and news-
papers through which information is communicat-
ed to the public
r) to reach as an end
s) to occupy exactly corresponding or equivalent po-
sitions on a scale or in a series
1._____________________________________________________
2._____________________________________________________
3._____________________________________________________
4._____________________________________________________
5._____________________________________________________
6._____________________________________________________
7._____________________________________________________
8._____________________________________________________

II. Match the words to their synonyms. Write the letter in the blank. 
1. coincide a) cognizant; conscious; sensible; alive; awake
2. generate b) use; manipulate; employ; utilize
3. dominate c) constrain; discourage; prohibit; restrain; for-
bid; curb
4. aware d) prevail; influence; command; overshadow;
lead
5. exploit e) match; accompany; concur; correspond
6. inhibit f) cable; publishing; news; correspondence;
communications
7. media g) determine; establish; manifest; indicate
8. positive h) gain; achieve; obtain; acquire


 
9. professional i) confident; decisive; firm; specific
10. role j) energetic; aggressive; charismatic; changing;
forceful; vigorous
11. attain k) part; character; performance; portrayal; ap-
pearance; act
12. dynamic l) cause; provoke; develop; achieve; engender
13. colleague m) competent; experienced; efficient; skillful
14. demonstrate n) coworker; companion; ally; partner; aide

1._____ 6._____ 11.____


2._____ 7._____ 12.____
3._____ 8._____ 13.____
4._____ 9._____ 14.____
5._____ 10.____

III. Synonyms: Choose the word that best completes the sentence. 
1. We met completely by coincidence / correspondence / correlation.
2. The coat coincided / matches / correspond the dress.
3. The two accidents matched / coincided / correlated with each other.
4. I inhibit / curb / forbid you to call me late at night.
5. It could frustrate / inhibit / forbid the poor from getting the med-
ical care they need.
6. Jason was willing to maneuvers / exploit / accomplish his good
looks to get money from the wealthy widow.
7. Linda cannot attain / hit / succeed peace of mind until she finds
her missing dog.
8. They're planning to acquire / attain / achieve a new inexpensive
home in the country.
9. They were well attentive / aware / receptive of what could have
happened.
10. It soon became clear that the khedive was powerless, and that
the military party, headed by Arabi, threatened to overshadow /
dominate / lead the country.
11. We're building a bigger battery to store the energy we cause /
develop / generate from the river, but … Kelli shrugged.
12. After watching the licensed / professional / efficient baseball
game, Johnny aspired to become a famous athlete one day.


 
13. Certain role / portrayal / character traits are helpful in the
teaching profession.
14. The World Wide Web will play an enormous appearance / role
/ part in ending war, on several levels.

IV. Match the words to their antonyms. Write the letter in the blank. 
1. inhibit a) abandon
2. attain b) contend, contradict
3. coincide c) undeveloped
4. exploited d) empower, give consent, give permission
5. generate e) hide, misrepresent
6. dominate f) destroy, eradicate
7. aware g) surrender, yield
8. demonstrate h) unconscious, oblivious

V. Antonyms: Choose the word that best completes the sentence. 
Sample: Residents of Hawaii must accept the possibility of a vol-
canic eruption / perseverance.
1. The earnings rule inhibited / encouraged some retired people
from working.
2. We know it is easier to destroy / generate than to create.
3. We in Scotland have already seen how they will shamelessly ex-
ploit / leave alone anything they believe can further their ex-
tremist cause.
4. She wore neither makeup nor jewelry, but her blouse and skirt
demonstrated / hid that she had made a half-hearted attempt to
dress for company.
5. The messy studio from last week had been transformed into a
professional / amateur art gallery.
6. The wet season, during which heavy rain falls almost daily, lasts
from April to October, coinciding / mismatching with the south-
west monsoon.
7. Different ideals dominate / neglect the party in the different
states.
8. It wouldn't hurt to adopt a more negative / positive outlook.


 
VI. Use the words from the following box to complete the passages below: 
demonstrating coincide positive attaining media attain
professional generate exploiting attain dominate

Passage 1
Often it is the news _____ that tells us when someone is
deemed a success in our culture, world or community – the star of
the basketball game who scored 33 points, the company whose
stock hit a record high or the video that went viral for that particular
day of the year.
Passage 2
_____success in your life: you are a leader of your own cor-
poration. You become a leader by _____ the qualities of leadership
whenever those qualities are required by the situation. It's not
enough to be good at what you do. In today's business world, you
must _____.
Passage 3
However you characterize success, it’s something that nearly
everyone is after. While our definitions of success might differ,
the desire to ____ success at one thing or another remains constant.
Passage 4
After all, one person’s definition of success may be to graduate
with a MBA from Harvard while someone else may simply define
success as ____ grades that will open the door to a college education.
Passage 5
The materials we _____ should be a byproduct of the life we
wish to live. And the life we live should be in alignment with what
we value. And what we value should _____ with wanting to leave
the world better than how we found it.
Passage 6
And how it can help you decide what you want both profes-
sionally and personally. Because that might sound like personal
success to you; but it’s truly a _____ success goal that I set.


 
Passage 7
According to a report by the Centre for Entrepreneurs and
Coutts these include an ability to spot new opportunities, a willing-
ness to delegate, an aptitude for building and _____ a wide-ranging
professional network.
Passage 8
Why desire can _____ success? In order to mold the world in a
way, you have to work, and most importantly do something. Hav-
ing a dream is an awesome place to start. Now go do something
about it.

VII. Read the passage below and do the tasks. 

Aggression 
1. When one animal attacks another, it engages in the most ob-
vious example of aggressive behavior. Psychologists have adopted
several approaches to understanding aggressive behavior in people.
2. The Biological Approach. Numerous biological structures
and chemicals appear to be involved in aggression. One is the hypo-
thalamus, a region of the brain. In response to certain stimuli, many
animals show instinctive aggressive reactions. The hypothalamus
appears to be involved in this inborn reaction pattern: electrical
stimulation of part of the hypothalamus triggers stereotypical ag-
gressive behaviors in many animals. In people, however, whose
brains are more complex, other brain structures apparently moder-
ate possible instincts.
3. An offshoot of the biological approach called sociobiology
suggests that aggression is natural and even desirable for people.
Sociobiology views much social behavior, including aggressive be-
havior, as genetically determined. Consider Darwin's theory of evo-
lution. Darwin held that many more individuals are produced than
can find food and survive into adulthood. A struggle for survival
follows. Those individuals who possess characteristics that provide
them with an advantage in the struggle for existence are more likely
to survive and contribute their genes to the next generation. In
many species, such characteristics include aggressiveness. Because
aggressive individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce,

10 
 
whatever genes are linked to aggressive behavior are more likely to
be transmitted to subsequent generations.
4. The sociobiological view has been attacked on numerous
grounds. One is that people's capacity to outwit other species, not
their aggressiveness, appears to be the dominant factor in human
survival. Another is that there is too much variation among people
to believe that they are dominated by, or at the mercy of, aggressive
impulses.
5. The Psychodynamic Approach. Theorists adopting the
psychodynamic approach hold that inner conflicts are crucial for
understanding human behavior, including aggression. Sigmund
Freud, for example, believed that aggressive impulses are inevitable
reactions to the frustrations of daily life. Children normally desire
to vent aggressive impulses on other people, including their parents,
because even the most attentive parents cannot gratify all of their
demands immediately. Yet children, also fearing their parents' pun-
ishment and the loss of parental love, come to repress most aggres-
sive impulses. The Freudian perspective, in a sense, sees us as
"steam engines." By holding in rather than venting "steam," we set
the stage for future explosions. Pent-up aggressive impulses de-
mand outlets. They may be expressed toward parents in indirect
ways such as destroying furniture, or they may be expressed toward
strangers later in life.
6. According to psychodynamic theory, the best ways to pre-
vent harmful aggression may be to encourage less harmful aggres-
sion. In the steam-engine analogy, verbal aggression may vent
some of the aggressive steam. So might cheering on one's favorite
sports team. Psychoanalysts, therapists adopting a psychodynamic
approach, refer to the venting of aggressive impulses as "catharsis."
Catharsis is theorized to be a safety valve. But research findings on
the usefulness of catharsis are mixed. Some studies suggest that ca-
tharsis leads to reductions in tension and a lowered likelihood of fu-
ture aggression. Other studies, however, suggest that letting some
steam escape actually encourages more aggression later on.
7. The Cognitive Approach. Cognitive psychologists assert
that our behavior is influenced by our values, by the ways in which
we interpret our situations, and by choice. For example, people who

11 
 
believe that aggression is necessary and justified—as during war-
time—are likely to act aggressively, whereas people who believe
that a particular war or act of aggression is unjust, or who think that
aggression is never justified, are less likely to behave aggressively.
8. One cognitive theory suggests that aggravating and painful
events trigger unpleasant feelings. These feelings, in turn, can lead
to aggressive action, but not automatically. Cognitive factors inter-
vene. People decide whether they will act aggressively or not on the
basis of factors such as their experiences with aggression and their
interpretation of other people's motives. Supporting evidence comes
from research showing that aggressive people often distort other
people's motives. For example, they assume that other people mean
them harm when they do not.

Questions 1‐9. Choose the right answer.  
1. According to paragraph 2, what evidence indicates that ag-
gression in animals is related to the hypothalamus?
(A) Some aggressive animal species have a highly developed
hypothalamus.
(B) Artificial stimulation of the hypothalamus results in ag-
gression in animals.
(C) Animals behaving aggressively show increased activity in
the hypothalamus.
(D) Animals who lack a hypothalamus display few aggressive
tendencies.

2. According to Darwin's theory of evolution (paragraph 3), mem-


bers of a species are forced to struggle for survival because
(A) not all individuals are skilled in finding food
(B) individuals try to defend their young against attackers
(C) many more individuals are born than can survive until the
age of reproduction
(D) individuals with certain genes are more likely to reach
adulthood

12 
 
3. The word "inevitable" in the passage 5 is closest in meaning to
(A) unavoidable
(B) regrettable
(C) controllable
(D) unsuitable

4. The word "gratify" in the passage 5 is closest in meaning to


(A) identify
(B) modify
(C) satisfy
(D) simplify

5. The word "they" in the passage 5 refers to


(A) future explosions
(B) pent-up aggressive impulses
(C) outlets
(D) indirect ways

6. According to paragraph 5, Freud believed that children ex-


perience conflict between a desire to vent aggression on their
parents and
(A) a frustration that their parents do not give them everything
they want
(B) a fear that their parents will punish them and stop loving
them
(C) a desire to take care of their parents
(D) a desire to vent aggression on other family members

7. Freud describes people as steam engines in order to make


the point that people
(A) deliberately build up their aggression to make themselves
stronger
(B) usually release aggression in explosive ways
(C) must vent their aggression to prevent it from building up
(D) typically lose their aggression if they do not express it

13 
 
8. According to the cognitive approach described in para-
graphs 7 and 8, all of the following may influence the deci-
sion whether to act aggressively EXCEPT a person's
(A) moral values
(B) previous experiences with aggression
(C) instinct to avoid aggression
(D) beliefs about other people's intentions

9. The word “distort” in the paragraph 8 is closest in meaning to


(A) mistrust
(B) misinterpret
(C) criticize
(D) resent

Question 10. Complete the table below by matching five of the six answer 
choices with the approach to aggression that they exemplify.  
Approach Associated
to Understanding Aggression Claims
Biological Approach
Psychodynamic Approach
Cognitive Approach

Answer Choices
1. Aggressive impulses toward people are sometimes expressed in
indirect ways.
2. Aggressiveness is often useful for individuals in the struggle for
survival.
3. Aggressive behavior may involve a misunderstanding of other
people's intentions.
4. The need to express aggressive impulses declines with age.
5. Acting aggressively is the result of a choice influenced by a per-
son's values and beliefs.
6. Repressing aggressive impulses can result in aggressive behavior.

From: Phillips D. Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test


The Next Generation iBT. N. Y. : Pearson Education, 2015.

14 
 
Chapter II
OCEANOGRAPHY 

Target Words:
aggregate erode temporary
annual finite terminate
compatible impact trace
conduct occupy ultimate
contribute process

Some Frequently Used Collocations: 
in (the) aggregate
aggregate demand / supply / effect / expenditure / output / score
an annual meeting / event / report / conference / festival / holiday
an annual income / subscription / budget / salary / total / average
to be / seem compatible with
highly / very / entirely / fully /perfectly / quite / totally / wholly / di-
rectly / hardly / logically / technologically compatible
(a(n)) improper / unprofessional / aggressive / violent / criminal /
illegal / unlawful /wrongful / personal / business /professional /
good / human / day-to-day / proper conduct
to engage in / regulate / explain conduct
by conduct
a conduct towards
a code of / rules of / standards of conduct
to conduct independently / personally / properly / successfully

15 
 
to conduct oneself honorably / well / with dignity
to conduct heat / electricity
to contribute enormously / generously / greatly / substantially /
equally / fully / financially / significantly / largely / effectively
/ further / actively / directly
to have little / a lot / much to contribute
to contribute to / towards something
to erode badly / deeply /seriously / severely / completely / further /
gradually / slowly / steadily / rapidly / easily / away
to tend / threaten to erode
to erode confidence / credibility / liberty / support / trust
(a) finite number / supply / amount / resource / set
a big / considerable / dramatic / enormous / great / high / huge / ma-
jor / powerful / significant / strong /substantial / tremendous
impact
a(n) limited / minimal / maximum / full / total / overall / growing /
increasing / uneven / aggregate / cumulative / direct / immedi-
ate / instant / short-term / long-term / lasting / far-reaching impact
a(n) future / likely / possible / potential / beneficial / favorable /
positive / catastrophic / damaging / disastrous / negative / seri-
ous / human / personal / physical / visual impact
a(n) cultural / ecological / economic / emotional / environmental /
financial / health / political / psychological / social impact
to achieve / create / exert / have / make / feel / analyze / monitor /
study / increase / maximize / alleviate / lessen / minimize / reduce
/ soften / diminish / weaken / lose / resist / withstand impact
to be concerned about / appreciate / highlight / address / predict /
reflect impact
under the impact of something
an impact on something
to occupy (a) base / building / country / floor / habitat / land / mind
/ niche / place / position / role / room / seat / territory
a gradual / lengthy / long / slow / constant / continuous / complex /
complicated / difficult / natural / due / painful process
a(n) consultative / decision-making / management / planning / cog-
nitive / creative/ learning / mental / assessment / selection /
democratic / electoral / political / chemical / industrial / manu-

16 
 
facturing / production / ageing / biological / evolutionary /
physical / judicial / legal / peace / historical social process
to go through / accelerate / speed up / stimulate / undergo / begin /
stop process
a/the process takes place
a/the process for / of something
a stage in / of the process
to process efficiently / quickly / automatically / routinely
to process for / into something
highly processed foods
to be very / strictly / relatively / only temporary
(a(n)) temporary measure / solution / arrangement / housing /
worker / accommodation / administration / improvement / in-
convenience / work / relief
to terminate abruptly / prematurely / swiftly / automatically
to terminate (a(n)) activity / appointment / contract / employee /
employment / lease / pregnancy / tenancy
to decide to terminate something
the right to terminate something
to leave / show / discover / find / remove / contain / find / detect a
trace
with / without a trace of something
a faint / slight / small / tiny / unmistakable trace
(a(n)) trace amount / element / gas / metal / mineral
to trace to
to be able / unable / attempt / try / fail / be difficult / possible to
trace
to trace successfully / carefully / easily / directly / back
ultimate aim / goal / purpose / objective / challenge / conclusion /
defeat / destination / expression / fantasy / loser / outcome /
penalty / power / responsibility / solution / success / truth
the ultimate in something
to make the ultimate sacrifice
to pay the ultimate price
   

17 
 
I.  Match  the  words  to  their  definitions.  There  may  be  more  than  one 
definition of every word. Write the letter(s) in the blanks. 
1. aggregate a) to guide or lead (someone) through or around a
place
b) to help to cause something to happen; to have a
share in a result, have a hand in something
2. compatible c) the way that a person behaves in a particular
place or situation
d) a powerful or major influence or effect
3. conduct e) a series of actions that produce something or
that lead to a particular result
f) to allow (heat or electricity) to move from one
place to another
g) to hit (something) with great force
4. contribute h) to change (something) from one form into an-
other by preparing, handling, or treating it in a
special way
i) a total amount; forming a collection from sepa-
rate parts
5. erode j) a series of changes that happen naturally
k) last in a series or process
6. impact l) to plan and do (something, such as an activity)
m) to gradually destroy (something) or to be grad-
ually destroyed by natural forces (such as wa-
ter, wind, or ice)
7. process n) the most extreme; best, worst, greatest, most
important, etc.
o) to join or combine into a single group
p) to deal with (something, such as an official
document or request) by using a particular
method or system
8. ultimate q) to give (something, such as money, goods, or
time) to help a person, group, cause, or organi-
zation
r) to direct the performance of (musicians or
singers)
s) able to exist together without trouble or conflict

18 
 
1._____________________________________________________
2._____________________________________________________
3._____________________________________________________
4._____________________________________________________
5._____________________________________________________
6._____________________________________________________
7._____________________________________________________
8._____________________________________________________

II. Match the words to their synonyms. Write the letter in the blank. 
1. aggregate a) to donate; provide; give; be partly responsi-
ble for; add to
2. annual b) limited; restricted; fixed; predetermined
3. compatible c) to inhabit; populate; hold; be busy with;
take up; seize; capture
4. conduct d) cumulative; accumulated; total; combined;
to assemble; collect
5. contribute e) brief; short-lived; limited; interim; provi-
sional
6. erode f) to manage; direct; handle; operate; organ-
ize; perform; carry out; behave
7. finite g) to end; cease; stop; discontinue; come to an
end; run out; dismiss
8. impact h) hint; mark; footprint; small amount; to
search for; determine; locate; find; outline
9. occupy i) final; fundamental; best; worst; supreme
10. process j) effect; impression; influence; meaning; sig-
nificance; collision; force; blow
11. temporary k) yearly
12. terminate l) action; operation; procedure; practice;
method; development; progress; system; to
handle; transform
13. trace m) to deteriorate; wear away; destroy
14. ultimate n) harmonious; agreeable; well-matched; suitable

19 
 
1._____ 6._____ 11.____
2._____ 7._____ 12.____
3._____ 8._____ 13.____
4._____ 9._____ 14.____
5._____ 10.____

III. Synonyms: Choose the word that best completes the sentence. 
1. Fish tend to aggregate / total / combined in considerable num-
bers around floating objects such as seaweed.
2. This holiday is not really compatible / suitable / agreeable for
wheelchair users.
3. The theory does not seem compatible / harmonious / agreeable
with his other ideas.
4. This was a problem that I just couldn't conduct / handle / behave.
5. A code of conduct / operation / handle helps to set a standard in
the workplace for the staff/members so that they know what
could be expected of them in that environment.
6. Some metals conduct / perform / direct heat.
7. Please sign this form if you would like to contribute / be respon-
sible / donate your organs when you die.
8. The building was completely worn away / eroded / destroyed by
fire last year.
9. Earth minerals and metal ores are examples of non-renewable,
or finite / fixed / predetermined resources.
10. Places on the bus are finite / limited / fixed to 50 -
so book early!
11. We need to understand the impact / collision / impression of
climate change on the oceans.
12. Marine biologists and scientists use underwater digital cameras
to occupy / capture / inhabit marine life.
13. The term “oceanography” can be traced / marked / located back
to the Greek words meaning “ocean” and “write”.
14. Trace / mark / outline amounts of the pesticide were found in
many foods.
15. This is just a(n) trace / locate / outline of my report on coral
bleaching.

