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Part 1. Read the following passage and decide which answer (A, B, C, or D) best fits each gap.
Write your answers in corresponding numbered boxes. (10 points)
Very few of us would admit putting much trust in horoscopes and the fact that the
movements of astronomical bodies (1) _________ to earthly occurrences affecting peoples’
everyday lives.
We all know about the zodiac signs which reflect the position of the sun, the moon and the
planets at the moment of a man’s birth and about the peculiar characteristics (2) _________ to them
by astrologers. We say we will take these phenomena with a (3) _________ of salt while we keep
running our eyes over them in every tabloid we (4) _________ our hands on. Most frequently, we
expect horoscopes to predict the future, to restore our optimistic mood with a piece of comforting
information or to (5) _________ our ego by confirming the superlative features that we tend to
attribute to our zodiacs.
However, there’s no scientific evidence to (6) _________ the assumption that human
existence is so closely (7) _________ with the parameters of the celestial bodies. Our curiosity in
horoscopes may, then, (8) _________ our sheer fascination with the unexplained or the
unpredictable as well as in the enticing insight into the future that the horoscopes offer, thus
establishing the sense of our (9) _________ an extreme power over our own lives. An addition
explanation is that humans tend to have a soft (10) _________ for any form of flattery, which is the
fact to which astrologers and the horoscope writers seem to attach the greatest deal of weight.
1. A. rely B. correspond C. match D. compare
2. A. identified B. associated C. incorporated D. ascribed
3. A. speck B. pinch C. grain D. scrap
4. A. settle B. draw C. grab D. lay
5. A. boost B. escalate C. revitalize D. improve
6. A. conclude B. concede C. corroborate D. Confound
7. A. fused B. adhered C. coalesced D. intertwined
8. A. stem B. crop C. rear D. dawn
9. A. disposing B. wielding C. effecting D. committing
10. A. pin B. dot C. spot D. nick
Part 2. Read the following text and fill in the blank with ONE suitable word. Write your answers
in corresponding numbered boxes. (15 points)
The trouble with school
In the first few years at school all appears to (1) ____ very well. There is much
concern, (2) ____the part of the teachers, with high educational standards, and the children, even
those who are (3) ____ from being socially privileged in other ways, seem eager and happy.
However, by the time the children reach adolescence, the promise of the early years frequently
remains unfulfilled. Many leave school (4) ____ having mastered those basic skills which society
demands, let (5) ____ having developed the ability to exercise any sort of creative intelligence.
There is no denying that, in spite of the enlightened concern of our primary schools with
happiness, schooling (6) ____ or other turns into a distinctly unhappy experience for many of our
children. Large (7) ____ of them emerge from it well aware that they are ill-equipped for life in our
society. So then they either regard (8) ____ as stupid for failing or else, quite understandably, they
regard the activities at (9) ____ they have failed as stupid. In any event they want no (10) ____ of
them. How can we justify a long period of compulsory education which ends like that?
Part 3. Read the following passage and circle the best answer to each of the following questions.
Write your answers in corresponding numbered boxes. (10 points)
The response of most animals when suddenly faced with a predator is to flee. Natural selection
has acted in a variety of ways in different species to enhance the efficacy of the behaviours, known
as "flight behaviours" or escape behaviours that are used by prey in fleeing predators. Perhaps the
most direct adaptation is enhanced light speed and agility. 

Adaptations for speed, however, are likely to require sacrifices biter attributes, so we might
expect only some species to adopt a simple fast flight strategy. 
Another way of enhancing the effectiveness of flight is to move in an erratic and unpredictable
way. Many species, like ptarmigans, snipes, and various antelopes and gazelles, flee from predators
in a characteristic zigzag fashion. Rapid unexpected changes in flight direction make it difficult for
a predator to track prey. 
In some species, like the European hare, erratic zigzagflight might be more effective in the
presence of predators that are faster than they are and straight light more effective against predators
that are slower. One observation that supports this suggestion is the recorded tendency for slow-
flying black-beaded gulls, which are normally able to escape predators by means of direct flight, to
show frequent changes in flight direction when they spot a peregrine falcon (peregrinesare adept at
capturing flying birds). 
A quite different way of enhancing escape by flight is to use so-called "flash" behaviour. Here,
the alarmed prey flees for a short distance and then "freezes." Some predators are unexcited by
immobile prey, and a startling flash of activity followed by immobility may confuse them. "Flash"
behaviour is used in particular by frogs and orthopteraninsects, which make conspicuous jumps
and then sit immobile. In some species, "flash" behaviour is enhanced by the display of bright body
markings. Good examples of insects with colourful markings are the red and yellow underwing
moths. At rest, both species are a cryptic brown color. When they fly, however, brightly coloured
hind wings are exposed, which render the moths highly conspicuous. Similarly, some frogs and
lizards have brightly coloured patches or frills that may serve a 'flash" function when they move
quickly. Some species even appear to possess "flash" sounds. The loud buzzing and clicking noises
made by some grasshoppers when they jump may serve to emphasize the movement. 

1. The word "enhance" in line 2 is closest in meaning to........... 

A. encourage B. resist  C. increase  D. reveal 
2. The description of the prey's movement as "zigzag" suggests that the movement is....... 
A. reliable B. fast C. constant  D. unpredictable 
3. It can be inferred from the passage that the European hare......... 
A. is faster than most of its predators 
B. is capable of two kinds of flight 
C. is more likely to escape using straight flight
D. is preyed upon by gulls and falcons 
4. The behaviour of black-beaded gulls is most comparable to that of....... 
A. gazelles  B. European hares  C. peregrine falcons D. frogs 
5. It can be inferred that black-beaded gulls change direction when they spot a peregrine falcon for
which of the following reasons? 
A. The falcons are faster than the gulls. 
B. The gulls want to capture the falcons. 
C. The falcons are unpredictable. 
D. The gulls depend on the falcons for protection. 
6. The word "alarmed" in line 18 is closest in meaning to.......... 
A. moving B. selected  C. frightened  D. exhausted 
7. All of the followings are mentioned as characteristics of "flash" behaviour EXCEPT........... 
A. brief conspicuous activity B. immobility 
C. bright body markings  D. aggressive fighting 
8. The phrase "in particular" in line 20 is closest in meaning to........... 
A. especially  B. with difficulty C. expertly D. frequently 
9. The hind wings of red and yellow underwing moths function in a way that is most similar
A. the hind wings of peregrine falcons
B. the zigzag flight of European hares 

C. the colored patches on frogs 
D. the clicking of grasshoppers 
10. Why does the author mention "grasshopper" in the last line? 
A. To contrast animals that "flash" with animals that "freeze". 
B. As an example of an animal whose "flash" behaviour is a sound. 
C. To compare the jumping behaviour of insects and reptiles. 
D. As an example of a predator that moths escape by using "flash" behavior. 

Part 1. Read the passage below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap.
Write your answer in the numbered boxes. (10 pts)
People love to complain. Moaning to friends can be a source of relief from the stresses and
strains of work, study or relationships. But when it comes to protesting to a retailer about (1) ____
goods and services, many of us find we don't have the nerve and chose to suffer in silence.
By the time we do (2) _____summon up the courage to make our point, we have generally already
allowed the problem to get to us, and we are angry. In this state, we can all too (3) ____ become
aggressive, gearing up for battle and turning what should be a rational discussion into a conflict.
To complain effectively, you need to be specific about your problem and communicate it clearly
using words which are objective and fair. (4) ____ over the top with emotional language and
unreasonable claims will get you nowhere. Good negotiators tend to be calm and logical. They start
by explaining the situation and stating their requirements clearly, without threat. Most complaints
prompt a defensive (5) ____ from the other person, but by being reasonable yourself, you (6) ____
more chance of achieving the positive (7) ____ you want.
If you feel angry or upset about what has happened, by all means tell the company, but do so
calmly, (8) ____that you understand the situation from all points of (9) ____, but explaining what
you will do if your complaint is ignored. Be sure to remember, however, that is unwise to (10) ____
threats unless you are in a position to carry them out.
1. A. faulty B. inexpert C. improper D. scruffy
2. A. essentially B. especially C. exceptionally D. eventually
3. A. easily B. happily C. simply D. casually
4. A. Being B. Going C. Getting D. Feeling
5. A. response B. respect C. revenge D. regard
6. A. spend B. attract C. stand D. establish
7. A. fallout B. outcome C. turnout D. output
8. A. revealing B. exhibiting C. displaying D. demonstrating
9. A. mind B. opinion C. view D. reason
10. A. make B. bear C. do D. carry
Part 2. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only ONE
word in each space. (10 pts)
Mammals have brains. So they can feel pain, experience fear and react in disgust. If a
wildebeest did not feel pain, it would carry on grazing as lions chewed it hind leg first. If an
antelope did not sense fear, it would not (1) _____ into a sprint at the first hint of cheetah. If a
canine were not disgusted, it would not vomit; it would not be, as the (2) _____ goes, sick as a dog.
Pain, fear and disgust are (3) _____ of the mammalian survival machinery provided by tens
of millions of years of (4) _____. Homo sapiens have, however, only been around for about 200,000
years. So all three emotional states (5)_____something to mammal origins. If football hooligans can
feel those emotions, then (6) _____ do deer, foxes and dogs. The argument is about how "aware" or
"conscious" non-human mammals might be during these emotional events. When an animal knows
it is being chased and starts to run, is it obeying some instinct (7) _____ from ancestors that knew
when to flee a danger zone or does it actually "know" to be afraid?

