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IT. E. Copokun BOHBIE ITYTH HW CYHOCTPOEHHE HA CEBEPO-3AITIA]IE PYCH B CPETHEBEKOBbE BBK 63.4(2) Cos Penensentm: Boxr. nen, Hayk A. H. Kupmwinxos (AMMK PAH) Roxr. wer. way T. C. HeGeen (CNG. dumax PHM kynerypnoro 1 mpupoxoro secnegus) OrNABNEHUE Fnasa 1. Cyaosoe aen0 Cenepo-3anaanoii Pycu 4 npoGnemm ero uaynenna...... “ Senn Cenepo-Saniarnof Pycn w cpeANeReKOBLe.. 6.6. oc ece eee oe ees baie Tlewamaemca no nocmanoaneniao Heropna usyyerns cynoxoxcraa 1 cyaocrpoenms nia Conepo-3anage Pycn..... 2... |. 7 Pedaxynonsio-usdamenockoeo cooeina C.-Hemep6ypeckozo cocydapemsennoeo yruaepcumema Taasa 2. Marncrpaaputie noantie nytH apesnepycckoro Cenepo-3anana u cooGuenne PO HOTEL wcie Maer eons ashe ae was is Ease rece Bios ss Sanaa te Hyt» 0 Boaxony, Magoxckomy osepy, Hose... 2.2.0.0... aes Tyr, to Bemxoii, Tckoncko-Hyackomy osepy pexe Hapone 17 TYRE YT: ce een nen ea nenenes eee 2 Fraea 3. ApxeonormieckHe HCTOUNKH To cperKeReKoxoMy cynoctpoeHIO Ha Cexepo- Bamane PYM. eee eve eee ees 2a SATO) AAR sh Copokun TI. E. Xapakrep apxeonormueckux werownnKos no cyaocrpoenmio Hx cneluMpnKa ........ 24 65 ___ Bonute nyt w cytoctpoenne ta Cenepo-Sanaje Pycu B cpentenexonse, — Haxoaxn cpeatienekonuix cygon 4 ux xpymIX WACTCH ee eevee ees e eee e 2S CII6.: M3z-n0 C.-Ilerep6yprexoro yHusepcuteta, 1997. — 208 c, Orgenbunte aeTam xopnyca cyaow w cpemiescxonux cnosx ropogos Cexepo-Banaga .. 28 a scat bal eeevahn ‘ ; Haxoaxn xerareii napycnoro ociamens, Brink 6 : en + 4 KHure nop. ceMaTpHBAIONCS MpoSaeMiA HerOpHO nogNx nyreli i eygonOTO jena nnn ahs Soc . 42 Cenepo-Sanasrioi Pycst w cpeanesexonee. Hopmaiia wicenegosanina obeciieaitnacrcs: eco komeoean, aes SPR arent yp ; Fee MMNPOKHM MpHTeHeHHEM apxcororHMecKHx, TNCLMCHIX, sKorlorpacpiruecKHK at THO. Taaea 4. C s i 7 . Cpentenexonsie cya Cenepo-Zanaanoii Pyen no mare) PPabeveriars verownxon. Kierra Goreto iouocrpyponana, uncer Gamsiiol enpanountall mareyrar Ears oat endl dtbliree tet Set ae the te AG ¥ nogpoGu0e pesiowe na aur-mriicxox wotaKe, Ona npexcranauer mitepee ma Neroprmon, ‘apxeonoros, 46 Stuorpacbos x ncex rerrepecyoauixcs npoGrenamn Heropint Mt Ky:tutypu Buk micomernix HCTOMAKOR H HX CHEWNPIRA .eeee es ce cca e eves ae Moxer Girt veromsonaia » xavecrae yueGuoro nocoSus no wopeKoil apxeonornt OSuieponoNHe TePMINIM H NasRANHE KONEpeTHINX THHON cyzOn apemuepyecKorO Conepo-3anaza 2... eeeeeee eens eet et 48 BBK 63.4(2) Konxpermme tums cygos » mtcoMenmx nerounmxax 5 dd decal DaeMetitis KONCTPYKINIK APEBIEPYCCKHX CVAON NO IIACEMEIIMIM HeTOMKAM FW . Bonpocis npoutcxoxaenns: cyzonisx Tepwnnos. . eR 61 Taasa 5. MsoGpasitenubie vetownnen no apesepyceKomy cyaocrpoenmo . . Tpadxpurn © nso6pakennamn CYAOB 6... cece cece eee c ever sees wane Haobpaxcins cyaon x wxonorpadun, ¢bpeckosoii xxmomicn 1 ximanol xommaTIOpe .. 67 HooGpaxcinis Kouxpernnix rHnOK cyzoR M aneMenTOS ux KoucTpyKUNii . . . Moxemt cyzon xax ucrounm no apemiepycckowy cygocrpocimio .... © M1. E. Copoxsm, 1997 © Mogarenero C.-Tlerep6yprexoro N Ne 5-288-01984-3 yunsepenrera, 1997 eet raea 6. Cysoctpomremiaa Tparnuns apernepyccxoro Cexepo-Sanaaa Ocnosuume KONerpyxTHMHe THM cynOB ApesHepyccKoro Cenepo-3ariaza Sriorpadwuecke COOTReTCTRHS CYAORMM THIAM, BAEISEMLM 110 apxeonorHHe- KHIM: MaTepHasiaM . Fenesic cyaocrponrennnoi rpaamuat apennepycexoro C erga ay oaiy.e care aly els sen vnc en 3 BKMOWEHE 66 eee es ees : aieetat HBS LB ummary. Water-ways and shipbuilding in North-Western Russia in middle ages. pinoxenne 1. ApxconormueckHe AeTam cygoB M HX OcHOBKIIe MapaMerpH. . puxoxenne 2, Vioauniains pasmnx TANO® cyzO8 B HoBTOpoReKIX H NeKORCKNX serorn4csx : yrepatypa M ApXvBHEe MaTepHats . TMMCOK coKpamtett nuGoM wLnocrpantit. . 80 80 84 39 102 tos 114 127 129 138 139 MOCBSINAETCS POAHTEIIM Taaea 1 CY]OBOE JIEJIO CEBEPO-3AIIAIHOM PYCH VM MPOBJIEMBI ETO H3YYEHUA SEMI CEREPO-3AMAMHOM PYCH B CPEIHEBEKOBbE Zemin Cesepo-Sananuoii Pycu, pacnonoxenibe Ha MYTSX, BeAyIYIX 13 Bantukn pray6b KouTHHeHta — Ha npocropst Bocrouno-Exponelickoit pasawne 1 jganee na tor — K CpeguseMHomopbw0 uM crpanam Apa6ckoro Boctoxa, usqaBHa MPHRIEKANH BHMMAHMe paamHMHEX HapooB M TocyzapeTs. BeroqHoe reorpacbi- MecKoe NOLOKEHHE MpeMOMpeMeNHIG BKMOYCHHOCTE THX TeppHTOpHii, saceneHHDIX MaNOUNCHeHHBIMM (pHHCKMMM TieMeHaMM M cyMBuINx GonbUIMe BbITOybI BiayeB- Uemy MMi, B eBpasitlicxyio ncTopmio. To xe OGcTOATeMCTBO MpeRpaulano HX B aON0KO pasqopa — NpesMeT MOCTOSAHHDIX cliopos ciaBsaH M CKAaHAMHABOB. PasgutHe Toprosin B Bariickom permone Bosneuenue B ccbepy apabcKoit ropromin Cpeuero Mosomksa yxe w VIL cronerHn cosjaen npenmoceinKH 21s ycranonnenus wimpoKoMacuiTaGHbX MexayHapogunx cpaseit. B VIII-IX pp. npo- HCXOMUT cIaBaHCKOe paccerenue B SeMI9X sTeCHOi 30HbI Boctounoi Enponst, yocturaroujee Ha Cexepo-Sanane noGepexnii Mavmencxoro, Jlaqoxckoro Uysckoro osep. Mepecenenubl ctamkupalorca 3yech He TONBKO ¢ peAKHM cpuHcKHM HaceneHHeM, HO H CO CKAHMHaBAMM, MPOHMKABLIMMH Ha cBOUX cysax M3 BanTHku srayOb Matepuka. Yxe Tora MMpHad XKHSHb Ha 9THX 3eMmsxX YepenoBalach C BOEHHBIMM CTOKHOBeHHAMH. B cepenme IX croveris, nocne mpxspaHia ciaaicKumn nm cbHHCKUMH WieMeHaMv Ha KHSXKeHMe BapsXCKOrO KOHyHra PiopHka, Ha Cepepo-Sanaze (popmupyercs nommTHyecKoe oOpa3zoBaHve, MepBOHAyabHbIM WeHTPOM KoTOporo pina Jlagora, a 3arem mpeguecrsosasuree Hosropony Piopukogo ropofHte. Cuegyiouii Kas3b — Oner conepuiaet B 882 r. moxoa Ha Kves 1, 000cHOBaBLIKCb Bs Cpeanem TogHenposbe, HayMHaer oSbeMHeHMe BOCTOUHOCIABAHCKHX miemeH, ToOXUB TEM caMbIM Hayao oGpasonanuM [[peBHepyccKono rocysapcTBa. Tloa- TanKMBaemble cTpemmeHviem K oGmagaHIo GoraTcTBaMM YOXHBIX unprmasaunit BapsKCKO-CAABSHCKHE MPyXHHH MPOXoysT Mo cchopMHpowaBLIMMCs Y>Ke Bo Bropoit jononune VITI-IX B. Bomxcko-BantuiicKoit u Borxoscxo-[Henposckol marncrpa- iM jo ApaGckoro Mupa m BusanTun. Boenisie HaGern cMeHstores ycraHoBensem ToproBbix oTHOUIeHMIt, B pesyzD~ are Yero GantHiickas 1 BorXKCKAS BETHH TOprOBDIX yell cabIKaloTea Ha NpocTopax ocrounoii Exsponbi. AKTHBHAa MexXAYHApOAHAd TOproBlA MpHBOANT K ycKopeHMio KOHOMMYCCKOTO HM TIOMMTHYECKOTO pasBHTHS ITOTO pervoHa, rye Ha BOAHbIX NYTSX, AaXONMBLINXCA TIO KORTponem JIpesuepyccKoro rocygapcTBa, Ha OcHOBe cTapHIx IEMEHHEIX WeHTPOB H TOprOBO-peMecneHHEX mloceneHHit OGpasyrorea ropoza. japan, HrpaBuMe 37ecb TlepBOHavaTbHO SHAYHTeENBHY! pom, co BpeMeHen ACTBOPSIOTCA B CNABAHCKOM cpeye, a MX HOBbIe OTpPsaALI, MpHObIBaBUMe n3 KAHJMHABHH, BbICTYNAIOT yKe B KAYeCTBe HaeMHMKOB Ha cryxGe y pyccKHXx Haseit. Tlocne npekpaujenua cooGujenuit 10 TpaHCKOHTHHeHTabHbIM ROTHBIM yTAM a BCeM HX MpoTsaxeHnH, B Konue X-XI us., cesepHte UX yuacTKH, cBagsIBABLIME enepo-Sanayityio Pycb co crpaHama Bantuiickoro perwona, nposamkaloT MHTeH- uBHO Ucrionb3oBaTeCa, [pu atom Ha XII B. MIpuxoguTcs pactiser HORroposcKoro openiasanna Ha BanruKe, Konya pycckne KYrlbI conepuxain noespKH BO MHOrHe epepoeBponeiickue crpanbt. Opnako Bo BTopoii nonoBMHe aToro croqetua, c auanoM KpecToHOcHoli arpeccum repMancKHx Kusxects, Ueeunn u anu B MIM SANaAHBX CnaBsH, Garton uM HHHOB, oTHoueHUs Hosropona ¢ STHMH cYAAPCTBAMM OCNOXHMOTCS. Tlosavee — 8 wavane XII 8. — c mpuGnmxenvem sasoesateneit x npenenam enepo-BanagHoli Pycu, Haumiaeres orkpbiTas GopbOa 3a cibepot RINAHNA B SeMnaX PUGAITHICKO-cpHHCKHX TIeMeH, Hepes KoTOpple M NpoXOmMA BaxHelimMe BomHBIE MMYHHKANHH, casiabinapuute Bocrountyio Cesepryio Espony. Mf xora Hosropony Tickosy Ha nporaxenun cpenHeweKosbs yyaBaroch coxpanaT» Bbixon K Bantuxé, )prOHOe MoperviaBale HX OKAsAT0Cb MepasBHITHIM, TAK KAK nyTH uepes DuncKHit LIMB HAXONWIMCh MO KOHTPOseM TocyAapcTs, CTpeMMBLIMXca K rlocpenHMYecTBy Topronne Pycu co crpawam Basriiickoro permova m mpenstcraorasumx IMOCTOSTEIBHBIM TlOe3KAM pyccKHX KymiloB mo BantuKe. Tlocrosimie Boenrsie cronkuonenns 8 XIII-XV sp. npusean Kx ocopstentiio Bepo-3ananHbix pyOexeli Pycu, uTo Ge110 saKperieHo Horopopamn ¢ cocegsmu — [gecKHM Koponencrsom u OpyeHoM, MapkHposaBmiuMn NpoxoxkyenHe rpaHul, a KXKE CoopyxeHHeM NopyGexHbix Kpettocteli B IKKOPCKOH, BoACKOI H KaperbcKOit Muax, Kpenocra HayeXHO KoHTpomMpokanu maBHBle nyTH — B TepByto ovepep mibIe, KOTOpbIe BEAM K UeHTPATbHBIM palionam HosroporcKoit TIcKoBcKoit MeyIb. Bkmowenne stax tepputopnii 8 coctan Pycckoro weHTpamM3oBaHHoro rocy- peTBa NpuBeno K HapacTaHMo Gopp6bi 3a yKperuienne ero nosnumii Ha BantuKke JMKBHAAUHA HeGsaronpHaTHbIX ycnoBMi ToproBmM c ApyruMn esporelicKHMi CyHAPCTBaMH. ITH 3ayaun OCTaloTcs BarkHeMLIMMM BO BHeIIHel NomMTHKe Pycn ceBepo-sanayHoM peruone Brnore 70 anoxm Merpa Beuxoro. 6 Tepputopna Cenepo-3anaya B cpepHesexosbe mpencrapaana coboii manona- ceneHHyio, noxpsiTyio HenpoxoquMBIMH secamH, & Gonbuleii cRoeli wacTH 3aGor0- HeHHYIO pawHHHy, KoTopad MepeceKanach MHOTOWMCHEHHDIMK pekamu, Bce oro SaTPYAHsA10 CTPOMTEIBCTRO Hi NOAep ANKE B MCIIPAaBHOM COCTOSHMM MarHcTpaIbHDIX cyxonythnix jopor. M3 mucbMenmux ucTOWHNKOB sBCTBYeT, uTO TepMuH “nyTb” osHaval B ApeBHepyccKoe BpeMsa HatpaBieHHe, no KoTOpoMy B cay¥ae HeoGxoyu- MocTH MpoKaybiBannch noporH. Ha Cepepo-3araze nocroaHpie cyxonyTitie — “popHie” MYTH rlosBAaioTca, commacno joKyMenTam, ToxbKo c XIII cronems, a Hasemubiit — ryxeBoi tparicnopr Ha npoTsxKeHM BCero cpemHeBeKonDa sHauH- ‘TeNbHO YcTYMal BOZHOMY B COBOKYMHOi rpysononpeMHocTH. Passeraiennpie xe peuHble CHCTeMBI, MpepbIBAeMble THIN Mectama yaKuMU PaBHHHHbIMM BoyopasyeraMH, cosqaBann ycioBHa [yx NpeHMylecTBeHHOTO Hc- MOb3OBAHNA BOAHDIX KOMMYHHKAUMi, HanGonee sHa4MMbIMM 3 KOTOPEIX 3fecbh Gum: BonxoscKo-Jlayoxcko-Hesckas, [cxoscko-Yyacko-Haposcxas. a JIyxckas marncrpamn. C onxoli cropousi onM BbiXomMIM B DuncKMi sanuB, a c ppyroit Gpuim cBssaHbr C Kpyniefiummn BocTouRoesponelicKHMH BORHBIMH Gaccelinamn — Bonxckum, [Henposckum u SanazHogeurcKum (pac. | — pucyaKn mpuBemeHst B Anp6ome wunocrpanui) opmuposanne cer BoAHBIX HyTelt M ee HeTONb3OBANMe HaXomMTOCD B TecHeli- wieit nsaMMocBa3H C SKOHOMHYECKHM MH MONUTHYECKHM pasBHTHeM 3emenb CeBepo- Sanamwoit Pycu. Mpegnocsiikama 1a ee crOKEHHA Cras: KOMMYHUKALHA Tpemute- eTBYIOUero BpeMeHH, 3ACeMeHHe CNABSHCKHM HacesenHeM paiiolion, yAaseHHLX oT 30H TlepBOHaYAbHOTO OCBOEHHS, OCTPOBHOM XapakTep 9TOTO pacceneHus H HeOOxo- AMMocTb NonepxaHHs cBaselt Mexiy TOpOACKMMM WeHTpAaMM H OKpAHHHBIMH 3eM- JIMM, BeyleHHMe BHYTPUperHoHanbHO! M BHeUIHeM Toprowm. Bce 9To npeyonpen>- MMO ocoGy!o SHaYUMOCTS OTpacelt cynOCTPOeHHs M cyAOXoNCTRA B Crpyktype MpeBvepycckolt aKoHoMUKH. UCTOPHA H3YEHUA CYNOXOACTBA M CYZOCTPOEHHA HA CEBEPO-SANAQE PYCH Mccnegosanua BoqHBIX KOMMYHMKalMii, OcHOBaHHbIe Ha MaTepHasax TIMCbMeH- HBIX JOKYMeHTOB HayMHaioTca y>xe B epBoli nonoBuHe XIX xB. 3. JI. Xonakosckuii B cBoelt paGore “Tyra coo6menna w apestieli Pycn”, onyGnukosannoit B 1837 r., Ha OCHOBE JICTONMCHDIX