20 
 
IV.  Word Families:  Choose  the  word form  that correctly completes  the 
sentence. 
1. Some of the algae are free-floating, but most live on shore rocks
or in large _____ on stagnant water, such as in ponds.
A) aggregate
B) aggregating
C) aggregated
D) aggregations

2. At breeding time, the females of the beaked sea snake _____ in


quiet shallow waters and produce litters of about 10 to 30 live
young.
A) aggregates
B) aggregate
C) aggregating
D) aggregation

3. We couldn’t complete the experiment because of software ____.


A) compatible
B) incompatible
C) incompatibility
D) compatibly

4. Smithsonian scientists _____ research and exploration around


the world.
A) conducts
B) conduct
C) conducting
D) conductors

5. Water pollution is a _____ factor to the coral bleaching occur-


ring in the Great Barrier Reef.
A) contribute
B) contributing
C) contributor
D) contributes

21 
 
6. Coastal _____ is the wearing away of land and the removal of
beach or sand dunes sediments by wave action, tidal currents,
wave currents, drainage or high winds.
A) erosion
B) erode
C) eroded
D) erosive

7. Ocean waves have an _____ effect on the shoreline.


A) erodes
B) eroded
C) erosive
D) erode

8. The night sky was filled with an _____ of stars.


A) infinite
B) finite
C) infinitely
D) infinity

9. Fossil fuels are _____ resources. It means they are available on


Earth only in limited supplies and will run out one day.
A) infinite
B) finite
C) finitely
D) infinity

10. The greater part of the 8 million square miles within the Arctic
Circle is _____ by the Arctic Ocean.
A) occupant
B) occupying
C) occupied
D) occupies

11. It is legal to take shells from Lee County Florida if they don't
have _____ (no live shells).
A) occupation

22 
 
B) occupied
C) occupants
D) occupying

12. The oil pipeline _____ at a shipping port.


A) terminates
B) terminal
C) termination
D) terminative

V. Choose the word that best completes the sentence. 
1. In addition to three human _____ , the deep submersible Alvin
carries six small interconnected RCA computers to help interpret
and remember data.
A) conductors
B) occupants
C) contributing
D) processor

2. Overfishing should be banned because it _____ results in rising


depletion of fish species.
A) ultimately
B) terminal
C) compatible
D) finitely

3. It is one of the largest seafood _____ in the country.


A) occupants
B) processors
C) contributor
D) aggregate

4. Because the camera broke down, a smaller one was ___ installed.
A) compatible
B) annually
C) temporarily
D) ultimate

23 
 
5. It has been estimated that over 400,000 marine mammals
die _____ due to plastic pollution in oceans.
A) annually
B) ultimately
C) temporarily
D) finitely

6. Worldwide, the health of coral reefs is _____ because of human


activities.
A) impacting
B) contributing
C) eroding
D) conducting

7. Chemical wastes that end up in the ocean _____ substantially


to habitat destruction.
A) conduct
B) erode
C) impact
D) contribute

8. Oceanographers examine all forms of oceanic biological _____


that involve living organisms.
A) aggregate
B) processes
C) traces
D) occupation

9. This decision will have a disastrous _____ on foreign policy.


A) contribution
B) erosion
C) terminal
D) impact

10. Healthy coral reefs and large nearby human populations seem ____.
A) temporarily
B) incompatible

24 
 
C) aggregate
D) occupy

11. Britain’s decision to _____ fishing rights enjoyed historically


by vessels from five of its European neighbors sends an alarm-
ing political signal.
A) finite
B) conduct
C) occupy
D) terminate

12. A fish _____ device is a man-made object used to attract some


of the ocean fishes.
A) aggregating
B) terminating
C) compatible
D) traced

13. After heading for the warm waters of the Caribbean, the Wasp
mysteriously disappeared, and no _____ of the ship or crew was
ever found.
A) occupy
B) impact
C) trace
D) ultimate

VI. Use the words from the following boxes to complete the passages below: 
Passage 1
marine overfishing shorelines biodiversity
preserve habitats increasing reefs
Coral (1)_____ are a precious resource in the ocean because of
their beauty and (2)_____. Coral reefs provide shelter for a wide
variety of (3)_____life, they provide humans with recreation, they
are a valuable source of organisms for potential medicines, they
create sand for beaches, and they serve as a buffer for (4)_____.

25 
 
These important (5)_____ are threatened by a range of human
activities. Many of the world’s reefs have already been destroyed or
severely damaged by an (6)_____ array of threats, including pollu-
tion, (7)_____, and global climate change. However, we can still
protect and (8)_____ our remaining reefs if we act now.

Passage 2
currents shores oceanographic voyage chemical seafloor explored
Humans have observed the oceans since ancient times. The in-
terest of early civilizations centered mainly on practical matters,
such as gathering data on the ways of
sea life and on the tides and other
ocean phenomena affecting the
(9)_____. With the development of
ships, ocean studies were again princi-
pally concerned with practical matters
such as the charting of seaways to aid
navigation. Sailors also (10)_____ ocean depths and gathered data
on such phenomena as winds, ocean (11)_____, water tempera-
tures, and ice movements on the northern seas.
Oceanography as a science began in the 19th century with the
work of such men as U. S. naval officer Matthew Fontaine Maury and
his compilation of (12)_____ data from ships' logs. The first major
scientific expedition, and the one that firmly established the field of
oceanography, was the around-the-world (13)_____of H. M.
S. Challenger. Setting out from England in 1872, the Challenger Ex-
pedition returned three years and five months later with a wealth of
information on the physical and (14)_____ characteristics of seawater
and bottom sediments, as well as the first comprehensive data on the
distribution of organic life at all water depths and on the (15)_____.

Passage 3
submersibles device oceanic hydrothermal collection offshore
carry mechanical deep-sea
Oceanographers can explore the ocean directly by using scuba
diving equipment or more complex (16)_____diving systems.
Deeper descents require some kind of a pressure vessel such as a

26 
 
bell or submarine. The first oceanographic (17)_____ of this sort
was the bathysphere, a hollow steel ball built in 1930, which had to
be lowered and raised by a cable. In the late 1940s French explorer
Auguste Piccard developed his first bathyscaphe, a vessel that could
go up and down freely, and within a few years an advanced bathy-
scaphe had explored the world's deepest (18)_____ trench.
Since that time several true
(19)_____, or steerable underwa-
ter vehicles, have been built. One
such is Alvin, designed by Allyn
Vine of the Woods Hole Oceano-
graphic Institution. In the mid-
1980s Alvin was used to observe (20)_____ vents and also to visit
the wreckage of the famous ocean liner Titanic. Another
craft, Pisces, is a Canadian submersible that can (21)_____ a varie-
ty of packages for different samples. Flip is a semisubmersible ship
that is towed into position, where it assumes a vertical position with
most of its length underwater and then drifts with the (22)_____
currents. It was designed as a platform and housing unit for long-term
data (23)_____ and observation. Such crafts can be equipped with
many instruments and cameras as well as with (24)_____ arms.

VII. Read the passage below and do the tasks. 
Rogue waves are extremely large waves that are more than
double the average height of most waves. According to mathemati-
cal calculations and various personal accounts, rogue waves can
reach remarkable heights. They appear unexpectedly in calm waters
and can do major damage, even to large ships. Unlike tsunamis,
which are practically undetectable in deep water, rogue waves only
occur far out at sea. Stories about rogue waves have circulated
amongst sailors for centuries, but it was not until recently that sci-
entists confirmed that they actually exist. What they still are not
sure of, however, is what causes them.
Some instances of rogue waves have been explained by the in-
teractions of normal wave patterns with ocean currents. Scientists
believe that it is possible for waves to reach the heights described
when they come into contact with strong ocean currents. The wave

27 
 
heights increase significantly when a normal wave reaches a current
head on. In other words, the wave is built up by the power of the
current. This explanation was first proposed after scientists ob-
served a high incidence of rogue waves in the ocean surrounding
the southern tip of Africa. In fact, since 1990, at least twenty ships
have encountered the waves, which reportedly reached up to 190
feet. The waves are thought to be caused by wave interactions with
the strong Agulhas Current, which runs southbound along the east
coast of the continent.
Ocean currents may be responsible for rogue waves in some
parts of the world, but scientists have confirmed their existence
even in areas that are not affected by strong currents. In those cases,
scientists think that the waves are caused by wave reinforcement.
Wave reinforcement is when two or more waves join together to
form one massive wave. When the waves are joined, each height is
added to the others. For example, if a ten-foot wave comes into
contact with a fifteen-foot wave, the resulting wave will be twenty-
five feet tall. According to some evidence, it is possible that many
waves can join together, which would create rogue waves. Scien-
tists still do not understand which circumstances cause wave rein-
forcement, but many propose that the reason rogue waves appear
suddenly is because they are formed by multiple smaller waves
randomly.

Choose the right answer. 
1. Why does the author mention tsunamis?
(A) to explain why rogue waves cannot be predicted
(B) to describe the similar mechanism that causes rogue waves
(C) to note that rogue waves and tsunamis are unrelated
(D) to show that rogue waves are comparable to tsunamis

2. The author uses the Agulhas Current as an example of


(A) how currents become stronger
(B) how multiple waves are built up by ocean currents
(C) a current that flows in the northern region of Africa
(D) a current that does not affect the wave height in the region

28 
 
3. The author discusses wave reinforcement in order to
(A) propose another theory for what causes rogue waves
(B) suggest that ocean currents cannot be responsible for rogue
waves
(C) demonstrate how rogue waves are created closer to land
(D) explain how multiple waves are able to interact at sea

4. The word many in the passage refers to


(A) circumstances
(B) waves
(C) rogue waves
(D) scientists

From: Edmunds P., McKinnon N. Developing Skills for the TOEFL iBT.
Portsmouth: Compass Publishing, 2009.

29 
 
Chapter III
ENGINEERING 

Target Words:
assume immigrate similar
create liberal structure
emerge locate technique
environment notwithstanding unique
ethnic predict

Some Frequently Used Collocations: 
let’s assume that…
to be reasonable / fair / easy / wrong to assume
to tend to assume
to naturally /safely / automatically / reasonably assume
to assume authority / command /control / duty / leadership / power
/ responsibility
to create something from / out of something
to create a new product
to emerge from / out of something
to eventually / suddenly / gradually /slowly / rapidly emerge
to begin / start to emerge
a new / immediate / friendly / hostile /natural / healthy / favorable /
dangerous /competitive / professional / home / world / global /
local environment
to create / provide a stimulating environment

30 
 
to protect / preserve / safeguard / improve / explore the environment
damage to the environment
conservation of the environment
environment issues
ethnic groups / communities
ethnic strife / tensions / violence
ethnic clothes / jewelry /cooking
immigrate to / from (a place)
liberal attitudes / views / opinions / theories / politicians
liberal with something
to be very broadly / fairly / relatively / essentially / remarkably lib-
eral in some matters
to quickly / easily / accurately locate something
be able / unable to locate something
to try / fail to locate something
to be difficult / easy to locate something
to be centrally / conveniently / ideally /strategically / physically lo-
cated
to accurately / exactly / confidently / wrongly predict something /
that…
to be able / unable / possible / impossible / easy / difficult to pre-
dict
to be / feel / look / sound / taste / remain similar to someone /
something in size, form, etc.
to be very / remarkably / basically / broadly / quite / rather / roughly
/ somewhat similar
a basic / simple / complex / logical / rigid / stable / formal / internal
/ solid / economic / social structure
to have / lack / be based on a structure
an effective / useful / simple / standard / advanced technique
to have / adopt / apply / employ / implement / try / use / develop / ac-
quire / learn / master / practice / improve / describe a technique
a technique for / in something allows / enables / works / is based
on / is derived from something
to be quite / totally / truly / by no means / far from / hardly / almost
/ virtually / apparently unique to (a place)
to make something / somebody unique

31 
 
I.  Match  the  words  to  their  definitions.  There  may  be  more  than  one 
definition of every word. Write the letter(s) in the blanks. 
1. assume a) to rise or appear from a hidden or unknown
place, to come out into view
b) the surrounding conditions that affect the
growth, health, progress, etc., of someone or
something
2. emerge c) not opposed to new ideas or ways of behaving
that are not traditional or widely accepted
d) belonging to a particular race or group of peo-
ple who have a culture that is different from
the main culture of a country
3. locate e) to think that something is true or probably true
without knowing that it is true
f) the way that something is built, arranged, or
organized
g) generous to others; giving time, money, etc.,
freely to other people
4. liberal h) believing that government should be active in
supporting social and political change
i) to find the place or position of something or
someone
5. environment j) to begin a duty as a job or responsibility
k) something that is built by putting parts togeth-
er and that usually stands on its own (such as
a house, tower, bridge, etc.)
6. ethnic l) to put something or someone in a particular place
m) to become known or apparent
7. structure n) very large in amount
o) the natural world
1._____________________________________________________
2._____________________________________________________
3._____________________________________________________
4._____________________________________________________
5._____________________________________________________
6._____________________________________________________
7._____________________________________________________

32 
 
II. Match the words to their synonyms. Write the letter in the blank. 
1. assume a) national; indigenous; native; cultural;
traditional; tribal; racial; folk
2. create b) find; determine; discover; place; estab-
lish; situate; put; set
3. emerge c) despite; in spite of, regardless of, never-
theless
4. environment d) analogous; comparable; like; akin, re-
sembling, suchlike
5. ethnic e) form; arrangement; design; format; or-
ganization; framework; system; con-
struction; building
6. immigrate f) method; approach; procedure; skill; pro-
ficiency; manner; performance; capabil-
ity; facility; know-how
7. liberal g) suppose; presume; guess; accept; take
over; simulate; take control
8. locate h) exclusive; sole; special; particular; rare;
uncommon; singular; unparalleled; un-
precedented; exceptional; peculiar; dis-
tinct; only
9. notwithstanding i) appear; materialize; come out; become
visible; arrive; show
10. predict j) cause; make; generate; produce; estab-
lish; fashion
11. similar k) circumstances; conditions; atmosphere;
surroundings; background; setting; na-
ture; habitat
12. structure l) anticipate; forecast; foresee; foretell; en-
vision; guess; conclude
13. technique m) progressive; broad-minded; open-
minded; tolerant; generous; abundant;
unconventional; plentiful; charitable
14. unique n) arrive; come in; migrate; settle; colonize

33 
 
1._____ 6._____ 11._____
2._____ 7._____ 12._____
3._____ 8._____ 13._____
4._____ 9._____ 14._____
5._____ 10.____

III. Synonyms: Choose the word that best completes the sentence. 
1. She was assumed / accepted / supposed to meet me here.
2. The police officers think that urban explorers are trouble mak-
ers creating / establishing / fashioning problems for the society.
3. We emerged / arrived / showed at Victoria Station at 3 o'clock.
4. ‘The author's new book has just emerged / come out / become
visible.’ – ‘Where can we buy it?’
5. Ancient cities, once seen as little more than myths and legends,
have now arrived / emerged / showed from the past, raising the
question as to how many more cities are lost under the waves or
beneath desert sands and waiting to be uncovered.
6. Under no circumstances / environment / habitat should you
leave the door unlocked.
7. The damage to the background / environment / setting is increas-
ing at an alarming rate mainly due to human activities.
8. More police have been sent to areas of high indigenous / folk /
ethnic tension.
9. My grandparents immigrated / settled / colonized from Hungary.
10. He always thought he'd leave the city and immigrate / settle /
colonize in the country.
11. She is known to have generous / liberal / abundant views on divorce.
12. We soon discovered / located / placed that the engineers had
made a mistake.
13. These historical and cultural circumstances despite / notwith-
standing / regardless, the practice is described as a form of
Chinese religion.
14. All excavation work, regardless / despite / notwithstanding
of the level of complexity, requires pre-planning.
15. Meteorologists forecast / foretell / conclude a heavy snowfall.
16. Their salaries are comparable / alike / resembling with those of
other miners.