That might be the wrong question. A human startled by a strange shape in a darkened
corridor experiences a pounding heart, and lungs (8) _____ for air, and a body in recoil. This is the
well-known flight or fight reaction. A human appreciated the full force of fear and has already
started to counter the danger a fraction of a second before the brain has time to absorb and order the
information contained in menacing shape. This is because mental calculations are too slow to cope
with surprise attack. Pain (9) _____ logic. Touch something hot and you withdraw your hand even
before you have time to think about doing so. Once again, the wisdom is (10) _____ the event.
Part 3. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer A, B, C or D. (15 pts)
Image and the city
In the city, we are barraged with images of the people we might become. Identity is
presented as plastic, a matter of possessions and appearances; and a very large proportion of the
urban landscape is take up by slogans, advertisements, flatly photographed images of folk heroes -
the man who turned into a sophisticated dandy overnight by drinking a particular brand of drink, the
girl who transformed herself into a femme fatale with a squirt of cheap scent. The tone of the
wording of these advertisements is usually pert and facetious, comically drowning in its own
hyperbole. But the pictures are brutally exact; they reproduce every detail of a style of life, down to
the brand of cigarette - lighter; the stone in the ring and the economic row of books on the shelf.
Yet, if one studies a line of ads across from where one is sitting on a tube train, there images
radically conflict with each other. Swap the details about between the pictures, and they are
instantly made illegible if the characters they represent really are heroes, then they clearly have no
individual claim to speak for society as a whole. The clean-cut and the shaggy, rakes, innocents,
brutes, home-lovers, adventurers, clowns all compete for our attention and invite emulations. As a
gallery, they do provide a glossy mirror of the aspirations of a representative city crowd: but it is
exceedingly hard to discern a single dominant style an image of how most people would like to see
Even in the business of the mass - production of images of identity, this shift from the
general to the diverse and particular is quite recent. Consider another line of stills: the back-lit, soft-
focus portraits of the first and second generations of great movie stars. There is a degree of romantic
unparticularity in the face of each one, as if they were communal dream-projections of society at
large. Only in the specialized genres of westerns, farces and gangster movies were stars allowed to
have odd, knobby cadaverous faces. The hero as loner belonged to history or the underworld: he
spoke from the perimeter of society, reminding us of its dangerous edges.
The stars of the last decade have looked quite different. Soft-focus photography has gone, to
be replaced by a style which searches out warts and bumps, emphasizes the uniqueness not the
generality of the face. Voices, too, are strenuously idiosyncratic; whines, stammers and low rumbles
are exploited as features of star quality. Instead of romantic heroes and heroines, we have a brutalist,
hard-edged style in which isolation and egotism are assumed as natural social conditions.
In the movies, as in the city, the sense of stable hierarchy has become increasingly
exhausted; we no longer live in a world where we can all share the same values, the same heroes. (It
is doubtful whether this world, so beloved of nostalgia moralists, ever existed; but lip-service was
paid to it, the pretence, at least was kept up). The isolate and the eccentric push towards the centre
of the stage; their fashions and mannerisms are presented as having as good a claim to the limelight
and the future as those of anyone else. In the crowd on the underground platform, one may observe
a honeycomb of fully-worked-out words, each private, exclusive, bearing little comparison with its
nearest neighbor. What is prized in one is despised in another. There are no clear rules about how
one is supposed to manage one’s body, dress, talk, or think. Though there are elaborate protocols
and etiquettes among particular cults and groups within the city, they subscribe to no common
For the new arrival, this disordered abundance is the city’s most evident and alarming
quality. He feels as if he has parachuted into a funfair of contradictory imperatives. There are so
many people he might become and a suit of clothes, a make of car, a brand of cigarettes will go
some way towards turning him into a personage even before he has discovered who that personage

is. Personal identity has always been deeply rooted in property, but hitherto the relationship has
been a simple one - a question of buying what you could afford, and leaving your wealth to
announce your status. In the modern city, there are so many things to buy, such a quantity of
different kinds of status, that the choice and its attendant anxieties have created a new pornography
of taste.
The leisure pages of the Sunday newspapers, fashion magazines, TV plays, popular novels,
cookbooks, window displays all nag at the nerve for our uncertainty and snobbery. Should we like
American cars, hard-rock hamburger joints, Bauhaus chairs...? Literature and art are promoted as
personal accessories: the paintings of Mondrian or the novels of Samuel Beckett ‘go’ with certain
styles like matching handbags. There is in the city a creeping imperialism of taste, in which more
and more commodities are made over to being mere expressions of personal identity. Tire piece of
furniture, the pair of shoes, the book, the film, are important not so much in themselves but for what
they communicate about their owners; and ownership is stretches to include what one likes or
believes in as well as what one can buy.
1. What does the word ‘barraged’ mean?
A. manipulated B. bombarded C. impressed D. obsessed
2. What does the writer say about advertisements in the first paragraph?
A. Certain kinds are considered more effective in cities than others.
B. The way in which some of them are worded is cleverer than it might appear
C. They often depict people that most other people would not care to be like
D. The pictures in them accurately reflect the way that some people really live.
3. The writer says that if you look at a line of advertisements on a tube train, it is clear that.
A. city dwellers have very diverse ideas about what image they would like to have.
B. some images in advertisements have a general appeal that others lack.
C. city dwellers are more influenced by images on advertisements than other people are.
D. some images are intended to be representative of everyone’s aspirations.
4. What does the writer imply about portraits of old movie start?
A. They tried to disguise the less attractive features of their subjects.
B. Most people did not think they were accurate representations of the stars in them
C. They made people feel that their own faces were rather unattractive
D. They reflected an era in which people felt basically safe.
5. What does the word ‘cadaverous’ mean?
A. extremely pale and thin B. energetic and enthusiastic
C. dangerous D. skeptical
6. What does the writer suggest about the stars of the last decade?
A. Some of them may be uncomfortable about the way they come across.
B. They make an effort to speak in a way that may not be pleasant on the ear
C. They make people wonder whether they should become more selfish.
D. Most people accept that they are not typical of society as a whole
7. What does the word ‘hierarchy’ mean?
A. methodology B. hypothesis C. ideology D. system
8. The writer uses the crowd on an underground platform to exemplify his belief that.
A. no single attitude to life is more common than another in a city.
B. no one in a city has strict attitudes towards the behavior of other.
C. views of what society was like in the past are often inaccurate.
D. people in cities would like to have more in common with each other
9. The writer implies that new arrivals in a city may
A. change the image they wish to have too frequently.
B. underestimate the importance of wealth.
C. acquire a certain image without understanding what that involves.
D. decide that status is of little importance
10. What point does the writer make about city dwellers in the final paragraph?

A. They are unsure as to why certain things are popular with others.
B. They are aware that judgments are made about them according to what they buy.
C. They want to acquire more and more possessions.
D. They are keen to be the first to appreciate new styles.

Section 1. Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.
Earth is the only place we know of in the universe that can support human life. (1)_______ human
activities are making the planet less fit to live on. As the western world (2) _______ on consuming
two-thirds of the world's resources while half of the world's population do so (3) _______ to stay
alive we are rapidly destroying the (4) _______ resource we have by which all people can survive
and prosper. Everywhere fertile soil is (5) _______ built on or washed into the sea. Renewable
resources are exploited so much that they will never be able to recover (6) _______ We discharge
pollutants into the atmosphere without any thought of the consequences. As a (7) _______ the
planet's ability to support people is being (8) _______at the very time when rising human numbers
and consumption are (9) _______ increasingly heavy demands on it. The Earth's (10) _______
resources are there for us to use. We need food, water, air, energy, medicines, warmth, shelter and
minerals to keep us fed, comfortable, healthy and active. If we are sensible in how we use the
resources they will last indefinitely. But if we use them wastefully and excessively they will soon
run out and everyone will suffer.
1. A. Although B. Still C. Yet D. Despite
2. A. continues B. repeats C. carries D. follows
3. A. already B. just C. for D. entirely
4. A. alone B. individual C. lone D. only
5. A. sooner B. neither C. either D. rather
6. A. quite B. greatly C. utterly D. completely
7. A. development B. result C. reaction D. product
8. A. stopped B. narrowed C. reduced D. cut
9. A. doing B. having C. taking D. making
10. A. natural B. real C. living D. genuine
Section 2. Gap filling
Fill each blank with a suitable word
The Goulburn Valley is situated in the south-east corner of the Australian continent, in the state of
Victoria. Because of the introduction (1) __________ irrigation over a century ago, primary
industry flourished, resulting in (2)___________multitude of orchards and market gardens. After
World War II, migrants flocked to the area in search of work on the farms, and in (3)___________
cases, establishing a property of their own. Unfortunately, the region (4)___________taken a turn
for the worse over the past decade. The irrigation water that was (5)___________plentiful has now
been rationed, and many farmers have been forced (6)___________the land. The main source of
water (7)___________from the Goulburn River, with several reservoirs located along its stretch to
the mighty Murray River. Dam capacities have fallen to dangerous levels, resulting in some farmers
having an inadequate supply of irrigation water. (8)___________ the recent hardships, some
farmers have continued to eke an existence out of the land. Many have become (9)_________
ingenious, devising new ways to utilize water plus finding special niches to service the ever-
changing urban needs. Perhaps the Goulburn Valley can return to its prosperous times
Section 3. Read the following passage, and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to
indicate the correct answer to each question.
A survey is a study, generally in the form of an interview or a questionnaire, which provides
information concerning how people think and act. In the United States, the best-known surveys
are the Gallup poll and the Harris poll. As anyone who watches the news during campaigns
presidential knows, these polls have become an important part of political life in the United States.