CBHJCTEMbCTB M NaH{UlacpTHO-apxeosorMueckMX M3bICKAHHIL BrepBble Aan oGcTosTeNbHY!O XApAKTepHCTHKY OCHOBHBIX BONHBIX myTell, Mpoxo- Ausumnx u3 Bantu K neHTpam Cesepo-Sanaga, oco6eHHo ormerne KpaTuaiilmnit M3 HHX, Bejyumii 8 [punnbMenbe, no Jlyre u Opegzexn c cyxonyrHbim yyacTKoM Tecos — Hosropox [XogaKosckuii, 1837]. Honpobelimmm o6pasom Mecto 9THX nyteit B CHCTeMe fpeBHepyccKHX BOZHDIX KOMMYHHKauMii Obui0 paccmoTpeHo 4 oo H. I. SarocknHbim & ero cbyHzaMerTanbHoM Tpyye “BogHble myTH M cysoBoe pero onerposckoli Pycn” [Sarockuit, 1910]. Yxe B paGoTax uctopukos XIX crosetma sarparupanucb Borpocer cyyjoxoscTBa Ha BOIHBIX MIYTSX HB OCOGeHHOCTH Ha TnaBHOM MYTH MexjyHaposHol Toprosm — us Bantuxu mo Hese, Jlanore Bonxosy, me yxe B rauselickoe ppema OcyUYecTBIUINCh KOMGMHUPOBAHHBIe MepeBosku, rpelycMaTpuBaBLIMe McnoNb30Ba- He Ha pasiMYHBIX yuacrkax MopcKHX WI peux cyfios [Kapamsun, 1833, 7.]; Bepexxos, 1879, 152]. Moaguee Gsuio pbicKasano npegnosoxenme, ocHonanHoe Ha CBeeHMSX /peBHECeBepHOH AMTepatypbl, UTO 9TA CHCTeMa CKNTabIBAeTes elle B onioxy BukHHToB [Bpum, 1931, 212-213, 225; Paisepcxaa, 1945, 63]. TMpoGnema sapoxsenua u pasnurua ppestepyccKoro cymoctpoenua TawKe crapwiach 8 poccuiicKol uctopuorpacum yxe 8 cepenune XIX B. Mecnenopanne ee CROAWIOcD TepROHAYANHO K UNTepnpeTaWMH NeToNUCHEIX cooGuIeHN no TOMY Bonpocy H3yYeHMIO STHMONOTMH cyqoBbIx TepManos [KapamsnH, 1833, 7.1, 139, 142; Moroqun, 1846, r.II, 90; Teqeonon, 1876, 374-384]. Co ppemenem wsyyeHHe ApeBHepyccKoro cysoBoT JevIa Bee Walle CTAHOBHTCA JOCTOAHHeM NCTOpHKoOB dbnoTa [Buckosatos, 1864; BoromoGor, 1880; Becenaro, 1895]. B necneqosaunax XX cro- JeTHs Boe Gonbilee BHUMAKHe YenseTCA U3yYeHWO THHOR ApeBHepyccKHX cyZoB HW MX KOHCTPyKTUBHBIX ocoGenHOCTeit [Lly6un, 1927; Boropoacknii, 1955, 227-258]. Octontbmnt pesynbtaTaMH TOF NepHoxa uecnegosanit, HAUIeLIMMA oTpa~ xeHMe B paGorax Havata u cepemuHbI Haulero crorerna [SarockuH, 1910; Maspoguu, 1949; Bopoumn, 1951; Apuuxoncxstii, 1969], Osut0 Boijenenne H3 unca CYAOBBX Hasan, YOMMHAeMBIX B OKYMeHTAX, OGulepoxOBLIX TepMHHOB, TAKHX Kak stomps, KopaGnb, unex, OGosHavaBLUNX mobEe cya BoobUIe WAM KaKyI0-To Hx KaTeropHio; NoapasieneHue KOHKpeTHEIX THTOR cyZOB Ha {Be TpyrinBt, K nepBoii 3 KoTopbix ODUIM OTHeCeHDI: YeTH, CTpyr, Hacay, MopcKas 1. _HaGoiiHas_sonbH, yuan HM yuikyii, cpasbipaemsie c pycckoli cygocrpontensHol tpaguupell, Ko BTopoli —~eyga MHOcTpaHKOit noctpoiika, mpuxoguBuie Ha Pycw: soja, wmeKa, Fares, Gyca. Bevia paspaGorata szomouMoHHas Teopua pasBuTiia cyqoB oT npocreuix tunoB K Gonee croxHbIM, coriacHo KoTopoli HanGonee apesune 13 HUX JeNamHch M3 Kopbl, 3aTeM TOsBHANCh YoNOneHbie YeNHEI, MomMdHKanuelt KoTOpbix CTamH HaGoitHBIe 1oybH ¢ OAHOpeBHO!t ocHoBO! U TOMaTKMM GopraMH, H HaKoHel| Ha HX OCHOBe CosqawTcs coGcTReHHO JoUlATHIE cyza. Hoswiit stan, crasannpiii c opegenuem B Hayuunii oGopor apxeonormuecknx HCTOMHMKoR, HactynaeT BO BTopoi NorOBUHe Hawero ctoneTua. Kaprupopanne, AATHpOBKa M cHCTeMATH3AUH% MX JAM HOBbIe MaTepMabl AIA UsyYeHHs ApeBrepyccKoro cygogoro jevra. Bpura mpocnexena npuypouenitocrs pantecpeptieseKoBinx YKperieHHprx nyHK- ToB Ha Bonxose Kk TpysHOnpoxouMBIM YuaCTKAM H KOYeBDIM TYHKTAM BogHOTO TYTH, NOSBOTSBUIMM HayleXHO KOHTPoAMpoBaTb npoxoxyeHHe no Hemy [Hocos, 1976, 95-110; 1981, 18-24]. C apyroit cropowsi, satonnsemocrs panuecpemHene- KOBbIX apxeoorM4eckHx OObeKToB Cepepo-Sanaya H HeKOTOpHle cBHeTembCTBA 8 (iene resom CKAHAMHABCKHX CaP Zan OCHOBAHHe Jas YTHEPANeHMA oO ToAHOM oTcyTerEy BogHOrO coobukeHNa Mexpy Jlaqoroi u Hosropogom B stor nepwon [Muknse 1992, 133-137]. Hayuexne apxeonormuecknx namsaTankos Ha BonxoscKoit [Hoco 1990, 1992; JIeSenes, 1985; Hyon, 1989] u Jlyxcxolt ogHex Marwerpast [Flnaroxona, 1988], # paccmorperme spenxocteit Tcxoscko-Uyscko-Haposexo} nyt [Jleenen, 1989, 27-28; Tetpenxo, 1989, 44-46], nosBonum He Tomb rOuNNTS TaccbI, BPEMA bYHKUMOHNPOBAHNA H SHAYeHME TeX Win MABIX nyTelt cucTeMé KOMMYHHKauMit, HO M TOHSTh oTferbHDIe feTaiM ux oGpaszosaHHa ucnovbsoBanua. Cyjosne HaxonKn Gouin Bpiyjenenb Brepsbie B 1949 Pr. B HoBropogcKT [Apuuxonckuit, 1949, 114-115], a B 1950 r. B craponagoxcKHX apxeonornueckt matepwanax [Tposqunon, 1950a, 153], uro mocnyxu10 uMnynbcoM K 4 nocnenyiouleli ¢pHKcauMM 6 npouecce roporckux packorox. | Tepsax nomsrri CHCTeMATH3alHH APXeONOTHMeCKHX cyOBbIX FeTareli Opa MpeanpuHsata B 1954 B_OTHOLIeHHH (CraponasOKCKHX HOXOJOK) B pesyzbTaTe vero GoIIM BbipeNeH eo. TORK H MMOcKOONKbIe Ca CHETEK i KpyRHbIx-pasMepon.- “numa oe [Opnos, 1954]. CuctemaTi3auna sHaunTenbHol KomneKuD cYMOBDX TETATEN, nonpasnenennnix B saBHCHMOCTH OT pasMepos Ha KopabeNbHE Wf NoJouHBIe, U3 HoBroporcKoro HepencKoro pacKona Gbina BbInomHeHa B 1968 [Konunn, 1968, 58-63]. Tlanbuefimee nakonitenne Mareprianos nosBonnn0 nccremowatensM conocta’ AATb OTMeMHBIE apXeoMOrHMecKMe HaxomKH C¢ THNAMM CyZOB, YTOMMHAeMBIX TMCbMeHHBIX HCTOUHNKAX, IWIN jaxKe PeKOHCTpyMpoBaTH HX. B pesysbTaTe 9TO wacTH apxeonormuecknx cyzoB 43 Hosropoya m Crapoii JIagora Geum arpn6yTs POBAHBI KaK OcTaTKH KopaGneii [OpxoB, 1958, 207-209; Terpenko, 1989, 44-4 Hw HaGoitHoit noxba [Aneukoscknii, 1969, 264-269]. Brina npennoxena coOHpatenbHaa PeKOHCTpyKUMA HoBroponcKoro Kopadaa XII-XIII wB., oTo*eC BIKeMOrO C TAKMMH KOHKpeTHDIMH THMAMM cyfOB Kak yuIKyil, yuaH MIM CTP, [Koraun, 1968, 62-63]. Hecmotpa wa cbparMenTHpoBaHHocTh McXO_HBIX MaTepl AOB M OTCYTCTBHe, B GoMbUIMHCTBe CIy4aeB, NOCTORepHbIX aHaNorHit, NpHBAeTERI APXEOMOTHYECKHX MaTepHatOB MO3BONVO CYUeCTBEHHO paclmMpHTb MpexCTaBseHI © BHEWHeM BHAe M YcTpolicTBe BOAHLIX cpesCTB COOULcHHs, HCNOADsOBABHINX na Cenepo-Sanage Pycn. B uctopworpacun ye WINTeMbHoe BpeMsa NpomomxKaeTca DHCKyCCHSA O THM cynos, TiaBaBmnx no Bantixe i caasanHbim ¢ Heli BYTpeHHHM BOHbIM CHCTeNAl iccrtenonaten 8 OCHOBHOM eqHHORYLIHBI B TOM, "TO JWIs STOO MpHMeHsIHCe Cy) ManbIX WIM cpenHx pasmepos. Ilo MHeHMIO OAHHX, onpenensouyM chaxTopC Shula MMeHHO HX BeNKUMA — onM TOMKHDL ObUI aerKO TlepemBHraTHca 1 NapycoM M Ha BecNaXx, NepeBONAKHBATPCA Epes BOAOPasyENbI H TIPH 9TOM HME: yocraTounpie Hapamerps (oKo10 8 M B jWIMAY H 2M B LIMpMHY) aa MopcKol nasanua [Nylen, 1985, 88]. J[pyrue xe nowarator, uo cyujectBennyi po) uirpana mux cbopma — nytetecrsna mo pekam Bocrounoft Esponbt 43 I Iseuy 9 BusanTmio coBepllanich Ha erKHX M YSKUX cysax, MMHHO! po 12-16 w, wTo oGecrteusima10 WX MaHeBpeHHOCTe pH MpoxokeHuN MOpOKMCTHIX yuacTKoB [Crumlin-Pedersen, 1988, 543-545]. Bonsuine xe xopaGam BuxnHros — raxue, kak Guim Hajigentt 8 Poxcrage, VceGepre u Ckyaymencne, m0 MHenMO cone. Aonateneit, HcnOABsORAMMCE [Ia aTAHTHYECKOTO NaaBaHHa. B nocnegue rogbl 2aHHBIe MUCbMeHHDIX M APXeONOFHMMECKHX NCTOUHKOB 10 cygovomy Jey Bee YaUe JONOANSIOTeS MaTepHaAaMH, NonyYeHHIMH B npoutecce HayHbxX 9KCHepuMeHTOB Mo gto; Teme, HanGostee ueHHBe HayaHBle peayaDTaTtA AaloT 9KcHlepuMeHTH No CTPouTeABCTEY Koi aPxeosOTHYeCKHX cysIOB ¢ peKOH- erpyKuneit BceTo TexHoxOrHHeckoro npouecca, a TaKKe MoneMpopanue maBaxuii NO 2peBHMM BOAHBIM NYTSM ¢ HcrOAsoBAHHeM TaKHX Koni. Cxenyer saMeriTs, TO MCTOUHMKH MO cpemeneKoBoMy cynoBoMy zeny Cenepo-3anazHoli PycH wpesspivaiino ckyaHbl uM npuvaqnexaT K pasmMtHbo orpacism uctopuveckoli wayku. Yxe ato TpeGyer TiaTeNbHOTO MexKANCUNN A HapHOTO M3y'eHMa BCeX MMeIOUAXCA MaTepHasioR No stoi TeMaTHKe H MpUMeHeHna PasHOOGpAsHIX, SAYACTYIO HeTPAIMUMOHHEIX, MeTOIOB HecrenOBAKNs. TIpH 9TOM HeoGXoMMBIM YenOBIeM Ha MepBOM atane sBIaeTCA pasmeNbHoe paccmorperue APXEONOMMMECKHX, MMCHMEHHBIX, H3OSpasKTeNbHBIX, aTHOrpAdMYeCKHX, ¢pomKTOp- HbIX M KapTOrpadHMeCKHX MCTOUHMKOB, a TAKKe JAHHBX 9KcrlepuMeHTANDHBL paGor, mcrencrane x chenucbuKH, a 3aTeM conocrasneHHe pesynbtatoR atHx HccenoBanni Ha craqun miwozoB. Jaa nonyYeHna HenocTHo! KapTUHEL pasBNTHs cymOXonCTRA H cysocTpocHHa B ceBepo-sanayiol Pycu npestnonaraerea paccmor- PeHHe 3THX mpoGrem BO B3AMMOCBASH HB Goxee WMPOKOM TepphTOpHambHOM u BpeMeHHOM KoHTeKcte, MMeHHO 9TH npuHuAMbI mM OUI, B onpepeneHHol Mepe, HoxOXeHbt B ocHOBY Mpegnaraemoii uuraten10 paGorH, KoTopaa npexcrannaer coGolt coxpamennbiit napHant KaHZWNATCKOIL jMCcepraNWH aBTopa, sauMUteHHolt 3 HMMK PAH 8 1994 r, Xorerocn Goi ormerwTs, YTO HaNMcaHHe Jao KHMTH, BO MHOTOM, crano BosMoxHO G1arogapa apxeonorMuecKHM MaTepHanaM mpellocrannenHLiM sia Hee 0. Wi Hasna, H. K. Jla6yrmoii, B. Jl. Beneuxum, T.E. Epuiosoi 1 pyrnsat cotpyaiiuxamn TleKonckoro apxeorornueckoro yenpa, A. H. Kuprianikonbim, E. H. Hocosum 1 E. A. PaGuaunsin. T'naea 2 MATHCTPAJIBHbIE BOJHBIE IyTH JPEBHEPYCCKOrO CEBEPO-3AITAJIA WM COOBUIEHHE TIO HAM NYTb TO BONXOBY, JAZOXCKOMY O3EPY, HEBE Tlyts m0 Bonxosy, Jlanoxckomy ozepy u Hese Kak coctaniax yacrs nytt “qs Bapsr B rpekH” yriomutaetcs y>xe B Topectn BpeMenHBIx set, Dae roBopuTes “... a3 Ppexp ro Jnenpy, 1 sepxp Jivenpa sonore yo Jlosorm, 110 JloBort puntn B VaMepp o3epo BenHkoe, usb Toro Ke Osepa NoTeteTs BomXons M Breuer! Bb O3epo BemMKoe HeBo, Toro o3epa BHMeTb ycTbe Bb Mope BapsxpcKoe” [TICPII 1846, 1.1.3] (pic. 2). O ero nepsocrenennoi pant 8 nictopueckux cobmirus: CenepHoii Pycu Heocnopumo cBMaeTeNbcTBYIOT MepBbIe ToposcKMe MeHTpbl — Jlagora, Propuxoso ropoguuje 1 Hosropoa, pacnorarasumecs cpemn nocementecks Maccupos Bepxuero u Hirxnero Mosonxonbs. 3ylecb y>xe & PaHHHX apxeoslorMueckH> NaMATHHKAX, HawnHat c cepernus VIII cronetHa, mpHcyTcrByIoT HasexHbI TIPHSHAKH TAIbHUX Mex/yHApoANBIX CBaseli, BUNCE KOTOPHIX Kase M OTeNbHDL HAXOJKM BOCTOUHBIX cepeOpaHbIx MOHeT M CKaNfMHaBcKHe Belt. TpeTbe cKoNNeHHE panviecpequeneKonDix Kao HaGmogaeres BOAN3H yeros Hespt [CopoxuH, 1994 40-42]. Pasmeujenne apxeonornueckux oObeKToR Ha NOGepexbe droit BogHOM cHCTEME cBHJeTeTbCTBYeT 0 TOM, YTO ypoBeHD BO; B Heli Ha MpoTswKeHMH cpemHEBeKOBOT nepvoga GbLI MoMBepxKeH H3MeHeHUSM, CBA3AHHbIM, BeposxTHO, C perpeccHaMH 1 tpancrpeccusamu Jlagorn. TloumkeHne yposia Bogpt B Bonxose Ha 1,5-2 erp Hecra$wabvoe nonoxenue ua Bantuxe 1 By rpennux woanbix nyTsax B panne cpeqHeBekopbe, HaHocuBulee yiep6 wHTepecaM gpeBHepyccKoro rocygaperBa ‘TpeOonano yeraHoRIeHNs HajeXHOTO KOHTPONA Ha KOMMYHMKAUMAX, CBSISKIBABLIMD cro weHTpBI ¢ Tocyyapersamm CezepHoit Ezponst. Hmenxo nosTomy B mepHo} NCHOMBSOBAHMA TPAHCKOHTHHEHTAIDHBIX BogHEIX nyTei OxpaHa ux HanOore BaxHoro — o6uero yuactka no Jlagore, Heve 1 DuxicKomy sanney Obvia nopyyen BapsaraM, pasMeManulMMca B nagoxcKoM nlocenenm [leGeneB, 1985, 221]. a) B 1020-1050 rr. specb Guin yenrp Jlanoxckoro sprctsa BemMKoi KHarHHUL Vurwrep, — umencxol npunuecct, eH Apocnasa Mynporo. B ero coctas sxomuan TOxnoe Mpwragoxse 1 sewn no Tevenmo Hess. Ora Teppuropna coxpansuia anMuNMcTpaTHEHyI OGocoGneHHOcT Mogae — Brot qo Havana XII 3, [Kupriunuxos, 1988, 51, 61]. Bumnaara xe BapsxcKoii mann no Bpemena Oxera u Apocnaza tpe6opasach Ana conepxKanns HeGombutoro OTpszla, cnocoSuoro oGeceunTs GesonacHocts KOMMyHHKauHit B DuricKoM sanune [JleGezes,. 