34 
 
17. Our cats are like / similar / resembling in color.
18. They acted within the framework / structure / design of federal
regulation.
19. The roof of the format / structure / system was damaged by fire.
20. The ice-skaters will be judged on technique / know-how / facili-
ty and creativity.
21. These problems are not unprecedented / only /unique to our city.

IV.  Word Families:  Choose  the  word form  that correctly completes  the 


sentence. 
1. I think we can safely _____ that this situation will continue.
A) assumes
B) assume
C) assumptions
D) assumable

2. It is quite _____ that the local residents were opposed to the


project.
A) assume
B) assumes
C) assumption
D) assumable

3. As a team they worked _____ to resolve any of the on-site con-


struction issues.
A) creative
B) create
C) creatively
D) creation

4. During the Copper-Bronze Age, the towns _____ as trading


centers where different merchants met to trade.
A) emerged
B) emergence
C) emerging
D) emerges

35 
 
5. Following the _____ of new facts, they changed their original
plans.
A) emerge
B) emerged
C) emergence
D) emerges

6. ___ argue that the dam will affect the local fishing industry.
A) Environmental
B) Environment
C) Environmentalists
D) Environmentally

7. Such mining operations are _____ hazardous.


A) Environment
B) Environmental
C) Environmentalist
D) Environmentally

8. Approximately 60% of the people of Coober Pedy are Europe-


an, _____ from Southern and Eastern Europe after the Second
World War.
A) immigrant
B) migrating
C) migrates
D) emigrate

9. They enter the country as _____ workers.


A) immigrates
B) migrant
C) migrate
D) migrates

10. He has very _____ attitudes toward this idea.


A) liberal
B) liberty
C) liberally
D) liberate

36 
 
11. I am not at _____ to tell you the facts.
A) liberal
B) liberty
C) liberated
D) liberates

12. When the US explorer Hiram Bingham arrived in South Amer-


ica in 1911, his goal was to ____ the remains of a city called
Vitcos, the last capital of the Inca civilization.
A) location
B) local
C) locally
D) locate

13. Geologists _____that the tunnel would be in solid bedrock far


below the bottom of the valley fill.
A) predicts
B) predictable
C) predicted
D) predictability

14. Just as railway bridges were the great _____ symbols of the
19th century, highway bridges became the engineering em-
blems of the 20th century.
A) structure
B) structural
C) structuralize
D) structurally

15. Early in his career, Robert Maillard developed a unique meth-


od for designing concrete _____.
A) structures
B) structural
C) structuralize
D) structured

   

37 
 
V. Choose the word that best completes the sentence. 
1. Are you prepared to _____ full responsibility for the outcome
of your business?
A) assume
B) notwithstanding
C) emerge
D) migrate

2. Your argument is based on very questionable _____.


A) creature
B) assumptions
C) emerge
D) ethnical

3. The Egyptians developed _____ for cutting soft rocks with


copper saws and hollow reed drills.
A) liberty
B) similarities
C) techniques
D) assumed

4. He didn’t like Jack, _____ the similar views they both held.
A) notwithstanding
B) liberate
C) predicts
D) emerging

5. A town in Eastern Argentina has _____ out of flood waters af-


ter 25 years.
A) created
B) emerged
C) assumable
D) localize

6. The vast majority of buildings here are _____ sound and earth-
quake-resistant.
A) ethnic

38 
 
B) liberally
C) unique
D) structurally

7. There are thousands of underground tunnels from the north in


Scotland leading all the way down to the Mediterranean, and
_____ subterranean passages exist on other continents.
A) similar
B) technique
C) structuralize
D) ethnicity

8. _____ their inexperience, the prospectors were successful.


A) Emerging
B) Notwithstanding
C) Created
D) Unique

9. We are working on the ____ that the mining techniques are safe.
A) predictable
B) creative
C) environment
D) assumption

10. Dug-outs, or earth shelters, are _____ to burrows dug into the
ground by some animals.
A) creating
B) similar
C) locate
D) emergency

11. Each piece of a gemstone is chosen for its _____ and rarity.
A) similarly
B) environmental
C) liberty
D) uniqueness

39 
 
12. The bunker has two _____ exits.
A) creation
B) liberate
C) emergency
D) predicting

13. Because of the ongoing drought in the U. S. west and mountain


region, ghost towns _____ from the sand and muck left behind
by drying reservoirs.
A) create
B) emerge
C) assume
D) structure

14. The town’s population is made up of many _____ groups.


A) ethnic
B) structure
C) emerges
D) migrates

15. The workers from both mines were _____ equipped with new
drilling rigs.
A) notwithstanding
B) similarly
C) environmental
D) emergence
 
VI. Use the words from the following boxes to complete the passages below.  
Passage 1
rushes precious discovered remains seeking companies miners
Beginning in the late 1850s, gold and silver (1)_____ brought
huge crowds to the Colorado Rockies. (2)_____ arrived in search of
the (3)_____ metals. They settled temporary cities. One of the best-
known ones, Lulu City, was settled in the late 1870s after miners
(4)_____ silver nearby. By 1880, more than 500 miners lived in Lu-
lu City. It had a meat shop, a post office, and many houses and min-

40 
 
ing (5)_____ . Lulu City was short-lived. In just five years, miners
left the town, (6)_____ other oppo rtunities. Today, some visitors
choose to hike to this “ghost town,” where they will find old cabins
and (7)_____ of buildings.

Passage 2
mine passage helped kilometer underground supply weeks
drilled
Rescue workers at the San Jose gold and copper (8)_____ in
northern Chile had reason to sing this week. A small hole (9)_____
into the earth became a (10)_____ to freedom for thirty-three
trapped miners. They spent sixty-nine days (11)_____. "Never have
people been trapped for so long so deeply," says a doctor at NASA,
the American space agency, which (12)_____ in the rescue. A par-
tial mine collapse on August fifth trapped them more than half a
(13)______ underground. They had to stretch a two-day food
(14)____. For two (15)____ no one knew if they were alive or dead.

Passage 3
evacuated sinkhole threatening conditions
limestone collapse swallowed
A family in Florida is trying to deal with a (16)_____ that
opened up underneath their home and (17)_____ a man inside.
The sinkhole, now about 10 meters across, is (18)_____ to de-
vour the entire house. Other area residents have been (19)_____.
The state of Florida is especially prone to sinkholes in areas built
above (20)_____ deposits. That's because cavities develop in the
porous rock under wet (21)_____ , and can easily (22)_____.
 
VII. Read the passage below and do the tasks. 

Sinking Cities 
(A) Houston was literally built on a foundation of sand up to
several kilometers deep and loosely packed clay from river deposits
formed from the erosion of the Rocky Mountains. (B) In addition to
poor foundation materials, Houston has an estimated 300 fault lines

41 
 
running through it. (C) Using GPS data from 24 measuring points
throughout the country between 1995 to 2005 a research team were
able to monitor the area of subsidence and found an area of Hou-
ston measuring 30 kilometers squared was sinking very fast – up to
5 centimeters per year. The reason for the subsidence is quite sim-
ple: the withdrawal of water from deep below the surface. Areas of
Houston where water extraction has been stopped have stopped
sinking. (D)
Similarly, parts of Mexico City are subsiding rapidly due to poor
foundations – some areas of the city are sinking up to 20 centimeters
a year. The city is built on a dry lake bed in the valley of Mexico, and
the council has condemned fifty structures since 2006 because of
leaning, and about 5,000 homes and buildings are unstable. Some of
the heaviest buildings, like the Palace of Fine Arts, have sunk more
than three meters over the past one hundred years, and its original
ground floor is now the basement. Again the reason is the depletion
of the water reserve lying under the city. But in this case there is a
complicating factor: a vast complex of drains was built under the city
to protect it from flooding by water running from the surrounding
mountains. As the city sinks, so do the drains, and the wastewater
they were supposed to carry away is finding its way back to the city.
And it’s not only water mains and drains that have been affected; as
the city sinks the subway network is subsiding with it.

1. Look at the four letters (A), (B), (C) and (D) that indicate
where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
The fourth largest city in America is Houston, but it has been
built on shaky foundations, and these are now giving way.
Where would the sentence best fit?
(A) Option A
(B) Option B
(C) Option C
(D) Option D

42 
 
2. The word structures in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) formats
(B) arrangements
(C) buildings
(D) design

3. The word it in the passage refers to


(A) complex
(B) water
(C) reserve
(D) city

4. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as reasons


why some cities are sinking EXCEPT:
(A) unstable foundations
(B) damaged underground structures
(C) lack of sufficient water drainage
(D) geological features of the area

From: 7 Cities About to Sink. https://www.yahoo.com/lifestyle/7-cities-sink-


011841116.html

43 
 
Chapter IV
LITERATURE 

Target Words:
accumulate indicate sustain
adequate invest text
author persist volume
debate protocol
depress reluctance

Some Frequently Used Collocations: 
to accumulate gradually / slowly / steadily / rapidly
to begin to / be allowed to / tend to / accumulate
to be / prove/ seem / remain / adequate
to consider sth / think sth / adequate
really / very / perfectly / quite/ totally / more than / adequate
barely / hardly / less than / not entirely/ not wholly / adequate
best-selling / prolific / famous / well-known / anonymous / author
considerable / fierce / heated /intense / lively/ vigorous / debate
to have / contribute to / debate on
under debate
about / on / over the debate on the environment
brief / lengthy / long / acrimonious / heated / stormy / debate in the
House of Commons
congressional / parliamentary / debate on the fishing industry

44 
 
to participate in / speak in / take part in / debates
black / deep / serious / severe / acute / chronic / depression
to develop / fall into / go into / succumb to / experience / have /
suffer (from) / depression
in depression
with depression
great / major/ serious/ severe /economic/ depression
to be used to indicate
to appear to / seem to / indicate
to persist in doing smth
to persist with smth (questions)
to be likely to / tend to / be allowed to / persist
to invest carefully / safely / wisely / tax-free
to invest abroad / overseas /
to look to / plan to / seek to / invest
to precede / directly / immediately
considerable / deep / extreme / great / marked / certain /reluctance
to have / display / express / indicate / reflect / show / reluctance
with great reluctance
no longer sustain
to be able / unable to / can /could / help (to) / be difficult to / be
hard to / be impossible to sustain
to complete / full / draft / final / original / main / text
to create / draft / write / edit / modify / highlight / cut / delete / insert /
move / paste / scan (in) / handle / manipulate / process text
considerable / enormous / great / heavy / high / huge / large / sub-
stantial / vast / small / volume
to increase / turn up / decrease / turn down / grow / rise in / de-
crease / fall in volume

I.  Match  the  words  to  their  definitions.  There  may  be  more  than  one 
definition of every word. Write the letter(s) in the blanks. 
1. accumulate a) to happen or exist before something or someone, or
to come before something else in a series
b) to say or do something to make your wishes, in-
tentions etc clear

45 
 
2. debate c) a formal discussion of a particular problem,
subject etc in which people express different
opinions, and sometimes vote on them
d) to gradually get more and more money, posses-
sions, knowledge etc over a period of time
3. indicate e) to make something continue to exist or happen
for a period of time
f) discussion of a particular subject that often con-
tinues for a long time and in which people ex-
press different opinions
g) to make someone feel strong and hopeful
4. precede h) to suffer damage, an injury, or loss of money
i) to gradually increase in numbers or amount un-
til there is a large quantity in one place
5. reluctance j) to direct someone’s attention to something or
someone, for example by pointing
k) to continue to exist or happen
6. sustain l) to show that a particular situation exists, or that
something is likely to be true
m) system of rules about the correct way to behave
on an official occasion
n) when someone is unwilling to do something, or
when they do something slowly to show that
they are not very willing
7. persist o) to continue to do something, although this is
difficult, or other people oppose it persists
p) British English to show the direction in which
you intend to turn in a vehicle, using lights or
your hands
8. protocol q) to go somewhere before someone else
r) a written record of a formal or international
agreement, or an early form of an agreement
s) to represent something

1._____________________________________________________
2._____________________________________________________
3._____________________________________________________

46 
 
4._____________________________________________________
5._____________________________________________________
6._____________________________________________________
7._____________________________________________________
8._____________________________________________________

II. Match the words to their synonyms. Write the letter in the blank. 
1. adequate a) agreement, code, contract, covenant, custom,
obligation, pact
2. indicate b) accrue, assemble, collect, concentrate, grow,
expand, pile up, hoard, increase, swell
3. sustain c) devote, lend, provide, supply, spend
4. reluctance d) anticipate, foreshadow, predate, presage
5. precede e) acceptable, competent, capable, fair, decent,
satisfactory, sufficient, suitable, tolerable
6. depress f) announce, argue, demonstrate, express, hint,
illustrate, imply, make, mark, mean, pinpoint,
reveal, prove, show, point out, signal, speci-
fy, suggest
7. invest g) objections, unwillingness, hesitation, hesi-
tance
8. accumulate h) assist, bolster, buoy, continue, defend, help,
nurse, preserve, safe
9. persist i) afflict, beat down, bother, damp, dampen,
daunt, discourage, dishearten, dismay, dispir-
it, disturb, sadden, trouble, weaken
10. volume j) argument, contest, controversy, deliberation,
dispute, match
11. protocol k) biographer, columnist, composer, creator,
journalist, poet, producer, reporter, writer
12. author l) content, document, idea, paragraph, passage,
quotation, theme, verse, wording
13. text m) amount, figure, number, quantity, size, total,
aggregate
14. debate n) continue, endure, go on, linger, persevere,
prevail, pursue, recur, remain

47 
 
1._____ 6._____ 11.____
2._____ 7._____ 12.____
3._____ 8._____ 13.____
4._____ 9._____ 14.____
5._____ 10.____

III. Synonyms: Choose the word that best completes the sentence. 
1. I need a vehicle that can transport seven passengers, so neither a
car nor a truck will be adequate / comfortable / fast enough.
2. If he returned her affection, would she accumulate / grow / en-
large tired of him?
3. But then, not being married, how could he understand what was
required to be happy / to sustain / to make a marriage?
4. During the Great Enlightenment / Depression / Renaissance in
the United States, many unemployed Americans simply left the
city and went back to farm life, sometimes living with relatives.
5. An accomplished man of letters, a competent critic / author /
composer of art, a linguist of rare perfection and charming in
manner, but cynical and pleasure loving, he was certainly one of the
chief diplomatic personages in the reign of the last of the tsars.
6. His tact in overcoming the reluctance / willingness / desire of
the pope to be present at the coronation (it was only eight
months after the execution of the duc d'Enghien) received fur-
ther recognition.
7. Perhaps he's so upset over Martha's leaving that he can't concen-
trate / indicate / accumulate on anything else.
8. This bias is reflected in the maxim that "correction should pre-
cede / sustain / accumulate interpretation," which is no more
than a half-truth.
9. Big debate / story / talks about Shakespeare finally settled by big
data: Marlowe gets his due.
10. Although the arguments about his authorship / reluctance / de-
pression have raged for two centuries, his plays have been
printed and reprinted and reprinted again, bearing his name.

   

48 
 
IV.  Word Families:  Choose  the  word form  that correctly completes  the 
sentence. 
1. When a number of such characters _____, we further honor
them by assigning a new generic name.
A) accumulate
B) accumulated
C) accumulation
D) accumulating
2. After these syndromes, we come to the entire spectrum of men-
tal illnesses, from _____ to paranoia.
A) depress
B) depression
C) depressive
D) depressant
3. The company has _____ heavy financial losses this year.
A) sustaining
B) sustained
C) sustain
D) sustenance
4. There’s no evidence to dispute his claim to _____.
A) author
B) authorial
C) authorship
D) authorize
5. There has been widespread public _____ over the introduction
of genetically modified food.
A) debate
B) to debate
C) debatable
D) debater

6. In this way he completed the later _____, which were ready for
publication when he died on the 10th of November 1774.
A) volume
B) volumes

49 
 
C) voluble
D) volubly

7. Lunch will be _____ by a short speech from the chairman. .


A) precede
B) preceded
C) preceding
D) precedent

8. Their heads jerked up, water dripping from their muzzles as they
looked around, their ears perked forward searching for any
sound that might _____ danger.
A) indicate
B) indicative
C) indication
D) indicator

9. Having made the initial payment, _____ need make no further


effort.
A) invest
B) investor
C) investment
D) invested

10. The country has suffered from _____ economic problems.


A) persist
B) persistence
C) persistent
D) persistently

11. The authorities have been _____ to crack down on pachinko for
other reasons as well.
A) reluctant
B) reluctance
C) reluctantly
   

50 
 
V. Choose the word that best completes the sentence. 
1. The varied collections of Sir John Soane, _____ at his house in
Lincoln's Inn Fields, are open to view as the Soane Museum.
A) invested
B) preceded
C) accumulated
D) sustained

2. She was trained to assess, protect, repair, and _____ government


systems through any kind of crisis.
A) sustain
B) authorizes
C) invest
D) debate

3. The whole of this Memoire should be read to get an _____ idea


of Mirabeau's genius for politics; here it must be summarized.
A) authorial
B) debatable
C) adequate
D) persistent

4. The committee seemed strangely _____ to hold the auction.


A) persistently
B) reluctant
C) depress
D) authorial

5. In sparkling _____, he explored human experience like no other


writer before or since.
A) messages
B) utterances
C) texts
D) tails

51 
 
6. Could the name Shakespeare be a pseudonym for an anonymous
_____who had to remain incognito because he was politically
persecuted?
A) politician
B) critics
C) authors
D) actor

7. Shakespeare emerges from nowhere, almost overnight. Until


then, Marlowe _____ the theatrical scene.
A) dominated
B) debated
C) sustained
D) aggregated

8. Many of those who _____ that Shakespeare is the author of the


plays published under his name believe that Marlowe is the real
author.
A) debatable
B) doubt
C) persists
D) authorize

9. The __________ character Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, has be-


come one of the most cited characters in history. Throughout
Shakespeare's play Hamlet knows what he must do, but avoids it
in his mind.
A) reluctant
B) persists
C) comic
D) debate

10. Shakespeare _____ the difference in attitudes between the


Nurse, Lady Capulet, and Juliet towards love and marriage.
A) showed
B) preceded
C) experienced
D) sustained

52 
 
11. On the evening of November 12, 1993 in Faneuil Hall, Boston,
a mock trial was held to determine the true _________of the
Shakespearean body of work.
A) authorship
B) characterize
C) role
D) name

12. The Earl of Oxford died in 1604, before a number of the


________were thought to have been written. How to explain
this?
A) work
B) plays
C) short stories
D) role

VI.  Use  the  words  from  the  following  boxes  to  complete  the  passages 
below.  

Passage 1
persisted author authorship debate volume
William Shakespeare (1564–1616) is considered to be the
greatest (1) _____ in English Literature. He composed over 150
sonnets and wrote some of the most famous plays in the English

53 
 
language. There is some (2)______ about which category some of
the plays should be included in as there are often crossovers be-
tween the genres.
The depictions of monarchs including Richard III and Henry
have been influential in creating a perception of these kings which
has (3)______ throughout the centuries. Many historians point to
inaccuracies in the depictions, but the plays have been very power-
ful in presenting a particular image.
Complete Works of William Shakespeare is the standard name
given to any (4 )_______ containing all the plays and poems of
William Shakespeare. Home editions include several works which
were not completely of Shakespeare's (5)_____.