North Americans are familiar with the many "person on the street” interviews on local television
news shows. While such interviews can be highly entertaining, they are not necessarily an
accurate indication of public opinion. First, they reflect the opinions of only those people who
appear at a certain location. Thus, such samples can be biased in favor of commuters, middle-class
shoppers, or factory workers, depending on which area the news-people select. Second, television
interviews tend to attract outgoing people who are willing to appear on the air, while they frighten
away others who may feel intimidated by a camera. A survey must be based on a precise,
representative sampling if it is to genuinely reflect a broad range of the population.
In preparing to conduct a survey, sociologists must exercise great care in the wording of
questions. An effective survey question must be simple and clear enough for people to understand
it. It must also be specific enough so that there are no problems in interpreting the results. Even
questions that are less structured must be carefully phrased in order to elicit the type of
information desired. Surveys can be indispensable sources of information, but only if the sampling
is done properly and the questions are worded accurately.
There are two main forms of surveys: the interview and the questionnaire. Each of these forms of
survey research has its advantages. An interviewer can obtain a high response rate because
people find it more difficult to turn down a personal request for an interview than to throw away a
written questionnaire. In addition, an interviewer can go beyond written questions and probe for a
subject's underlying feelings and reasons. However, questionnaires have the advantage of being
cheaper and more consistent.

1. What does the passage mainly discuss?

A. The history of surveys in North America
B. The principles of conducting surveys
C Problems associated with interpreting surveys
D. The importance of polls in American political life
2. The word "they" in line 9 refers to_______.
A. North Americans B. news shows C. interviews D. opinions
3. According to the passage, the main disadvantage of person-on-the-street interviews is that they
A. are not based on a representative sampling
B. are used only on television
C. are not carefully worded
D. reflect political opinions
4. Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?
A. Survey B. Public opinion
C. Representative sampling D. Response rate
5. According to paragraph 3, which of the following is most important for an effective survey?
A. A high number of respondents
B. Carefully worded questions
C. An interviewer's ability to measure respondents' feelings
D. A sociologist who is able to interpret the results
6. The word "exercise" in line 16 is closest in meaning to_______.
A. utilize B. consider C. design D. defend
7. The word "elicit" in line 19 is closest in meaning to_______.
A. compose B. rule out C. predict D. bring out
8. It can be inferred from the passage that one reason that sociologists may become frustrated with
questionnaires is that_______.
A. respondents often do not complete and return questionnaires
B. questionnaires are often difficult to read
C. questionnaires are expensive and difficult to distribute
D. respondents are too eager to supplement questions with their own opinions

9. According to the passage, one advantage of live interviews over questionnaires is that live
A. cost less B. can produce more information
C. are easier to interpret D. minimize the influence of the researcher
10. The word "probe" in line 27 is closest in meaning to_______.
A. explore B. influence C. analyze D. apply

Part 1. Read the following passage and decide which answer (A, B, C, or D) best fits each gap.
Write your answers in corresponding numbered boxes. (15 pts)
Very few of us would admit putting much trust in horoscopes and the fact that the
movements of astronomical bodies (1) ___________ to earthly occurrences affecting peoples’
everyday lives.
We all know about the zodiac signs which reflect the position of the sun, the moon and the
planets at the moment of a man’s birth and about the peculiar characteristics (2)___________ to
them by astrologers. We say we will take these phenomena with a (3)___________ of salt while we
keep running our eyes over them in every tabloid we (4)___________ our hands on. Most
frequently, we expect horoscopes to predict the future, to (5)___________ our optimistic mood with
a piece of comforting information or to (6)___________ our ego by confirming the superlative
features that we tend to attribute to our zodiacs.
However, there’s no scientific evidence to corroborate the assumption that human existence
is so closely (7)___________ with the parameters of the celestial bodies. Our curiosity in
horoscopes may, then, stem our sheer fascination with the horoscopes offer, thus establishing the
sense of our (8)___________ an extreme power over our own lives. An additional explanation is
that humans tend to have a soft (9)___________ for any form of flattery, which is the fact to which
astrologers and the horoscope writers seem to (10)____________ the greatest deal of weight.
1. A. rely B. correspond C. match D. compare
2. A. identified B. associated C. incorporated D. ascribed
3. A. speck B. pinch C. grain D. scrap
4. A. settle B. draw C. grab D. lay
5. A. restore B. adjust C. upgrade D. reassure
6. A. boost B. escalate C. revitalize D. improve
7. A. fused B. adhered C. coalesced D. intertwined
8. A. disposing B. wielding C. effecting D. committing
9. A. pit B. dot C. spot D. nick
10. A. instill B. consign C. fasten D. attach
Part 2. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only ONE word
in each space. Write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes. (15 points)
During the last 25 years, Britain's urban sparrow population has declined by as (0) _MUCH _
as two-thirds, and the bird has almost disappeared from many of (1) _________ former haunts. The
decline has been blamed on everything from cats to garden pesticides. Moreover, modern buildings
have far (2) _________ few nooks and crannies (3) _________ the birds can nest. Factors (4)
_________ these may well be involved, but alone they fail to explain the severity of the decline, or
the fact that other urban birds have been less affected.

Denis Summers-Smith is the world's leading expert on sparrows, so when he (5) _________
up with a theory to explain their decline, it has to be (6) _________ listening to. He suggests that the
culprit is a chemical added to unleaded petrol. It would be deeply ironic if a policy that was
intended to improve the nation's health was to prove responsible for the decline of (7) _________ of
its favourite species.

According to Summers-Smith, social species such as the sparrow require a minimum

population in a specific area to breed successfully. If, (8) _________ whatever reason, numbers
drop (9) _________ this threshold, the stimulus to breed disappears. The most dramatic example is
the passenger pigeon, which in the late nineteenth century went from (10) _________ the world's
most common bird to total extinction within 50 years.

Part 3. Read the passage and choose the best option A, B, C, or D to answer the questions. Write
your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes. (15 points)
The Creators of Grammar
No student of a foreign language needs to be told that grammar is complex.  By changing
word sequences and by adding a range of auxiliary verbs and suffixes, we are able to communicate
tiny variations in meaning.  We can turn a statement into a question, state whether an action has
taken place or is soon to take place, and perform many other word tricks to convey subtle
differences in meaning.  Nor is this complexity inherent to the English language.  All languages,
even those of so-called 'primitive' tribes have clever grammatical components.  The Cherokee
pronoun system, for example, can distinguish between 'you and I', 'several other people and I' and
'you, another person and I'.  In English, all these meanings are summed up in the one, crude pronoun
'we'.  Grammar is universal and plays a part in every language, no matter how widespread it is.  So
the question which has baffled many linguists is - who created grammar?
At first, it would appear that this question is impossible to answer.  To find out how grammar
is created, someone needs to be present at the time of a language's creation, documenting its
emergence.  Many historical linguists are able to trace modern complex languages back to earlier
languages, but in order to answer the question of how complex languages are actually formed, the
researcher needs to observe how languages are started from scratch.  Amazingly, however, this is
Some of the most recent languages evolved due to the Atlantic slave trade.  At that time,
slaves from a number of different ethnicities were forced to work together under colonizer's rule. 
Since they had no opportunity to learn each other's languages, they developed a make-shift
language called a pidgin.  Pidgins are strings of words copied from the language of the landowner. 
They have little in the way of grammar, and in many cases it is difficult for a listener to deduce
when an event happened, and who did what to whom.  [A] Speakers need to use circumlocution in
order to make their meaning understood.  [B] Interestingly, however, all it takes for a pidgin to
become a complex language is for a group of children to be exposed to it at the time when they learn
their mother tongue.  [C] Slave children did not simply copy the strings of words uttered by their
elders, they adapted their words to create a new, expressive language.  [D] Complex grammar
systems which emerge from pidgins are termed creoles, and they are invented by children.
Further evidence of this can be seen in studying sign languages for the deaf.  Sign languages
are not simply a series of gestures; they utilise the same grammatical machinery that is found in
spoken languages.  Moreover, there are many different languages used worldwide. The creation of
one such language was documented quite recently in Nicaragua. Previously, all deaf people were
isolated from each other, but in 1979 a new government introduced schools for the deaf. Although
children were taught speech and lip reading in the classroom, in the playgrounds they began to
invent their own sign system, using the gestures that they used at home. It was basically a pidgin. 
Each child used the signs differently, and there was no consistent grammar.  However, children
who joined the school later, when this inventive sign system was already around, developed a quite
different sign language.  Although it was based on the signs of the older children, the younger
children's language was more fluid and compact, and it utilised a large range of grammatical devices
to clarify meaning.  What is more, all the children used the signs in the same way.  A new creole
was born.
Some linguists believe that many of the world's most established languages were creoles at
first.  The English past tense –ed ending may have evolved from the verb 'do'.  'It ended' may once
have been 'It end-did'.  Therefore it would appear that even the most widespread languages were
partly created by children.  Children appear to have innate grammatical machinery in their brains,
which springs to life when they are first trying to make sense of the world around them.  Their