1985, 221], Hese u Janore. Heckobko ropoguul, pacrionarasumxea y ucroxos Boaxopa, 8 paiione NOPOKHCTDIX YHACTKOB H HeBLATeKe OT yetba (PiopHKoBO ropoquuye, Xononuit ropoyox, Topommue, Hospre Jy6osuxu, Crapaa Jlagora, Jhio6ma) nossonanu KoWTpomposath Moxos No stoi pexe [Hocon, 1981, 18-24; Merpexko, [Lurosa, 1985, 181-191]. Ewe ssa yxpenaennbix nyrikta — Cepros ropofox u Peoprni sakpbizan o6xogHoll, Gomes Gesonacniit nyt» ndGpeKe Bepaxe) Blom sanantioro noGepexbs Habmens. MMenio 97a yenouka ropomMy W HOciy WIA NOBOZOM 1a TOsBAeHHa, OKOAO BTOpol noTOBMHi IX B., cnoBa Fapde, KOTOPBIM cKANAMHABDI Hasbipam Pycb, MB MepByio ovepenb ee cevepuyio yacts [J]xaKcox, 1986, 185-195). Cuctema cygoxozersa Ha Boaxoncko-JIayoxcko-Hesckom nyTH Ha nporsoxennu cpeaHenekonba Obuia nogsepxeHa W3MeHeNNaM, cBaaanHDIM Kak c BapHalaMu BOAHOTO PeXHMa, TaK M C MOAUTHKO-9KOHOMITHECKUMH TIpoeccaMH, mpoHcxoAHE- ui B perHoHe. Cyaa no scemy, 0 X cronetua Bsepx no Bonxony mornu NOAHMMaTBCa He TONbKO CpegHHe, HO HW GombumMe cyfa BuKHHroB. TosgHee xe c TOHWKEHHEM YpoBHaA Hob B aToll peKe, a TaKKe, BeposTHo, B peaymbrare Ykperviena nosnunii ApeHepycckoro rocyfapcrBa M ycuAeHHA KOHTpona Ha Boaxosckom nytTw, KOHeYHDIM nyHKTOM naaBaHna Gonpumx Kopa6neli ctano JlazoxcKoe nocenenue, jy19 AaNbHeMMero nyTeWecTBHa B [IpuntbMeHbe ucnomD- SOBAJIHC NpeMMyR{ecTBEHHO MaJIble MopcKHe, a Tak:%Ke OJHOAPEBHBIe H MLIOCKO- AQHHDIe peynple cysa. TlogtsepxyeHiem 3TOro TOMHMO apxeomorMueckux MCTOURMKOB MOLYT CAyKHTb HeKOTOpble ckansMHABCKe car, MoBecTBYIOUIIe 0 cobETHsX epBol nonOBIHDL XI cronetita, WS KoTOpwx MoxHO SaKsMONTD, 4TO B_9TO Bema B Crapoit Jlaore UMGHACh CTOSKA MOPCKHX cyMOB, Me MpoHsBONMICA HX peMonT, ocHallerme, a BO3MOXHO HM CTpOHTeNbeTBO. Tak, HopBexXCKOe NocorbeTBO, npuoEIBLee B Hosropog k SIpocnany Myapomy, & 3HMHee pea cyxuM nytem Bosspaujercs 8 Jlazory. Aanee xe onn “...npuoSpenn tam ceSe Kopaa; otnpasnmcs ¢ BOCTOKA HeCHOl, kak tonbko couten eg.” B zpyrom enyyae, Kora Xapatya Cyposstit sosspamanca 8 Hopeermo — “...coOpaaca on B nytb cnofi u3 XoubMrapga m ornpanuca Becxoii 8 Anpjeiirsio6opr (us Hosropoga 8 Jlagory), Baan ce6e KopaGnb H TIOMMIbLT eTOM © Boctoka...” [[naspipuna, JxaxKcon, 1987, 81, 87]. C nepexopom Jlagorn 8 wayane XII 8. nog wpHcaMKiHO HoBroporcKoit AAMHHUCTpauMn HauHHaetca GypHoe pasBuTHe pyccKoro ToproBoro MopennaRanna 2 ua BasiuKe, korga pycckKHe KyMUb! M 1axke HX KOJOHMH YTOMHHaloTcs B pasiMUHE crpauax Cerepxoli Epon [Maspognn, 1949]. Ockosoi ero moxHo cuwra’ JUINTeAbHbIE CJlaBANO-CKaHAMHaBcKHe KoHTaKTH B CeBepo-3anaaHom persone, npoWecce KOTOPbIX HOBFOPOALL OCHOBATEsDHO OWTALENM MOpeXOAHbIMM HaBbIKam Cornacuo coobueHuam 0 BoeHHbX Jelicrsusx Ha HexcKo-JlaqoxcKom yuacn nym 8 XII — vavane XIV p., suech cKlaabiBAeTCA MHOTOSTANHAs cHCTeMa KOHTp sia H oGopoub!. OXpana Bomtoro nyTH no Hee, BepoatHo, Boanaranacs Hosropoyc ya SaRNCHMyIO OT Hero HXopy, Hacenapulyio Gepera soit peku. Bnepape on Hapox YoMuHaeTca B neTomMcH B 1228 r. B CHASM C ero YYACTHeM B OTpaxkeHI yaGera emu B JlagoxcKoe o3epo. Mexanuam aToro KoHTpona B cepenMHe XIII rokagan 8 Kuru Anexcanapa Hesckoro, rae ynomanyta MopcKaa ctpaxa sews VoxopcKoii Menrycna, pacnonarasuiaaca Ha rpanuie HoBroposcKHx Bragenuh - y yetba Heap. B noropope, saxmiouenHom c Tornaujom u Taxselickumn ropogan 3 1262 Pr, H B Mpoekre yorosopa 1269 r, Hosropom rapanTuposan Gegonacue npoxoy yo or Koranura (Kormna). B wemeukom BapHaHte mpoekta Ha3K upyroit nynkr — Boepxe (Bepesospie octposa). [pu 9toM oTMeyanocs “ox Gygete He UNCTD NYT B PeUKAXD KHSSb BENNTD CBOMMD MY2eM MpoBONUTH cI roctb” [PBHIT, 1949, 57, 58, 62]. B gagauy rxopcKoii crpaxku, BepoaTHo, BXojNA oxpana nyTH AMI MAJONHCIEHHOTO HENPHATENA, A TAKE ONOBeN{eHMe LeHTPATbHO! ayMMHMeTpAN MB TepBylo. ovepesb MayoxaH oO npHGanxeRMM Bpara, Tocne storo cHaya slajoxkave, a 3aTeM, B CHyYae HEOOXOLUMOCTH, H HOBTOpoAUL BbIcTyTaM HaBcTpe npotupuuky. Tax, 3 1142 u 1238 rr. sajoxKawe camoctosTenbHo oTpa:kak HanayeHus emm u wpeqoB, a B 1228 r. coBMecTHO c WxXOpOit uM Kapesto/t Hakoc: nopaxeuve emu. B 1293 r. OAM BMecTe c HOBropoquaMH nperpaxjaioT my uipegam B uctoke Hespt [TICPJI, 1841, T.IIl, 9, 64, 42]. Tllpeackoe Koponercrso cTasito cBoeit uenbIO oBlagenne Henckum ByoxcwHickuM nyramn — Bp 1240 r. uinepcKne nojicka mbiTaoTca saKpennTbea ycrbe Vxopbt, B 1293 r. u 1295 r, crpoat Ha Byoxce xpertocra ButGopr u Kopen ‘a B 1300 r. coopy>xaiot 3aMoK Jlanackpony mpu Bnagzenna Oxrb B Hesy, Tomb peUINTeENDHDIe AelicrBHaA HOBropomueB cpbiBAloT MoNHOe ocyuyecTRIEHHe 971 muianos. Tem He MeHee 3aKpemieHne B BolGopre no3BouaeT WIBe7aM KOHTPOAHpOBAa Bbixog us ByoKcbl H co3sanaT» yrpo3y KOMMYHHKaUHaM B (DHHCKOM 3aIMBe. Ocuosanve 8 1323 r. Kpenocta Opewiex, nepexppisuielt cBoGogHbHt BxXOX Jlagory, mM 3aKmoueHMe B cieyioulem rosy MHpHoro goroBopa co LpenyH Tospomui0 Hopropony yewaurh KOHTponb Ha yyacTke nyTH oT ycroa Heset , Jlagora, Opexoneukuii MupHbiit aoroBop saxpennn cnoGogHoe nianakne no He i @uHcKoMy 3amMBy M MIpeyoctapnenue HoBropoauam “uMcToro nyTH” 3a MO [PBHIT, 1949, 68). BepostHo, mex c aToro BpeMeHM M HaNHHaeTca MAaCCOB sacemleHHe pyCcCKMM H WKOPCKHM HacenenHem Seperos Hespi, uTo nosrsepxqaeT Kak apXeoslOrM¥ecKMMM MaTepHanaMM, Tax H MMcHOBOi KHuroi Boackol natu 1500 r. [Copoxun, 1993, 1994, 35]. 3 Hera ycnosusx orcyrersna noptos wa Banruke cnyxiia ectecrpentbim BUIXOAOM KAK [WI TOPTOBBIX, TAK M JWIX BOeHHEX npeqnpHsTHii Pycu, Tax, Bo BpeMa Kondaukta ¢ Opyenom w 1444 r., no cpesennas BEIGpreKoro HaMecTHIKa, nony4enHbim Ha Hepe, pycckne rorosmincn mocnaTs nog Happy 1ogeituenit cbnor, wro6bl AoctasnTs ty7a BolicKa B coctase 2500 wenoBeK, néch NposuanT 1 cuapaxerme. Tloxon stor, sanepumsuuiics noenoi y yerea Hapsut, me Goin SaxavleHol TpH HenpustenbeKHx KopaGa, cocrosnes B 1447 r. [KnetinBepr, 1958, 116, 122]. B 1497 r. 8 Hene cHoga Haxonunoce Gonputoe KorMYecTBO Joyeii, a Ha nonsx HB Hepepiiax cToaTO Mroro womcKHX moe ¢ NYWKaMM, rorouiauxes sa noxona va Happy u JIusonmo. B sazauy qrora, colpantoro atecs n 1502 r., Bxogiuia nepeSpocka apruiepnn us roa BuGopra, ocaza Koroporo Guna chara, k Hapse [KneiixGepr, 1958, 123]. Tem we menee Pocens B XV-XVI cronernax He MMea s1ecb MocTosHHoro prota, cnocoSHoro saxpuTs BXON B HeBy, 0 yew KpacHopeuiig0 ceieremerayion cooSufenins 0 BIOPKeHUSX B Hee HetpnaTeNbCKHX cyaos. Cyns Ho Bey, pyccknit chor dhopmiponanca ToAbKO Ha BpeMa BOCHHBIX Aclicreuit M womonAs NpeMMyulectBenHo TpaxcnopraBie cyrKiyU TO Mepenoaxe BOMHCKHX KOHTHHTeHTOB, BOOpyKeHHa H cHapwKEHHS. Cuctema cysoxonersa, cymectsouasuiaa Ha Bonxoncko-JlanoxcKo-Henckom HYTH B MOsMHee cpeqHeBeKOBbe, JocTAaTOUHO NOYpOGHO ocBellaeTca B AOKyMeHTax. Hemeuxue 1 rorckwe xKynupt, umesume ceom Toprosble ABopbt B Hosropone, NpvOpeam Tyla ”BAxAH Bol — Ha neTO HW Ha 3umy. Vix Kopa6m co6npanucp B Pewene win Hapse, nocne vero 8 cocraue KapaBaxa oTmpannanuch janee wa BocToK. ComiacHo qpesHeliniel cxpe — AOKYMeHTY, pertaMeHTHpoBaBinemy %xn3- HENCATENDHOCTS MpHesxABLUNX, CTaTDIt KOTOPOTO BocKoAaT K Tperbell YeTReprH XII_B., no npuxone 8 Hesy xymust sbiGupain onbmepmakion zBopa 1 epKBH B Hosropone [Bepexkos, 1879, 64]. Bepoaro, 8 yetee Hest, nox npixperruem MopeKoit crpaxu cyutecrsonano MeCTO TpaqMUMOHHO! CTOMHKM, a MNOrJa M OcyiecTEAAIHCD TOprosbie onepauHn. HeMelIKOM Mpoekte Horosopa 1269 r. rowoputca o Mpawe HeMelKIX KymIton Topmonath © MHTpaMil M KapenaMi, a B PeBenbcKoM jOKyMeHTe 1406 r. ToproBns Ha Hene npegcrannserea kak crappili oGbiuail. Eure oo ynosutianne o6 stom MMeeTea B HoBroporcKo-ranselickom oronope 1436 r. Tpoext noropopa 1269 r. Aaban paspetiienue rocram pyGure “yepeso mM MauTopBIi nec” no npuxoye B Hesy “TO oGoum Geperam pexn” B m10G0M Mecre [TBHII, 1949, 59]. Va storo cnenyer, "TO MOMUMO cTosHOK M ToproBmH, 3iech OcyMlecTRIGICH H PeMORT cyzoB. Syech xe um B HH3OBbsx Bonxona MIponcxonuma meperpyska TOBapos c MOPCKHX cyHOB Ha PeNHbIe OAL HOBTOpoACKHX cysloRTazeNbHeB. B saBncumoctit er Mecta Meperpysku ycraHagtimanace oniata sa mepesoaxy.”Tpoean BHMa To Hene 1 o6pario peepx” onmauneanca narsio MapKaMM KYH Yt OHM oKopoKom, ot Hosropoga ao Jlagorn rpema MapkaMH KYH WM TlonoBMHOM OKOpoKa. Tepexoy “epes Bonxosckue Moport ocyulectaasica MecTHDIMH sOUMAHAMH TaKxe sa 4 onpererennyio onary, 3a rosap, noraGwuit B peayrwrate xpyuenns nogpn, lOOUHMKM OTBETCTBEHHOCTH He HeCTH, KAK BNPOWEM M KYNUBI 3a THGens cyaHa, ouHako MaeMBas TmiaTa BLIIAYMBaNAch B qOGOM cayvae [T'BHII, 1949, 59, Bepexkos, 1879, 152]. TlogpoGuoe onvcanve mpoxoxzenua BonxoacKnx moporos 6bui0 cnenano B 1634 r. Anamom Oneapem, oreuapuiM: “...Korza Mbl npHGsuI x mepEEIM noporaM, TO BBILLIM M3 OXOK U NOUN Geperom, AMkMAAscb, MOKA HAW TOpKH coTHelo mogelt meperackwach yepes Moporm Ha KaHatax”, pH TOM oma Hs HX OTOPBAIAch M YyTh He NornGsa, Kak 9TO CryUMIOCh 3mecb paHee ¢ cyqHOM ogoro enuckona [Oneapuii, 1906, 20-21]. B apyrom onucanus, cocraneHHOM B 1674 r. Spuxom Tanbmkunerom, ropoputca: “Saecb peka nomHa nogNOgHEX v BUAUMBIX TAZOM H3 Bomb KaMHelt, MoMeMy HecMoTps Ha To, ¥TO bapBatep ec nocturaer siech cakeHM riyOHHBL, Becb Kapanan cyoR, OGsIKHOBeHHO fo 30 WiTyK, nepef Ha3BaHHbIM Noporom sbIrackKBaeTca Ha Geper c GonbUIMMH TpyzaMa M Ip TOMOUIM NopszouHOTO YucAa paSounx mogeii” [Palmquist, 1898, 33]. 