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LABORATORY MANUAL

Mechanics of Solids (CET01212)

Submitted To: Engr. Mazhar Yasin


Submitted By:

Section:

Registration no:

DEPARTMENT OF TECHNOLOGY

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE


MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Lab 2020
Manual

Preface
This lab course is designed to provide basics understanding for strength of commonly
used materials with practical knowledge in field of Civil Technology at undergraduate
level. Students will apply the knowledge gained from theoretical to practical application.
Procedures outlining each fieldwork have been comprehensively covered. It is hoped
that students will gain valuable knowledge after completion of this strength of material
lab course, which will also help them in their field work.

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Acknowledgment

The author highly indebted to his HOD and colleagues for their constant support and
guidance during the course of preparing strength of material lab manual. In addition,
thanks to the students for the pictures were collected from the laboratory.

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List of Experiments
1. Layout of mechanics of solids laboratory

2. To Study Small Instruments

3. To verify Hooke’s Law by measuring the elongation of the spring


caused by load on the spring and determining the spring constant.

4. Determining the Charpy’s Impact Resistance of Notched Specimens


of metallic materials in:
 Tension
 Bending
5. To perform a simple tension test on a hot rolled steel bar
“ASTMA615/615M”

6. To perform compression test on wooden cubes when load is applied:


 Parallel to Fibers.
 Perpendicular to Fibers.

7. To study the bending behavior of beam and to determine modulus of


elasticity and modulus of rupture.

8. To perform hardness test on a given steel sample using Brinell


hardness testing machine.

9. To study column buckling for different end-conditions.

10. To determine the shear modulus and shear stress for a given shaft
using torsion apparatus.

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Date of Performance

Date of
Sr.# Experiments
Performance
1 Layout of mechanics of solids laboratory
2 To Study Small Instruments

To verify Hooke’s Law by measuring the elongation of


3 the spring caused by load on the spring and determining
the spring constant.

Determining the Charpy’s Impact Resistance of Notched


4 Specimens of metallic materials in:
 Tension
 Bending
To perform a simple tension test on a hot rolled steel
5 bar “ASTM A615/615M”

To perform compression test on wooden cubes when


6 load is applied:
 Parallel to Fibers.
 Perpendicular to Fibers.

7 To study the bending behavior of beam and to


determine modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture.

8 To perform hardness test on a given steel sample using


Brinell hardness testing machine.
9 To study column buckling for different end-conditions.

10 To determine the shear modulus and shear stress for a


given shaft using torsion apparatus.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 01
“LAYOUTOF MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB.”

Significance:
The significance to draw the layout plan of mechanics of solids lab is to have an
idea about location of machines in the laboratory and also to get important
information about the machines, so that one can easily use them.

Lab Accessories:
1) Charpy’s impact testing machine
2) Unsymmetrical Bending apparatus
3) Universal testing machine (UTM) 500KN
4) Gauge length marking tool
5) Column Buckling Apparatus
6) Brinell Hardness Apparatus
7) Torsion Apparatus
8) Beam Deflection Apparatus
9) Hook’s Law Apparatus
10)Izod Impact testing Machine
11)Compression testing Machine
12)Tables
13)Steel cabinet
14)Fatigue testing machine
15)Wooden counter
16)Universal testing machine (UTM) 1000KN

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1- UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE


A universal testing machine, also known as a universal testing a material
testing machine used to test the tensile strength and compressive
strength of materials. It is named after the fact that it can perform many
standard tensile and compression tests on materials, components, and
structures.

UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE

(50 TON) Universal testing Machine:


This machine can perform different steel test like,

 Tension test
 Compression test
 Bending test
 Shear test
 Punching test

It has two parts. Its upper part is fixed whereas lower part is moveable. It can perform all
sorts of tests by re arranging its bed.
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Its maximum capacity, as mentioned in its name, is 50 Ton. It is China manufactured
machine. It is operated electrically.

2- CHARPY’S IMPACT TESTING MACHINE


It is used to access strength against impact load. Its working principal is based
on the simple pendulum. This machine can perform impact test of bending and
tension.

It is manually operated and manufactured by “Charpy's Limited England”.