minds can serve to create logical, complex structures, even when there is no grammar present for
them to copy.

Question 1: In paragraph 1, why does the writer include information about the Cherokee
A. To show how simple, traditional cultures can have complicated grammar structures
B. To show how English grammar differs from Cherokee grammar
C. To prove that complex grammar structures were invented by the Cherokees.
D. To demonstrate how difficult it is to learn the Cherokee language
Question 2: What can be inferred about the slaves' pidgin language?
A. It contained complex grammar.
B. It was based on many different languages.
C. It was difficult to understand, even among slaves.
D. It was created by the land-owners.
Question 3: All the following sentences about Nicaraguan sign language are true EXCEPT:
A. The language has been created since 1979.
B. The language is based on speech and lip reading.
C. The language incorporates signs which children used at home.
D. The language was perfected by younger children.
Question 4: In paragraph 3, where can the following sentence be placed?
“It included standardised word orders and grammatical markers that existed in neither the pidgin
language, nor the language of the colonizers” .
 A. [A] B. [B] C. [C] D. [D]
Question 5: 'From scratch' in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to:
A. from the very beginning
B. in simple cultures
C. by copying something else
D. by using written information
Question 6: 'Make-shift' in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to:
A. complicated and expressive
B. simple and temporary
C. extensive and diverse
D. private and personal
Question 7: Which sentence is closest in meaning to the highlighted sentence?
Grammar is universal and plays a part in every language, no matter how widespread it is.
 A. All languages, whether they are spoken by a few people or a lot of people, contain grammar.
 B. Some languages include a lot of grammar, whereas other languages contain a little.
 C. Languages which contain a lot of grammar are more common that languages that contain a little.
D. The grammar of all languages is the same, no matter where the languages evolved.
Question 8: All of the following are features of the new Nicaraguan sign language EXCEPT:
A. All children used the same gestures to show meaning.
B. The meaning was clearer than the previous sign language.
C. The hand movements were smoother and smaller.
D. New gestures were created for everyday objects and activities.
Question 9: Which idea is presented in the final paragraph?
A. English was probably once a creole.
B. The English past tense system is inaccurate.
C. Linguists have proven that English was created by children.
D. Children say English past tenses differently from adults.
Question 10: Look at the word 'consistent' in paragraph 4. This word could best be replaced by
which of the following?
 A. natural B. predictable  C. imaginable D. uniform
I. Read the following passage and then choose the most suitable word or phrase for each
English spelling
Why does English spelling have a reputation for being difficult? English was first written down
when Christian monks came to England in Anglo-Saxon (1) ______ .They used the 23 letters of
Latin to write down the sounds of Anglo-Saxon speech as they heard it.
However, English has a (2) ______ range of basic sounds (over 40) than Latin. The alphabet was
too small, and so combinations of letters were needed to (3) ______ the different sounds. Inevitably,
there were inconsistencies in the way that letters were combined.
With the Norman invasion of England, the English language was put (4) ______ risk. English
survived, but the spelling of many English words changed to follow French patterns, and many
French words were (5) ______ into the language. The result was more irregularity.
When the printing press was (6) ______ in the fifteenth century, many early printers of English
texts spoke other first languages. They (7) ______ little effort to respect English spelling. Although
one of the short-term effects of printing was to produce a number of variant spellings, in the long
term it created fixed spellings. People became used to seeing words spelt in the same way. Rules
were (8) ______ and dictionaries were put together which printers and writers could refer to.
However, spoken English was not fixed and continued to change slowly - just as it still does now.
Letters that were sounded in the Anglo-
Saxon period, like the 'k' in 'knife', now became (9) ______. Also, the pronunciation of vowels then
had (10) _____ in common with how they sound now, but the way they are spelt hasn't changed.
1. A. ages B. centuries C. times D. years
2. A. deeper B. longer C. thicker D. wider
3. A. explain B. express C. perform D. tell
4. A. at B. in C. on D. under
5. A. announced B. found C. introduced D. started
6. A. discovered B. invented C. made up D. taken up
7. A. brought B. did C. made D. put
8. A. drawn up B. filled in C. got across D. handed out
9. A. dump B. quiet C. silent D. speechless
10. A. much B. many C. few D. little
II. Fill in each blank with one suitable word. Write your answers in the spaces bellow.
Is Photography Dead?
For a long time in the past photography was not regarded as an art. It was simply a skill and it
was criticized for being too mechanical and not creative enough. At last, however, photography is
now accepted as a unique and very important (1)........of art.
The photograph's claim to be an objective record of reality is now seriously challenged, and the
important function of photography in modern-day society is consequently (2) ......threat. The threat
has suddenly become all the more serious as more and more photographers are (3)....... to the new
technology which computers offer.
Moreover, a (n) (4) ........ number of colleges have now begun to offer (5) ....... in computer
imaging. All these developments (6)........ a disturbing question. Is photography, as we know
(7)......., dead?
In spite of its complete transformation by new technological developments, however,
photography will continue to play a (8) ........role in our culture. Although it may no longer (9)........
to be realistic, modern photography can continue to provide us with fresh visral (10) .........about
ourselves and the world in which we live.
III. Read the following passage and choose the best answer
Staggering tasks confronted the people of the United States, North and South, when the Civil
War ended. About a million and a half soldiers from both sides had to be demobilized, readjusted to

civilian life, and reabsorbed by the devastated economy. Civil government also had to be put back
on a peace time basis and interference from the military had to be stopped.
The desperate plight of the South has eclipsed the fact that reconstruction had to be undertaken
also in the North, though less spectacularly. Industries had to adjust to peacetime conditions:
factories had to be retooled for civilian needs.
Financial problems loomed large in both the North and the South. The national debt had shot up
from a modest $65 million in 1861, the year the war started, to nearly $3 billion in 1865, the year
the war ended. This was a colossal sum for those days but one that a prudent government could pay.
At the same time, war taxes had to be reduced to less burdensome levels.
Physical devastation caused by invading armies, chiefly in the South and border states, had to be
repaired. This herculean task was ultimately completed, but with discouraging slowness.
Other important questions needed answering. What would be the future of the four million
Black people who were freed from slavery? On what basis were the Southern states to be brought
back into the Union?
What of the Southern leaders, all of whom were liable to charges of treason? One of these
leaders, Jefferson Davis, president of the Southern Confederacy, was the subject of an insulting
popular Northern song, "Hang Jeff Davis from a Sour Apple Tree", and even children sang it. Davis
was temporarily chained in his prison cell during the early days of his two-year imprisonment. But
he and the other Southern leaders were finally released, partly because it was unlikely that a jury
from Virginia, a Southern Confederate state, would convict them. All the leaders were finally
pardoned by President Johnson in 1868 in an effort to help reconstruction efforts precede with as
little bitterness as possible.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
A. Wartime expenditures
B. Problems facing the United States after the war
C. Methods of repairing the damage caused by the war
D. The results of government efforts to revive the economy
2. The word "Staggering" is closest in meaning to
A. specialized B. confusing C. various D. overwhelming
3. The word "devastated" is closest in meaning to
A. developing B. ruined C. complicated D. fragile
4 According to the passage, which of the following statements about the damage in the South is
A. It was worse than in the North. B. The cost was less than expected.
C. It was centred in the border states. D. It was remedied rather quickly.
5. The passage refers to all of the following as necessary steps following the Civil War EXCEPT
A. helping soldiers readjust B. restructuring industry
C. returning government to normal D. increasing taxes
6. The word "task" refers to
A. raising the tax level B. sensible financial choices
C. wise decisions about former slaves D. reconstruction of damaged areas
7. Why does the author mention a popular song ?
A. To give an example of a Northern attitude towards the South
B. To illustrate the Northern love of music
C. To emphasize the cultural differences between the North and the South
D. To compare the Northern and Southern presidents
8. The word "them” refers to
A. charges B. leaders C. days D. irons
9. Which of the following can be inferred from the phrase "...it was unlikely that a jury from
Virginia, a Southern Confederate state, would convict them"?
A. Virginians felt betrayed by Jefferson Davis. B. A popular song insulted Virginia.
C. Virginians were loyal to their leaders.