3a nepapinn Bonxosckumn noporamu 8 paiione ToctHuononss, no pasanunnm peqakuMaM gorosopa 1269 r., mpowssoquiach onnaTa pa6orbt nouMaHoB win TATHAHCh MBIT H TIpoesxKas NouLMHA. BosMoxHO, H 3]lech MOMHMO TaMOxeHHOlt u36b1 HMesOcb KaKoe-To ToproBoe noceneHue. CregyiolMMH nyHKTAaMM mo TlyTH 8 Hosropon Guim, corsiacHo aaTHHcKoit wepcim yoronopa, “vitlagen” “drellen- borch”. Tepsuiit 13 9THX MYHKTOB mMpefctaRtan codoli HeyT Bpome ToproRoro psa [Bepexxon, 1879, 153], sropoit xe oGosHaYan yKperteHHoe rocenenue Ha nosetynax K Hopropogy, BosHHKaioulee ele B panHee cpeyHeBeKoBbe H U3BeCTHOe B pyccKoi tTpaguumn Kak Xononmit ropozox [Hocos, [noxos, 1989, 40]. TlosaHee, 6 XV croveTum, Korga Bce noGepexbe Bonxoscko-JlanoxcKo-He- BeKoro myTH Gbim0 Gonee WIM MeHee OCBOeEHO ocemTLIM HaceneHHeM, 3fech B AOMOMHeHHe K CTapbIM WeHTpaM MoaBAsIOTCA HOBLIe, ITO ToproBble psAKH:; BOAMSH yerbt Wohl mM B cpegHem Teyenun Borxoza — Ipysuo. [pennoceumn ara 34POKACHHA HOBbIX TOPFOBBIX NoceNeHHil CKANbIBAIOTCA HB APYTHX BBITOTHBIX B reorpacpuyeckoM OTHOUIeHHM Mectax nyTH — B ycrbe Hesbi, Ha Geperax Jlagorn (KaGona) Bonxopa (Berpupi) [Bepxancuii, 1961, 115-118]. B ato xe Bpema — c Konua XIV-XV BB., cya 10 MMeIOUIIMCa JOKYMeHTaM, uMpokoe pactpocTpakeHHe NonyYHAM MoesAkH HoBroposlen Ha cBOHX cyAax 10 Happot 1 Pesens, a TaxxKe npakTHKa HajiMa MM HeMeUKUX cynoR B STHX ropoax It MepesoskH ToBapos B Hosropos. TlomuMo aroro, M3BecTHp HM 3aMopcKHe TaBaHHs pyCCKOTO KyMevecTBa Ha MHOCTPAHHbIX KopaGasx B crpanbi BanruiicKoro Perviona. Bce sto cosqaBaio mpouHble Npe_nocpuIKK JUIA pa3sBHTHs poccuiickoro MopermiaBaHua Ha Bantuke. Conocrasnenie jaHHbix NCbMeHHbIX HCTOUKHKOB HM pesybTaToB 9KCrepuMeH- TOB MO MoyeNMpoBAHMIO cpeyHeReKoRbIX IWiaBaHuii, Ha KONMSX [peBHUX CYZOB BUKHATOB, MoKasasio, 4YTO Ha MpoxoxyeHMe HcTOpHuecKoro nyTH 3 LleHTpanHOIt UIseunn go yeroa Hespt, mumo AnaH~cKux octpoBos, woro-sarlazHoro noGepexbs 1s nansugnn K Ocroumm uw ganee ByoNb wXHBIX Geperos DuKcKorO 3amMtBa pu KpyrOcyTOHOM fWlaBaHMH HM TlonyTHOM BeTpe TpeGoBanoch 5-7 cyrox. B cnyyae TOKO HEBHOTO TaBAHMs C HOYHDIMM CTOAHKAMH, 3TOT Xe MaplIpyT 3aHMMayt oKomo ABYX Henenb. HeOnaronpriaruple norogumle yenoBHs MONK YBeAMUNTS BpeMa 9Toro MyTemlecTHNa eule Ha Henemo. TaKHM Odpasom, MopcKoit yaactor nyrH MpeowoneBpanca B cpegHeM 3a onHy=aBe HeqenH naBanns. Sto coorpercrsyer xeHDI oGNOMKM sIOMKH, Becta, NoMoUHDIe LiNaHroyTEI 1 cKaMeliKH. Hocopas OKOHeuHOCTB cyqua Oba wiTepripernpopana A. B. ApunxoscKnm Kak Hoc Kopa6ns (pc. 5, 1) {Apuuxoscknii, 1949, 114, 115], omHako, cyna mo paamepam HaxonKM, mo OTCYTCTBHIO CNeEfOB KperieHHa UITeBHA, M TIO BCeMy KOMIUIeKcy aptedpakTos, cienyer nomaraTb, uo aro GbLIa NoyoUNAd jeTanb. KoncrpykTMBHble anasorn eit mMelorca y aTHOrpacpH¥ecKuXx tonoK CeBepo-Boctounoli TepmManvu. B [ckope Ham yflan0cb BLIABHTL NoKa TONDKO oAHY NosoGHyI0 BLIMocTKy. Ora pacnovaranack B crosix 40-80-x rr. XIV 8. Orkpprras yactb ee cocTosma W3 Cem AocoK AAHHOI 6,5 Mw wMpHHoii 20-40 cM HM MojIOKeHHDIX MOM HHX MINaHToyTOB (packonku Vi. O. Konoconoii) [Cezon u zp., 1988, 4eptex No 57]. Cyn no cHH- XPOHHBIM psilaM OTBepcTHii B JocKax, 306paxXeHHBIM Ha ToneBOM YepTexKe, M19 Hee Obil0 Mcnomb30BAHO Le0e AHHULe SoABUIOTO NAOKOROHHOFO cyHA (PHC. 8, 1). B Opemxe, B crporrenbiom ropnsonte 1410-1438 r., B xome pacKonoK A. H. Kupnwunuxosa 8 1970 r. 6puio HaliqeHo Heckorbko zyrooGpasHex LmaH- royros, GaHoK mM Becen, a rakxe yKmounHa [Kupmannxos, 1980, 42-45). SakpsiTbIMH KOMMLIeKcaMH sBIaIOTCA NorpeSeHHA ¢ TPYNOCOKXEHMAMH B Tae WI cee YactaMH, HsyveHble B MorwibHMKe TLiaxya 8 Crapo JIagore. Uccnenosanne pacnonoxexus 3aknenok u3 HeKoTOpsIx norpeGeHnit c Tpymoron0- XeHvamM B nombe 8 Cesepxoit Espone m HX cHcTeMaTH3auua nosponHan PekoHcrpypopaTb NepBonayasDHbe pasMepbl H (PopMbl 3aXOPpOHEHHbIX B HAX CYAOB. locie coxxkeHUii B Aobe B MorpeSeHHM He CoxpaHsetca uHdopMauns, n03BO- WHOlWlad cyeiare 9TO, TeM He MeHee M3yYeHe 3aKNeNOK M3 9THMX KOMMIeKCOB Aer BOsMOKHOCTH ONPeLEAUTh HeKOTOpble pasMepbl AepeBAHHBIX Yacreli cropeB- Wero cysia. 27 OTENDHDIE JETANM KOPOYCA CYOB B CPEMHEBEKOBbIX COAX TOPOLOB CEBEPO-3ATANA IllresH u3BecTHEE B apxeomOrMuecKHX MaTepHanax B HesHaUHTenbHOM KommyecTBe — QBA WenbIX 9K3eMTUISpa H ABa cbparMeHta. Bce oH npoucxosaT us Hosropona u uMmeror npamyio bopmy. HauGobuntii a3 aux, oGHapyxxeHHbtit BO BpeMs WypoBKu Ha Toprosoii cropoue (yn. AneKcanapa HescKoro), B coe, fatupyeMom He nosguee XII u., uMen qumy 1,55 M, HanGombmyIo mmpHHy ronepewHoM ceveHnn 0,36 Mw B npogonbiom — 0,31 m. B axed vactn on Gui cpesax mom yraom 51°, snecb 2Ke NPOCMeRUBAIOTCS ChenBI KperiteHus: HaTesIbHOe orBepcrHe, mpocweprennice mepnenauKyispio K HIDKHeMt NoepxHocTH MBA. >KeNe3HbIX PBO3AS, BOUTDIX B TOM Xe HanpaBrenwn B CheuMANbHbIX Bbipy6Kax 10 Goxam tesus. C puyrpenielt cropoust Opyca uMenvch yea, mourn He COXPANNGUINXCS, BbIpesa, Ky/ia MoraM npuMuKaTD qocKK OGUINEKH TooMHOt 7-8 cm. OGtoMOK omHoii m3 Hux gocTuran B juinHy 80 cM, B UMpHRY 23 cM H wimen Tommy 8 cm. Ha Hem Obi mpocsepreriHbe B WaXMaTHOM mopanKe, orcrosime Apyr oT ~pyra Ha 23-25 cm Harerbuble orBepcrua. Ha pocke u Ha CaMOM UITeBHe HMenMcb xenesHDIe cKOGOUKH. SacbHKCHpoBaHble Ha GoKOBLIXx HoBepxnoctax Gpyca TpM NApbl MapannembiwiX OTTHCKOB, KaK MU mlonepeuHoe oTBepcTHe B UITeBHe, sBAaMCh, Ho MueHMO C. H. Opnona, cnenamm Kpennenns Tpanuenoro pyaa [Opron, 1958, 207-209] (pic. 5, 2). OnHaxo npenroxentiit vim cllocoS Kperenus wTesHa K KUMI nox yrioM 90°, B KoTOpoM Ia aTOTO CHelaH CneuMaNbHbili BbIpes, 4YTOODL OTTHCKH GbUIN MapasnenbHbl KWo, He Nipeactapasetca yOequTenbHbIM. Bo-nepBbix, MOTOMY, ¥TO Takas CHCTeMa KperienHa He HAXOgHT aHasOroB B CyfOCTPOeHHM, BO-BTOpLX, B CBA C TEM, 4TO ApeBReMuuit tpantexbili pya B CesepHoli Espone 13gectex B Hacrositiiee npemsi B M306paxeHnM. MopcKoro cygia Ha neyaTH 43 IabOuHa, KoTOpaa AaTMpyetca 1242 r. [Ewe, 1972. C. 38). Tpu apyrnx wtesia 6biin Haiizenbt 8 Hepescxom packone » 4, 5 u 9 spycax (1422-29, 1409-22 4 1340-69 rr.). Lenbiii ax3emnaap, nponcxoausumii ua apyca 5, noicoroli 130 cm Mm wpHHoii B HMxHeM YacTH cBDIUe 31 CM MMe, cyaa nO cpesy, waknon 60°. B. A. KonunH cunrat, 470 Bce 9TH HAXODKH sBIMWTCS ‘PopurresHamu. AxtepwiTeBHH B ero CBOAKE CYJOBbIX HaXOJOK He YIOMMHaIOTCs, omHaKo B& rpacbwyecKoil pexoHcTpykuNH HoBroposcKoro KopaGaa XII-XIII BB. BbINOAHEHHO! STHM HccHeOBATeNeM, HaSBAHHAa JeTAT uMeeTcs M MpeacTaBAseT coGoii Gpye rpaneunesuzHol cpopmbi, cyxarouutiica cBepxy BHUS (pic. 6, 2) [Konunu, 1968, 60, 63]. K nactosuemy BpeMenu B apxeonormueckux MatepHanax oTcyTcrayer TaKad BAXHAA KOHCTPYKTHBHAd jleTalIb CygHa, Kak KWib-Opyc, 3akianbiBaBLUMiica B_ OcHOBAHHe CysHa, K KOTOPOMY MSHYTPH KpemMMIHCb UNMAHroyTEI, a ¢ GoKOB HWDKHHE aockn, 2B Vimeworca cpezenna, uno 8 Hosropoackom Tpouuxom III packome 8 cnoe Havazta XI 8. Goin oGHapyxen pasBan KopaGzs, B CocTaBe KoTOporo UMeNMCb: KMNeBO! 1 Goptosolt Gpycbs, MeckonsKo Gopropbix ocok uM Gonee 25 mnanroytos M Hx jeratell, CKperienHbx AepensHHbMn Harenamn [SiuH, Konunx, Xopoues, 1976, 48-51]. B Moxenoit MoKyMenTauim, omHaKO, KMIb He Haulen oTpaxenns. Yuwrbipas ONTeKCT HOXOZOK, CBA3AHHDIX ¢ GONbUIHM MTOCKO;OHHBIM CYHOM, MOxHO npestoOHTb, 4TO B KavecrBe KH1A Suna oummGouHO HHTepMpernpoBana onHa M3 L-ofpasnbix 1OCoK, 0 KoTOpDIX peub Tioliger HIZKe. Ilnanroyrsi, cocrazisomme BHYTpeHHMit HaGop cysHa, K KOTOpoMy KpensaTcst neck OOUIMBKM, NpedCTaReHD B apXeonOrHMecKHX WaXONKAX B Tpex BMAX: nyrooOpagHble unanroyTBy, LiinalroyTbI-m1anKH InaHinoyTpI-KoKopst Xpuc. 9, ~/-3). JlyrooSpasible, npnMexaBiliiecs na “OKpyrOqOHHBIX.cyqaXx, — HSBCCTHbI, no ripenMylectBy, 13 packoriok 8 Hosropone, me Tonbko B Hepenckom packone ux 6tino OGHapyxeHo Gonee 35 wTyK. OHM Berpewannen 3nech c 25 m0 4 spyc (1006-1428 rr.) [Kovunn, 1968, 60]. Ogun m3 Taxux umaxroyToB Gpur HaligeH 5 Tickope B coe XII 8. mu omma B Crapoi Jlagore — 8 ropusonte B (XVI-XVII pp.). Takxe K mosaHemy Bpemenn — x XV B. — orHocaca M erbIpe umanroyra u3 Opeurka. [upuna ayrn Bcex BpIlleMepedMcAeHHbIX HaxO70K xone6netea or 78 yo 137 cm, Bbicora ot 23 Ao 55 cM. CootHourenme AByx 3THX TlapaMerpoB gaBHcesIO OT MecTa pacmonoxeHis UInaHToyTa B cyzHe — OTHOUIEHMe LNpMHBI K BOICOTe YBemMunBatoce OT OKoHeYHocTell, Tye pasMeuAMNch B coorrererann c chopMoii Kopnlyca yekite M BbICOKMe 9K3eMIVIapbl, K UeHTpY, B KoropoM YcTaHaBAMBAAHch WIMpOKHE M H3KHe WnakroyTbl. B monepewHom cedennit OHM OGLIGHO ObLIM KpYMIbIMM HIM OBAbHBIMH, ODHAKO Ha HEKOTOpbIX HAXOAKLX npocnexupalored cree MoapaGorkst, cBaBaNtHBIe, BeposTHO, ¢ MOATOHKO! K ouepranwam Kopnyca cygHa, NpHgaiomue UM MpsMoyronbAy! wm nonyctbepaviec- kyo copmy. Ulupuua Gpyca B ceuenum Baponposana or 4 no 7 cM, a ero HanOonpuiaa B HWKHel — fHMUeRo acta TommmHa — oT 4,5 flo 15 cM (cada. 1 — raGnmu cm. 8 TMpwtoxennm 1; puc. 9, 3; 10, 3-5). Bocemh umnaxroytor, wMpHHoi 60-90 cm, Grunt oGHapyxeHBI cpenH octaTKOB TPeX BHILeYNOMAHYTLIX OMOK-OAHOApeBOK M3 Wypca y BaagumupcKolt GautH HosroposcKoro Kpemaa (puc. 6, 1; 10, 6). Inanroyrbi-Kokopbi, MenobSoBABIIKecK Ha TLIOCKONOHHEIX cyAax, HaBeCTHEL HaM B WeIOM M chparMeHTHpPOBAHHOM COCTOAHMM B KOMMECTBE 15 9ksemmispoB. Bee own Gouin BoipyGneHbt M3 KopHesbix vacreli epeHbeR M HMesIM ecrecTBeNHOE HcKpupnenne nog yrom, 6rusKum K npsMomy (70-90), pasnensach TAKHM 06pa30M Ha Be coctannsiouyMe, OAHA M3 KOTOPHX — JUIMHHas — MpHMbIKasa K AHMILY cya, apyrax — Kopotkaa — x Gopty. ]Hmujepas YacTb JocTHrana B VIMY 200 cx, Gopronas 25-60 cm. TIpumevatenbHo, 470 Bee YeTbIpe KOKOPHI ¢ Yr70M Coequuennst vacreit B 90° Gb o6uapyxenbt B Crapoit Jlagore B ropusoutax Ej 4 JL (865 7. — kone X B.). Yron Bcex octanbHbIx BapbHpoBan oT 110° zo 100°. B Hepescxom packone Hosroponia Gpuio oGHapy:keHo 19 ulnanroyros-KoKop M WX 29 dpparnentos, pasMemasinuxes no spycam c 19 no 4 (1134-1429 rr.) [Komun, 1968]. BHemmve nopepxtoctn ux, compuKacapummeca ¢ OOUMBKOM, a MHOrIa Ht ce OcTANbHbIe, ObLIM OTECAHBI TAKHM OGpasoM, WT B TloMepeyHOM ceMeHHi imanroyts Goi nonyccepHueckoi wim npsMoyronbHoli cbopme.. Uupuna nx cocranasia 7-12 cM, TONUpHA, OOBIUHO YBeTMUNBABIIAaCA OT KpaeB K WeRTPY — T-17,5 cm. OGHIHO TaKHe UiNAHTOyTH coeRMASINCh C OGUIMBKOM MepenaHEIMi Harenamm quameTpoM 2-3 cM, 3a HCKMOYEHHeM ogHoro caysas, Kora pio npocnexeHo WarembHoe oTBepcTHe AHaMeTpom 1,9 cM. PacctosHMs MexAy Haretb- HbIMM OTBEPCTHIMM NSMeHsIOTCA oT 11 70 22,5 cm. Hmeetea pa uinaHroytos, y KOTOpDIX Ha AKMMeROH YaCTH CHesB CoeAMHeHHA MoWTH oTcyTCTRYIOT, HM OHH varomanaior Gumcst (ra6z. II; pac. 9,2; 11,1-2). IlInaKroyTbr-nmiauKH, Take CBASAHHBIE C TLIOCKOMOHHIMH CyAaMM, Han6onee wacTo BCTpewajorca B ApXeONOTMYeCKMX oTVIOXxeHHAX. B HacTosuem pasyene ananuaupylotca 39 9k3eMmapoB 9THX peTanelf, 36 U3 HHX bin oHapyxeHD B Crapoii Jlagore 8 ropaowrax: E3 — J (750 r. — xoxeu X 8.). [sa umanroyra us Tckosa garapyiotcs mepsoit nonosuHolt XII 8. m 1340-80 rr, B Hosropone, cyza no noaesoit JOKYMeHTaLUMH, LIMaHroyTBI-TIAHKH BCTpeyaIoTes © cepenmnbt X go XV B, OGviuo OHM HCTOMZOBAMHCh B KANeCTBe MOAKMIAAOK MOK CyAOBbIE MOCKH B BHIMOCTKAX. B Crapoii Jagore, 8 xoge nccuenosanuit B. M. Panyonnkacom Moctonoii, B TopusoHTe Tuiee B 1948, 1950 rr. Grin oGHapyxen 21 aKsemmap mnaHroyToR- naanox (No 4-25, taGa. III)", ammHa KoToppix BapbupoBana or 41 go 82 cm. B 9TOM xe paifone — BOSH M BAYTpH GombUIOrO loMa B ropusoHTe Ei, 8 mpomecce paGor E. A. PsGuuna 8 1981 r. Gou1o sadpuxcuponano ene 8 TAKHX xe HaXOOK qumuolt or 48 0 330 cm (Ne 31-38), HanGombuaa us HHX GbuTa cKpemviena c cymoBbIMH locKann. OGumexa Sopra cymHa, uccnexonantioro B 1972, 1976 rr, B. II. Merpexxo, Goura coeguHeHa JecsTbIO UINaHroyTaMH-TiaHKaMM jIMHOl OKO 70 cM, ene 18 OKSeMMISIpoR HX GbUIO HaiieHO B OKPeCTHOCTSX, Tora KaK Ha‘ focKax Gopta npocrexusanoch 25 pao orseperuii — crexos Kpenmennatinanroyros [Ter- peHko, 1989, 44-46]. 7 B “pasgane xopadna” fiauana XI y-1i3 TpowuKoro III packona umesoce cBpilure 25 umanroyTos, KpenuBuinxcs 7epeBsnHEMn Harestamu [Slumn, Koran, Xopoures, 1976, 48-51], Koropwie, cyaa 0 veprexam mM chororpadisM, oTHocWMICh K pacematpunaemomy Tuny. HanGoree maMHHble M3 UX JocTHranH 3M. OGsraHo uMAaKroyTHI-M1aHKH WSTOTABINBA/INC M3 MONIOABIX COCHOBLIX HepeBbeB TYTeM packaNbiBaHNa Wx YacTeli NonoaM, IHGO CTECbIBAHMEM TPeTH HX TOAUIHDL TaKWM oGpasoM, 4TO MIpHeraioutas K OSUIMBKe cTopoHa GbiIa TLIOCKoll, BepxHaa Bech m aaiee uyMepanN® comacno mpuvomuMoll muse m TaGmMaX. 