Measuring Scale:
0-170 degrees

Type of Test performed:


This machine is used to carry out impact test for steel specimens in:

 Bending
 Tension

CHARPY’S TESTING MACHINE

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3-FATIGUE TESTING MACHINE:

Fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads. It is


the progressive and localized structural damage that occurs when a material is
subjected to cyclic loading.

This is a rotating beam type machine in which load is applied in reversed


bending fashion. It works electrically.

FATIGUE TESTING MACH


COMMENTS: -

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EXPERIMENT NO. 02
“STUDY OF SMALL INSTRUMENTS”
Objective:
 To get familiar with small instruments used in several experiments
 To measure the diameter, linear dimensions etcetera of small objects

1. VERNIER CALIPER
Purpose:
It is used to measure internal diameter, external diameter, and length of small
objects, depth and thickness of small objects.

VERNIER CALIPER
Parts:
 Main scale
 Venire scale
 Upper jaws
 Lower jaws
 Depth measuring stem
 Screw clamp

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Its upper jaws are used for measuring the internal diameter and Lower jaws are used for
measuring the external diameter and length of objects. Depth measuring stem is for
measuring the depth of liquid container.

Least count:
The smallest measurement, that any instrument can measure, is called least count.

 Least count of main scale = 1mm


 Least count of vernier scale = 0.05mm

Zero Error:
If zero of main scale is to the left of vernier scale’s zero, subtract the error in the
end from final reading & vice versa.

Mathematically:
Length = Main Scale Reading + (Least Count * Vernier Scale Reading)

2. MICROMETER SCREW GAUGE


Purpose:

 It is use to find external diameter, length up to 25.4mm (1 inch). And


thickness
 To measure the dimensions with greater accuracy

Parts:
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 Main scale (horizontal scale)
 Minor scale (micrometer scale, circular scale)
 Frame and lock nut.
 Ratchet knob.
 Anvil and spindle

Least Count:
Pitchof instrument
Least Count =
Total No. of Divisions OnCircular Scale

0.5
¿
50

= 0.01mm
Pitch:
By the Complete rotation of the circular scale on main scale, the circular scale covers a
distance of 0.5mm. This is called pitch.

3. DEFLECTION GAUGE
Deflection:
Any of the displacement from the neutral axis of the member is referred as
deflection.

Purpose:
To measure deflection of any structural member like beam, column and slab etc.

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\
DEFLECTION GAUGE

Parts:
 Smaller circular scale
 Larger circular scale

Least Count:
Inner dial is divided in 10 parts & outer dial is divided in 100 parts.

Least count of smaller scale = 1mm

Least count of larger scale = 0.01mm

E.g. Inner scale reading = 4

Outer scale reading = 74

Final reading = 4.74 m

4. EXTENSOMETER
Purpose:
It is used to measure the elongation in steel, produced during the tension test. It can
measure the maximum value of 25 mm.

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EXTENSOMETER

Least Count:
Least count of extensometer = 0.001mm

This is very old instrument. Now day fully electronic extensometers are used which
automatically give readings in digital form.

5. INSIDE CALIPER
It is used to measure the internal dimensions of small objects. It has no least count .

INSIDE CALIPER

The caliper has an adjusting screw that permits it to be carefully adjusted without
removal of the tool from the work piece.

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6.OUTSIDE CALIPER

It is used to measure the external dimensions of small objects. It has no least count.

OUTSIDE CALIPER

7. SPRING DIVIDER

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SPRING DIVIDER

It is used to measure extension in steel bar during tension test, when the range of
extensometer is exhausted. It has no scale, so no least count.

PRECAUTIONS:
 Instruments which we have to use should be clean
 The jaws of calipers should be not loose, not so hard tight when specimen
put between them
 Reading should be noted carefully
 Before observation we should have to check instrument error

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EXPERIMENT NO. 03
“TO VERIFY HOOKE’S LAW BY MEASURING THE ELONGATION OF THE
SPRING CAUSED BY THE LOAD ON THE SPRING AND DETERMINING THE
SPRING CONSTANT.”