D. All of the Virginia military leaders had been put in chains.
10. It can be inferred from the passage that President Johnson pardoned the Southern leaders in
order to
A. raise money for the North B. repair the physical damage in the South
C. prevent Northern leaders from punishing more Southerners
D. help the nation recover from the war
PART 1: Read the passage below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap.
Write your answer in the numbered boxes. (10 points)
In Europe, Midsummer Night's Eve, also known as St John's Eve, occurs on June 23 rd. It
originates from the pagan celebrations of the summer solstice which were held on June 21 st. On that
night throughout Europe bonfires were lit along hillsides to (1)_____ the shortest night of the year.
It must have looked as if some kind of violent insurrection was taking place down the coast of
Scotland and England, but these signal fires in fact had a very important purpose. Bones of farm
animals (2)_____ the previous autumn were burned and, when the fires had (3)_____, the remaining
ash was put to good use: it was spread on the fields to enrich the land and ensure a good harvest.
The word 'bonfire' is (4)_____ from 'bone fire'.
In Brazil too St John's Eve means bonfires and fireworks. Another quaint tradition involves the
(5)_____ of small paper hot-air balloons, although they are prohibited by law in the cities because
of the fire (6)_____. Bonfires mark the beginning of spring rather than the summer in Sweden and
are lit on the last night of April. In the Swedish Midsummer's Eve (7)_____, held on June 24th, a
large pole, decorated with flowers and leaves, is placed in the ground.
Thistles also have a significant role in the celebration of Midsummer's Night in Europe. In
the past they were thought to (8)_____ witches. The pretty, prickly plant was nailed over barn doors
and used in wreaths, the circular shape being a symbol of the turning of the seasons. Wheels laced
with straw and soaked in pitch were lit from the bonfires and then rolled down hills.
There is less risk of fire in a (9)_____ tradition to many Slavic countries. Young women and
girls float little baskets of flowers and lighted candles down streams. Local boys swim out to
(10)_____ a basket, find the girl it belongs to and claim a dance at the town's Midsummer's Eve

1. A. celebrate B. honour C. commemorate D. commiserate

2. A. revised B. assassinated C. slaughtered D. sacrificed
3. A. doused B. extinguished C. smothered D. gone out
4. A. derived B. developed C. evolved D. decayed
5. A. landing B. launching C. propelling D. ejecting
6. A. certainty B. peril C. jeopardy D. hazard
7. A. tradition B. custom C. ceremony D. practice
8. A. deflect B. ward off C. attract D. avert
9. A. unique B. common C. mutual D. prevalent
10. A. salvage B. rescue C. set free D. liberate

PART 2. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only ONE
word in each space. (15 points)
Psychologists are interested in the reasons why some people like taking part in risky sports. (1) ____
they studied people who were learning to jump from a plane with a parachute, they found that
parachutists’ bodies (2) ______ large amounts of two hormones, adrenaline and nor adrenaline, just
(3)_____they made their jump.
These hormones help to prepare us for any sudden activity. Adrenaline increases the (4)______ rate
and provides more sugar for the muscles, while nor adrenaline does make us react more quickly.
(5)_____, nor adrenaline also stimulates a part of the brain which controls feelings of pleasure.

Some psychologists (6)_____ concluded that it is a feeling of pleasure caused by this hormone
which makes (7)_____ people want to participate in dangerous sports.
Another possible reason is the level of arousal (8)_____ part of the brain. According to some
psychologists, the brain tries to maintain a certain level of arousal. They believe that people who
normally have a low level of arousal (9)____ for excitement and new experiences in order to
stimulate themselves, whereas people who usually have a high level of arousal try to avoid risks and
unfamiliar (10)_____ in order not to become overexcited. If the psychologists are right, people with
a low arousal are the ones who enjoy participating in dangerous sports and activities.

PART 3. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer A, B, C or D. Write your
answer in the space provided. (10 points)
There are only a few clues in the rock record about climate in the Proterozoiccon. Much of our
information about climate in the more recent periods of geologic history comes from the fossil
record, because we have a reasonably good understanding of the types of environment in which
many fossil organisms flourished. The scarce fossils of the Proterozoic, mostly single-celled
bacteria, provide little evidence in this regard. However, the rocks themselves do include the earliest
evidence for glaciation, probably a global ice age.
The inference that some types of sedimentary rocks are the result of glacial activity is based on
the principle of uniformitarianism, which posits that natural processes now at work on and within
the Earth operated in the same manner in the distant past. The deposits associated with present-day
glaciers have been well studied, and some of their characteristics are quite distinctive. In 2.3-billion-
year-old rocks in Canada near Lake Huron (dating from the early part of the Proterozoic age), there
are thin laminae of fine-grained sediments that resemble varves, the annual layers of sediment
deposited in glacial lakes. Typically, present-day varves show two-layered annual cycle, one layer
corresponding to the rapid ice melting and sediment transport of the summer season,and the other,
finer-grained, layer corresponding to slower winter deposition. Although it is not easy to discern
such details in the Proterozoic examples,they are almost certainly glacial varves. These fine-grained,
layered sediments even contain occasional large pebbles or “dropstones,” a characteristic feature of
glacial environments where coarse material is sometimes carried on floating ice and dropped far
from its source, into otherwise very fine grained sediment. Glacial sediments of about the same
age as those in Canada have been found in other parts of North America and in Africa, India,
and Europe. This indicates that the glaciation was global, and that for a period of time in the early
Proterozoic the Earth was gripped in an ice age.
Following the early Proterozoic glaciation, however, the climate appears to have been fairly
benign for a very long time. There is no evidence for glaciation for the next 1.5 billion years or so.
Then, suddenly, the rock record indicates a series of glacial episodes between about 850 and 600
million year ago, near the end of the Proterozoiccon.

1. Which of the following does the passage mainly discuss?

A. How patterns in rock layers have been used to construct theories about the climate of the
Proterozoic age
B. What some rare fossils indicate about glacial conditions during the late Proterozoic age
C. The varying characteristics of Proterozoic glacial varves in different parts of the world
D. The number of glacial episodes that the Earth has experienced since the Proterozoic age
2. According to the passage, the fossil record of the Proterozoic con is_______
A. highly regarded because it preserves the remains of many kinds of organisms
B. less informative than the fossil record of more recent periods
C. very difficult to interpret due to damage from bacteria
D. more useful to researchers than other aspects of the rock record

3. The word “scarce” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to______
A. ancient    
B. tiny    
C. available    
D. rare
4. It can be inferred from the passage that the principle of uniformitarianism indicates that______
A. similar conditions produce similar rock formations
B. rock layers in a given region remain undisturbed over time
C. different kinds of sedimentary rocks may
D. each continent has its own distinctive pattern of sediment layers
5. The word “resemble” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to_______
A. result from        
B. penetrate
C. look like        
D. replace have similar origins
6. According to the passage, the layers in varves are primarily formed by________
A. fossilized bacteria    
B. pieces of ancient dropstones
C. a combination of ancient and recent sediments
D. annual cycles of sediment transport and deposition
7. The phrase “the other” in paragraph 2 refers to another_______
A. annual cycle        
B. glacial lake
C. layer of sediment        
D. season
8. According to the passage, the presence of dropstones indicates that______
A. the glacial environment has been unusually server
B. the fine-grained sediment has built up very slowly
C. there has been a global ice age
D. coarse rock material has been carried great distances
9. Why does the author mention Canada, North America, Africa, India, and Europe in bold lines?
A. To provide evidence for the theory that there was a global ice age in the early Proterozoic eon
B. To demonstrate the global spread of dropstones
C. To explain the principles of varve formation
D. To illustrate the varied climatic changes of the Proterozoic con in different parts of the globe
10. Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?
A. fossil record
B. laminae
C. varves        
D. glacial episodes
Part 1: Read the text below and decide which answer best fits each space. Write your answers in
the corresponding numbered boxes. (10 points)
Incentives play an important role in our decisions to learn. As we get older, the outcomes of
(1)_______ in learning may not be the same a when we were younger. For example, we are less
likely to be (2) ______ as a result of training. The type of work-related training or learning we do
also changes as we get older. Worker over 45 years old are more likely to participate in learning
(3)______that relate directly to their function So they may choose to (4)_____ those technical skills