Passage 2
invest accumulate investments generate
By the time William was about 13, his father was struggling to
make enough money for his family. The business was not going
well, and although John Shakespeare was having trouble paying his
own bill, he agreed to back up the loans of other members of the
community.
He began to (6)______ a great deal of debt, and eventually was
unable to get out from under the financial strain. Later, his son Wil-
liam went to London and became rich through the theatre; he
(7)_______ in real property in Stratford-upon-Avon and London.
The Shakespeare family (8)______ began before William became
part owner of the Globe and ended just as the Blackfriars started to
(9)______ cash.

Passage 3
volume depression author reluctant
Polish-born English novelist Joseph Conrad is one of the great
modern writers of England.
His father was a writer and a translator of the works of William
Shakespeare.

54 
 
There’s a long and noble tradition of literary critics misunder-
standing Joseph Conrad. Partly that’s because he is such a compli-
cated, dense and fascinating (10)______.
His masterpieces, Heart of Darkness, was serialized in
Blackwood's Magazine, and soon after it appeared as a single
(11)______, Conrad turned his time to Lord Jim. The writer was aware
that loneliness increases (12)______. Conrad was in dire financial
straits and was living in a state of great emotional unhappiness.
Stephen Crane, an American poet, novelist, and short story
writer, had wanted to collaborate with Conrad on a play, but Con-
rad, (13)______, stated in a letter to Crane of this possibility.

VII. Read the passage below and do the tasks. 
1. The identity of the author of Shakespeare's plays is probably
the best-known field in which unofficial historians have been ac-
tive. That the man who was born in Stratford-upon-Avon in 1564
and died there in 1616 was intellectually incapable of having writ-
ten the greatest body of works in world literature is a theory that
dates from the late 18th century.
2. Between about 1870 and 1914 finding the actual author of
the plays became a fad among intellectually-minded men and wom-
en of letters. In the past half century, with the rise of academic de-
partments of literature, the "authorship of Shakespeare" question
has been confined to the fringes of amateur endeavor. Yet it appears
as popular as ever, with book after book, often self-produced, nam-
ing the real author of Shakespeare's works.
3. Doubts about the authorship of the plays derive from the al-
most incredible gap between the meagerness of the background of
William Shakespeare of Stratford and the magnitude of his
achievement. Shakespeare grew up in a village of 1,300 people
where probably two-thirds of the adults (including Shakespeare's
parents) were illiterate, a fact glossed over in most biographies.
4. Yet, as things stand, not one of the well-known candidates
for authorship - Sir Francis Bacon, the earl of Oxford, the earl of
Rutland, and Christopher Marlowe - is actually convincing (Oxford
died in 1604, nine years before the appearance of Shakespeare's fi-
nal play).

55 
 
5. (A) Nor can amateur historians ever quite decide whether the
actual identity of the author of the plays was known at the time, or
was a secret, revealed through the plays possibly by way of a code.
(B) Personally I think Shakespeare the man was indeed Shake-
speare the playwright, particularly in the light of the one discovery
that has been made about Shakespeare since the first world war -
that he worked in two noble households in Lancashire for two
years, probably as tutor to the children. (C) William Shakespeare’s
life is an unrivaled story of success, but how could Shakespeare be-
come the world’s most famous writer? (D)

1. The word “endeavor” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to:


(A) challenge
(B) try
(C) condition
(D) reluctance

2. All the following sentences about Shakespeare are true


EXCEPT:
(A) the man who was born in Stratford-upon-Avon in 1564 and
died in 1616 was intellectually incapable of having written
the greatest work
(B) the authorship of Shakespeare question has been confined
(C) Shakespeare grew up in a village where probably two-
thirds of the adults were illiterate
(D) Shakespeare graduated from Oxford in 1604

3. In paragraphs 4 and 5, where can the following sentence be


placed?
Nevertheless, there is certainly a well-nigh incredible gap be-
tween the man Shakespeare of Stratford, and Shakespeare the
author, which is glossed over by academics.
(A) Option A
(B) Option B
(C) Option C
(D) Option D

56 
 
4. The word “meagerness” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to:
(A) poorness
(B) richness
(C) prosperity
(D) success

5. Look at the word “glossed” in paragraph 4. This word


could best be replaced by which of the following?
(A) shined
(B) hidden
(C) camouflaged
(D) disguised

57 
 
Chapter V
GEOLOGY 

Target Words:
accommodate evolve random
aid fluctuate restrain
community integrate reverse
comprehensive intermediate rigid
displace nuclear transform

Some Frequently Used Collocations: 
can accommodate somebody / something (people, desks, cars)
comfortably / easily
to accommodate somebody with something (a loan, a ride, etc.)
to accommodate (oneself) to something (new conditions, schedule, etc.)
emergency / humanitarian / financial / government / foreign / med-
ical / relief aid
to appeal for / call for aid
to extend / give (somebody) / provide (somebody with) / get / de-
pend on / rely on / promise / cut (off) / suspend / withdraw aid
aid agency / program / package / budget
to ask for / enlist aid
to come to someone’s aid
in aid of charity
with / without the aid of
first / effective / visual aid

58 
 
a large / small / close-knit / local / international / wider / ethnic /
immigrant / minority / religious / Asian / Muslim / professional
/ academic / business / scientific / rural, etc. community
community care / center / college / service / work / leader / spirit, etc.
in / within a/the community
the community as a whole / at large
a member / part of the community
a sense of community
to be extremely / very / fully / totally / increasingly / fairly / pretty /
quite / reasonably / truly comprehensive
a comprehensive list / insurance / course / school / education / study
to displace somebody / something (people, workers, refugees, pa-
per books, etc.)
to evolve gradually /slowly / rapidly / eventually / constantly / con-
tinually / naturally
to continue to evolve
to evolve from something into something
to be highly / fully evolved
to fluctuate considerably / sharply / widely / constantly / continually
to fluctuate according to something (the time of the day, the condi-
tions, the season, etc.)
to fluctuate between … and
to integrate closely / tightly / well / completely / fully / seamlessly
/ thoroughly / properly / successfully
to integrate into / with something

I. Match the words to the definitions. There may be more than one def‐
inition of every word. 
1. accommodate a) a device, object, etc., that makes something
easier to do
b) a group of people who live in the same area
(such as a city, town, or neighborhood)
c) to combine two or more things to form or
create something
2. aid d) to take the job or position of someone
e) a feeling of wanting to be with other people
or of caring about the other people in a group

59 
 
3. community f) help or assistance given to someone
g) to force (people or animals) to leave the ar-
ea where they live
h) to provide what is needed for someone or
something
4. comprehensive i) chosen or done without a particular plan or
pattern
j) something (such as money, food, or equip-
ment) that is given by a government or an
organization to help the people in a country
or area where many people are suffering be-
cause of poverty, disease, etc.
5. displace k) having the ability to understand
l) to keep something under control
6. integrate m) to provide room for someone or something
n) including many, most, or all things
o) to prevent a person or an animal from doing
something
7. random p) a group of people who have the same inter-
ests, religion, race, etc.
q) to adapt or adjust to something
8. restrain r) to make a person or group part of a larger
group or organization
s) to move something so that it is no longer in
its original or regular location or position

1._____________________________________________________
2._____________________________________________________
3._____________________________________________________
4._____________________________________________________
5._____________________________________________________
6._____________________________________________________
7._____________________________________________________
8._____________________________________________________

   

60 
 
II. Match the words to their synonyms. 
1. accommodate a) society; group; company; neighborhood; as-
sociation; area
2. aid b) change; vary; shift; alter; alternate; hesitate;
wave
3. community c) join; unite; blend; mix; merge; combine;
harmonize; incorporate
4. comprehensive d) main; principal; basic; essential; fundamen-
tal; important; key; middle; internal
5. displace e) accidental; chance; arbitrary; irregular; un-
planned; casual; unsystematic; haphazard
6. evolve f) hold back; control; imprison; bind; con-
strain; inhibit; restrict; hinder; limit
7. fluctuate g) remove; expel, discard; take over from;
force out
8. integrate h) opposite; back; counter; contrary; overturn-
ing; cancel; change; turn round; transpose;
go backwards; failure; misfortune
9. intermediate i) strict; inflexible; stiff; adamant; austere; ex-
act; rigorous; severe
10. nuclear j) change completely; convert; reconstruct; revo-
lutionize; metamorphose; make over; alter
11. random k) middle; in-between; transitional; midway;
average; central; standard; moderate; neutral
12. restrain l) all-inclusive; broad; complete; encyclope-
dic; exhaustive; extensive; full; overall
13. reverse m) make room; acclimate; adapt; adjust; suit
14. rigid n) help; support; equipment; device
15. transform o) develop; grow; work out; advance; elabo-
rate; progress

1._____ 6._____ 11.____


2._____ 7._____ 12.____
3._____ 8._____ 13.____
4._____ 9._____ 14.____
5._____ 10.____ 15.____
   

61 
 
III. Synonyms: Choose the word that best completes the sentence. 
1. I asked them for additional money, and they adapted / accom-
modated / acclimated me with a loan.
2. He adapted / accommodated / made room the novel for the stage.
3. This is the most expensive piece of drilling aid / help / equipment.
4. A first aid / help / support kit is a set of materials and tools used
for giving emergency treatment given to a sick or injured person.
5. He is known as a respectable member of the town’s Jewish soci-
ety / community / area.
6. Is there a grocery store in the society / neighborhood / association?
7. A community / association / neighborhood watch is an organiza-
tion of people in an area who pay special attention to each oth-
er's houses in order to prevent crime.
8. He has comprehensive / broad / extensive shoulders.
9. A comprehensive / overall / encyclopedic insurance covers all
kinds of risks.
10. Many of the company's workers were expelled / displaced / dis-
carded by machines.
11. The army evolved / advanced / developed into central Europe.
12. More complex animals gradually evolved / progressed / ad-
vanced from these very simple creatures.
13. We cannot simply fluctuate / shift / hesitate the responsibility
onto someone else.
14. The number of unemployed people fluctuates / alters / changes
between two and three million.
15. They've invited us to integrate / mix / join them on their yacht.
16. This course is based on a(n) midway / intermediate / moder-
ate level of language learning.
17. The traditional form of a middle / internal / nuclear family is a
husband, a wife, and their children.
18. When internal / nuclear / principal energy is released, it
changes into other forms of energy called radiation.
19. Rapid and random / unplanned / chance urbanization is a major
cause of poor environmental health.
20. Numerical codes such as 1357 or 2468 are easier to remem-
ber than random / irregular / casual ones such as 2719.

 
62 
21. He barely restrained / hindered / imprisoned himself from
shouting at her.
22. He reversed / cancelled / changed slowly out of the garage.
23. The effect was exactly the overturning / back / opposite to what
he intended.
24. Rigid / strict / exact blocks of Earth's crust and upper mantle are
called tectonic plates.
25. The place was revolutionized / transformed / metamorphosed
from a quiet farming village into a busy port.
26. This website will help you transform / reconstruct / convert all
major world currencies.

IV.  Word Families:  Choose  the  word form  that correctly completes  the 


sentence. 
1. Underground _____ may seem uncomfortable and even horrible,
but the locals of Coober Pedy confirm that it is quite possible.
A) accommodate
B) accommodation
C) accommodating
D) accommodates

2. It was a large hall, where a lot of people could be comfortably ____.


A) accommodated
B) accommodating
C) accommodate
D) accommodates

3. Plate tectonics is the _____ model for Wegener's continental


drift theory.
A) comprehends
B) comprehensive
C) comprehensively
D) comprehended

4. After that I began to _____ the whole story.


A) comprehended
B) comprehension

 
63 
C) comprehends
D) comprehend

5. The idea of a large-scale _____ of continents has a long history.


A) displace
B) displacing
C) displacement
D) displaced

6. This is the theory of the global _____ of the earth crust.


A) evolution
B) evolve
C) evolved
D) evolutionary

7. Volcanic landforms have _____ over time as a result of repeated


volcanic activity.
A) evolution
B) evolved
C) evolves
D) evolving

8. His report is about the _____ of sea level.


A) fluctuate
B) fluctuates
C) fluctuated
D) fluctuations

9. In the desert, the temperature _____ dramatically.


A) fluctuate
B) fluctuates
C) fluctuations
D) fluctuating

10. The Huang He river, its tributaries, and its valley have played
an _____ part in the history of China for more than 3,000 years.
A) integral

 
64 
B) integrate
C) integration
D) integrates

11. The process of _____ of rocks by mechanical or physical pro-


cess is known as mechanical or physical weathering.
A) disintegrate
B) disintegration
C) disintegrated
D) disintegrates

12. Scrambling is a technique used to _____ data.


A) random
B) randomly
C) randomize
D) randomized

13. The government has put _____ on this project.


A) restraints
B) restraint
C) restrain
D) restrained

14. This process causes _____ changes in certain soil properties.


A) reverse
B) reversing
C) irreversible
D) reversed

15. Coal miners must _____ follow a set of rules.


A) rigidity
B) rigid
C) rigidify
D) rigidly

 
65 
16. Plate tectonics states that Earth’s outer shell, or lithosphere,
consists of large _____ plates that move apart at oceanic
ridges, come together at subduction zones, or slip past one an-
other along fault lines.
A) rigidity
B) rigid
C) rigidify
D) rigidly

17. For decades, the main source of phosphate was Nauru, but its
center has been _____ into a wasteland.
A) transformed
B) transform
C) transformation
D) transformative

18. The donation will foster _____ discoveries, inventions and so-
lutions to conquer new frontiers and build a better world.
A) transform
B) transformation
C) transformative
D) transforms

V. Choose the word that best completes the sentence. 
1. Such farming practices _____ large amounts of soil.
A) displace
B) evolve
C) comprehend
D) random

2. Mineral _____ may trigger deep earthquakes.


A) nuclear
B) transformation
C) rigid
D) restrain

 
66 
3. Chesapeake Bay is 3 to 25 miles wide and deep enough to
_____ oceangoing vessels.
A) aids
B) randomize
C) accommodate
D) transformed

4. Earth has a _____ outer layer, known as the lithosphere, which


is typically about 100 km (60 miles) thick.
A) reverse
B) aid
C) transformation
D) rigid

5. Now seamount scientists can offer new _____ view of deep-


sea mountains.
A) aid
B) comprehensive
C) nuclear
D) intermediate

6. The level and area of Lake Chad have _____ greatly throughout
thousands of years it has existed.
A) accommodate
B) fluctuated
C) evolving
D) restrained

7. On Earth’s surface _____ of the ground may vary from a few


inches to many feet.
A) fluctuate
B) restraint
C) reversed
D) displacement

 
67 
8. If buildings are too _____ , they can’t withstand the movements
caused by the earthquake, so they need some flexibility to sway
and absorb the stresses.
A) rigid
B) nuclear
C) comprehensive
D) intermediate

9. Brownian motion is the _____ movement of microscopic parti-


cles suspended in liquids or gases.
A) reversible
B) random
C) restrain
D) rigid

10. The spacecraft orbited Venus for several years, collect-


ing _____ data on the atmosphere.
A) comprehensive
B) nuclear
C) aid
D) reversible

11. Following the earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010, na-
tional governments, charitable and for-profit organizations from
around the world began coordinating humanitarian _____ de-
signed to help the Haitian people.
A) community
B) aid
C) evolution
D) restrain

12. Even though the theory of plate tectonics is now widely accept-
ed by the scientific _____, aspects of the theory are still being
debated today.
A) aid
B) transformation
C) community
D) accommodation

 
68 
13. Conservation and _____ utilization of mineral resources en-
hanced.
A) rigid
B) evolutionary
C) reverses
D) comprehensive

14. There are three stages of soil formation: early, _____ and ad-
vanced.
A) nuclear
B) intermediate
C) random
D) reverse

15. The many forms of energy include chemical, _____, electrical,


radiant, and heat energy.
A) nuclear
B) rigid
C) intermediate
D) reverse

VI. Use the words from the following box to complete the passages below: 
misconception eruption disastrous depression atmosphere
volcanoes crust geologists continental tectonics densely
revolutionized

Passage 1
Plate _____, theory dealing with the dynamics of
Earth’s outer shell—the lithosphere – that _____ Earth
sciences by providing a uniform context for under-
standing mountain-building processes, volcanoes, and
earthquakes as well as the evolution of Earth’s surface
and reconstructing its past continents and oceans. The concept of
plate tectonics was formulated in the 1960s.