APPARATUS:

Hooks Law apparatus including a scaled stand, pointer, hanger, weights and springs

Hook’s Law Apparatus

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Hooke’s law can be used for a given materials known as the proportional limit of that
material.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:

1) Suspend a spring specimen and hang the pan and set pointer on the scale.
2) Note the initial reading A on the scale.
3) Then gradually add load W in the pan and note the corresponding forward scale
reading B1 on each load.
4) Now decrease the load in the same increments and take corresponding backward
scale reading B2.
5) Calculate forward and backward elongations X 1 and X 2 , and then find the average
elongationX .
6) Plot a graph between W andX .
7) Comment on the graph/results. Repeat the experiment with a new spring
specimen.

OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS:

Initial scale reading= A

Forward elongation=X 1=B1− A

Backward elongation= X 2=B2− A

X 1+ X 2
Average displacement =X =
2

W
Springconstant =k =
X

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Spring
Obs Mass Load Reading on scale Elongation
Constant

m W Forward Backward Forward Backward Average k

( kg ) (N) B1 ( mm ) B2 ( mm ) X 1 ( mm ) X 2 ( mm ) X ( mm ) ( N /mm )

1 0.05 0.4905 195 195

2 0.10 0.981 209 209

3 0.15 1.4715 222 222

4 0.21 1.962 237 237

5 0.25 2.4525 251 251

PRECAUTIONS:
 Instruments which we have to use should be clean
 Before observation we should have to check instrument error
 Reading should be noted carefully

COMMENTS: -

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EXPERIMENT NO. 04
“DETERMINING THE CHARPY’S IMPACT RESISTANCE OF NOTCHED
SPECIMENS OF METALLIC MATERIALS IN;
 TENSION
 BENDING
ASTM E-23-C”

Apparatus:
The apparatus required for this test is:

 Charpy impact testing machine


 Steel samples
 Vernier caliper

Objective:
The basic objective is to determine the modulus of toughness.

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Charpy’s steel impact testing machine and steel specimen

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Related Theory
Toughness:
Toughness is the resistance of a substance against a sudden impact of load.

OR
The ability of a material to absorb energy and deform plastically without fracture.

Modulus of toughness is defined as energy absorbed per unit volume by the specimen
when it is loaded from zero to failure. Mathematically,

Modulus of toughness = Energy absorbed / volume


ΔE
M .O .T =
Volume

Its unit is N/mm2(MPa).

Types of Loads:
a) Dead load/Static load
b) Dynamic load/Live load
c) Impact load

Dead Load/Static Load is the load which does not change its magnitude, direction and
position is termed as static load. Self-weight of a structures or permanent features of
building is called dead weight.

Live Load/Dynamic Load the load which changes its magnitude, direction and position,
or, one of these e.g., moving vehicles on the bridge.

Impact Load is sudden application of large magnitude of force in short interval of time.
e.g., Earthquake load, blast load.

PROCEDURE: -
 For Impact Test in Bending:

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Set the apparatus for bending test in the machine. Lift the hammer up to the
maximum height, then leave it freely and note the angle. It is “θ 1.“Take the
sample and set it into the machine and drop the hammer from its maximum
height. The hammer will break the sample and then read the reading as “θ2“

 For Impact Test in Tension:


In it, procedure will remain same, but use tension apparatus instead of bending
apparatus.

LABELED DIAGRAM:
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θ1-90

h1-ho h2-ho

θ2-90

θ1

θ2

h1ho h2

SOLUTION:
As,

E1= mgh1

E2= mgh2

h2-ho = R sin (θ2 -90)

=-R Cos θ2

h1-ho= R Sin (θ1 -90)

= -R Cos θ1

m= Mass of fork = 22.4 kg

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Change in energy= ΔE = E1 – E2

ΔE = E1 – E2

= mgh1 – mgh2

= mg(h1 – h2)

=mg{[ho + R Sin(θ1-90)] – [ho + R Sin(θ1-90)]}

= mg {[ho+ R(-Cos θ1)] – [ho+ R(-Cos θ2)]}

= mg [ho– R Cos θ1– ho+ R Cos θ2]

= mg (R Cosθ2 – R Cosθ1)