directly related to their work. By contrast, young workers are more (5)_____to participate in
training that is an investment in their future careers. Organizations also want to continually
(6)_____ their skills base. Recently, business has (7)____ this largely though a steady inflow of
newly- (8)_____ young people onto the labor (9) _____. Traditionally, we have had a mix of those
young people who bring new formal skills to the workplace, and a small proportion of older workers
who (10)_____ their experience. What we are seeing now is a decreasing proportion of young
people entering the workforce and an increase in the proportion of older people. So, unless we
change he nature of our education and learning across life, we will see a decline in formal skills in
the working population.
1. A. participation B. contribution C. attendance D. activity
2. A. raised B. promoted C. advanced D. upgraded
3. A. actions B. activities C. acts D. modules
4. A. relearn B. promote C. restore D. upgrade
5. A. probable B. likely C. possible D. liable
6. A. restart B. renovate C. restore D. renew
7. A. affected B. fulfilled C. achieved D. succeeded
8. A. educated B. taught C. qualified D. graduated
9. A. workforce B. employment C. staff D. market
10. A. donate B. supply C. contribute D. sell
Part 2: Fill in each blank space with an appropriate word. Write your answers in the
corresponding numbered boxes. (15 points)
As time (1)______, the power of newspaper seems to be on the (2)______. This is odd because in
the relatively recent past, people were predicting that the influence of the written word would
diminish in direct proportion to the rate of increase of the spoken word and moving image through
TV and video. As people whole-heartedly embrace the Internet and cable and satellite (3)______,
why don’t we see newspapers (4)_______ out? How have these organs survived, let (5)_______
flourished, particularly on a Sunday? Why don’t people (6)_______ have watched a football match
live on the small screen press the wisdom of rushing out the next (7) ______ to read a potted
version of it in four or five columns? Why would anyone who has seen a film and formed a
(8)_______ impression of it the following day read the review of the self-same film in a newspaper?
To see if s/he is right? Isn’t that what friends are for? Don’t we have colleagues for just that purpose
– to see if our ideas (9)_______ any given song, film or program tally with others? What is this
product that (10) ______ of not much more than outrageous headlines, wayward comment,
subjective editorials and hyperbolic sports pages still doing in our lives? It seems for the time being
to be leading a charmed life. When it finally goes, though, many may come to mourn its passing.
Part 3: Read the passage and choose the best answer for each of the following questions. Write
your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes. (10 points)
The quest for sustainable sources of energy has led humans to study the energy potential of
the sun and the wind, as well as the immense power created by dammed rivers. The oceans, too,
represent an impressive source of potential energy. For example, it has been estimated that the
oceans could provide nearly 3,000 times the energy generated by hydroelectric dams such as the
Hoover Dam. Yet. this source remains quite difficult to exploit.

But this challenge has not prevented scientists from trying. Within the last few decades,
several technologies that can transform the ocean’s immense forces into usable electricity have been
invented and introduced. Some focus on capturing the power of the changing tides, while others rely
on thermal energy created by oceans in certain tropical regions. However, the most common and
easiest-to-develop technologies are those designed to harness the power inherent in the ocean’s

There are several methods by which ocean-wave energy can be collected. All of them work
because the movement of the water that the waves induce creates storable energy by directly or
indirectly driving a power generator. In one such technology, the changing water levels in the ocean
that are produced by waves lift a long floating tube comprised of many sections connected by
hinges. As the sections move up and down with the water, they pump a special fluid through the
tube that can be used to drive a generator. Another technique works on a similar principle, only the
floating object rocks back and forth with the motion of the water instead of up and down. A third
method of collecting wave energy relies on the rising water from the waves to compress air in a
partially submerged chamber. As the waves rush into the chamber, they push the air out through a
narrow tunnel. Located inside this tunnel is a turbine connected to a power generator. The
movement of the air turns the turbine, which feeds energy into the generator.

The drawback to each of these concepts is that they make it necessary to have many pieces of
machinery linked together. [B] This presents a problem because the larger the device, the more
vulnerable it is to damage from hazardous ocean environments, and the more likely it is to interfere
with otherwise unspoiled coastal scenery. [C] Also, these methods demand the construction of site-
specific machines that take into consideration average local wave heights and sea conditions. [D] In
other words, the ability to get power from waves differs from region to region.

Japan, Norway, and the UK have all attempted to generate energy by capturing the power of
ocean waves. In northern Scotland, the first power plant to use wave power, OSPREY (Ocean Swell
Powered Renewable Energy), began operating in 1995. It followed the principle of the third method
described above: waves entering a partially submerged chamber pushed air into turbines ; to
generate electricity. The electricity was then transmitted to power collectors on the shore via
underwater cables. Unfortunately, the OSPREY plant was destroyed in a large storm, highlighting
an unavoidable difficulty associated with this kind of power generation.

The potential benefits of wave-based energy are hard to ignore. Once the proper machinery is
produced and installed, the energy is free. Maintenance costs are small, and the equipment does not
pose any threats of environmental pollution. And best of all, the amounts of energy produced are
enormous. However, these theoretical advantages have yet to be fully realized. In many cases, a lack
of government funding has inhibited the technologies from advancing. For example, despite the
relative abundance of proposed wave-power devices, many have not been adequately tested, and
most have been evaluated only in artificial pools where they are not subjected to the harsh marine
conditions that exist in actual oceans. Protecting the equipment from the sea’s destructive forces, as
well as the fundamental task of determining feasible locations for collecting energy, also present
formidable challenges. All in all, while ocean power offers some intriguing possibilities, the
difficulties involved in harnessing this energy source are substantial and will require more time to
1. The phrase this source in the passage refers to
A. sun B. wind C. dammed rivers D. oceans
2. The word exploit in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. utilize B. declare C. contain D. determine
3. Why does the author mention the Hoover Dam in paragraph 1?
A.To give a current example of ocean-based energy technology
B.To explain that dams are effective producers of sustainable energy
C.To draw a comparison between two sources of renewable energy
D.To show that alternative energy sources have not been successful

4. In paragraph 2, the author states that
A.waves do not represent the only form of ocean power
B.tropical oceans produce the greatest amount of energy
C.scientists first attempted to collect power from ocean tides
D. most of the electricity created by oceans is not usable
5. The word induce in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. cause B. define C. order D. monitor
6. According to paragraph 3, which of the following is true about wave-power technologies?
A. Many of them use submerged objects to obtain the waves’ energy.
B. Compressed air must be present for them to work properly.
C. They undertake three steps in order to collect wave power.
D. They rely on the water’s motion to create electricity.
7. According to paragraph 5, what part did the cables play in OSPREY’s design?
A. They attached the partially submerged chamber to the sea floor.
B. They generated the electricity which was then collected in turbines.
C. They conducted the electricity from the generator to the shore.
D. They provided stability during powerful ocean storms.
8. The word inhibited in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. delivered B. prevented C. protected D. approved
9. What can be inferred from paragraph 7 about governments?
A. They do not believe wave-energy devices can withstand ocean forces.
B. Their interests often conflict with those of the energy industries.
C. They demand much scientific research before they provide funding.
D. Their support is often essential to the success of new endeavors.
10. All of these are problems associated with the collection of wave energy EXCEPT
A. the difficulty of finding feasible locations B. the destructive power of the ocean
C. the size of the equipment involved D. the constant changing of the tides
Part 1. Read the following passage and decide which answer (A, B, C, or D) best fits each gap.
Write your answers in corresponding numbered boxes.
Colour sense
ICI colour consultant Jack Widgery painted one police interview room light green, and
another strong red. Subsequently, the police found that suspects 1.________statements more
quickly when they were in the red room, again enforcing the idea that too much red 2._________a
feeling of being pressurized. The soft green was for interviewing victims and their families, and
there are many 3._________of light colours being used to 4._________ feelings and encourage
Some institutions in the USA have special pink areas to cool the 5._______of angry
prisoners, service recruits and patients. Soft blues, greens and beiges seem to be 6._________and
hospitals, schools and dentists are beginning to take this into 7.________ when choosing colour
An airline which changed from a yellow and brown interior scheme to one of green and blue
reported a forty-five percent decrease in airsickness. But the workplace is the biggest challenge:
neither too much nor too 8.________ energy will do. The 9._______fashion for grey with a few
details in brighter colours may be a good 10._________.
1. A. gave B. said C. admitted D. spoke
2. A. makes B. leads C. has D. creates
3. A. ways B. occasions C. examples D. demonstrations
4. A. play up B. play down C. run up D. run down
5. A. tempers B. moods C. personalities D. senses
6. A. sleepy B. leisurely C. tiring D. restful
7. A. view B. mind C. account D. opinion