 
69 
Passage 2
The longest rift on Earth’s surface, the Great Rift Valley is a
long, deep _____ with steep, wall-like cliffs, extending from Jordan
in southwestern Asia southward through Africa to Mozambique.
The rift has a total distance of approximately 4,000 miles (6,400
kilometers) and an average width of 30 to 40 miles (50 to 65 kilo-
meters). It is a _____ extension of the midoceanic ridge system, a
generally submerged mountain range encircling the globe.

Passage 3
Volcano, vent in the crust of the Earth or
another planet or satellite, from which issue
eruptions of molten rock, hot rock fragments,
and hot gases. A volcanic _____ is an awesome
display of the Earth’s power. Yet while erup-
tions are spectacular to watch, they can cause
_____ loss of life and property, especially in _____ populated re-
gions of the world.

Passage 4
In 1768, the first edition of Ency-
clopedia Britannica gave voice to a
common _____ by defining volcanoes
as “burning mountains, which probably
are made up of sulphur and some other
matter proper to ferment with it, and
take fire.” Today _____ agree that vol-
canism is a profound process resulting from the thermal evolution
of planetary bodies. Heat does not easily escape from large bodies
such as the Earth by the processes of conduction or radiation. In-
stead, heat is transferred from the Earth’s interior largely by con-
vection – that is, the partial melting of the Earth’s _____ and man-
tle and the buoyant rise of magma to the surface. _____ are the sur-
face sign of this thermal process. Their roots reach deep inside the
Earth, and their fruits are hurled high into the _____.

   

 
70 
VII. Read the passage below and do the tasks. 

Creation of Cenotes 
1. Some of the most spectacular sights in the world are created
by the Earth’s natural processes. Cenotes, for example, are created
through a natural drainage process. Cenotes are water-filled sink-
holes that are part of extensive underground river and cave system
around the world, though they are most commonly found in the Yu-
catan Peninsula of southern Mexico. There are several basic steps
in the creation of a cenote.

2. A cenote first begins to form when water seeps through


limestone. The reason that most cenotes are found in the Yucatan
Peninsula is because the region sits above a shelf of limestone.
Limestone is different from other types of rock because it is ex-
tremely porous. (A) The water that drains through the limestone
collects under the Earth’s surface and forms long, underground riv-
ers. (B) These river systems can be up to 100 kilometers long, and
many of them are connected to the ocean. (C) Because the water
travels through layers of rock, dirt and other contaminants are natu-
rally filtered out. (D)
3. The next step in the creation of the cenote is the develop-
ment of underground caves. The caves are carved out of the lime-
stone by the moving waters of the underground river. All the while,
rainwater continues to drip from the surface above. As the water

 
71 
drips down, it collects minerals that form large stalactites on the
cave ceilings. The caves become larger over time, and the limestone
roofs that cover them struggle to support themselves.
4. The cenote finally appears when the limestone roof of the cave
collapses. The entry to the cenote is sometimes just a small spot where
a chunk of the roof has fallen. As the cenote gets older, larger portions
of the roof crumble, creating a large opening to the cenote.

Glossary
sinkhole: a hole that is created on the surface of the Earth and con-
nected to an underground passage
stalactite: a cave formation that hangs from the ceilings of caves

1. Which of the following best expresses the essential infor-


mation in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 1? Incorrect
answer choices change the meaning in important ways or
leave out essential information.
(A) There are many sinkholes in the Yucatan Peninsula region
of southern Mexico.
(B) Sinkholes filled with water are known as cenotes and are
only located in southern Mexico.
(C) A cenote is a sinkhole that is filled with water and found
mostly in southern Mexico.
(D) Sinkholes found in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico are
given the title of cenotes.

2. The word “it” in paragraph 2 refers to


(A) peninsula
(B) shelf
(C) limestone
(D) rock

3. The word “collects”in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to


(A) obtains
(B) moves
(C) gathers
(D) forms

 
72 
4. Look at the four letters (A), (B), (C) and (D) that indicate
where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
For this reason, the water in cenotes is very clear.
Where would the sentence best fit?
(A) Option A
(B) Option B
(C) Option C
(D) Option D

5. The word “them” in paragraph 3 refers to


(A) stalactites
(B) ceilings
(C) caves
(D) roofs

6. The word “collapses” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to


(A) shows
(B) stretches
(C) falls
(D) grows

From: Edmunds P., McKinnon N. Building Skills


for the TOEFL iBT. – Portsmouth : Compass Publishing, 2009.

 
73 
Chapter VI
ZOOLOGY 

Target Words:
append external summary
contact initiate regime
chemical minimal virtual
estimate neutral sufficient
circumstance percent

Some Frequently Used Collocations: 
append something to something
desperate /educed / straitened / domestic / family contact
close / regular / direct / face-to-face contact
to be in / have / come into/ establish / get in / make contact
to keep /maintain / stay in contact
good / useful / valuable / business / personal contact
to contact immediately/ directly/ personally / by email /by phone
do not hesitate to contact sb
organic /harmful / poisonous chemicals
to manufacture / produce chemicals
industrial /agricultural / household chemicals
favorable/ difficult/ tragic/ trying /unfavorable circumstances
according to / due to circumstances
in /under the circumstances
circumstances change / conspire / dictate sth
by / through force of circumstance

 
74 
circumstances beyond our control
a combination of circumstances
official / unofficial / current / recent estimate
early/ initial/ preliminary / accurate/ fair/ good/ realistic/ reasona-
ble/ reliable / best estimate
according to an/the estimate
at a conservative estimate
in an/the first estimate
by / from / according to an estimate
external conditions.
external danger
external factors.
to initiate somebody into something
to initiate a new stage
to initiate an investigation.
at minimal cost.
minimal amount / chance / change
completely / basically / broadly / politically neutral
to be neutral about ( this issue)
to be/ seem / remain / keep sth neutral
to account for /amount to / be equal to / constitute / equal / repre-
sent 25% percent
a boost /an improvement / an increase / a jump / a rise of 10, 20,
etc. per cent
current / established / existing / present / former / previous regime
interim / political / conservative / liberal / radical regime
authoritarian / dictatorial / totalitarian / fascist / brutal/ hard-line /
harsh / oppressive / repressive regime
constitutional / parliamentary / revolutionary / military / colonial /
puppet regime
to establish / install / set up / defeat / overthrow / topple / bolster /
strengthen the existing regime
to destabilize / support / oppose / head a military regime
under a/the regime
to create / introduce / set up / start a regime
to impose / follow / subject sb to a strict regime of (meals, walks,
and lessons)
 
75 
quite / far from / barely/ hardly / scarcely sufficient
to be sufficient for
to be / prove / seem / sound / consider sth / deem sth / regard sth as
/ see sth as sufficient
accurate / apt / clear / excellent / fair/ good / useful summary
comprehensive / detailed / full / general / overall / brief summary
concise / quick / short / bald / crude / financial / summary
statistical / news / plot summary
make/prepare/ write summary
give (sb)/ provide (sb with)/ supply (sb with) summary
in a/the summary
in summary form

I.  Match  the  words  to  their  definitions.  There  may  be  more  than  one 
definition of every word. Write the letter(s) in the blanks. 
1. append a) the conditions that affect a situation, action,
event etc.
b) communication with a person, organization,
country etc.
2. chemical c) a calculation of the value, size, amount etc of
something made using the information that
you have, which may not be complete
d) formal events that change your life, over
which you have no control
3. circumstance e) to add something to the end of a piece of writing
f) to try to judge the value, size, speed, cost etc
of something, without calculating it exactly
g) to arrange for something important to start,
such as an official process or a new plan
4. contact h) a substance used in chemistry or produced by
a chemical process
i) when two people or things touch each other
5. estimate j) as much as is needed for a particular purpose
k) a government, especially one that was not
elected fairly or that you disapprove of for
some other reason

 
76 
6. external l) made, done, seen etc on the Internet or on a
computer, rather than in the real world
m)to tell someone about something or show
them how to do something
7. initiate n) relating to substances, the study of substanc-
es, or processes involving changes in sub-
stances
o) very nearly a particular thing
p) relating to your environment or situation, ra-
ther than to your own qualities, ideas etc
8. virtual q) when you meet someone or experience a par-
ticular kind of thing (contact)
9. sufficient r) a particular system – used especially when
talking about a previous system, or one that
has just been introduced
10. regime s) coming from or happening outside a particu-
lar place or organization
t) a statement of how much it will probably cost
to build or repair something
u) a special plan of food, exercise etc that is in-
tended to improve your health

1._____________________________________________________
2._____________________________________________________
3._____________________________________________________
4._____________________________________________________
5._____________________________________________________
6._____________________________________________________
7._____________________________________________________
8._____________________________________________________
9._____________________________________________________
10.____________________________________________________

   

 
77 
II. Match the words to their synonyms. Write the letter in the blank. 
1. append a) synthetic, actinic, alchemical, enzymatic
2. virtual b) alien, outside, extrinsic, peripheral, inde-
pendent, foreign, extraneous
3. circumstance c) add, join, attach, adjoin, affix, fasten, sup-
plement
4. chemical d) disinterested, evenhanded, fair-minded, in-
active, indifferent, nonpartisan, unbiased,
uncommitted, undecided, calm, uninvolved
5. contact e) basic, constructive, essential, fundamental,
implicit, implied
6. estimate f) situation, condition, accident, action,
case, cause, coincidence, crisis, event,
fact, fate, incident, matter, occurrence
7. minimal g) administration, establishment, government,
management, reign, rule, system
8. external h) digest, outline, contraction, abridgement
abstract, clipping , compression
9. initiate i) satisfactory, agreeable, adequate, common,
decent, fair, respectable, sufficient, tolerable
10. neutral j) begin, commence, inaugurate, originate,
launch, open, set up, trigger
11. sufficient k) interest, fee, proportion, rate
12. regime l) evaluate, figure out, judge, evaluate, study,
inspect, investigate
13. percent m) basic, essential, minimum, nominal, token
14. summary n) association, connection, influence, meet-
ing, touch, unity

1._____________________________________________________
2._____________________________________________________
3._____________________________________________________
4._____________________________________________________
5._____________________________________________________
6._____________________________________________________
7._____________________________________________________

 
78 
8._____________________________________________________
9._____________________________________________________
10.____________________________________________________
11.____________________________________________________
12.____________________________________________________
13.____________________________________________________
14.____________________________________________________

III. Synonyms: Choose the word that best completes the sentence. 
1. Her book is also the source of the 17 million number, which, she
pointed out, is just an estimate / story / reminiscences. She
wants to remind the world at large of the importance of flies to
humanity, and to the planet.
2. She is fond of all flies, but contacts / focuses / initiate on those
that are included in the lower Diptera, which include mosqui-
toes, black flies and, as she puts it, “everything that’s bitey,
stabby, nasty”.
3. The flies are easy to work with and share the same basic DNA as
all life. Historically, they have provided much of the foundation
for modern genetics. And now they may provide deep summary /
insights / contact into neuroscience and other fields.
4. At the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Janelia Research In-
stitute in Virginia, the search is on to develop a wiring diagram
of the fly brain, and then predict / figure out / foresee in the
greatest detail how they think.
5. And they do think, according to Vivek Jayaraman, who runs a
lab there, in the sense that flies do not just react instinctively.
Their brains make summary / decisions / hypothesis based on
several different inputs – smell, memory, hunger and fear, for
instance.
6. According to one projection, by 2080, the population of flies
could increase by 244 times / percent / items. “That’s a lot of
flies,” she writes, “even for my tastes.”
7. Presumably, many flies will also suffer climate change. A recent
paper looking at all insects reported an apparent decline that
may already be appended / linked / involved to global warming.

 
79 
8. How many ants are there in the world? No one has actually
counted them all or asked them to fill out little ant census forms.
However, scientists have learned / estimated / find that there are
about 10 million billion ants in the world, waiting for you to
have a picnic. That's more ants than there are mammals, reptiles,
birds and amphibians combined.
9. Like bees, ants have a sophisticated society, which includes
workers, nurses, soldiers, hunters, farmers and even builders.
The soldier ants of one species are walking bombs. They are
loaded with poison / chemicals / liquid and literally explode
when under attack, spraying poison on their enemies.
10. The huge variety of living things around us initiate / represent /
estimate more than simply variety. That variety carefully in-
cludes creatures to do every job that needs to be done to main-
tain life on Earth.

IV.  Word Families:  Choose  the  word form  that correctly completes  the 


sentence. 
1. Integrated pest management (IPM) combines compatible biolog-
ical, _____ and cultural controls to deal with problems caused
by the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis.
A) chemical
B) chemistry
C) chemist
D) chemically

2. Action against bees should only be taken in extreme _____ and


where they constitute a credible threat of danger and risk to pub-
lic health.
A) circumstantial
B) circumstances
C) circumstantially
D) circumstance

 
80 
3. Direct application of chemicals to _____ termite activity kills
the activity at that location and not the colony/nest.
A) minimalize
B) minimal
C) mineralization
D) minimally

4. Most insects in the world are considered either _____ or benefi-


cial as they relate to humans.
A) neutralization
B) neutralize
C) neutrally
D) neutral

5. September is generally the time of year chosen to feed sugar


syrup as a supplement or substitute to ensure that honey bees
have _____ stores to carry them through the winter.
A) sufficiency
B) sufficiently
C) sufficient
D) sufficiency

6. After participating in nuptial flights and after mating, queens


lose their wings and _____ new colonies.
A) initiative
B) initiator
C) initiate
D) initiation

7. Many home owners however create _____ termite attractions.


A) virtually
B) virtualize
C) virtualization
D) virtual

 
81 
8. This diversity of ecological roles among the insects makes
_____ their response to global change difficult, but a consistent-
ly high level of specialization makes it possible.
A) summary
B) summarize
C) summariness
D) summarizing

9. To _____ the number of ants in a colony an entomologist draws


5500 ants randomly from the colony, labels them with a radioac-
tive isotope and then put them back in.
A) estimated
B) estimate
C) estimating
D) estimation

10. On account of jungle fever, parasites _____ themselves to the


gut of a female mosquito and enter a host as she encourages.
A) appends
B) appending
C) append
D) appended

V. Choose the word that best completes the sentence. 
1. _____ insects are clean and have no smell, they will not bite or
sting you.
A) neutral
B) virtual
C) sufficient
D) minimal

2. If you have a fire ant mound outside your house, _____ a pest
control professional to get it removed so that your home doesn't
get infested with these creatures
A) append
B) initiate
C) contact
D) estimate
 
82 
3. Pheidole was attributed to the baiting _____directed towards red
imported fire ant eradication.
A) contact
B) circumstance
C) regime
D) initiation

4. Professional grade termite spray and liquid termite treatment


_____ (termiticide) to help you get rid of termites around your
home.
A) medication
B) poison
C) chemicals
D) powder

5. This tutorial describes the fundamental _____ anatomy and


physiology of insects.
A) minimal
B) external
C) virtual
D) sufficient

6. Flight _____ is fundamental to insect dispersal.


A) initiation
B) contact
C) circumstance
D) regime

7. For most people, the common name fire ants is _____ to evoke a
clear image of this insect pest.
A) sufficient
B) virtual
C) external
D) minimal

 
83 
8. Certain kinds of starfish have as many as fifty _____.
A) eyes
B) fins
C) appendages
D) tales

9. Even when an insect is classified as a pest, it can have, under


different _____, a beneficial role.
A) contacts
B) events
C) circumstances
D) regime

10. Much like the swarms of cheap, dumb robots that I explored in
my recent article, army ants manage this coordination with no
leader and with _____ cognitive resources.
A) virtual
B) external
C) minimal
D) sufficient

VI.  Use  the  words  from  the  following  boxes  to  complete  the  passages 
below: 
Passage 1

forage species dominate estimate chemical distribution


In numbers of species and individuals and in adaptability and
wide _____, insects are perhaps the most eminently successful
group of all animals. They _____ the present-day land fauna with
about 1 million described species. This represents about three-
fourths of all described animal species. Entomologists _____ the
actual number of living insect _____ could be as high as 5 million
to 10 million. The orders that contain the greatest numbers of spe-
cies are Coleoptera (beetles), Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths),
 
84 
Hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps), and Diptera (true flies). The pu-
pae are raised by P. Americanus to serve as slaves. Temnothorax
pupae become imprinted on the _____ odour of the slave-making
ants, the captive ants ______ and routinely return to the slave-
making ant nest.

Passage 2

control estimate minimize extent


Some insects advertise their presence to the other sex by flashing
lights, and many imitate other insects in color and form and thus
avoid or _____ attack by predators that feed by day and find their
prey visually, as do birds, lizards, and other insects. Scientists familiar
with insects realize the difficulty in attempting to _____ individual
numbers of insects beyond areas of a few acres or a few square miles
in _____. Only a few thousand species, those that attack people’s
crops, herds, and products and those that carry disease, interfere with
human life seriously enough to require _____ measures.