30 ce ocTaBanach saKpyrennoit cbopmbi. TTo AZIKHe Hx, BeposTHO, MoxKHO Tloxpas- jewTb wa 2 rpynnbt: Goprosste or 41 70 102 cm m AHMUEBLIE ot 130 10 330 em. [Uupwa wx Koae6netcs or 6 no 15 cM, Tonupna or 30 a0 95 cm. Cyaa mo cOxPAHVBLIMMC B HMX HaresM M_HareNbHKIM_OTBepCTHAM, OHH COeAMHSCh C nockamit oOWIMBKH HarensaMnt 2 1,5-3,5 cm Mnrepsanot mexay Mecranm “roro COeMMHEHUS pagtHioTc! OEM CYLICCTBEHHO naxe Ha ONHOM UIMAHToyTe, x npumepy y Ne 10.078 0 30 cm, nooGue xe oT 5,1 no 40 cm, mpyuem Ha ANMUeBbIX MnaHroytax 9TH MATepBambT Gonbute, WeM Ha Goprossix — or 21 70 40 cm (ra6n. I/puc.11, 3). Cyaommie gckit TAKE B SHAMMTENbHOM KOMMMeCTHE HeTPEYALTNCh B KYABTYPHBIX cNOsX CpeMHEBEKOBLIX POPOOB Cepepo-3anaga Pycu. Onn HaiieHbt B OCHOBHOM fp COCTABE BMIMOCTOK H TIOOB NOCTPOeK, OAHAKO HSBECTHDL M OT/EIbHBIe HaXO7KH, 3a penKWM HcKTIOYeHHeM JOCKH HE Goi coennHeHbt Mexpy coGoit. Tpocrexn- parorea Kak Henbible, TAK H pparmMentuposarmitte oxaemmaspbt, Lock IX-XV wB., © ussecTunima TapameTpam, 3 Crapoit JIazorn, Hoeropoza Tickoza wmem Sumy 1,65-14,3 a wupnuy 16-50 cm, xora y Gonbumicrsa HaXOHOK OHA coneGanach or 30 no 45 cm. ToMmHA HX, MpeunymiectReHHo, cocrannaa 3-5 eM, fo BCTPEHANMCh AOCKH C ToTUMHOH 2,9 u 8,5 cM. B HX uMeNHCh HareIbHbIe orsepeTia sWamerpom 2-3,5 cM, pacrionarasuimecs oGoIHHO TIO KPASM, O;HAKO wiorga u B wenTpe. Mxteppanbi Mexjy HHMH B MpofOTbHOM HanpaBieHHH sapuponann or 18 70 10 cm, a B ronepewtom — or 13 go 45 cm, Mexmiouenne coctapaser HeGonpuloit cbparmeHT cyzoBoli focku, nponcxonaumtit us roprsonta E3 B Crapoi JIagore, me mHTepBanbl MexMy OTBEPCTHAMH, pacrionoxKeHHbIMH byob Kpad, coctamiwi 7 cm. K HacTosueMy BPeMeHM HAM HSBECTHO TOMDEO TDi HeGonbux pparmentta ocoK ¢ 2keNesHBIM cyOBDIMM BaKtenKaMH. [Isa M3 HHX, TOTUMHOM OKONO OAHOTO caHTHMetpa, GouTM O6Hapy>KeHbl B TopH3OHTAX E2 (840-860 rr.) H [unaice (930-960-e rr.) B Crapoit JIanore (puc. 27, 5). Tpetnit oGnomox syumol 62 cM, uMpuHol 0 10 cm m TorMMHOM 3,5 cm c xenesHol saknenkoii MponcxogHT 13 pani cnoeB Propaxosa roposmua [Hocos, 1977, 7, 8] (raGn. IV; pc. 9, 4). L-oGpagnbie, WI Mepexonabie, NockN HsBecTHEL 13 packortox B HoBropoze ¥ 8 Crapoli Jayore, rae onM natTHpyiores 807-924 rr. Msroraammeanich aTH AeTaay M3 qpenecoro craora WI Opyca, NYTeM pBbITeCBIBAHHA TAKHM OGpasoM, UTO ABE MX cocTaBraoUie LIMpHHO or 7 10 33 cm, GrnsKHe mo TonUMHe K oObITHBIM CYAOBLIM yockam oT 2,5 90 10 cM, coeqMHaHch MexAY co6oit Tol YOM OKONKE 90°. Ilia coxpanueuinxca cbparmentos pocturaet 0,66-14,3 M. JIpe Mi: HMepeXopHbix fOcoK HaXOAWIHCh B cocTaBe Yactei GopToB cymHa, ckperieHHbis Uinauroyramu-naankamn Win OOpyOKamn KoKop (puc. 8, 2; 11, 4; 12). Y Hexoropbis 43 L-oGpasnpix gocoK, ocoGeHHO y TeX H3 HHX, Te HaresbHpie oTBepcTHs Npocnexnpatotca TONbKO C ODHOM cTOpoHbl, MIMpHHa HM TONMyIHA ABYX uactel OTMMMaNNch HesHaunTeNbHo, y ApyrHx Ke 9TH NapaMerpbl Bappupowamit ove! cyllecrBenHo — pa3MepbI OfHOi M3 CTOpOH MOTYIM MIpeBbILaTh pasMepbt apyroi 31 5 qBa-Tpw pasa, OnpenenenHas saKoHOMepHoct® npocnexusaetea B pasMeuteHHt HarenbHBIX OTBeTCTBU — OGbriHo Ha Sonee y3Koi 43 CTOpOH OHM BCTpeualoTcs MmpHMepHO B 7a pasa Yale, YeM Ha wupoKoit. Ecnm Ha nepsbix MaKCHMa/IbHbIe paccrosHMa MexIY HMMM KoneGmoTe oT 19 10 28 cM, To Ha BTOpbX OME cocrapnsoT 34-90 cm. Tomumo OObIMHDIX OKPYTABIX OTBEpCTHIi B pAccMaTPHBAEMbIX gerasx GuiBaioT H oBanbuBLe. @parmenrst Gopra, oGHapyxenuite B Jlagore B 1950 u 1976 rr., cangerens- erayior 0 TOM, WTO mHpoKad YacTh L-oGpasHEX AocoK smmsiNACh YacTbIO GopTa, a yakaa CoeqMHaIach ¢ AHMUIEM cysHa. Tlo wacrosmero Bpemex L-o6pasnbe HockM nomyuann pasmaunble mTepnpe- yauun: Kak KWIb WIM YacT Gopra [PaGuunu, 1981, 22; PaOunun, Yepuprx, 1988, 96] «nGo Kak migHumMph KopaGaa [TetpeHKo, 1989, 44-46] (ra6n. I; puc.9, 5). Banxn B 3HauHTeMbHOM KONMYeCTBe MpOHCXoAsT Ma cpesHEBeKOBLIX c1OeB Hosropona — B omtom Hepesckom packone 1x Gpu10 Haliqeno Gowree copoKa B cnoax X-XV wa, [Konuun, 1968. C. 60]. Heckonbko aKsemmapor cyaoppix 6anoK: Guo oGHapyxeHO B APYTHX ropodax Cenepo-3anaya Pycu: 8 Opeuike, Crapoit Tlanore u Tckone. Io cbopme on npegctapnsiot coGoli oObIUHbIe JOCK ¢ BbipesaMit Ha OKOHeYHOCTIX, B KOTOpbIe TIPH YCTAHOBKe BXOZWIM BepXHHe KOHUbI LNAHTOyTOR. Takum o6pa3om, KpoMe cBoeli ocHoBiolt yHKuMH — pasMeMleHNs| KoMaHIbI, GaHKH) TaKOTO Tua CAYKWIM M p19 OGecneNeHNA MonepedHoll MpouHocTH cysHa. OjHAKO, CyAa m0 aTHOrpaduyecKUM MaTepHasaM, GaHKM MormH KpeniTbcs HM M0-ApyroMy, @ COOTBETCTBEHHO HMeTb Gorzee mpoctyto (popMy — MpsMOyroibHy!O B UeHTpe WIM TpaneljesKHyI0 B KOpMoBO!t M_HOCoRO! VacTaX, UTO cyulecTBEHHO sarpyquser wx onpenenenne (ra6n. IV; puc. 9, 6; 10, 1-2). BaHkH HCMOAbIOBAINCb, TOMUMO OMHONPEBOK, H Ha AOWATbIX cysax, oOHapy: xennpx 8 Bantuiickom permone. B Tex cayuasx, Kora onm jocturam SHAWHTeNbHOM {MEE KAK, HaNpyMep, Ha cyane u3 Hwjama (oKon0 3 M) Kpanbaynaa (10 2,9 m), onM ycurnBamich GuMcaMM WIM MMWIepcamH (ropH30H: TaNbHbIMM HM BepTHKanbHbIMH MmiaHKaMv). Ha Goapuimx ckaHAMHaBCKMX cysaX SnOXH BuKHHToB — TaKux Kak YceGeprexuii Toxcrayckuil KopaGm, a TaKxe Ckynpaenes 13, Gankn BooSwe orcyreTeoramH. Cymectayet mHeHHe, ¥To rpeGupl B HAX pagMellasinch Ha pyHAyKax. BepositHo, 9T0 oObaCHAeTCA NpeHMYLecTBeHHBI VcTOASOBAHHEM MapycHoro NPHBOFA STHX CyAOB, 0 YeM CBHZeTeACTBYeT M Malas U3HOWEHHOCTh BeceNbHbIX NopToB [Mon MupKe, 1982, 83]. Bee oksemnasp GaHok, W3BecTHHIe M3 apxeonormuecKHX xKoseKUMii CeBepo-Sanaqa, uM HeOoMbUIMe pasMepbI, U MO3ITOMY, BEposTHEe BeeTO, CBASAHbI C OAHOTPEBKAMH cyaMM Ha osHogpeBHoli ocHose. Tuma, yenagpsasumeca Ha HO cysoB ¢ oKpyrbimM oGBogaMmM, Tal Paanmuanuch no chopMe B 3aBMCMMOCTH OT CBOero pacnosoxeHus B npepell Kopnyca. XapakrTepHbIMH UepraMH BBULETHIOTCS JMIb Te U3 HUX, KOTOpHIe KATH B OKoHe4HOcTaX. OHM NMoBTOpsiM 3aocTpeHHble chopMbl aTHx yYacTeii cysHA, TAKKE MMENM BHIpEsst C GOKOBLIX CTOPOH B TOM MeCTe, Fie MepeKpoinanit LITTAHToyT. 32 B Hepescxom packone Gtuto Haiizeno cabiuie 27 Huy TaKoro Tana, pasmemas- unxed ¢ 28 no 4 apyc (953-1429 rr). Hlupuna nx KoneGanace or 45 70 55 cm, yo JUIMHe Xe OHM Mozpasmersiucb Ha ABe rpynnbi: B NepByio M3 KOTOPHIX BXONWIH uma ot 65 70 70 cm, Bo Bropyio — 100 cm m Gonee, uT0, To MHeHHI 5. A. Koruna, orpaxano “qa tuna a6puca Kopa6na” [Korunn, 1968, 60]. Koxttesoe zHmuie cyaHa — JIC 2201, coctosutjee 43 ABYX NpowonbAbIx uacTeit, coeqHHEHHbIX MpocpesCTBOM [WiaHOK, NPHONTbIX HarenaMH, MpOMCXogUT H3 cTapo- naloxcKoro TopusoHta E3 (750-830-e rr.). Oxo Gino usroToBeHo us Ay6a, uMenO cyxenHe HM SaKpyrieHMe C ogHOl cToponbi M BLipestx oy UMaHToyTE ¢ Apyroli. Jiwuue Aoctarato 78 cm B AMY u 37 cM B UMpUHy. oKenesuble cyfosble 3aKseNKH, BLUTeISIOLUNeCs CBOMMM MACCHIBHDIMH pasMepaMit We xapakTepHoli kouMKepmiAaGoi pomGuyeckolt WM KBATpATHO! (PopMbl, USBECTHBI kak M3 MlocesmeHMecKHX croeR BTOpo NoroRMHBL VITI-XV BB., Tak Mi M3 norpeGeHuit IX-X BB. SHAYHTeTbHOe KOMMYECTBO MX M3BECTHO B KYJbTYPHBIX OTOKEHHSX Crapoit Jlagoru, Piopukoa ropoguuya, Hosropoga u TIckona, oHaKo nonHpie chejleliit © NapaMerpax MMeIOTCH THIN fA HesHAMNTeNbHOM YacTH 3THX HaxoJOK (Crapas Jlagora — 62 9x3., Piopukono ropoamine — 18, Tckos — 17). Hanna ux Bapbupyer or 2 go 8,7 cm, awamerp HoxKH oT 0,4 70 1 cM. IIpH 3TOM HOxKH OGpIMHO HMeAM B CeMeHHH HenpaBHABHyio copMy ¢ yseTMYeHHeM TONMIMHDL oT UeHTpa K KpaaM, XOT BCTPeYAIOTeS H SKSEMILISIPbI C MPAMOYTOTBHBIM HIM OKPYTDIM cevennem. opma LutaNOK GANSKa K OKpYTIOi HIM OBANbHOM, WMaMeTp HX AocTHraN 3,5 cm. Pacnonarapumeca Ha TIpOTHBOMONOxHO! OKOHeYHOCTH POMOOBHAHBIe Wt KeapparHbie KTMAKepUIAiGH Men 0 4 cM B HonepewnUKe (puc. 9, 12). B cnosx cpenereKosbix ropofoB M3BECTHO TaKxKe OrpoMHoe KoJIMYECTBO Aepesanribyy Hareneis HCTONb3OBABLUMXCA MpenMyulectBeHHO B cynoBOM qene. B Hepescxom packore B cioax X-XV ws. Gpui0 Haiimeno 120 KopaGenpHbix Hareneit Auamerpomc2,5 cm}\mpuem HanGotee speBHvie M3 Hux oTHOCHIMch K 27 spycy (972-989 rr.) [Konunn, 1968, 60-61]. B Crapoit Jlagore Tomko B mpouecce packortox 1945-50 rr. 8 cnosx cep.VIII-X 8. Outo yuTeHo 226 nepepanipix Harenel, He cunraa oOHapyXeHHbX B pasnuunbix KoncTpyKunsx [OpzoB, 1954, 313]. 3HauntenbHoe uncno ux cbuxcupyetes o6briHO B palionax CKOrIeHHs cyMOBLIX Aetaneii: QocoK, WMaHroyTOB, KoTOpble OHH coequHaIN. B xome mccnefoBaHnit BbIMocTKH 43 cyoBoro Gopta MlepHoH YeTBeprH X B, Ha JeBoM Gepery p. JaqoxKH Yevio HaliqeHo 137 _qepesaHHbIx Hareneii AIMHO! No 14 cM H. wametpom 2,1—2,5 cm. Tipu atom B camMHX jflepeBaHibix KOHCTpyKUax Goa tan 136 HarembHpIx orBepersuii, B KoTopbIx coxpanuaoch 85 Hareneit [IlerpeHKo, 1989, 44-46]. 25 nepesaunbix wareseli, H3BeCTHBIX HAM M3 pacKoroK B IIcKoBe, JaTHpyoTca XII-XY pp. Hx nmamerp KoneGnetca ot 1,5 n0 3,2 cm. Tlogaprsomee Gonbinnicrso HaxogoK Toil KaTeropHH HaxomHIOck BO cbpar- NeuTHpoBAHHION coctosHum, uTo satpyauaer paGory c HuMM. Haren, KoToppre aor Gbith caasanbl c cyzocTpoenvem, nonpasmensioTcs Ha ABe rpyrnbi. Bee on IM THayKO OCTpyTAHHYW HOXKY, YALE BCerO MpaBMIHO! OKpyrnoit B ceyeHKH 33 chopMbl, T1aBHO pacumpmoulyioca cHHay uBepx. OnHaKo, ecm y HeKOTOPX 13 Harenei BepxHsia YacTS He UMeNa CMeNMaNbHOrO OcpopmAeHHs, TO ¥ ConbUMHCTBA M3 HUX MMenacb CneuManbHas nozpa6orKa unsinkH. Herbas coriacuTees ¢ MHeHHeM B. A. Konanvia, cnsisbipasuim ¢ cynocrpoeauem TonbKo Te m3 Hareltell, qMamenp. Koropbx Geit OnusoK 2,5 cm [Konun, 1968. C.60-61], nockomxy B cysoBEIx Aockax, a Take B LIMAHTOYTAX-KoKopax M TIIAHKAX U9BECTHEI HareMbABIe OTBEDCTHSL Auamerpom ot 1,5 20 3,5 cm, xora auamerp 2-2,5 u npeobnanaer. Manectint ¥f “Gomes Mi KSEMTTIPH! TOANYHO! OKOO 1 CM, KOTOPHIe KperNUIN YKMIOUNABT k Gopry cygna. aoe Hareau B6nsanch 8 npenBaputemHo npockepnentete orsepcrus, Mocte vero HuxHull KoHeY Mx O6pesanca sarloqmMUO c MoBepxHocTHIO JeTanH. Savacryw # cpes Takxe BOMBaNICH ICMMBIUEK, yrAOTHaBUM coenutteHNe. BepostHo, umeHHo) BcNeXCTBHe STOTO B Mpouecce pas6opKH cyOBbIX KOHCTpyKUMM 41a HX BTOpHIHOTO NCHONSSOBRAHHS MOLABIHOUIAA YaCTH Harenel oKasbBarace OGnoMaHA (puc. 9. 11; 14, 2). CxoGouxn pomGosnaHoi w apyroit cbopmet ¢ Borrmyriier 1 sa0cTperHDIMtt KOHUAMH, M3roTORNABLIMecK M3 2%eNesa, UCHONbIOBATHC B CysOCTPOeHMH WIA KpenmeHua miaHKn, npipkumasiielt KoHonaTKy — npocmoseHHy!O WepCTe Me: CYAOBDIMH JeTANIMH — Mame Boero, AOcKaMH OOWMBKH. OHM BCTpeyeHDI B co Crapoit JIazoru, Propuxosa ropoguuia, Xononvero Topogka, Hosropoga’u Tckosa. B Hosropoze nonoubie cKoGouKn w3BecTHBI B Gonbillom KoTMYECTHe B cnOay XCXIV bs., mpuuem vacth v3 HX Gpula sadpMKcuponaHa B fockax oGIMBKH [Konunn, 1968, 62]. JImamerp wertpanbuoit, pacumpennoi, uacrn cx Bapompyer or 1,7 70 4 cm, Tosimuma — or 1 0 2,5 MM, jMHA saocrpenuD KoHLOB or 2 go 3,5 cm (puc. 9, 13). HAXONKM ETANEM MAPYCHOTO OCHAWEHAS Haxonkn etaneii napycHoro ocHaujenua, pakroyta wm taKenaxKa cys Upespbluaiino pexKH. Bpyc qmmmoft 196 cm, umpunoli 54 cm m1 BbIcotoit 25 cM, usrorossennbit oaHoro nepena, Mesum pacumpeHylo MeHTpamHyIo YacTb, ¢ oTRepCTHel AllaMeTPOM oKo0 10 cM, M pasqBOHHDIe oKoHeMIOcTH, Goin OGHapyxXeH B CHO cepeauaot XI 8. 