8. A. few B. small C. little D. low
9. A. current B. nowadays C. actual D. instant
10. A. result B. system C. solution D. way
Part 2. Read the following text and fill in the blank with ONE suitable word. Write your answers
in corresponding numbered boxes.
The origin of language
The truth (0).___is __ nobody really knows how the language first began. Did we all start
talking at around the same time 1._______ of the manner in which our brains had begun to develop?
Although there is a lack of clear evidence, people have come up with various theories about the
origins of language. One recent theory is that human beings have evolved in 2._______ a way that
we are programmed for language from the moment of birth. In 3.________ words, language came
about as a result of an evolutionary change in our brains at some stage.
Language 4._________ well be programmed into the brain but, 5._________ this, people still need
stimulus from others around them. From studies, we know that 6. ________ children are isolated
7.________ human contact and have not learnt to construct sentences before they are ten, it is
doubtful they will ever do 8._________. This research shows, if 9. __________ else, that language
is a social activity, not something invented 10._________isolation.
Your answers:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Part 3. Read the following passage and circle the best answer to each of the following questions.
Write your answers in corresponding numbered boxes.
The Moon has been worshipped by primitive peoples and has inspired humans to create
everything from lunar calendars to love sonnets, but what do we really know about it? The most
accepted theory about the origin of the Moon is that it was formed of the debris from a massive
collision with the young Earth about 4.6 billion years ago. A huge body, perhaps the size of Mars,
struck the Earth, throwing out an immense amount of debris that coalesced and cooled in orbit
around the Earth.
The development of Earth is inextricably linked to the moon; the Moon’s gravitational
influence upon the Earth is the primary cause of ocean tides. In fact, the Moon has more than twice
the effect upon the tides than does the Sun. The Moon makes one rotation and completes a
revolution around the Earth every 27 days, 7 hours, and 43 minutes. This synchronous rotation is
caused by an uneven distribution of mass in the Moon (essentially, it is heavier on one side than the
other) and has allowed the Earth’s gravity to keep one side of the Moon permanently facing Earth. It
is an average distance from Earth of 384,403 km.
The Moon has no atmosphere; without an atmosphere, the Moon has nothing to protect it
from meteorite impacts, and thus the surface of the Moon is covered with impact craters, both
large and small. The Moon also has no active tectonic or volcanic activity, so the erosive effects of
atmospheric weathering, tectonic shifts, and volcanic upheavals that tend to erase and reform the
Earth’s surface features are not at work on the Moon. In fact, even tiny surface features such as the
footprint left by an astronaut in the lunar soil are likely to last for millions of years, unless
obliterated by a chance meteorite strike. The surface gravity of the Moon is about one-sixth that of
the Earth’s. Therefore, a man weighing 82 kilograms on Earth would only weigh 14 kilograms on
the Moon.
The geographical features of the Earth most like that of the Moon are, in fact, places such as the
Hawaiian volcanic craters and the huge meteor crater in Arizona. The climate of the Moon is very
unlike either Hawaii or Arizona, however; in fact the temperature on the Moon ranges between 123
degrees C. to –233 degrees C.
1.What is the passage primarily about?
A. the Moon’s effect upon the Earth
B. the origin of the Moon
C. what we know about the Moon and its differences to Earth
D. a comparison of the Moon and the Earth
2. The word “massive” in the passage is closest in meaning to ________
A. unavoidable B. dense C. huge D. impressive
3. The word “debris” in the passage is closest in meaning to______
A. rubbish B. satellites C. moons D. earth
4. According to the passage, the Moon is______
A. older than the Earth
B. protected by a dense atmosphere
C. composed of a few active volcanoes
D. the primary cause of Earth’s ocean tides
5. The word “uneven“ in the passage is closest in meaning to ______
A. Heavier B. Equally distributed C. Orderly D. Not uniform
6. Why does the author mention “impact craters” in the paragraph 3?
A. to show the result of the Moon not having an atmosphere
B. to show the result of the Moon not having active tectonic or volcanic activity
C. to explain why the Moon has no plant life because of meteorites
D. to explain the corrosive effects of atmospheric weathering
7. The word “erase” in the passage is closest in meaning to _________
A. change B. impact C. obliterate D. erupt
8. A person on the Moon would weigh less than on the Earth because_____
A. of the composition of lunar soil
B. the surface gravity of the Moon is less
C. the Moon has no atmosphere
D. the Moon has no active tectonic or volcanic activity
9. All of the following are true about the Moon EXCEPT____
A. it has a wide range of temperatures.
B. it is heavier on one side than the other.
C. it is unable to protect itself from meteorite attacks.
D. it has less effect upon the tides than the Sun.
10. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
A. the Moon is not able to support human life.
B. if the Moon had no gravitational influence, the Earth would not have tides.
C. people living in Hawaii and Arizona would feel at home on the Moon.
D. Mars could have been formed in a similar way to the Moon.
I. Fill in the blanks with a suitable word
Today, more and more women are actively participating in (1)______activities both in urban and
rural areas. Specifically, they have shined brightly in even many fields commonly (2)_____as the
man's areas such as business, scientific research and social management. In some areas, women
(3)____show more overwhelming power than men. The image of contemporary Vietnamese women
with creativeness, dynamism, success has become popular in Vietnam's society. The fact reveals
that the gender (4)____has been remarkably narrowed and women enjoy many more opportunities
to (5)____their social careers and obtain success, contributing to national socio-economic
development. According to Ms, Le Thi Quy, Director of the Gender/and Development Research
Centre under the University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Hanoi National University, gender
equity in Vietnam has (6)_____a high level over the past decade. The (7)____of Vietnamese women
becoming National Assembly (8)____from the 9th term to the 11th term increased 8.7%, bringing
the proportion of Vietnamese women in authority to 27.3%, the highest rate in Southeast Asia.
There is no big gap in the level of literacy and schooling between men and women. Women
(9)____for about 37% of university and college graduates, 19.9% of doctoral degree holders and
6.7% of professors and (10)___professors.

II. Choose the word or phrase that best fits the blank
Harry Potter is a heptalogy of (1)_____ novels written by English author J. K. Rowling. The
books (2)____the adventures of the eponymous adolescent wizard Harry Potter, together with his
best friends Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger. The story is set at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft
and Wizardry, an academy for young wizards and witches. The central story arc concerns Harry's
conflict (3___)the evil wizard Lord Voldemort, who killed Harry's parents in his quest to conquer
the wizarding world, after which he (4)_______to subjugate the Muggle world to his rule.
Since the release of the first novel Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone in 1997, which
was (5)_____Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone in the United States, the books have gained
(6)_____popularity, critical (7)_____and commercial success worldwide.
The series has spawned films, video games and Potter-themed merchandise. As of April 2007,
the first six books in the seven book series have sold more than 325 million copies and have been
(8)____into more than 64 languages. The seventh and last book in the series, Harry Potter and the
Deathly Hallows, was released on 21 July 2007. Publishers announced a (9)_____12 million copies
for the first print run in the U.S.(10)_____.

1. A. detective B . fantasy C. satirical D. historical

2 A. revise B. illustrate C. chronicle D. engross
3 A. against B. over C. between D. with
4 A. aspires B. inquires C. searches D. seeks
5 A. released B. retitled C. renamed D. recreated
6 A. huge B. great C. immense D. much
7 A acclaim B. applause C. comment D. approval
8 A. trammistted B. translated C. transfered D. transported.
9 A. Record-break B. record-broken C. record-breaking D. record-breaker
10 A. only B. lonely C. apart D. alone
Read the following passage and choose the best answer
The most familiar speleothems (from the Greek word spelaion for cave and thema for
deposit), the decorative dripstone features found in caves, are stalactites and stalagmites.Stalactites
hang downward from the ceiling of the cave and are formed as drop after drop of water slowly
trickles through cracks in the cave roof. Stalagmites grow upward from the floor of the cave,
generally as a result of water dripping from an overhead stalactite. A column forms when a stalactite
and a stalagmite grow until they join. A "curtain" or "drapery" begins to form on an inclined ceiling
when drops of water trickle along a slope. Natural openings on the surface that lead to caves are
called sinkholes, or swallow holes. Streams sometimes disappear down these holes and flow
through the cavern. Rivers may flow from one mountain to another through a series of caves. Some
caverns have sinkholes in their floors. Water often builds up a rim of dripstone around the edge of
the hole. Dripping water often contains dissolved minerals as well as acid. These minerals too will
be deposited; and they may give rich coloring to the deposits. If minerals in the water change, layers
of different colors may be formed.
1. Stalagmites are formed by……….
A. drops of water which enter through cracks in the ceiling.
B. underground rivers which flow through the cave.
C. water dripping from an overhead stalactite.
D. water which trickles down a slope.
2. Sinkholes are…..
A. the decorative dripstone features found in caves.
B. natural openings on the surface that lead to caves.
C. colorful layers of mineral deposits.
D. None of the above
3. Which speleothem grows upward from the floor ?
A. Stalagmites B. Stalactites C. Sinkholes D. Curtains