Passage 3

sufficient minimal per cent estimate


Natural Beekeeping favors _____ interference with the hive,
and 'Api-centric beekeeping'. It is assumed that the bees know what
they are doing. September is generally the time of year chosen to
feed sugar syrup as a supplement or substitute to ensure that honey
bees have _____ stores to carry them through the winter.
The system provided a direct _____ of the foraging population
of a colony. Each bee passed through one of 24 access tubes in the
lid of a box-like trap attached to the hive entrance.
 
85 
Together, the larval and pupal stage consist of more than half
of a typical worker bee’s lifespan. Fifty _____ of her life, after
emerging from her cell, is dedicated to nursing other larvae, tending
to the queen, building the hive, managing the storage of food,
guarding the entrances and ventilating the hive.

VII. Read the passage below and do the tasks. 
1. Social parasitism involves one species relying on another to
raise its young. Among vertebrates, the best known social parasites
are such birds as cuckoos and cowbirds; the female lays egg in a
nest belonging to another species and leaves it for the host to rear.
2. The dulotic species of ants, however, are the supreme social
parasites. Consider, for example, the unusual behavior of ants be-
longing to the genus Polyergus. All species of this ant have lost the
ability to care for themselves. The workers do not forage for
food, feed their brood or queen, or even clean their own nest. To
compensate for these deficits, Polyergus has become specialized at
obtaining workers from the related genus Formica to do these chores.
3. In a raid, several thousand Polyergus workers will travel up
to 500 feet in search of a Formica nest, penetrate it, drive off the
queen and her workers, capture the pupal brood, and transport it
back to their nest. The captured brood is then reared by the resident
Formica workers until the developing pupae emerge to add to the
Formica population, which maintains the mixed-species nest.
The Formica workers forage for food and give it to colony mem-
bers of both species. They also remove wastes and excavate new
chambers as the population increases.
4. The true extent of the Polyergus ants' dependence on the
Formica becomes apparent when the worker population grows too
large for existing nest. Formica scouts locate a new nesting site,
return to the mixed-species colony, and recruit additional Formi-
ca nest mates. During a period that may last seven days, the Formi-
ca workers carry to the new nest all the Polyergus eggs, larvae, and
pupae, every Polyergus adult, and even the Polyergus queen.
5. Of the approximately 8,000 species of ants in the world, all 5
species of Polyergus and some 200 species in other genera have
evolved some degree of parasitic relationship with other ants.

 
86 
Choose the right answer.
1. Which of the following statements best represents the main
idea of the passage?
(A) Ants belonging to the genus Formica are incapable of per-
forming certain tasks.
(B) The genus Polyergus is quite similar to the genus Formica.
(C) Ants belonging to the genus Polyergus have an unusual re-
lationship with ants belonging to the genus Formica.
(D) Poltergus ants frequently leave their nests to build new col-
onies.

2. The word “raise”in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to


(A) rear
(B) lift
(C) collect
(D) increase

3. The author mentions cuckoos and cowbirds in paragraph 1


because they
(A) share their nests with each other
(B) are closely related species
(C) raise the young of their birds
(D) are social parasites

4. The word “it”in paragraph 1 refers to


(A) species
(B) nest
(C) egg
(D) female

5. What does the author mean by stating that “The dulotic species
of ants...are the supreme social parasites” (paragraph 2)?
(A) The Polyergus are more highly developed than the Formica.
(B) The Formica have developed specialized roles.
(C) The Polyergus are heavily dependent on the Formica.
(D) The Formica do not reproduce rapidly enough to care for
themselves.
 
87 
6. Which of the following is a task that an ant of the genus
Polyergus might do?
(A) Look for food.
(B) Raid another nest.
(C) Care for the young.
(D) Clean its own nest.

7. The word “excavate” (paragraph 3) is closest in meaning to


(A) find
(B) clean
(C) repair
(D) dig

8. The word “recruit” (paragraph 4) is closest in meaning to


(A) create
(B) enlist
(C) endure
(D) capture

9. What happens when a mixed colony of Polyergus and For-


mica ants becomes too large?
(A) The Polyergus workers enlarge the existing nest.
(B) The captured Formica workers return to their original nest.
(C) The Polyergus and the Formica build separate nests.
(D) The Polyergus and the Formica move to a new nest.

10. According to the information in the passage, all of the fol-


lowing terms refer to ants belonging to the genus Formica
EXCEPT the
(A) dulotic species of ants (paragraph 2)
(B) captured brood (paragraph 3)
(C) developing pupae (paragraph 3)
(D) worker population (paragraph4)

From: http://www.yeuanhvan.com/toefl-reading/1309-toefl-readings-12.

 
88 
Appendix 
Practice Tests 

1. LIFE SUCCESS AND SATISFACTION 
1 Life satisfaction, which can be defined as general happiness
or well being, is related to several demographic and personal quali-
ties. The factor of age is important because the elements that make
up life satisfaction may differ from one age to the next. Income is
more likely to predict life satisfaction among middle-aged and older
adults than among young adults. Health is a more significant pre-
dictor of happiness among older adults than among the young or the
middle-aged. However, average levels of life satisfaction do not
change significantly with age. Generally speaking, older adults are
as satisfied with their lives as are younger or middle-aged adults.
2 There is no single element that guarantees high life satisfac-
tion for everyone who possesses it. Happiness seems to consist of
many things that each person weighs differently, such as income,
education, work, and relationships. However, certain factors are re-
liable predictors of life satisfaction. One such predictor is health,
especially one’s perception of one’s own health rather than a doc-
tor’s objective health assessment. Another predictor of life satisfac-
tion is a feeling of being in charge of one’s own life and a sense of
authority over one’s own decisions. Adults who feel that they have
some choices and options are generally happier than those who feel
that their lives are controlled by others or by fate or chance. For ex-
ample, older adults who experience financial strain feel less life sat-
isfaction mainly because the problem signals a loss of control over
their lives.
3 The largest predictor of life satisfaction appears to be the ad-
equacy of social relationships, especially marriage and family rela-
tionships. The perceived quality rather than the quantity of social
interactions is most strongly related to happiness. Satisfaction with
one’s close personal relationships is more closely linked to overall
life satisfaction than either demographic factors or satisfaction with
 
89 
other key aspects of adult life such as occupation. This is true even
among highly educated men, who typically have a very high com-
mitment to their work. The quality of social support available in
one’s key relationships affects the ability to handle stress and life
changes as well as one’s ongoing level of life satisfaction.
4 Studies suggest that family background and early-adulthood
resources are predictors of psychological health or success at mid-
life. People who age well are those who start out well. One study
showed that the happiest and most successful middle-aged adults
had grown up in warm, supportive, intellectually stimulating families.
Well-adjusted or successful middle-aged adults began adulthood with
more personal resources, including better psychological and physical
health at college age. They also had been practical and well orga-
nized in college and had shown greater intellectual competence.
5 However, no measure of early family environment or early
adult competence remained a significant predictor of psychological
well being at the end of middle age. One study of men revealed that
at the age of 65, there were no childhood or early-adulthood charac-
teristics that distinguished between men who had turned out well
and those who had not. However, what did predict success and well
being at age 65 was the men’s health and adjustment at midlife.
These results suggest that a successful adult life is not something
preordained from childhood or early adulthood but rather some-
thing created out of the opportunities available over the course of
one’s life. Late-life success is related more directly to midlife quali-
ties or experiences. People who start out with certain advantages have
a greater chance of experiencing further advantages; however, it is
what one does with the experiences—both positive and negative —
that determines long-term life satisfaction. The choices that people
make in early adulthood help shape who they are at midlife, and those
midlife qualities in turn influence who they become later in life.

Glossary:
demographic: relating to demography, the study of human populations

 
90 
1. What point does the author make about the relationship of
age to life satisfaction?
(A) Age is the primary factor in determining life satisfaction.
(B) The factors that determine life satisfaction are the same at
every age.
(C) Average levels of life satisfaction are similar for every age
group.
(D) Young adults are more satisfied with their lives than older
adults are.

2. According to the passage, all of the following are predictors


of life satisfaction EXCEPT
(A) health
(B) age
(C) control of own life
(D) family relationships

3. The phrase “in charge of” in paragraph 2 is closest in mean-


ing to
(A) worried about
(B) responsible for
(C) lucky in
(D) controlled by

4. The word “problem” in paragraph 2 refers to


(A) authority
(B) fate or chance
(C) financial strain
(D) less life satisfaction

5. The word “adequacy” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning


to
(A) knowledge
(B) appearance
(C) memory
(D) quality

 
91 
6. What can be inferred from paragraph 3 about social rela-
tionships?
(A) Close social relationships are likely to influence long-term
health and happiness.
(B) People with good family relationships also have good social
relationships at work.
(C) Highly educated people usually have many different kinds
of social relationships.
(D) The number of social relationships is more important than
the type of relationship.

7. What does the author say about people who are well adjust-
ed and successful at midlife?
(A) They are more satisfied with their lives than young adults are.
(B) They perceive themselves as successful even when it is not true.
(C) They are generally better adjusted than their parents were.
(D) They probably had positive personal qualities as young
adults.

8. Which sentence below best expresses the essential infor-


mation in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 5? Incorrect
choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out
essential information.
(A) The most important predictors of psychological health do
not change between early adulthood and midlife.
(B) Neither family background nor qualities of early adulthood
can predict life satisfaction beyond middle age.
(C) Middle-aged people are likely to be well adjusted if their
experiences as young adults were mostly positive.
(D) There is no reliable way to measure the influence of family
relationships on the mental health of older adults.

9. Why does the author discuss a study of men in paragraph 5?


(A) To illustrate a point about satisfaction late in life
(B) To explain differences among men of different ages
(C) To emphasize the importance of family relationships
(D) To argue for more psychological studies about men
 
92 
10. The word “preordained” in paragraph 5 is closest in mean-
ing to
(A) appreciated
(B) forgotten
(C) determined
(D) organized

11. It can be inferred from paragraph 5 that the author most


likely believes which of the following about long-term life
satisfaction?
(A) It is affected by the decisions made throughout adulthood.
(B) It is measured differently for men and for women.
(C) It is directly related to having advantages during childhood.
(D) It is purely the result of chance and cannot be predicted.

12. Look at the four letters (A), (B), (C), (D) which indicate
where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
Where would the sentence best fit?
Men who had had good relationships with both of their parents
in childhood were better adjusted at midlife than were other men in
the study.
Studies suggest that family background and early-adulthood re-
sources are predictors of psychological health or success at midlife.
People who age well are those who start out well. (A) One study
showed that the happiest and most successful middle-aged adults
had grown up in warm, supportive, intellectually stimulating fami-
lies. (B) Well-adjusted or successful middle-aged adults began
adulthood with more personal resources, including better psycho-
logical and physical health at college age. (C) They also had been
practical and well organized in college and had shown greater intel-
lectual competence. (D)
(A) Option A
(B) Option B
(C) Option C
(D) Option D

 
93 
13. Read the first sentence of a summary of the passage. Com-
plete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices
that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some
sentences do not belong in the summary because they ex-
press ideas that are not presented in the passage or are mi-
nor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Several factors influence the life success and satisfaction of


adults.


Answer Choices
(A) Health is very important to the happiness of older adults
but less significant for the young and middle-aged.
(B) Health and a sense of personal control are important ele-
ments of a person’s happiness and well being.
(C) The perceived quality of one’s social relationships is the
most reliable predictor of life satisfaction.
(D) Young adults experience both positive and negative feel-
ings more strongly than older adults do.
(E) Health and adjustment during midlife have a direct effect
on the life satisfaction of men at age 65.
(F) Experiences and choices at each stage of life influence
one’s success and satisfaction at the next stage.

From: Gallagher N. Delta’s Key to the Next Generation TOEFL Test: Six Practice
Tests for the iBT. – McHenry: Delta Publishing Company, 2006.

 
94 
2. AQUATIC SCHOOLS 
1. Many species of fish, particularly smaller fish, travel in
schools, moving in tight formations, often with the precision of the
most highly disciplined military unit on parade. Some move in syn-
chronized hordes, while others move in starkly geometric forms. In
addition to the varieties of shapes of schools of fish, there are
countless varieties of schooling behaviors. Some fish coalesce into
schools and then spread out in random patterns, while others move
into close formations at specific times, such as feeding times, but
are more spread out at other times. Some move in schools com-
posed of members of all age groups, while others move in schools
predominantly when they are young but take up a more solitary ex-
istence as they mature. Though this behavior is quite a regular, fa-
miliar phenomenon, there is much that is not completely known
about it, particularly the exact function that it serves and what
mechanisms fish use to make it happen.
2. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed and tested con-
cerning the purpose of schooling behavior in fish. Schooling cer-
tainly promotes the survival of the species, but questions arise as to
the way the schooling enables fish to have a better chance of sur-
viving. Certainly, the fact that fish congregate together in schools
helps to ensure their survival in that schooling provides numerous
types of protection for the members of the school. One for, of pro-
tection derives from the sheer numbers in the school. When a
predator attacks a school containing a huge number of fish, the
predator will be able to consume only a small percentage of the
school. Whereas some of the members of the school will be lost to
the predator, the majority of the school will be able to survive. An-
other form of protection comes from the special coloration and
marking of different types of fish. Certain types of coloration or
markings such as stripes or patterns in vibrant and shiny colors cre-
ate a visual effect when huge numbers of the fish are clustered to-
gether, making it more difficult for a potential predator to focus on
specific members of the school. A final form of protection comes
from a special sense that fish possess, a sense that is enhanced
 
95 
when fish swim in schools. This special sense is related to a set of
lateral line organs that consist of rows of pores leading to fluid-
filled canals. These organs are sensitive to minute vibrations in the
water. The thousands of sets of those special organs in a school of
fish together can prove very effective in warning the school about
an approaching threat.
3. It is also unclear exactly how fish manage to maintain their
tight formations. Sight seems to play a role in the ability of fish to
move in schools, and some scientists believe that, at least in some
species, sight may play the principal role. However, many experi-
ments indicate that more than sight is involved. Some fish school
quite well in the dark or in murky water where visibility is extreme-
ly limited. This indicates that senses other that eyesight must be in-
volved in enabling the schooling behavior. The lateral line system
most likely plays a significant role in the ability of fish to school.
Because these lateral line organs are sensitive to the most minute
vibrations and currents, this organ system may be used by fish to
detect movements among members of their school even when eye-
sight is limited or unavailable.

Directions: Now answer the questions.  
1. The author mentions the most highly disciplined military
unit on parade in paragraph 1 in order to
(A) describe the aggressive nature of a school of fish
(B) provide an example of a way that military units travel
(C) create a mental image of the movement of a school of fish
(D) contrast the movement of a military unit with that of a
school of fish

2. The word “hordes” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to


(A) shapes
(B) masses
(C) pairs
(D) patterns

 
96 
3. All of the following are stated in paragraph 1 about school-
ing EXCEPT that
(A) it is quite common
(B) it can involve large numbers of fish
(C) it can involve a number of different fish behaviors
(D) it is fully understood

4. Which fish would be least likely to be in a school?


(A) A large, older fish
(B) A smaller, colorful fish
(C) A young, hungry fish
(D) A tiny, shiny fish

5. Look at the four letters (A), (B), (C), (D) that indicate where
the following sentence can be added to paragraph 1. Where
would the sentence best fit in the selection below?
These may take the shape, for example, of wedges, triangles,
spheres, or ovals.
Many species of fish, particularly smaller fish, travel in
schools, moving in tight formations, often with the precision of the
most highly disciplined military unit on parade. (A) Some move in
synchronized hordes, while others move in starkly geometric forms.
(B) In addition to the varieties of shapes of schools of fish, there are
countless varieties of schooling behaviors. (C) Some fish coalesce
into schools and then spread out in random patterns, while others
move into close formations at specific times, such as feeding times,
but are more spread out at other times. (D)
(A) Option A
(B) Option B
(C) Option C
(D) Option D

6. The word “it” in paragraph 1 refers to


(A) existence
(B) behavior
(C) fish
(D) function
 
97 
7. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential infor-
mation in the first highlighted sentence in paragraph 2? In-
correct choices change the meaning in important ways or
leave out essential information.
(A) After an attack, the fish that survive tend to move into
schools.
(B) The survival of fish depends upon their ability to bring new
members into the school.
(C) Many facts about the way that fish congregate in schools
have been studied.
(D) Fish travel in schools to protect themselves in various ways.

8. The phrase “sheer numbers” in paragraph 2 could best be


replaced by
(A) solitude
(B) interlude
(C) multitude
(D) similitude

9. It can be inferred from the passage that, when a predator at-


tacks,
(A) it cannot possibly consume all members of a school if the
school is large enough
(B) it rarely manages to catch any fish that are part of a school
(C) it is usually successful in wiping out the entire school
(D) it attacks only schools that lack sense organs

10. It is stated in paragraph 2 that


(A) fish in schools rarely have distinct markings
(B) schooling fish tend to have muted coloration
(C) the effect of coloration is multiplied when fish are massed
together
(D) the bright coloration makes it easier for predators to spot fish

11. The word “minute” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to


(A) timely
(B) tiny
 
98 
(C) careful
(D) instant

12. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential infor-


mation in the second highlighted sentence in paragraph 2?
Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or
leave out essential information.
(A) There are thousands of ways that special organs warn fish
about a predator.
(B) When the fish in a school work together, they can use their
sense organs to scare off any approaching threat.
(C) The fish in a large school use their lateral line organs to
send out warnings of the arrival of the school.
(D) Because so many fish are in a school, all of their sense or-
gans work well together to provide warnings.