8 Hopropoge (Tpounxnit IV packon). On 6but mTeprnpermponal NecnegopatensMu Kak crene — Mecto yctanonKM Mayrbt KopaGaa (pyc. 13, (Anne, Konunn, 1978, 45; Koléin, 1989, 354]. 91a gerans He HaxoquT npsaMBi aHaNOrHit cpeyH CTencoB YeNbHDIX cyZOBBIX HaxomoK u3 BaaTuiickoro pernona, HanGonee cxonuima ¢ Heit, HaM mpescraBnaioTes cTerchl cKaAMHABCKHX Topro CYAOB SMOXH pasBHTOrO cpepHeBeKoBbs, KOTOpbIe YcTaHaBNMBanuch mnonepé 34 xopmlyca KopaGas H TaKxKe MMe MaccuBHYIO 1eHTpambHyio vacTs ¢ oTRepeTHEM x pasapoeHHpie Konup [Ellmers, 1972, 41]. OnHaxo B ormnune ot HoBropogcKoro 6pyca HX HIDKHHe “acTH MMeM sakpyrieHHBle chopMpl, noBTopsiouyte o6BonEt auuenkix Wacreli, K XOTOPHIM OHM NpHMEIKAM, H cneMMATBHbIe nbipesn gag raviscolia) B eHTpavibHx vactax. Crenchl 5 Gpycoax, YeranonneHiibn momepeK yaHa, WOMPHMBIKABUIMX OObINHO K WeHTpanbHOMy umaHroyty, Gbum LuMpoKo waBecTHbL Ma cpeaHeBeKOBbIX 3anazHociaBaicKMx Cysax. He vcKmoWeHo, uro naiigeHHas B- Hopropone yeranb Takxke aBiaetca cTencom HeGombUIOrO cyaHa. B Hepencxom :packone Haiizeabt YeTsipe HeGombume eran myroo6pasnolt cpopMbl, ABe 3 KoropbIx GuuIM UsTOTOBNeHBI U3 Aepena — 7-8-1600 x 77-561 (1382-96 rr.) Mw aBe — M3 KocTH. B nyGanxaunn B. A. Konunna on nonyunan nassaiine “napycnple Koyum”, enonbsopanach 31a jeTaib gia xKperienua napycHolt pen B Bepxuelt vactn Maurn [Konuyy, 1968, 61]. Bo u36exanne TYTANHUbL _B-TEPMAHONOTHH CJeAYeT OTMeTHT, YTO B C¥ZOCTpoeHHH OHA HOCHT nassanig “pake-Gyrenb”) KoyUIAMM Xe OOBIHO HasbIBAIOT OKPYTIbIe HAM ORATbNBLE cynosbie OoKH, OGpaujaer va ceOs BHUMaHite opurunanbuocte KOHCTpyKOHM ‘pakc-Oyrema 3 Hopropoga (pic. 14, 4): no BHeumnelt CTOpoHe AYMM Bbipesanbi apa Tla3a OAMHAKOBOl LINpHHBI, B TPeX BBICTYNAX MMesMCb COOTBeTCTBYIONINE HM no AvaMeTpy oTRepcTHa. Bee ato CAYKHVIO {14 MpoXoALeHHA BepenourDix cHacreli, HeGonsuias wmpmia nasos m orseperuii, a takwxe HesHaunTenbHbit KaMerp BiyTpeHHelt AyTH NofemKH — oxaro 10 cM cBHYeTeNDCTBYIOT O TOM, ¥TO B KANeCTRE Pake-Oyrena ona Moria cHOMBsOBATKCS ML Ha MauTe Maxoro pMaMerpa, YeraHORNEHHOl CooTBeTCTBEHHO Ha MaOM TLiaBcpescTRe, Kasne) — getaau 8 Bie crepxnefi ¢ masoM B ueHTpe M_yroameHuaMM no KPAdM, H3POTOBJICHHBIe M3 JepeBa U KOCTH, MMe TONMGYHKUMOHATbHOe Hasna- Meume. AHanOrM KPYMHBIM 9K3eMMIspaM M3. ppeBHepyccKux apxeoslormueckHx ctoes Cexepo-3anaga u3BecTHbt B cocTaBe OTJeMbHBIX YacTei Takenaka Ha kopaGnsx. sikuuros [Broqger, Shetelig, 1950, 94-95]. B Matepwanax wosropoycxoro Hepesckoro pacKorla uapectHeL 32_k1sma_ us cioes X-XV op. [nua ux Koneanacb or 6 0 16 cM, aHaMetp of 1,2 00/3’ cm (Puc. 14, 2) [Komumn, 1968, 61]. B craponanoxcKux Matepwanax TakoKe HaBecTHBL ‘Jail, B TOM wacte HM xpynube. [ea u3 HUX HaxoqMAMch B TopuaoHTe E3 (750-830-e rr.) u_onsit w Topnsonre Tiwcmee (930-60-e rr.). B ropusone Ei (865-920-e rr.) 6tin oGHapyxen Kusn, BreTeHHpti_ B_JbikoByt0__BepeBKy, CWieTeHHy!o M3 IIeCTH KOHUOB H JOCTATABLIVIO B UHy OKOAO 1,5 M [Tpo3mW0B, 1950, 91-92] (puc. 13, 1). Mmewrea kismet u cpea apxeomormueckHx HaxosoK H3. Tekopa, Bepesounpte cuactu Take B JocTaTOUHOM KomMueCTBE MSBeCTHDI B cpeqHeBe- KoBbix coax. C. H. Opaos, cucremarH3uponasumit 150 cbparmentos BepenoK Viol or 0,3 70 6 cM, HaiiZeHHbX B Crapoit Jlanore # coax cepequst VIU-X 3,5 xone Packoniox 1938-1959 rr., npuulen K BbIBOAY, YTO MaTepHatoM AIS Ux usroToBneHNs CAYO MOYAIO HIM MpocTo AbIKO. Io TexHuKe H3roToRTeHHs 35 OW BLYIENWI: BHTHE BepeBkn B 2-3 npaqH, Kpyuerble HW MereHDe BepenKH 43 3-4 npageii. HanSonbuee Konuvecteo cbparmentos — oKono 100 orHocHoch K epBoit rpynne. Kpy'eras wepeska mapecTHa B eqMHCTReHHOM aKaemnmape. Oxao 50 nieTeHBIX BepeBOK GbUIH M3TOTOBNeHbI H3 MpeABAPHTeMbHO cKpyYeHHEIX npspeit mouan [Opsos, 1954, 178]. Bce atm rpynmpl, ocoGeHHo nocneniss, BKmOUAIE DKSEMMIAPbI, TOAMIMHA KOTOPLIX MO3BOALIA HCHOABSOBATb HX B OCHACTKE cysOB. Jlocrarounlo wapoKo npeyctaBjeHit B apxeosorMuecKHX MaTepuanax CeBepo- 3anaya peTam BecembHoro npuBona: rpeGHble Becta H yKuoUNHDL. YKmOUnHbL, HSTOTOBAABUIMECA M3 oNHOTO Kycka fepeBa ¢ CYTKOM, CAYXHAM ais (uKcaunH Becem Ha Gopry cyfHa, MocpezcTBOM crelManbHoro pemua wim BepesKn. Onn Mpoyenanich CKBOSb OTREPCTHA B AepessAHOi vacTH, SaKperiennoi Ha Gopry, OSpasoBbisann eTNO, BKoTOPYIO H BeraBNIace pyKosTh rpeGHoro Becna. VETO UMD! HCNOAB3OBAINCH Ha cyaX, MasasuiNx B Bo_ax CeBepo-3anagHoh Pycn Ha MpoTsxeHHM Bcero cpegHeBeKoBoro rlepHona. HanGanee paHHue 13 M3BeCTHDIX OKSeMIVISPOR BeTpeveHbI B ropHs3oHTe E3 Crapoit Jlagoru (750-830-e rr.). Jamia yrouounn coctagnsier 22-85 cm, Bbicota 9-29 cm, TonuyrHa 0,5-7 cm. Juamerp orpepeTna 1a pemus BappupoBan or 2 20 5 cm, Hs 39 yKmOuHH ¢ M3BecTHEIMH. napamerpamn 23 oksemmaspa GvinM Hafigenbi 8 Hosropoge (13 Hux 7 — B Hepesckom 1 8 — B Tpouukom packone), 9 8 Crapoit JIazore, 6 8 TiéKose u I B OpemKe. Vayuenne roi Kontexuun mnosBonseT paspaGoTaTh TunonorHio COCTABNAIOUNIX e€€ HAXOAOK, B OCHOBY KoTOpolt MoOx%KeHDI KOHCTPYKTHBHBIE ocoGeHHOCTH YKIOUHH — cnocoSs KpenmeHua pemHa K nepeBsHHol GacTH H cucrema KpermieHna nocneguei K Sopty cynHa. I THN: yKatouNHDL CO CKBOSHDIM MonepeyHBIM oTHepcTHeM jyId peMAa ocHoBanus pora (puc. 16, 1). Tl Tn: yKmouvHt Co CKBOSHDIM HonepeuHbIM OTRepCTHeM B crleyMAbHO nospaGoraHHOM BBICTyMe BrepeH pora y ero ocHoRaHHa (pyc. 16, 2, 6). IIL Tun: ykmounHBt ¢ MpoAOAHDIM OTBepcTHeM Ha OAHOMt CTOpoHe ocHOBAHHa (puc. 16, 3). IV tan: yxmounnpt ¢ AByMa oTBepcTHaMH — y OcHOBaAUs pora HB ero, Bepxeli vacrut. V tum: ykqouHHbI ¢ OTBepcTHaMH B che“MaNbHO NospaGoTaHHOM BbIcTyne ocHoBaist pora 1 B ero BepxHeil yacTH (puc. 16, 4). VI Tun: ykmounnnt Ges oTBepcTHs C BEPTHKABHBIM CTepxKHeM, pacnonoxenHt nosagm pora. B sasncumocrn or cnocoGa kpensenma yxKmtounH x Gopty cyzHa Hx MOxKHO nog”pasyenuTb Ha 4 BapHaHTa: mepBblii BapHaHT YKTIOUMH KpenHsica Yepe3s rope SOHTAMbHbIe oTRepeTHa BUX OcHOBAHMH (puc. 16, 2, 6, 8), Bropoit BapraNT uepe3 BepTukanbubie (pic. 16, 5), TpetHi — c momoutpio mason (puc. 16, 7, 3)y. uerBepTbili — He MeN Kakux-1160 cnenoB KpervieHus, BeposTHo, coenMHeHHe AANHOM cnyyae ocyulecTBAANOCe MYTeM MIPHBSSHIBAHMA YKMOUMHI OXBATOM ee) OcHOBaHHs. B 3aBHcHMocTH OT cpesCTB KPeILIeHHs MOXKHO BbYIeNMTS 3 noABapnaHTa’ A — Yeuouna npuGneatace K Gopty ZepessrHbimn Hareasmu, B — npyesabi- pagach BepeBKoil Win pemem, C — npaumpasack siuei,\Cnenyet OTMeTHTb, WTO FecmOTPs lia pasioobpasie cnocoGor KperUieHHs, BepOsTHO, B CombUIMHCTBE CryaeR yeuouHHa coeqMHsIach ¢ GoptoM GoKoBoii YacTbIO, NocKONbKy ake B TOM JapwaHiTe, KONA B OCHOBANKM ee HMENIICh ReprHKaNbHNe oTBEpCTHA, YeTaOBKa ywOMHUBL ta BepxHuit cpes Gopra Goina sarpyaHNTenLHa W3-3a HepoBHocTH ee ywxteli MopepxHoctu. Uckmouenve coctapiaior, 10-BHqMMOMy, e7MHCTBeHHAs ykHOUHHA, OTHOCHMas K THITY VI “3 Crapoit JIaqora, U BO3MOXHO HeCKOMbKO yaxioumn 3 Hosropoaa (ra6x, VII; prc. 9, 7; 16). C. H. Opnos e paGore “Jlepessanmie uaiena Crapoit Jlazorn” ynomunaer oGuapyxXennAit B ropusoute E1 (865-920 rr.) B palione Moctosoit y Gonbuoro goma ¢pparMeHT Z0ckH, He coxpaHHBumniica qo Hamero spemenn. Ero umpana coctagnsia 35 cM, a Tonumua 6 cM. B ueHTparbHoi yacTH HMeMoce “cbacone- ooSpasHoe” oTBepcTHe pasMepamu 16,7x8,5 cM, MHTepnpeTMpyeMoe aBTOpOM Kak secesbubit nopt [Opzop, 1954, 243]. [loka 9To ennHcTBeHHasd HaxoyKa TaKOTO: pona. Yicuounnot Iw Il tunop, 8 HanGombutem KomMMecTBe mpegcTaBmeHttie B apxeomOrH4ecKHX MaTepHasiax, H3BecTHHL ¢ cepezMHbI VIII — cepequup IX B. 70 XIV s.; IIL, [V VI tune npegzcrapienbl HesHaaMTeNbHbIM KOAM4eCTBOM HaXOJOK, AATMpyOUXcA COOTBETCTBEHHO BTopoit monoBHKOl XII — nepzoii nosoBHHolt XIV 8., Bropoit monoputiol X-XI B. 1 X 8.3 V THM uMeetes TonbKO B HOBTOpOACKHX Matepnianax sropoit rotosnis X — mepsoii nonosuHe XI B. Bouensores XpOHOMOMHMMecKHe M TeppHTOpHanbHbIe ocoGeHHOCTH M B ObtTOBAHHH OT]eTDHDIX BapuaHTOB: Mepsbit M3 HUX MSBeCTeH B OCHOBHOM syla MepHoga c cepemMHki VIL u XI B., 3a MCKMOUeHMeM eMHCTReEHHOrO HexapakTepHoTO 9k3emmspa pyGexa XIV-XV z., Bropoli p X B., mpuuem Tomo B Crapoii Jlagore, rpernii sapuant ucnonbsoBanca ¢ KoHUa X yo cepennubt XV B., YerBepTbifi — Bo BTopoli ooBHHE XI-XIV 3. HanGonee pacnpoctpanenHbimu B cpefHeneKoBbe GpuiM pers M Wersepriili BapvanTbt yKuouMH. [ogzapuante: A u C mpenctapneHbi B apxeoso- PHYECKHX MaTepvayiaxX B HesHauHTebHOM KonMYecTBe, 06a OHM MIponcxonaT H3 craponagoxcKnx cos cepenuntt VILI-X se. Mepaoiit nsnecren B Tpex aksemnas- PAX, Ba 43 KOTOpbIX, OGHapyxXeHHbIe B ropusoHTe E3 (750-840 rr.), BepoaTHo, OTHOcST¢s K ONHOMY CYHY; BTOpoi U3BecTeH B eJHHCTREHHOM 9KSeMILTApe, Npovexonsuem m3 ropu3oHta E2 (840-865 rr.). TMogaptaiuee Kosm4¥ecTBO YeUOUMH oTHOcHTCA K NogBapHanty B. (CVenountitt )nenonb30nanuch oGptuHo Ha cyjax_cpewHMX pasMepoB, Tak KaK, HACKOMDKO 9TO M3BeCTHO M3 ITHOFpacpHYeCKHX VCTOWHMKOB, MambIe J1O]KM MPHBoAHANc B ABHKeHHe M YMPABITINCe OANOBPeMeHHO OAHUM GoMbUIMM BeCnOM © KopMbl wan Manbim Tuna rpe6Ka M3 UeHTpa, KoTOpble He 3aKpeniainch B Yenouwne. Kpynubie Ke cyta MMeNH chelHanbHble Toprbl, mpnGIMxKeHHEIe K BOLE N tosronspume vcnob30BaTb Gaslee KOpOTKHe, a COOTBETCTBCHHO M Jerkue Becta, eM TpeGonanocb Gi NpH HX ONyCKAHHH Ha Boy vepes Gopr. OntaKO YKMOYHHBI 36 37 usBecTHBL 1 Ha GombUINX cynax, HMeBIINX cpaBHHTenbyo HusKue Gopra. K npumepy, na cygue Xenmangcxonbm 5 (XIV 8.) us Ieenum, wmesuem paameper 22,5x3,4x0,9 M (3yecb M fanee yka3aHbI JIMHAa, WMpMHa M BbIcoTa) MMeIHCh ykmounnbt tana I,2a [Varenius, 1984, 117]. Ha nagpe cpeaunx pasmepor (9,75x1,860,67 mM) No 1 ua Toxcraga Geum ycranopnens yxmounnbt Tana I,1 [Damman, 1983, 18]. Xapaxtepoii veproii Kperenua yKmouNH AByx 9THX cyso! 6bu10 TO, ¥TO oNM GhinM BpesaHbI B[peTHHPOByIO JocKY, B MepBOM cnyuae cREpxy, HO BTOPOM COOKY TAKUM O6pasoM, UTO H3 Hee BEIAABaTCa TonBKO por. Ha parm ckangunapckux cyax IV p. a3 Hugama mu VI. us Keanpayana monep IraMMIMpHoll AockM GsuIM yctaHoBnenbt yKmIOUNHD Tana I,3b [Dox DupKe, 1982, 23-39]. [pu cpasHeHMu BLIUIeyMOMS@HYTBIX cKAHAMHABCKUX M jpeBHepyccKyE Yeiownn oGpaiiaer Ha ce6a BHHMAHHe CXO;ICTBO MepBEIX ¢ paHHME cTaposlaqox: CKMMH 9K3€MILISpaMH, a TaKxKe ToT cpakT, ¥TO BapHanT 3, HanGoree LHpOKé Mpencrannennpit 8 HaMINX MaTepMasiax, HaXOIHT avaslorum B cKaH_HHaBcKOl CYMOCTpOMTeXBHOM TpanMIMN AOBHKHHTCKOrO MepHosa. B Gonbuiom KoMMecTBe B apxeonormueckuX MaTepwanax Cenepo-3anaHo! Pycn wapecTHbI pasnyHoro pona Becna, npeycTaBNeHHble mpeuMyulecTBeHn (pparmentamu. B xoye apxeonoraueckoro wayyenua Craponagoxckoro mocenel B pasIHYHble POb, HACKONDKO MHC U3BeCTHO, ObiIo OOHapyxKeHO “YeTEIpe Wes x 22 cbparmentupopannux Becia. M3 Hix 4 sksemnspa ODUM Hallet B ropH30 E3 (750-830-e rr.), onHo B ropusonte E2 (840-60-e rr), vermpe B ropusor Ej (865-920-e rr.) u 13 orHocutca K ropusonTy J, mpnsem Gompmas ux va (9 9k3. K HwxHeii ero vacTH (930-60-e rr.)). Tlomumo 9Toro ofHO UenOe HM ODH PparMenupoganioe Becna Gpuin oOHapyxerbI B Mpouecce HccHegAoBaHHs Torpes« To o6psay Tpynocowxenns, mpemnonoxHrenbHo KoHua IX B., B CONKOBHAH wacsimi 61H3 ypoumma Tlnaxyn w Crapoit Jlayore [Hocos, 1985, 147-155]. B Hepescxom packone Hosropoga 6si10 Haiineno 56 rpeGuiix m 25 KopMoi Becen, pasMeMlaBUINXcs BO BCex cnosx ¢ 953 r. mo KoHeN XV B. [Korunn, 196! 