4. An "inclined ceiling" is one which……
A. is straight. B. is crooked. C. is slanted. D. is wet.
5. Which of the following are NOT caused by dripping water ?
A. Stalagmites B. Stalactites C. Slopes D. Curtains
16. The information in the passage is most relevant to which field of study ?
A. Geography B. Archaeology C. Physics D. Geology
7. "Curtains" can also be called……
A. columns. B. draperies. C. stalagmites. D. rims.
8. The word “speleothem” comes from which language?
A. Latin B. French C. Greek D. English
9. Stalactites are formed by…….
A. drops of water which enter the cave through cracks in the ceiling.
B. underground rivers which flow through the cave.
C. water which seeps through the cave floor.
D. water which trickles down a slope.
10. Which speleothem hangs from the ceiling of a cave?
A. Stalagmites B. Stalactites C. Columns D. Rimstones
Part 1. Read the following passage and decide which answer (A, B, C, or D) best fits each gap.
Write your answers in corresponding numbered boxes. (10 pts)

Black light theatre is just as it sounds, that is, a black light (1) ________ an otherwise
dark stage using ultraviolet light. Actors perform wearing fluorescent costumes
that reflect light, and any stage (2) ________ the set designer wishes to remain
unseen are painted black.
Less technological variations of this type of stage (3) ________ have been used
for millennia; actors in ancient theatres would sometimes all dress in black
and play on a dark stage. Its modern form was (4) ________ in the 1960s, after an
outstanding performance at the 1962 Edinburgh Theatre Festival led to a
(5) ________ ovation. Soon after, the (6) ________ behind the production, Jiri Srnec, began
staging performances in his native Czech Republic to (7) ________ houses. There
are numerous black light theatres in Prague today.
Performances are visually (8) ________ as there is such intricate choreography
involved. Actors must rehearse (9) ________ before going on the dark stage. A single
wrong move can ruin the whole (10)___________ .
1. A. sparkles B. glows C. beams D. illuminates
2. A. props B. supports C. bases D. parts
3. A. shading B. darkening C. colouring D. lighting
4. A. popularised B. familiarised C. customised D. standardised
5. A. leading B. jumping C. standing D. lasting
6. A. thoughts B. wits C. ideas D. brains
7. A. packed B. crammed C. crowded D. jammed
8. A. disturbing B. alarming C. shocking D. stunning
9. A. accurately B. intensively C. severely D. strictly
10. A. produce B. production C. productivity D. productiveness
Part 2. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only ONE word
in each space. Write your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes. (15 points)

Along with London’s West End theatres, New York’s Broadway theatres are thought to (2)
_________ the pinnacle of theatrical production in the English-speaking world. For most American
actors, landing a role in one of these productions is far (2) _________ their wildest dreams, as
working on Broadway represents the highest (3) _________ in any theatrical actor’s career.

Naturally, all actors must keep their options (4) _________ when seeking theatrical work. For those
just about to (5) _________ the plunge, it might be wise to first pursue a role in what’s known as the
Off-Broadway theatres, or even better, Off-Off-Broadway theatres. These two types of theatre are
defined by seating capacity - the former being 100 to 499 seats, the latter (6) _________ 100.
While the productions are smaller, performances in these theatres can still (7) _________ respect
from the theatrical community. An actor can use the venues to get their craft down to a fine (8)
_________ and eventually turn in performances eliciting reviews (9) _________ of praise from
critics who attend. Conversely, there’s less need for an actor to worry too much about a bad
performance. As it’s only an Off-Off-Broadway production, it’s not the (10) _________ of the

Part 3. Read the passage and choose the best option A, B, C, or D to answer the questions. Write
your answers in the corresponding numbered boxes. (10 points)
In the 1980s the United States Department of Energy was looking for suitable sites to bury
radioactive waste material generated by its nuclear energy programs. The government was
considering burying the dangerous wastes in deep underground chambers in remote desert areas.
The problem, however, was that nuclear waste remains highly radioactive for thousands of years.
The commission entrusted with tackling the problem of waste disposal was aware that the dangers
posed by radioactive emissions must be communicated to our descendants of at least 10,000 years
hence. So the task became one of finding a way to tell future societies about the risk posed by these
deadly deposits.
Of course, human society in the distant future may be well aware of the hazards of radiation.
Technological advances may one day provide the solutions to this dilemma. But the belief in
constant technological advancement is based on our perceptions of advances made throughout
history and prehistory. We cannot be sure that society won’t have slipped backward into an age of
barbarism due to any of several catastrophic events, whether the result of nature such as the onset of
a new ice age or perhaps mankind’s failure to solve the scourges of war and pollution. In the event
of global catastrophe, it is quite possible that humans of the distant future will be on the far side of a
broken link of communication and technological understanding.
The problem then becomes how to inform our descendants that they must avoid areas of
potential radioactive seepage given that they may not understand any currently existing language
and may have no historical or cultural memory. So, any message indicated to future reception and
decipherment must be as universally understandable as possible.
It was soon realized by the specialists assigned the task of devising the communication system that
material in which the message was written might not physically endure the great lengths of time
demanded. The second law of thermodynamics shows that all material disintegrates over time. Even
computers that might carry the message cannot be expected to endure long enough. Besides, electricity
supplies might not be available in 300 generations. Other media storage methods were considered and
rejected for similar reasons.
The task force under the linguist Thomas Sebeok finally agreed that no foolproof way would
be found to send a message across so many generations and have it survive physically and be
decipherable by a people with few cultural similarities to us. Given this restriction, Sebeok
suggested the only possible solution was the formation of a committee of guardians of knowledge.
Its task would be to dedicate itself to maintaining and passing the knowledge of the whereabouts
and dangers of the nuclear waste deposits. This so-called atomic priesthood would be entrusted with
keeping knowledge of this tradition alive through millennia and developing the tradition into a kind
of mythical taboo forbidding people to tamper in a way with the nuclear waste sites. Only the
initiated atomic priesthood of experts would have the scientific knowledge to fully understand the
danger. Those outside the priesthood would be kept away by a combination of rituals and legends
designed to warn off intruders.
This proposal has been criticized because of the possibility of a break in continuity of the
original message. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that any warning or sanction passed on for

millennia would be obeyed, nor that it could survive with its original meaning intact. To
counterbalance this possibility, Sebeok’s group proposed a “relay system” in which information is
passed on over relatively short periods of time, just three generations ahead. The message then to be
renewed and redesigned if necessary for the following three generations and so on over the required
time span. In this way information could be relayed into the future and avoid the possibility of
physical degradation.
A second defect is more difficult to dismiss, however. This is the problem of social
exclusiveness brought about through possession of vital knowledge. Critics point out that the atomic
priesthood could use its secret knowledge to control those who are scientifically ignorant. The
establishment of such an association of insiders holding powerful knowledge not available except in
mythic form to nonmembers would be a dangerous precedent for future social developments.

1. The word "chambers" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. partitions B. openings C. cavities D. fissures
2. What problem faced the commission assigned to deal with the burial of nuclear waste?
A. How to reduce the radioactive life of nuclear waste materials
B. How to form a committee that could adequately express various nuclear risks
C. How to notify future generations of the risks of nuclear contamination
D. How to choose burial sites so as to minimize dangers to people.
3. In paragraph 2, the author explains the possible circumstances of future societies
A. to warn about the possible natural catastrophe
B. to question the value of advances
C. to highlight humankind's inability to resolve problems
D. to demonstrate the reason nuclear hazards must be communicated
4. The word "scourges" in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. pressures B. afflictions C. worries D. annoyances
5. In paragraph 4, the author mentions the second law of thermodynamics
A. to support the view that nuclear waste will disperse with time
B. to show that knowledge can be sustained over millennia
C. to give the basic scientific reason behind the breakdown of material objects
D. to contrast the potential life span of knowledge with that of material objects
6. The word "Its" in the passage refers to
A. knowledge B. committee C. solution D. guardians
7. In paragraph 5, why is the proposed committee of guardians referred to as the "atomic
A. Because they would be an exclusive group with knowledge about nuclear waste sites.
B. Because they would use rituals and legends to maintain their exclusiveness
C. Because they would be an exclusive religious order
D. Because they would develop mythical taboos surrounding their traditions
8. According to the author, why did the task force under Sebeok propose a relay system for passing
on information?
A. To show that Sebeok 's ideas created more problems than they solved
B. To support the belief that breaks in communication are inevitable over time
C. To contrast Sebeok's ideas with those proposed by his main critics
D. To compensate for the fact that meaning will not stable over long periods of time
9. According to paragraph 7, the second defect of the atomic priesthood proposal is that it could lead
A. the nonmembers turning knowledge into dangerous mythical forms
B. the possible misuse of exclusive knowledge
C. the establishment of a scientifically ignorant society
D. the priesthood's criticism of points concerning vital knowledge

10. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as difficulties in devising a communication
system with the future EXCEPT
A. the failure to maintain communication link
B. the loss of knowledge about today's civilization
C. the inability of materials to endure over time
D. the exclusiveness of priesthood