13. The author begins paragraph 3 with “It is also unclear” in


order to indicate that
(A) contradictory information is about to be presented
(B) it is necessary to clarify a previously made point
(C) a second issue is about to be presented
(D) it is unclear how a problem can be resolved

14. According to paragraph 3,


(A) fish cannot see well
(B) sight is the only sense used by fish to remain in schools
(C) not all fish use sight to remain in schools
(D) fish can see quite well in the dark

15. The word “murky” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to


(A) cloudy
(B) warm
(C) clear
(D) deep

 
99 
16. Look at the four letters (A), (B), (C), (D) that indicate where
the following sentence can be added to paragraph 3. Where
would the sentence best fit in the selection below?
The purpose of schooling behavior is not the only aspect of
schooling that is not fully understood.
(A) It is also unclear exactly how fish manage to maintain their
tight formations. (B) Sight seems to play a role in the ability of fish
to move in schools, and some scientists believe that, at least in
some species, sight may play the principal role. (C) However, many
experiments indicate that more than sight is involved. Some fish
school quite well in the dark or in murky water where visibility is
extremely limited. (D)
(A) Option A
(B) Option B
(C) Option C
(D) Option D

17. The word “This” in paragraph 3 refers to the ability of fish to


(A) see well in dark water
(B) stay in schools when they cannot see well
(C) swim in water where the visibility is low
(D) use their sight to stay in schools

18. It is NOT stated in the passage that the lateral line system
(A) contains lines of pores
(B) can detect movement in the water
(C) quite possibly helps fish to remain in schools
(D) in fish is similar to sense organs in other animals

From: Phillips D. Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test


The Next Generation iBT. N. Y. : Pearson Education, 2015.

   

 
100 
3. THE RISE OF TEOTIHUACÁN 
1. The city of Teotihuacán, which lay about 50 kilometers
northeast of modern-day Mexico City, began its growth by 200 –
100 B. C. At its height, between about A. D. 150 and 700, it proba-
bly had a population of more than 125,000 people and covered at
least 20 square kilometers. It had over 2,000 apartment complexes,
a great market, a large number of industrial workshops, an adminis-
trative center, a number of massive religious edifices, and a regular
grid pattern of streets and buildings. Clearly, much planning and
central control were involved in the expansion and ordering of this
great metropolis. Moreover, the city had economic and perhaps re-
ligious contacts with most parts of Mesoamerica (modern Central
America and Mexico).
2. How did this tremendous development take place, and why
did it happen in the Teotihuacán Valley? Among the main factors
are Teotihuacán’s geographic location on a natural trade route to
the south and east of the Valley of Mexico, the obsidian1 resources
in the Teotihuacán Valley itself, and the valley’s potential for ex-
tensive irrigation. The exact role of other factors is much more dif-
ficult to pinpoint—for instance, Teotihuacán’s religious signifi-
cance as a shrine, the historical situation in and around the Valley
of Mexico toward the end of the first millennium B. C., the ingenui-
ty and foresightedness of Teotihuacán’s elite, and, finally, the im-
pact of natural disasters, such as the volcanic eruptions of the late
first millennium B. C.
3. This last factor is at least circumstantially implicated in Teo-
tihuacán’s rise. Prior to 200 B. C., a number of relatively small cen-
ters coexisted in and near the Valley of Mexico. Around this time,
the largest of these centers, Cuicuilco, was seriously affected by a
volcanic eruption, with much of its agricultural land covered by la-
va. With Cuicuilco eliminated as a potential rival, any one of a
number of relatively modest towns might have emerged as a lead-
ing economic and political power in Central Mexico. The archaeo-
logical evidence clearly indicates, though, that Teotihuacán was the
center that did arise as the predominant force in the area by the first
century A. D.
 
101 
4. It seems likely that Teotihuacán’s natural resources—along
with the city elite’s ability to recognize their potential—gave the
city a competitive edge over its neighbors. The valley, like many
other places in Mexican and Guatemalan highlands, was rich in ob-
sidian. The hard volcanic stone was a resource that had been in
great demand for many years, at least since the rise of the Olmecs
(a people who flourished between 1200 and 400 B. C.), and it ap-
parently had a secure market. Moreover, recent research on obsidi-
an tools found at Olmec sites has shown that some of the obsidian
obtained by the Olmecs originated near Teotihuacán. Teotihuacán
obsidian must have been recognized as a valuable commodity for
many centuries before the great city arose.
5. Long-distance trade in obsidian probably gave the elite resi-
dents of Teotihuacán access to a wide variety of exotic goods, as
well as a relatively prosperous life. Such success may have attract-
ed immigrants to Teotihuacán. In addition, Teotihuacán’s elite may
have consciously attempted to attract new inhabitants. It is also
probable that as early as 200 B. C. Teotihuacán may have achieved
some religious significance and its shrine (or shrines) may have
served as an additional population magnet. Finally, the growing
population was probably fed by increasing the number and size of
irrigated fields.
6. The picture of Teotihuacán that emerges is a classic picture
of positive feedback among obsidian mining and working, trade,
population growth, irrigation, and religious tourism. The thriving
obsidian operation, for example, would necessitate more miners,
additional manufacturers of obsidian tools, and additional traders to
carry the goods to new markets. All this led to increased wealth,
which in turn would attract more immigrants to Teotihuacán. The
growing power of the elite, who controlled the economy, would
give them the means to physically coerce people to move to Teoti-
huacán and serve as additions to the labor force. More irrigation
works would have to be built to feed the growing population, and
this resulted in more power and wealth for the elite.

Glossary:
obsidian: a type of volcanic glasslike rock used for manufacturing
tools and ceremonial objects
 
102 
Directions: Now answer the questions.  
1. The word “massive” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to
(A) ancient
(B) carefully planned
(C) very large
(D) carefully protected

2. In paragraph 1, each of the following is mentioned as a fea-


ture of the city of Teotihuacán between A. D. 150 and 700
EXCEPT
(A) regularly arranged streets
(B) several administrative centers spread across the city
(C) many manufacturing workshops
(D) apartment complexes

3. The word “pinpoint” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to


(A) identify precisely
(B) make an argument for
(C) describe
(D) understand

4. The word “ingenuity” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to


(A) ambition
(B) sincerity
(C) faith
(D) cleverness

5. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 2 as


a main factor in the development of Teotihuacán?
(A) The presence of obsidian in the Teotihuacán Valley
(B) The potential for extensive irrigation of Teotihuacán Valley lands
(C) A long period of volcanic inactivity in the Teotihuacán Valley
(D) Teotihuacán’s location on a natural trade route

 
103 
6. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraphs 2
and 3 about the volcanic eruptions of the late first millenni-
um B. C.?
(A) They were more frequent than historians once thought.
(B) They may have done more damage to Teotihuacán than to
neighboring centers.
(C) They may have played a major role in the rise of Teotihuacán.
(D) They increased the need for extensive irrigation in the Teo-
tihuacán Valley.

7. What can be inferred from paragraph 3 about Cuicuilco


prior to 200 B. C.?
(A) It was a fairly small city until that date.
(B) It was located outside the Valley of Mexico.
(C) It emerged rapidly as an economical and political center.
(D) Its economy relied heavily on agriculture.

8. The word “predominant” in paragraph 3 is closest in mean-


ing to
(A) most aggressive
(B) most productive
(C) principal
(D) earliest

9. Which of the following allowed Teotihuacán to have “a com-


petitive edge over its neighbors”?
(A) A well-exploited and readily available commodity
(B) The presence of a highly stable elite class
(C) Knowledge derived directly from the Olmecs about the art
of toolmaking
(D) Scarce natural resources in nearby areas such as those located
in what are now the Guatemalan and Mexican highlands

10. According to paragraph 4, what has recent research on ob-


sidian tools found at Olmec sites shown?
(A) Obsidian’s value was understood only when Teotihuacán
became an important city.
 
104 
(B) The residents of Teotihuacán were sophisticated toolmakers.
(C) The residents of Teotihuacán traded obsidian with the Ol-
mecs as early as 400 B. C.
(D) Some of the obsidian used by the Olmecs came from the ar-
ea around Teotihuacán.

11. Select the TWO answer choices that are mentioned in para-
graph 5 as being features of Teotihuacán that may have at-
tracted immigrants to the city. To receive credit, you must
select TWO answers.
(A) The prosperity of the elite
(B) Plenty of available housing
(C) Opportunities for well-paid agricultural employment
(D) The presence of one or more religious shrines

12. In paragraph 6, the author discusses “The thriving obsidian


operation” in order to
(A) explain why manufacturing was the main industry of Teoti-
huacán
(B) give an example of an industry that took very little time to
develop in Teotihuacán
(C) illustrate how several factors influenced each other to make
Teotihuacán a powerful and wealthy city
(D) explain how a successful industry can be a source of wealth
and a source of conflict at the same time

13. In paragraph 1 of the passage, there is a missing sentence.


The paragraph is repeated below and shows four letters (A),
(B), (C), and (D) that indicate where the following sentence
could be added.
In fact, artifacts and pottery from Teotihuacán have been dis-
covered in sites as far away as the Mayan lowlands, the Guatema-
lan highlands, northern Mexico, and the Gulf Coast of Mexico.
Where would the sentence best fit?
The city of Teotihuacán, which lay about 50 kilometers north-
east of modern-day Mexico City, began its growth by 200–100
B. C. At its height, between about A. D. 150 and 700, it probably
 
105 
had a population of more than 125,000 people and covered at least
20 square kilometers. (A) It had over 2,000 apartment complexes, a
great market, a large number of industrial workshops, an adminis-
trative center, a number of massive religious edifices, and a regular
grid pattern of streets and buildings. (B) Clearly, much planning
and central control were involved in the expansion and ordering of
this great metropolis. (C) Moreover, the city had economic and
perhaps religious contacts with most parts of Mesoamerica (modern
Central America and Mexico). (D)
(A) Option A
(B) Option B
(C) Option C
(D) Option D

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of


the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by
selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most
important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not be-
long in the summary because they express ideas that are not
presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage.
This question is worth 2 points.
Write your answer choices in the spaces where they belong.
You can either write the letter of your answer choice or you can
copy the sentence.
Teotihuacán was a highly developed city in Mesoamerica that
reached its peak between about A. D. 150 and 700.



Answer Choices
(A) The number and sophistication of the architectural, admin-
istrative, commercial, and religious features of Teotihuacán
indicate the existence of centralized planning and control.
(B) Teotihuacán may have developed its own specific local re-
ligion as a result of the cultural advances made possible by
the city’s great prosperity.
 
106 
(C) Several factors may account for Teotihuacán’s extraordi-
nary development, including its location, rich natural re-
sources, irrigation potential, intelligent elite, and the mis-
fortune of rival communities.
(D) As a result of its large number of religious shrines, by the
first century A. D., Teotihuacán became the most influen-
tial religious center in all of Mesoamerica.
(E) In many important areas, from the obsidian industry to re-
ligious tourism, Teotihuacán’s success and prosperity typi-
fied the classic positive feedback cycle.
(F) Although many immigrants settled in Teotihuacán between
A. D. 150 and 700, the increasing threat of coerced labor
discouraged further settlement and limited Teotihuacán’s
population growth.

From: TOEFL iBT Quick Prep. 2011. https://www.ets.org/s/toefl/pdf/qp_v1_web.pdf

 
107 
4. BEOWULF 
Historical Background
1. The epic poem Beowulf, written in Old English, is the earli-
est existing Germanic epic and one of four surviving Anglo-Saxon
manuscripts. Although Beowulf was written by an anonymous Eng-
lishman in Old English, the tale takes place in that part of Scandi-
navia from which Germanic tribes emigrated to England. Beowulf
comes from Geatland, the southeastern part of what is now Sweden.
Hrothgar, king of the Danes, lives near what is now Leire, on Zea-
land, Denmark’s largest island. The Beowulf epic contains three
major tales about Beowulf and several minor tales that reflect a rich
Germanic oral tradition of myths, legends, and folklore.
2. The Beowulf warriors have a foot in both the Bronze and
Iron Ages. Their mead-halls reflect the wealthy living of the Bronze
Age Northmen, and their wooden shields, wood-shafted spears, and
bronze-hilted swords are those of the Bronze Age warrior. Howev-
er, they carry iron-tipped spears, and their best swords have iron or
iron-edged blades. Beowulf also orders an iron shield for his fight
with a dragon. Iron replaced bronze because it produced a blade
with a cutting edge that was stronger and sharper. The Northmen
learned how to forge iron in about 500 B. C. Although they had
been superior to the European Celts in bronze work, it was the Celts
who taught them how to make and design iron work. Iron was ac-
cessible everywhere in Scandinavia, usually in the form of “bog-
iron” found in the layers of peat in peat bogs.
3. The Beowulf epic also reveals interesting aspects of the lives
of the Anglo-Saxons who lived in England at the time of the anon-
ymous Beowulf poet. The Germanic tribes, including the Angles,
the Saxons, and the Jutes, invaded England from about A. D. 450 to
600. By the time of the Beowulf poet, Anglo-Saxon in English was
neither primitive nor uncultured. (A)
4. Although the Beowulf manuscript was written in about A. D.
1000, it was not discovered until the seventeenth century. (B)
Scholars do not know whether Beowulf is the sole surviving epic
from a flourishing Anglo-Saxon literary period that produced other
great epics or whether it was unique even in its own time. (C) Many
 
108 
scholars think that the epic was probably written sometime between
the late seventh century and the early ninth century. If they are cor-
rect, the original manuscript was probably lost during the ninth-
century Viking invasions of Anglia, in which the Danes destroyed
the Anglo-Saxon monasteries and their great libraries. However,
other scholars think that the poet’s favorable attitude toward the
Danes must place the epic’s composition after the Viking invasions
and at the start of the eleventh century, when this Beowulf manu-
script was written.
5. The identity of the Beowulf poet is also uncertain. (D) He
apparently was a Christian who loved the pagan heroic tradition of
his ancestors and blended the values of the pagan hero with the
Christian values of his own country and time. Because he wrote in
the Anglian dialect, he probably was either a monk in a monastery or
a poet in an Anglo-Saxon court located north of the Thames River.
Appeal and Value
6. Beowulf interests contemporary readers for many reasons.
First, it is an outstanding adventure story. Grendel, Grendel’s moth-
er, and the dragon are marvelous characters, and each fight is
unique, action-packed, and exciting. Second, Beowulf is a very ap-
pealing hero. He is the perfect warrior, combining extraordinary
strength, skill, courage, and loyalty. Like Hercules, he devotes his
life to making the world a safer place. He chooses to risk death in
order to help other people, and he faces his inevitable death with
heroism and dignity. Third, the Beowulf poet is interested in the
psychological aspects of human behavior. For example, the Danish
hero’s welcoming speech illustrates his jealousy of Beowulf. The
behavior of Beowulf’s warriors in the dragon fight reveals their
cowardice. Beowulf’s attitudes toward heroism reflect his maturity
and experience, while King Hrothgar’s attitudes toward life show
the experiences of an aged nobleman.
7. Finally, the Beowulf poet exhibits a mature appreciation of
the transitory nature of human life and achievement. In Beowulf, as
in the major epics of other cultures, the hero must create a meaning-
ful life in a world that is often dangerous and uncaring. He must ac-
cept the inevitability of death. He chooses to reject despair; instead,
he takes pride in himself and in his accomplishments, and he values
human relationships.
 
109 
1. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true
about Beowulf?
(A) It is the only manuscript from the Anglo-Saxon period.
(B) The original story was written in a Germanic dialect.
(C) The author did not sign his name to the poem.
(D) It is one of the several epics from the first century.

2. The word “which” in paragraph 1 refers to


(A) Tale
(B) Scandinavia
(C) Manuscripts
(D) Old English

3. The word “major” in paragraph 1 is closes in meaning to


(A) basic
(B) principal
(C) distinct
(D) current

4. Why does the author mention “bog-iron” in paragraph 2?


(A) To demonstrate the availability of iron in Scandinavia
(B) To prove that iron was better than Bronze for weapons
(C) To argue that the Celts provided the materials to make iron
(D) To suggest that 500 B. C. was the date that the Iron Age began

5. Which of the sentences below best expresses the information


in the underlined statement in the paragraph 3? The other
choices change the meaning or leave out important infor-
mation.
(A) Society in Anglo-Saxon England was both advanced and
cultured.
(B) The society of the Anglo-Saxons was not primitive or cul-
tured.
(C) The Anglo-Saxons had a society that was primitive, not cul-
tured.
(D) England during the Anglo-Saxon society was advanced, not
cultured.
 
110 
6. The word “unique” in paragraph 4 is closest is meaning to:
(A) old
(B) rare
(C) perfect
(D) weak

7. According to paragraph 4, why do many scholars believe


that the original manuscript for Beowulf was lost?
(A) Because it is not like other manuscripts
(B) Because many libraries were burned
(C) Because the Danes were allies of the Anglo-Saxons.
(D) Because no copies were found in monasteries

8. In paragraph 4, the author suggests that Beowulf was dis-


covered in which century?
(A) first
(B) ninth
(C) eleventh
(D) seventeenth

9. Why does the author of this passage use the word “apparent-
ly” in paragraph 5?
(A) He is not certain that the author of Beowulf was a Christian.
(B) He is mentioning facts that are obvious to the readers.
(C) He is giving an example from a historical reference.
(D) He is introducing evidence about the author of Beowulf.