58-59]. B cocrape mckoscKmx apxeonormueckHx MaTepHaros MHe H3BecTHO 27 Bec ux ¢bparmentos, 4 m3 KoTopsix naTupytorca XI-XII ue. 18 — XIII-XIV pp. 1— XVs. Tpw secna nepsoit nonosuuet XV 8. npowcxonar v3 Opeua. C. H. Opsos B cpoeli paGore “Jlepessinme vsneans Crapoit Jano Nompasyqenw1 WSBeCTHBIe-eMy NATb Becen Ha TPM THNA, MpHBNeKaa u sTHOrpady WeckHe faHHbIé: MeTHOUHIe, TONOUHbIE uM KopaGenbuDie Becta, Tlepspie um Koporkyto sonaToBHAHYtO JOMACTb M AMHHOe, TOHKOe, OKpyTvioe B ceveHHH Apel Koropoe He WMeéT BHGOHH oT paGors B ykHoUNie. Jlogounwe necna 6p OnHOpy4Hbie napHible, KopaGenbHble Ke, B OTIMYHE OT HAX, ABypy4Hble, np aT H Te Apyrde HocuIM cHembIHOTepTocTH or yxmounA [OpsoB, 1954, 236-241 38 B. A. Konaww pasgena1 Becna “3 Hosropoyckoro Hepesckoro packona Ha uerbipe Kateropuu. Ilo ¢yHKUMOHaNDHOMY HasHaeHMiO OH paanMuat KopMoBbie, yo ecTb pyesble, 4 rpeGenbHbie — aBMxKHTeNDHBIe Becta. Vi te, 4 apyrne B gaBMcHMOCTH OT pasMepoB Morin GbiTb KopaGenbHbie MIM omOUHBIe. KopMogpie xopaGerbHble Becsia XapaxrepuayioTca UIMpoKoii_stonactbI0, cocrasasiomielt m0 NpOTAXeHHOCTH OKONIO NOAORHRE oOweH ANKE BeCTa, H onepedHO! pyKostTKof wa KOHUe crepxkHs. JlogouHpIe KopMosble Becta, NpHMeHsBLIMeCH TaKKe Ha SaHOBeCONUDIX WENMOKAX-lonGNeHKAX, KOHCTPYETHBHO OTAMYANHC’ OT KopaGenb- HbIX TIPOMOPUMOHANBHBIM COOTHOWeHHeM NMHbI_pykostkH HM nonactu. TocneaHaa Gita Y-HNX Kopowe vi npHOaWKanac no Aye K JOFaCTaM rpeOHbIx Becen. PasieleHHe TpeOHbIX Becel Ha KopaGeNbHbie U OZO4HbIe BO3MOXHO, NO MHCHHMO p. A. Koruna, mum B cnywae 4x nonHoit coxpannocta [Konuni, 1968, 58-59], uro Mpegnolaraer orcytersne KaKux-1H60 KOHCTpyKTHBHDIX paamnunit Mex_Y HIM. ArpuOyuMs Becen 8 GoNbUIKHCTRE Cmydaes SHAYHTENBHO OCTOKHSETCH HX uacTHMHol coxpanHocTDIO. Tem He MeHee, MOKHO OTMETHTb XapakTepHBIe YeprEt, onpeslensembie Kak WX cbyHKUMOHATbHDIM HasHayeHHeM, TAK Mi pasMepaMH CyZOB, Ha KOTOPbIX OHH HCIONBSOBAIHCS, 4TO MOsBONeT paspaGoTaTh npe_BApHTENDHY!O qumoormo Becem, Tlepswiii tun — rpeGuute necna nompasnensetes Ha 3 Bapwanta, 1a — rpeGHpIe Bec KPYNMBIX cyfOB, XapakTepHayiOllMecs HaNM4VeEM RaNbKOB-IIPOTHBOBECOB, yakoit (qo 13 cM) BbrTaHyToit sonactEH (puc. 9, 9; 17, 4-6, 8); 1b — rpeGubie Beca JOJOK, OTAMYAIOMUTeCK HeSOAbLIO! AIMHOII, TOHKOM pyKOsITKOi M OvHOCH- Te/IbHO KOPOTKOlt NO OTHOWIEHMIO K Heli, Valle Bcero JoNaTOOSpasHol sOTACcTHIO (puc. 17, 1, 3); le — rpeGenbiio-pystenbie Becna c umpoKoi — 13-16 cm Tonacrao saKpyrienHoi opel, coctannsiouelt or 1/3 Yo NoOBHHbI ZINK! Becaa (pic. 17, 2, 7; raGn. VID. Bropoit THn BKMOUAeT pyzeBbIe BeCIA KPYMHBIX cyJOB, KoTOpBIe MMeIOT sOMACTH. WHpHHoi 19-32 cM, COcTABNsIONMe OKOTO NoTOBHHEL HX OSU ATHHEI (pAc.18; 9, 8} TaGn. IX). PpeGimte necna (aun 1) B cHry sx chparMeHTHpoBAHHOCTA JOCTATONHO CsOKHO CBSSHIBATb C TEM WIM MHBIM 3 BbIeeHHBIX BapHaHTOB, TEM He MeHee Ha OCHOBE ATprGyTMpoBaHHDIX HaXOJOK MOXHO KOHCTATHpORAT, ¥TO BapHAHT “a” Men Pacnpocrpanenne c XII yo Konua XIV B., npuuem HanGonbullee KomM¥eCTBO HaXOAOK OTHOCHTCa K JBYM MOCIeAHHM CTOJETHSIM 9TOrO MepHoga, HCKTOYeHMe cocTaBNIseT AHO Becno, OGHapyxeHHoe B ropus0HTe ywixaiee B Crapoit Jazore (920-950 rr.). Bapuanr “b” mpenctapien HesHauTenbHDIM KoHYecTBOM aTpHGyTHPOBAHHEIX Sksemnaspos, natupyembix X um XV Bp., M HaKOHell, Becsa RapHanTa “c” GbumM Sacicuposanet B cosx Kona IX — Kona XIV 8. Pyzespie wecna Gompumx ‘Yn08 (run 2), oSHapyxXeHHBIe K HACTOSLeMy BpeMeHH, jaTHpylwTca c KOHUA I 8. no XIV Bs. O6pamaer Ha ce6a BHMMaHHe pasHooGpasne cop .tonacTelt Recen, KoTOpHe ¢ TpyJOM MOXHO KAK-TO CHCTeMaTHaHpoRaTD. 39 Haxoaku Becen we peskH MB ropomcKHx weHTpax BantwiicKoro pernona. npumepy B XO@ pacKonoK, nposoausumxca fo 1954 r. B DyanpcKe, Gino oGuapyxeno 14 UenbIX Mm chparMeHTHpoBAHABIX BeceM, HAXOAMBLIMXCH B CHOSX, gatupyemtix 980-1230 rr. [Smolarek, 1969, 334-338], umpmua ux sonacr cocramtana 8-15 cM, Toma pykoaTkH — 70 3,5 cm. TT. CMonapex cpa3pipa Wx ¢ JlogKAMH. Ocobbiii uATepec MpepcrasisoT Becta, OGHApyxKeHHbIe BMecTe c cynaMH Ha repputopun Ckariqumanckyx crpar. Tax, Ha cyax IV 2. 13 Humama rpeGuore pecia jlocturam B nanny 3,05-3,52 mM, m3 Keanpaynga VI . — 3,1 M, m YceGepra IX B. — 3,7-4 M, u3 Toxcraza toro xe Bpemenu 5,3-5,8 m [on @upxe, 1982]. Onn umenu naapHo pacumpsiouyrecs BabKOBbIe YaCTH Ml OTaCTH Pynespie Becna GombuHx cyzoR HaunyuuMm o6pasom npeqctanenbi HoBroposicKnX Matepnanax. M3 Hepesckoro packona npoucxomur 16 Becem TaKoI rua, aTupyemox 1096-1462 rr. Iects 13 Hux COxpaHWIvich NonHocTbNO. Jrni ux KoneSanach or 205 20 240 cm, mpuuem okono nonosnun ee — 90-128 cr coctapisvia stonacts. Lupuita sonacta nappuposana or 19 70 32 cM, Tommy or 2 70 2,5 cw. JMamerp pyxoatkn Guin 5-7 cm [Konunn, 1968, 59]. B Crapo Tlanore Takxe uasecten ¢parment Gonbinoro pystenoro wecna, jyimita sonac KOTOporo, BeposTHO He MONHOCTbIO CoxpaHuBielica, JocTurana 45 cm, UMpuHa 24 cm. B HHXHeM acTH ee MMeNOch Ba CKBOSHBIX OKpyrBIX oTBepcTHs HANlOMMHaIoUge HarenbHBIe, uTO TosHOANTO E. A. PsGuuMHy rowopHTs 06 wsro TOBNeHMM BTOTO Becia M3 KopaGenbHoli nocKu (puc. 18,5) [PsGuHnH, 1985, 13. Jipyroe pyesoe Becmo, ¢ BOCeMbIO NapHbIMH, CHMMeTPHYHO pacnoOKeHHbIMH TUIOCKOCTH ONACTH OTBEPCTHSMH USBECTHO B HOBFOpOACKHX MaTepHamax (pac. 18 J) [Kolcin, 1989, 343]. B matepnanax Tckosa taxxe uMeetea cbparmeHTupoBaHHo pecmo, xapakrepusyromeeca sIHHHOf (80 cM) HM UIMpOKO! (25 cM) sNoMtacTbIO, NO3BOMAeT OTHOCHT ero K pyseBbIM BeCaM KpyTHBIX cyfoB (prc. 18, 6; TaGn. IX) _Pynespie Becia cKaHaMHascKHx KopaGnefi u3 Hugama, Keanbsyxya, Yee6ep ut Toxcraga jocturamm 6 zauny 3,3 M,2,54 M, 3,18 mn 3,3 _M. B ommmune 0 PYACBHIX BeceN, VcrOM3OBABLUMXcA B CpeaHeBeKoBOil CeBepo-SanagHoii Pycu TMeBLUIX CHMMeTpITUAY!O AuamornuHas cMcTeMa KpenmseHMs pysIeBOTO Becta Mpocnexupaetca y CyqHa M3 Huzama IV B. Eule OfMH BapwauT Kpervienuat necen Ha KpYNHBIX cyaX Mpeanonaran ux saxpervieHie B KOpMOBOl ‘acTH c MOMOUIbIO chenHambHOro yetpolicrBa, B pesyiibrate ero RecTO GUI cOpHEHTUPOBAKO NpsMo TO oceBolt mMuNH cyAHa. Takas CHCTeMa YIpaBlenHs, Ip¥em Ha HOcy MB KopMe, Obi1a_y Kaga4ubHXx YaeK XVII B., a TakxKe, cyqa No onmcaHmio, y mpesHepycckuxiacapoB) Sra xe ocoSeHHocTh Gbula MpHcyila mM pycCKHM pe4HbIM cy/laM HOBOTO BpeMeHH, 4TO nosBows10 MM ODICTPO MaHeBpHpoBaTh B YcNOBHSx MHOTOUNCNeHHBIX Menel 1 noporos. Ha cygax ¢ yceuenntoli Kopmoit (npamoyronbHoit cbopmb!) pysieBble Becta Mort qbuxcuposatbcax B WeHTpe MepeKnaguHB!, ycTaHaBanBasiielica Ha KopMe Mexay Gopramm, Kak 93TO H3BeCTHO M3 aTHOTpAdHueCKOl TpanNUNH. TpeaMerst cHapskeHua u oOCTYxXHBAHHA CyOB Mpencramnexbt B apxeanorn- YecKHX MaTepMasiaX B OCHOBHOM eAMHHYHBIMH 3K3eMmLIapaMn. Croiika cyonoro Hazeca (IC 2021) Gbina oSuapyxena B ropusonTe Ey B paiiotie Gonbutoro noma, vccsleqoBanHoro Ha SemaHom ropomuue Crapoit Jagora. Ona cocrosta M3 AByX KOKop, coeaHHeHHBIX Mexpy coGoli nepeKnaqHHoi 1 AepesaHHbiMH HarensMH, KH HMea T-o6pasnylo cpopMy ¢ HeCKOAbKO 3arHYTbIMH BBepx GoKOBbIMH OKOHeYHOCTaMH. Buicota ee JocTHrana 2,4 M, peKoHcrpynpyemas WHpHHa BepxHeii YACTH, Ha KOTOPyIO YKNAHIBAINCh LeCTbt HaBeca cocTaBisia Kono 1,2 m (puc.13, 4; 38). AHanorH4Hbie M0 KoHCTPyKUMM HM pasMepaM cTOiKH UMesMch Ha GomDUNX KopaGAX BAKHHTOB, B YaCTHOCTH Take xe ObuIN OOHapy KeHDI Ba cyane us Poxctaga, Ha aanokcKoii Waxonke MMeioTes HaceuKH M MpoulapanaHHoe (@s0Gpaxenne venower@cKoi ro10BK C ycaMM M Goponoli,) OHO oGHapyxnBaer TlopasvTenbuoe cxoAcTBO C TOsOBO, NpovepyeHHoO Ha nepeKiagMHe cyzoBoro Watpa (npagqa, mpyroii_KofcTpyxumu) c cymHa w3 YceGepra. He suispipaer COMHeHHa, 4TO 37 PAXCHME OZHOTO H3 CKAHAMHABCKHX GoroB, Sonee BCerO Hanomnuaionte \ Tlomentenme Ke ero Ha_KopaGs ulatpe_HapepHaKka MOXeT cpujeTewbeTBOBATB O TOM, UTO OHO BbICTyNAIO B po cBoedGpasKoro To re Pera, a Haxoyka JByX MJeHTHUHDIX Ms0GpaxeHHit B ONMHAKOBBIX yCNOBHAX cetoaser ronopith © cywlecTBoBAHNN onperenewoli KysbTOROl xpazmuNt, SaHHoit ¢ Mopennapannem. = Enuncrsennpit axopb (Ja 1169) & npowecce apxeoormuecknx necrejoBannii POOR Cerepo-Sanaqa Grit waiijen B cnoe XVII s., 8 Crapoit Jagore. Sto 40 41 ‘rpexpornii sKOps-KoUIKa, BLIKOBAHHBI H3 “eTHpexrpanHbIx >%KenesHDX npyTHeR TONUMHA KOTOPBIX B ceveHMM cocrasiaer 1-1,8 cm. B ueHrpe oH oSpasonsrEa neTm0 (id KpenmeHus, a Ha KOHUAX UsrHOanHch BBepx. Boicora sKops jocrHrae 18 cM, pasMax san 22 cm. C TakvMM napaMerpaMH OH Mor HCMOmb30BaTECA ToNBKE Ha sonkax, 160 B KavecTBe aGopyaxHoli KommKH (puc.13, 3). Thimupi-vepnakn 219 OTKAYKH BoADL U3 CyAoB NpexcTaBnenbr TpeMst HaxoyKaM B Matepwasnax Hosropoyckoro Hepescxoro packona — 13-17-228, 14-15-96; 10-17-1360, Koroppie uMeioT cyMMapHyio 7aTHpoBKy 1238-1340 rr. Kaxxnaa Hux ObUla HSroTOBIeHa M3 WeMbHOrO JepeBsHHorO Gpyca uM cocTosna peyoOmeHWoro Yepnaka M mpuMbiKaioulelt K Hemy B BepxHell vacTH pyKoaT imma Gonswoii nimust cocrasnana 84 cm, umpmna 15 cm [Konumn, 196 (pue. 14, 3). Ewe onun yepnak c pyKosrKoil, mpumbaroulelt K HeMy B eHTpanbHO acts, Gut oSapyxen » coe XY m. npw packonxax Opeuna (255%), B xyabtypubx ornoxenusx Crapoi Jlanorm 8 aHauntenbHom Komtuecn Hiaientr nepensnnie HONE, COEpRyIIe SONCKOG H's Nex cry alex ORTREEE Ha Tom ocHoRaHmn, tro oGeprka ofHol 13 Nx 6iu1a mponurana yerreM i cmonoii, C. H. Opnos npegnonoxn7, 4ro OHM HcnOm30BaNch ja cMoneHH nonoK [Opios, 1954, 165-167]. B oguom oKxsemmape Takaa >%e monaTk Mpejictantena 8 marepitarax Opeutka (pic. 9, 10; 15, 1) (raGn. X). Heckospi TaKHX HaxoyoK GbiI0 cyenaHo HB Hosropoze. TipnenocoGirenmé)" weposra, avidvoratmioro Haana dei): HO ADyTON KOnCTD WMH — cocTosilee H3 AByX NaTOK, OOMOTAHHBIX BoItNOKOM, ObuI0 obHapyxeHo xone packonox E. A. PsGurmuia, » Crapoii Jlazore (3r-84 No 666). CNOCOBI COEAMHEHMA OBUIMBKM CYLOB Cyas m0 apxeonormueckuM MaTepHanaM, 8 mpefenax paccmaTpyBaemort PerHoHa B cpexHeBeKoBbe GuLI0 MsBeCTHO ABA OcHORHEIM crocoGa_coemMHeHtt Hocox oGuMBKH Mexay cool Hc AonGreHOl ocHOBOH —xeHEK apysmounre, Crapom JhoGexe, a TaKke Ha moGepexbe CesepHoro Mops B ‘awrsepniene [Ellmers, 1972, 285-287, 294, 306]. CoeauHeHHe focoK OOWIMBKH BCTBIK, MocpescTBOM UIMTOB sepa yaréreli, Mpocnekubaerex iO” (bparwenTuponanuyne vactam v3 Crapoit Jlaqora, Fae on ObLM oGHapyxeHst BOnIsM GombUIOTO oma B ropusoHTe Tore (020-950 rr.) (puc. 15, 2), H mo Haxonke B coe nepsoit verseptH XIV B, us Hosropoza [LyGposnn, 1990, 68, 69]. VswectHo, uro noxoGuas cucrema Gouna ‘upesssiualino IHpoKo PacnpocpakieHa B cpesIHseMHOMOpCKO!t cynocTpoMTeNbHOIt mpagniuiit C ANTHUHOTO BPeMeHH, OnHAKO TAM MCTIONbSOBAICS uN ApyroTO quna — OHM OLIN WIMpOKHMM M THIOCKHMH, NpHYeM BCTARISINCh B CrelManHBIe orsepeTist 10 Kpa¥o Z0cKH, fIMHa ux GpuIa TaKoll, TO OM MOPIH ZocTHraTD cepeamHbt WMpHHBL AocoK [Unger, 1980, 36-37]. T. B. TyGposux, ocHopnnasce a TpeyrombHoli chopMe Tpex MocoK, coemMHeHHDIX muriaMM, 3 Hopropoza, murepmpeTMpowan WX KaK HOCOBYKO MMM KOpMOBYIO YaCTS OOMIMBKM peuHoro jurockoZOHHoro cyqHa tna Gapku. Cyza Oo ToMy, 4TO B AambHeMMIeM aBrop BLICKASAT MHEHMe 0 COeqHHEHHM TAKHM O6pasoM Bceit GoproBoit oGuMBKH 9TOTO cymta, TO Mog HocoBoft M KOpMoBOl aCTAMM B ZaHHOM cMyWae MOHMMaIOTCS okoneunocru Gopros. Yunrsras, To Bce STH cpparMeHTH WMeNH xapaKTepHy!O npaneumeswmuylo opMy, a aJOXcKMe SKSeMMLISpHI ele HM BBIPesK B yrTax OCHORAHHS Tpaneuyt, MOxXHO NpeNNOIOXNTS, YTO Bce STH FeTANH sRAsKOTCH HOCOBLIMH WWI KOPMOBBIMH OKOHEUHOCTSMH TLIOCKOLOHHDIX CysOB KOpbIToOSpasHolt chop pasmMuHBX pasMepos, coelMHeHHEe c OnHOl — HuxHell — cTopoHE c HX qRMIeM, a c GoKoBEIx ¢ Gopram. Cenepo-3anaza B cpenHeseKoxbiii nepnoy mpeteprenaet azomoumo. Ecam nep HavarbHO Wik npwKHMa MWIAHKH C KOHOMATKOH McNoNb3OBAIHCh ZepeB KAMHDILIKH, TO BNocieacTBHH, HaunHas c XII Cromerus, aia atoro HauMHal OpHMenanbcs xeresHbIe CKOOOUKH. PpagMnns HX HCTONbsOBaHHA pacnpoctpanae ‘Wa apesrepycckom Cenepo-3anage w mpouecce roproan1 Hosropoga ¢ Pornai WM HeMelKUMH ToponamH. Cnoco6 ynoTiiHa IBOB mocpegqcTBOM KoHonAa’ MpHXMMaeMoli TimaHKO co cKOOKaMH, Obl XOpOUO M3BeCTeH B CyjocTpoeHT Cexepuoit Exponsi 8 cpemune Beka. OW vicnomsonanca Ha . Ecan Kpyr Hcropuyeckux JOKyMeHToR, coyepxau4x HHCpopMaumro o cpesteReKoR een eee tide ee ge neretaerts scaRi aaj Coaecr Tea cyzax va Cesepo-Sanaje Pycw, goctarouyo oSumpea, omHaKo 3a enki Bea) (ex BN ze Bef pact pach rCechii rea yfaie'0 amiCnte RUE pe HER oEnak UCKINOYCHHEM, B HX OTCYTCTBYIOT KaKHe-HGO KOHKpeTHBIe cBeqeHus 0 oe “ep tentees : aa KOHCTPYKUMH, €@ COxepKATCA AWIb HASBAHMA pagnMYHBIX CyMOBBIX THIIO! cyiios: “Axe (ioe WKpaerb, To 60 KyH mpopaxe; a jozbIO nMeM BopoTHTH CPEJIHEBEKOBBIE CYJIA CEBEPO-3ATIAJIHOM PYCH TIO MATEPHAJIAM ITMCbMEHHbIX MUCTOYHHKOB BHbI NMCbhMEHHbIX MCTOYHMKOB M HX OCOBEHHOCTH ? cKyIO sloABI |(H pale cnucKos — “samopcKyio”. — IT. C.) 3 npusnsi, asa OMMHAIOMIUXCH B KOHTeKCTe Tex HBX cOGBITHT. CatopeKyto 103610 op — ry u : tanec coe, Ra oronume ian Kotope cassanei, mgm CHAOOMHyiO vTonbIO)2 rpusues, (3a vem) 20 KyH,(@_3a_crpyrdrpusHa” (Cr.79) [P3, i combine i “nly 1984, 70], OcoSaa uennocTs Store AoKyMeHTa sanOYAeTCA He TONDKO B_TOM, Mpenmyuiectay, ¢ moeHMiMM mpeanpustusinn, coxepmares 8 sieTonucax. Cpemi Tl 1984, 470 suecb HasBaHel OcHOBHBIE cyAoBbIe THNb SOropoit nonoBuHEI XI B., HOH Brom, TO B HEM MpMBefeHa HX OTHOCHTeNbHAa WeHHOCTb, BepoaTHo, onpeyetseMast B Hepsylo ovepemb UX rpysonombeMHocTHIO. Cyxopble Ha3BaHHa M3BECTHBI HM M3 3aKOHOATeMbHBIX aKTOB Mocrepyroulero Bpemenu: Texoscxoi m Hosropoackoii cyanbx rpanor, mepsaa us KoTopHx Jarupyercs 1397 ronom, Bropad — 1471 r. To meno nccnenonareneit, o6e on MMeloT B CBOeli OCHOBe MOKYMeHTBI MpemulecrByioujero Bpemenu [P3, 1984, TI, 303-306]. Ynomvriaemle B Cy/HBIX rpaMoTax B KoHTeKcTe cyje6Hoit mpotenypEt Stonba rion novy6er) M yuan cram npewMeToM UHTepecHbIX AUCKycCHIt H BEIBOTOB. ~B pane gorosopos u rpamor Kora XII-XV B., cpasaHHbx ¢ Topromielt Hosropona u Tcxowa c ranselicxum roporamn, Toranjom, Hnequett 1 Oprenom, BeTpevaiorca Ha3BaHHA KAK PYCCKHX, TAK HW MHOCTPAHHBIX TOproBBIX H TPy3OBbIX CYo8. OcoSyio yeHHOcTs MpeycraRnstoT HeKOTOpble 43 JoroBopoB — coxpaHMB- llMecs Ha pyccKoM M HeMeLKOM s36IKax, ConocTaBneHue comepxallmxca B HMX SYAOBbIX TepMHHOB MOSBONeT YCTAHOBATh pasHoUTeHUs WIM coBMayeHna B SHAYCHMM ONHMX M Tex Xe THNOB cyoB Ha CeBepo-Sanage Pycn B FepMavossmunbix semsx Bastulickoro pernona, Hecommennpiit mutepec suid paccMaTpaBaemoro wonpoca NpexcTamisoT zpes- Hecenepupie HCTOUHMKH: CKAHNMHABCKMe CarH H pyHMYeckHe HanMHcH, MoBecTBy!O- We o ckangHancKnx cyfax, roceniasumx Bocrounyw [IpnGataxy 8 X-XI se., a TaKKe HekoTopbie cpeqHeBeKOBbIe XPOHHKH, OcBelalouIHe Goree nosnHHit MepHog. CeoeoSpasubim MMCbMeHHBIM MCTOYHHKOM siBuaOTcA GepecTsHBIe TpaMoTbt, "apyxxeunbie B npowecce packontox B Hosropone u Tckore. K wactosiuemy HHX HanGombULy!0 UeHHOCTh Wik HacTosuero MccnenoBAHNa Mpeyvcrapimor Mects Hore — Hosroporckue u Tckosckue netonucubie cponpl. OHM OULTH Jo Halert BpeMeHH B HeCKONBKHX BapHanTax (nab Hoproporcknx, ape TcKoncKMX, a TAK He paccaTpubaembie B HacTosufelt paSote aBe Comuiickne xetonucn). Bonbuut CTBO M3 HHX MpeqcTaBNeHBl B HECKOMBKHX CIIMCKAX, B KOTOPHIX TAKKE MMCIO' onpenenenubie pashourenua, Cyna, ynommuaemie B natn HosroposcKux 1 18 Tickonckux xeTonHcsx, MoxHO MNoNpasienHTb Ha HecKonbKo rpynn, 0. H SHANHMOCTH Vit paccMaTpHBaeMoii Tembi. K nepsoii u3 HX oTHOcaTCS cyf NoctpoevHite H UcnonbsopaBuMecs Ha Cesepo-3anane Pycu, Ko Bropolt — cya Ha KOTOPBIX BHIXOAUBI HS 9TOTO PerHoHAa — HOBTopogUH WH NCKOBMN jelicTBoBA 3a ero mpefenamn, Kk Tperbeli — MHoseMHble cya, maBaBLIMe B Bosal Cesepo-3anaanoii Pycu, x uerseproit — pycckme, a K naTol — nHocTpanne CyAa, MsrOTOBTeHHBIe M MpHMeHsBuMeca B NpyrHX perMonax. Ecam Tp nepsl Tpynnbl AeTonMcHbix coobieHMit B OCHOBHOM UMeWwT MecTHOe npoucxoxyeHne, B HNX HaLLIM OTpaxeHHe MecTHble HaSBAHK CYAOBBIX THNOB, TO B ABYX rlocTeM SAUMCTBOBAHHBIX 3 JIETOMCHDIX CBOAOB APYTHX, B NepBy! O4epeqb KXHOPYCCK SeMeNb, a TakKKe 3 MepeBoqHDIX (HHOCTpAHHBIX) AMTepaTypHbIX NaMsTHHK MpUBoAsTcs, No NpeMMyulecTBY, HHOSeMHBIe cyjloBbIe TepmuHBI. IIpH 9TOM, oDt HEMb3% HEAOOMCHHBATb CYUIeCTBEHHOTO BIMAHHS paHHeli ApesrepyccKolt NHCbMé Holt Tpannunn, BosHKueli B Kuege, Ha Tocnezyromme ee WeHTpEI. Toaprenne co6crentoro neronucanna 8 Hopropoze npocnexumaerca yxe XI xs. [Jluxayes, 1947, 441, 462], B Ilckoue romko c 1238 1. [Haconon, 46 Ps BpeMeHa Ha TPeX WS HHX SacbUKcHpoBaNbI yromuHaHusa cyfoB. To (“tiopow (qpamota Ne 349, Hosropoa, 1238-1268 rr.) [Apunxosexnit, 1963, 38], ‘oyuane’ amor N®532, Hograpox, aropaa nonosuna XIV p.), [Apuwxoncni 1978, 134-135] “nonpa”) (rpamora No 7, TIcKos, nocneguas pers XIII x, [Konocoza, 1990, 6-8}- Bee atu cyza, cya 110 KoNTeKcTY rpamor, Gumi rpy3sdnnrm Tipeswepycckue cya w3RecTHBI HAM TakKe M3 HeKOTOpbIX cPombicTopH CTOUHHKOB — B YacTHOCTH, H3 ObLIMH o CagKko u o Conosbe Byaumuposnue. hx cojepXates monpoOuble onucanuat KopaGneli oTHx seren_apHBIX repoe paouTYIOUULe KPACOUHLIMM aTMMTHTeETAMH H OGopoTamH. Hanwune B ObLTHHAX sIBHt MHHOBAUMt He MO3BOTSeT HCNOAb3OBaTb MX B KaYeCTBe CaMOCTOSTEIbHON verouHMKa TO ApeBHepyccKomy cyocTpoeHmio, OzHaKo B HHX mpocnexHBaioTcs onpesemeHuble napasvienm ¢ ApyTHMM KaTeropHsiMH MCTOWHMKOB 10 stot mpotu MATHKe, UTO MOSBOMACT NPH HX CorocTaBNeHUH H OOOOUIEHHM NoTyIHTh HATepeCHE cBeqeHus. Taku o6pasoM, & Hawlem pacnopaxeHMA MMeeTcA JocraTouHoe KomHHEC coobnjenvii, HHCPOpMUpyIOWIHX Hac O pasIHYHBIX cTOpoHAX MCTONbSOBAHMA Tal pegers. Ha ux ocHone MoxHo onpenemHTh SON NpHMeHeHHa pasMHyHDIX THI CYB, BLIAENT UX KOHCTPYKTHBHBIe OCOFEHHOCTH, A TaKKE yeTaHOBUT® YAK oHanbHoe Ha3HaveHMe M MpHHajexHocTs KaKOMY-7H60 Hapony WIM Tocygap. BeHHOMy o6pasonannto. [epcnexTHBHbIM MpescTaBisdeTcs CTaTHCTHYeCKoe M3y4eHH HnchopMauwn, 3aKmI0YeHHO! B XOpOUlO AATHPOBAHHDIX seTONUCHBX yroMHHaHHs © cygax. TIpnuem 8 naHHom ciy4ae noBTopsiouurecs B pasiHUHLIX 1eTOnHCHB cBoyax HM cnvcKax coobiyenust 06 ofHOM MH TOM xe COObITHH ¢ McTONb30BAHHel BOJHIX CpeNCTB NepeBUXKeHHA NPHHMMAeTCA 3a OHO, 3a HCKMONEHHEM TeX CY uaeB, KOM B HUX HA3bIBAlOTes Cy/OBbIe THNIBL OTO AaeT BOSMOXHOCTD YcTaHoBH BpeMsa GpIrOBAHHA TOTO WIM MHOTO HA3BAHHA, OTHOCHTeNbHYIO YACTOTHOCTh YyHotpeOieHHs, BbIABHTS TepMHUHOIOrMYeCKKe NPOTHBONOCTABIeHHs, Kora B OfH CooSieHHM ynomuHaeTes Cpasy HecKObKO THTIOB CYOB, H OTOKNECTRICHHS, KOTA TulaBcpescTBa, yYaCTBOBABLIMe B KAKOM~/IMGO coGbrTHH, o603HayaIOTCA B OJHOM TOM 2xe cooOmjeHHM TonepeMeHHo pasnMuHbIMA Ha3BanHaMH. ConocTaByeHt MOAy4eHHEIX B pesyrbTaTe Takoro HCCNeMOBAHHA AAHHbIX C MaTepHanaMM jIpyl TMCbMeHHBIX HCTOUHMKOB jaeT HAM OMpeyeNeHHble MpeyCTaBTeHUs O TOM, ckpsipaeres 3a cyzonbimn Hasnanuamn (IIputoxenue 2, TaGa. 1, 2). OBUJEPOLOBDIE TEPMAHDI A HASBAHAA KOHKPETHBIX THMOB CYJOB J[PEBHEPYCCKOrO CEBEPO-3ATIAJIA. Opanasce x nogpagiereHiio ApeBHepyccKMX cyZOBBIX HasBaHNi Ha oGosHauaBuMe “BogoxogHoe cyfHo Boobie” uM KoHKperuble, cilenyeT 106aBHTB BbileneHHbiM patee oGulepoxoBbIM TepMuHam “Kopa6ib” Hm “soqbx” [SarocK! 48 1910, 385] ome ommt —CCeyano®>nomnnonortes yxe B paccmaTpupaembiit ep H. I. Sarockuu cnpawi ) OTMeYA, UTO MexAy HasBannaMKopaGmb™ a qb") HOCHBIUMMM OGoGUIAIOMIMi XapakTep, MpoctexKUBaloTca onpepeNeHAbIe Want — CCAM MlepHoe M3 HMX BHICTYNaeT KaK STMMeCKHiT H KHWKHDIT TepMHH, fo propoe ynoTpeGaanocs B KayectBe pasroBopHoro [SarockmH, 1910, 385]. AB@JIM3 MHCbMeHHDIX HCTOUHHKOB MO3BONSeT YTOUHWTD SHAveHWe pasTHuHEX cyoBbIX TePMHHOB M TOT CMBICN, KoTOpbiii BKTANBIBANICA B HMX B CpenHeBeKOBBIiL nepwor. “KopaGm»” ynomuuaetcs B pbilenassannbix Tckosckux u HosropogcKux reroncax 11 pas c 907 no 1475 ron. B Bocemu cryvasx ara KaTeropua cyjoB woxet OBIT KBAIMGMUMPOBAHA KaK MopcKas, B TpeX KaK OsepHaa MB NeBaTH xax pesias. TIpu 9ToM B jecsaTH cHTyanusxKopabaP wcromsyeTes B KayecTRe gocnHOTO H B ONHOM CiIy4ae — B KavecTHE NaccaxKMpcKoro cpesicrBa nepenBHKeHHs. TpUXNH B TeTOMCHEX cooSuIeHHIx KopabAb MpoTMBorIocraBtaeTca Ode) U 10 oqnomy pasy- Hlacady, eanee Ww Kamopee, VM tonbko_B ojHOM cnydae oH oroxyecTRIaeTCH C-npyrmne CYAOBIM HAsHaNNeM —< wwiek) OSpamaer Ha coi BHNMaHMe TOT cakT, 4TO B IIcKoscKHx 1 HopropogckHx JeTonucax TepMHH Kopa6.ib ynorpeOseTcs B OCHOBHOM na%_oGosHayEHNa WHOSeMHDIX cy70B:_ BUSAH! = 3arlajhoenponeilicKux (bpsxckHx) H TypeuKHX Ha UepHOM Mope, a TaKXe MIBEACKUX. “A HeweuKuX Ha Bavriiiickom vB npuMbiKaiouwix K Hemy Oaccefiax pyccKoro Cenepo-Sanaga.—-— Fg Roe to er 7 ie Vickmouenwe coctasnaiot ynomnuaembie 8 HosroponcKoli naroit neronucu noxoyui Onera 8 907 r., Mropa 8 944 r. m Baagumupa 8 1041 r, na [aperpaz. Equnersentoe o6o3Hauenve TepMuHoM Kopa6ilb cyfHa, CopepliaBiiero HCKMOU- TeMbHO pewHoe MaBAHHe, ConepKHTCA B TOM %e NeToNHcH, B coobueHHH 06 yOuticrse soqemn Caatonionka Oxasnnoro Kasai TaeGa na JInenpe, moa Cmonenckom — “MH crama na Csaba B KopaGneue... Torna okasHHM ocTynHua BkopaGexp ni sua Kopa6mb PneGowp” [IICPII, 1.1V, 4.2, 1917, 103-104]. Beposrxo, YOMUHaHve paccMaTpHBaeMoro TepMHHa B aHHOM KOHTeKcTe cnezyeT OObaCHAT MMeHHO creuncbH4eckHM XapakTepoM 9Toro cloxeTa. [IpuMeyatenbHo, 4To KopaG-_ JIM Ha3prpalores