10. The author compared the Beowulf character to Hercules


because
(A) They are both examples of the ideal hero
(B) Their adventure with a dragon are very similar
(C) The speeches that they make are inspiring
(D) They lived at about the same time

11. The word “exhibits” in paragraph 7 is closest in meaning to


(A) creates
(B) demonstrates
 
111 
(C) assumes
(D) terminates

12. The word “reject” in paragraph 7 is closest in meaning to


(A) manage
(B) evaluate
(C) refuse
(D) confront

13. Look at the four letters (A), (B), (C), (D) that show where
the following sentence could be inserted in the passage
(paragraphs 3-5).
Moreover, they disagree as to whether this Beowulf is a copy of
an earlier manuscript.
Where could the sentence be added?
(A) Option A
(B) Option B
(C) Option C
(D) Option D

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of


the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by
selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most
important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not
belong in the summary because they express ideas that are
not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the pas-
sage. This question is worth 2 points.

Beowulf is the oldest Anglo-Saxon epic poem that has survived


to the present day.


 
112 
Answer Choices
(A) The Northmen were adept in crafting tools and weapons
made of bronze, but the Celts were superior in designing
and working in iron.
(B) In the Viking invasions of England, the Danish armies de-
stroyed monasteries, some of which contained extensive li-
braries.
(C) King Hrothgar and Beowulf become friends at the end of
their lives, after having spent decades opposing each other
on the battlefield.
(D) The poem chronicles life in Anglo-Saxon society during the
Bronze and Iron Ages when Germanic tribes were invading
England.
(E) Although Beowulf was written by an anonymous poet,
probably a Christian, about 1000 A. D., it was not found
until the seventeenth century.
(F) Beowulf is still interesting because it has engaging charac-
ters, an adventurous plot, and an appreciation for human
behavior and relationships.
From: Sharpe P. J. Barron’s TOEFL iBT. 15th ed. Hauppauge : Barron’s
Education Series, Inc., 2016.

   

 
113 
5. WHAT IS AN EARTHQUAKE? 
1. An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rap-
id release of energy. Most often, earthquakes are caused by slippage
along a fault in Earth’s crust. The energy released radiates in all di-
rections from its source, called the focus, in the form of waves.
These waves are analogous to those produced when a stone is
dropped into a calm pond. Just as the impact of the stone sets water
waves in motion, an earthquake generates seismic waves that radi-
ate throughout Earth. Even though the energy dissipates rapidly
with increasing distance from the focus, sensitive instruments lo-
cated around the world record the event. Over 30,000 earthquakes
that are strong enough to be felt occur worldwide annually. Fortu-
nately, most are minor tremors and do very little damage. General-
ly, only about 75 significant earthquakes take place each year, and
many of these occur in remote regions. However, occasionally a
large earthquake occurs near a large population center.
2. The tremendous energy released by atomic explosions or by
volcanic eruptions can produce an earthquake, but these events are
relatively weak and infrequent. What mechanism produces a de-
structive earthquake? Ample evidence exists that Earth is not a stat-
ic planet. We know that Earth’s crust has been uplifted at times, be-
cause we have found numerous ancient wave-cut benches many
meters above the level of the highest tides. Other regions exhibit
evidence of extensive subsidence. In addition, we also have evi-
dence that indicates horizontal movement. These movements are
usually associated with large fractures in Earth’s crust called faults.
Typically, earthquakes occur along preexisting faults that formed in
the distant past along zones of weakness in Earth’s crust. Some are
very large and can generate major earthquakes. One example is the
San Andreas Fault that separates two great sections of Earth’s litho-
sphere: the North American plate and the Pacific plate. It trends in a
northwesterly direction for nearly 1,300 kilometers through much
of western California.
3. Other faults are small and produce only minor and infre-
quent earthquakes. However, the vast majority of faults are inactive
and do not generate earthquakes at all. Nevertheless, even faults
 
114 
that have been inactive for years can rupture again if the stresses
acting on the region increase sufficiently. In addition, most faults
are not perfectly straight or continuous; instead, they consist of nu-
merous branches and smaller fractures that display kinks and off-
sets. The San Andreas Fault is actually a system that consists of
several large faults and innumerable small fractures. Most of the
motion along faults can be satisfactorily explained by the plate tec-
tonics theory, which states that large slabs of Earth’s lithosphere are
in continual slow motion. These mobile plates interact with neigh-
boring plates, straining and deforming the rocks at their margins. In
fact, it is along faults association with plate boundaries that most
earthquakes occur. Furthermore, earthquakes are repetitive: As
soon as one is over, the continuous motion of the plates adds strain
to the rocks until they fail again.
4. The actual mechanism of earthquake generation eluded ge-
ologists until H. F. Reid conducted a study following the great 1906
San Francisco earthquake. This enormous earthquake was accom-
panied by horizontal surface displacements of several meters along
the northern portion of the San Andreas Fault. Field investigations
determined that during this single earthquake, the Pacific plate
lurched as much as 4.7 meters northward past the adjacent North
American plate. The mechanism of earthquake formation that Reid
deduced from this information is called elastic rebound. First there
is an existing fault, or break in the rock. Then tectonic forces ever
so slowly deform the crustal rocks on both sides of the fault. Under
these conditions, rocks bend and store elastic energy, much like a
wooden stick does if bent. Eventually, the frictional resistance hold-
ing the rock in place is overcome. As slippage occurs at the weakest
point, the focus, displacement will exert stress farther along the
fault, where additional slippage will occur until most of the built-up
strain is released. This slippage allows the deformed rock to “snap
back”. The vibrations known as an earthquake occur as the rock elas-
tically returns to its original shape. The springing back of the rock
was termed “elastic rebound” by Reid, because the rock behaves elas-
tically, much like a stretched rubber band does when it is released.

 
115 
1. Why does the author mention a stone dropped in a calm
pond in paragraph 1?
(A) To prove that seismic waves can travel through water
(B) To explain why most earthquakes are relatively small
(C) To illustrate how an earthquake differs from intense wave
activity
(D) To help the reader visualize how energy spreads out from
the focus of an earthquake

2. The word “|remote” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to


(A) isolated
(B) foreign
(C) mountainous
(D) sheltered

3. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential in-


formation in the following sentence from the passage? Incor-
rect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave
out essential information.
Even though the energy dissipates rapidly with increasing dis-
tance from the focus, sensitive instruments located around the
world record the event.
(A) The energy released by an earthquake disappears quickly,
though it can travel around the world.
(B) The focus of an earthquake is sensitive to movement, and
the released energy can be detected around the world.
(C) The instruments that detect earthquake are sensitive enough
to detect small seismic waves far away from the earth-
quake’s focus.
(D) Instruments that can sense the energy released in an earth-
quake are located around the world.

4. According to paragraph 2, which of the following best de-


scribes the origin of earthquake?
(A) They are produced by a shrinking of Earth’s crust.
(B) They may begin with cracks in Earth that formed long ago.
(C) They can originate in any region of Earth.
(D) They usually begin in the thickest part of Earth’s crust.
 
116 
5. The highlighted word “It” in paragraph 2 refers to
(A) the Pacific plate
(B) the North American plate
(C) Earth’s lithosphere
(D) the San Andreas Fault

6. The word “rupture” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to


(A) vibrate
(B) return
(C) disappear
(D) break

7. The word “kinks” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to


(A) twists
(B) cracks
(C) weaknesses
(D) rocks

8. It can be inferred from paragraph 2 and 3 that all of the fol-


lowing is true of the relationship between volcanic eruptions
and earthquakes EXCEPT
(A) Both events occur at unpredictable intervals.
(B) Volcanic eruptions can sometimes cause earthquakes.
(C) A large earthquake can set off a volcanic eruption in a
nearby mountain.
(D) Earthquakes usually occur on faults, but volcanoes do not.

9. Why does the author mention H. F. Reid in paragraph 4?


(A) He was a famous geologist in the early 1900s.
(B) He was the first person to propose the theory of elastic re-
bound.
(C) He was in San Francisco at the time of the 1906 earthquake.
(D) He was one of the first people to participate in geological
framework.

 
117 
10. What can be inferred from paragraph 4 about the 1906 San
Francisco earthquake?
(A) It affected all portions of the San Andreas Fault.
(B) It affected water levels in the Pacific Ocean.
(C) It was unusually large.
(D) Geologists have not yet determined what caused it occur.

11. The word “lurched” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to


(A) moved suddenly
(B) changed direction
(C) became deeper
(D) grew wider

12. According to the passage, what is the significance of the fo-


cus of an earthquake?
(A) Its size determines the strength of an earthquake.
(B) It is the central point from seismic waves originate.
(C) It is usually located deep in the lithosphere.
(D) It represents the end result of tectonic forces.

13. Look at the four letters (A), (B), (C) and (D) that indicate
where the following sentence could be added to the selection
from the passage. Where would the sentence best fit in the
selection below?
When this happens, an earthquake is among the most destruc-
tive natural forces on Earth.
Over 30,000 earthquakes that are strong enough to be felt occur
worldwide annually. (A) Fortunately, most are minor tremors and
do very little damage. (B) Generally, only about 75 significant
earthquakes take place each year, and many of these occur in re-
mote regions. (C) However, occasionally a large earthquake occurs
near a large population center. (D)
(A) Option A
(B) Option B
(C) Option C
(D) Option D

 
118 
14. Read the first sentence of a summary of the passage. Then
complete the summary by circling the THREE answer
choices that express the most important ideas in the pas-
sage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because
they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or
are minor ideas in the passage.

Earthquakes are natural events that occur all over the world
every day.


Answer Choices
(A) Most earthquakes do not cause much damage.
(B) Earthquakes are produced by a release of energy.
(C) Volcanic eruptions can sometimes produce earthquakes.
(D) The San Andreas Fault is quite small in comparison to other
faults.
(E) Earthquakes often occur on faults.
(F) The type of rock deformation called elastic rebound causes
most earthquakes.
From: Solorzano H. S. North Star : Building Skills for the TOEFL iBT. High Inter-
mediate. N. Y. : Pearson Education, 2006.

   

 
119 
6. DISTRIBUTIONS OF TROPICAL BEE COLONIES 
1. In 1977 ecologists Stephen Hubbell and Leslie Johnson rec-
orded a dramatic example of how social interactions can produce
and enforce regular spacing in a population. They studied competi-
tion and nest spacing in populations of stingless bees in tropical dry
forests in Costa Rica. Though these bees do no sting, rival colonies
of some species fight fiercely over potential nesting sites.
2. Stingless bees are abundant in tropical and subtropical envi-
ronments, where they gather nectar and pollen from a wide variety
of flowers. They generally nest in trees and live in colonies made
up of hundreds to thousands of workers. Hubbell and Johnson ob-
served that some species of stingless bees are highly aggressive to
members of their species from other colonies, while other species
are not. Aggressive species usually forage in groups and feed main-
ly on flowers that occur in high-density clumps. Nonaggressive
species feed singly or in small groups and on more widely distrib-
uted flowers.
3. Hubbell and Johnson studied several species of stingless
bees to determine whether there is a relationship between aggres-
siveness and patterns of colony distribution. They predicted that the
colonies of aggressive species would show regular distributions,
while those of nonaggressive species would show random or close-
ly grouped (clumped) distribution. They concentrated their studies
on a thirteen-hectare tract of tropical dry forest that contained nu-
merous nests of nine species of stingless bees.
4. Though Hubbell and Johnson were interested in how bee be-
havior might affect colony distributions, they recognized that the
availability of potential nest sites for colonies could also affect dis-
tributions. (A) So as one of the first steps in their study, they
mapped the distributions of trees suitable for nesting. (B) They
found that potential nest trees were distributed randomly through
the study area. (C) They also found that the number of potential nest
sites was much greater than the number of bee colonies. (D) What did
these measurements show the researchers? The number of colonies in
the study area was not limited by availability of suitable trees, and a

 
120 
clumped or regular distribution of colonies was not due to an under-
lying clumped or regular distribution of potential nest sites.
5. Hubbell and Johnson mapped the nests of five of the nine
species of stingless bees accurately, and the nests of four these of
these species were distributed regularly. All four species with regu-
lar nest distributions were highly aggressive to bees from other col-
onies of their own species. The fifth species was not aggressive,
and its nests were randomly distributed over the study area.
6. The researchers also studied the process by which the ag-
gressive species establish new colonies. Their observations provide
insights into the mechanisms that establish and maintain the regular
nest distribution of these species. Aggressive species apparently
mark prospective nest sites with pheromones, chemical substances
secreted by some animals for communication with other members
of their species. The pheromone secreted by these stingless bees at-
tracts and aggregates members of their colony to the prospective
nest site; however, it also attracts workers from other nests.
7. If workers from two different colonies arrive at the prospec-
tive nest at the same time, they may fight for possession. Fights
may be escalated into protracted battles. The researchers observed
battles over a nest tree that lasted for two weeks. Each dawn, fifteen
to thirty workers from two competing colonies arrived at the con-
tested nest site. The workers from the two colonies faced off in two
swarms and displayed and fought with each other. In the displays,
pairs of bees faced each other, slowly flew vertically to a height of
about three meters, and then grappled each other to the ground. When
the two bees hit the ground, they separated, faced off, and performed
another aerial display. Bees did not appear to be injured in these
fights, which were apparently ritualized. The two swarms aban-
doned the battle at about 8 or 9 A. M. each morning, only to re-form
and begin again the next day just after dawn, While this contest over
an unoccupied nest site produced no obvious mortality, fights over
occupied nests sometimes kill over 1, 000 bees in a single battle.

 
121 
1. The word “rival” in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) established
(B) competing
(C) nearby
(D) different

2. According to paragraph 2, some species of stingless bees are


aggressive mainly toward
(A) nonaggressive bees that forage on the same flowers
(B) aggressive bees of other species
(C) bees from their own colony
(D) bees of their own species from different colonies

3. According to paragraph 3, Hubbell and Johnson hypothe-


sized that
(A) the distribution pattern of bee colonies determines the de-
gree of aggressiveness the bees display
(B) nests of nonaggressive bees have either a random or a
clumped distribution, while nests of aggressive bees have a
regular distribution
(C) nests of nonaggressive bees are generally both closer to-
gether and more regularly distributed than those of aggres-
sive bees
(D) nests of aggressive bees tend to be more regular in shape
than those of nonaggressive bees

4. According to paragraph 4, why did Hubbell and Johnson


begin their study by mapping all the potential nest sites?
(A) To determine whether the availability of potential nest sites
played a role in the distribution of bee colonies
(B) To know exactly where in the study area the colonies of all
the different bee species were located
(C) To be sure that suitable nesting sites were equally available
in all parts of the study area
(D) To find out whether different species of bees preferred dif-
ferent types of trees as potential nest sites

 
122 
5. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential in-
formation in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 4? In-
correct choices change the meaning in important ways or
leave out essential information.
(A) The limited number of colonies was not due to the distribu-
tion or availability of potential nesting sites.
(B) There was no lack of suitable trees or potential nesting sites
in the study area.
(C) The number of nests was directly related to the number or
the distribution of suitable trees.
(D) Neither the number nor the distribution of colonies could be
explained by the availability of suitable nest sites.

6. According to paragraph 5, Hubbell and Johnson determined


(A) the order in which the colonies in the study area had been
established
(B) the level of aggressiveness of each of the nine species
(C) the distribution pattern of the nests of five of the nine species
(D) the number of colonies of each of the nine species

7. Why does the author indicate that “The fifth species was not
aggressive, and its nests were randomly distributed over the
study area”?
(A) To identify research results that contradicted Hubbell and
Johnson’s original hypothesis
(B) To indicate that research results confirmed that nest distri-
bution was related to aggressiveness
(C) To introduce the hypothesis that, within the same species,
not all colonies are aggressive
(D) To point out that both aggressive and nonaggressive species
are equally successful at finding nest sites

8. The phrase “insights into” in paragraph 6 is closest in mean-


ing to
(A) tools to study
(B) opportunities for
(C) evidence of
(D) an understanding of
 
123 
9. According to paragraph 6, what is one result of using pher-
omones to mark nest sites?
(A) The use of pheromones tends to result in nest clumping.
(B) Pheromones attract animals other than bees to prospective
nest sites.
(C) Pheromones tend to make bees aggressive.
(D) Pheromones secreted by bees of one colony also attract
bees of other colonies

10. The word “escalated” in paragraph 7 is closest in meaning to


(A) intensified
(B) transformed
(C) combined
(D) lengthened

11. Paragraph 7 supports which of the following ideas about


fights over occupied nests?
(A) They are more violent than battles over unoccupied nest
sites.
(B) They mostly occur between colonies of different species.
(C) They are more frequent than battles over unoccupied sites.
(D) They last longer than battles over unoccupied sites do.

12. Look at the four letters (A), (B), (C), (D) that indicate where
the following sentence could be added to the passage (para-
graph 4). Where does the sentence best fit?
For example, a clumped distribution of nests might simply re-
flect a clumped distribution of suitable nesting sites.
(A) Option A
(B) Option B
(C) Option C
(D) Option D

 
124 
13. Select from the seven sentences below the three sentences
that correctly characterize aggressive species of stingless
bees and the two sentences that correctly characterize non-
aggressive species.

Aggressive Stingless Bees Nonaggressive Stingless Bees


• •
• •

Answer Choices
(A) Nests are regularly distributed
(B) Nests are sometimes located close together
(C) Nests always occur in large clumps
(D) Colonies are generally made up of fewer than 100 workers
(E) Members of a colony feed alone or in small groups
(F) Bees feed mainly on flowers that grow in high-density
clumps
(G) Nest spacing is maintained by fighting

From: http://www.onlinetoefl.org/toefl-reading/toefl-ibt-online-reading-test-set-15/

 
125 
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MASTERING TOEFL VOCABULARY

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