ΔE = mgR (Cosθ2 – Cosθ1) = Absolute Energy

ΔE
M .O .T =
Volume

OBSERVATIONS & CALCULATIONS

Height Attain by Fork E = mgR (cosθ2 - cosθ1) Volume M.O. T


Specimen
θ1 θ2 N.mm mm 3
N / mm2
Bending 141° 119° 48771.99 5538.816 8.805

Tension 141° 90° 129787.6 4249.57 30.54

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CALCULATIONS:

(BENDING)
m = 22.4 Kg

g = 9.81 m/sec2

R = 760mm

θ1= 141˚

θ2 = 119˚

Solution:

ΔE = m x g x R (Cos θ2 - Cos θ1)

ΔE = 22.4 x 9.81 x760 x (Cos119˚ -Cos141˚)

ΔE = 48771.99 N-mm

Volume = L x b x d

= 60.10 x 9.6 x 9.6

= 5538.816 mm3

Energy
M .O .T =
Volume

48771.99
M .O .T =
5538.816

M.O.T = 8.805 N/mm2

(TENSION):
θ1= 141˚

d = 10.25mm

θ2= 90˚

L = 51.5 mm

ΔE = 22.4 x 9.81 x760 x (Cos90˚ - Cos141˚)

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ΔE = 129787.6 N-mm

π d2
Volume= xL = 4249.57 mm3
4

Energy
M .O .T =
Volume

129787.6
M .O .T =
4249.57

M.O.T = 30.54 N/mm2

Precautions:

 Instrument should be neat and aligned


 Specimens should be according to code
 By performing this experiment keep distance from instrument
 Note the reading carefully Comments:
 By this experiment we well aware about bending and tension of different materials
used in civil engineering
 By this experiment we can easily understand which type of steel or bars should be
used in projects
 By this we easily understand failure of steel structure due to overloading
 Due to this experiment we calculate the modulus of toughness to check that given
sample is how much tough.

COMMENTS: -

EXPERIMENT NO. 05

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“TO PERFORM SIMPLE TENSION TEST ON HOT ROLLED MILD STEEL BAR
ASTM A615/615M”
Objectives:
 To study the stress-strain behavior of mild steel
 To determine the different mechanical properties of steel
 To check the adequacy of specimen as per ASTM 615M

APPARATUS:

1) UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE

2) STEEL SPECIMEN

3) VERNIER CALIPER

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RELATED THEORY

Stress Strain Diagram:

According to HOOK’S LAW:

Stress is directly proportional to the strain, but in concretes it follow-up to some extent

STRESS_STRAIN DIAGRAM

 Proportional Limit:
Stress has linear combination with strain. Hook’s law is not valid after
proportional limit. Numerical values of elastic and proportionality limit are
usually identical.

 Elastic Limit:
The maximum stress that can be applied to a metal without producing
permanent deformation. If the stresses are not too great the material will return
to its original shape and dimension when the external stress is removed.

 Yield Point:
It is point after which there is an increase in strain of the material without any
significant increase of stress. At this point there is reorientation of particles of
material.

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 Strain Hardening Zone:


If the ductile material can be stressed considerably beyond the yield point
without failure, the material is said to be strain hardened. It is the zone after
yielding when the particles of material rearrange themselves and start taking
load again.

 Ultimate Strength:
Maximum or highest ordinate on the stress-strain curve is called ultimate
strength. Its maximum strength of the sample.

 Necking:
At about the ultimate stress point, the cross-sectional area of the specimen
begins to decrease in a localized region. This phenomenon is called necking.

 Apparent/ Normal Rupture Strength:


Rupture strength is the stress at failure. It is always less than the ultimate
strength. For the brittle material the ultimate and rupture strength are almost
same. Normal/ Apparent rupture strength is obtained by dividing stress by
nominal area of the bar

 Actual Rupture Strength:


Actual rupture strength is obtained by dividing stress at rupture by actual are of
the bar at rupture.

 MODULUS OF ELASTICITY:
It is the slope of stress-strain curve within the proportional limit of the material.

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 Resilience:
The ability of the material to absorb energy in the elastic region.

 Modulus of Resilience:
It is amount of work done on a unit volume of material, as simple tensile force
is increased from zero to proportional limit. It is determined by calculating area
under stress-strain curve from zero up to proportional limit.

 Toughness:
The ability of the material to absorb energy in the plastic region.

 Modulus of Toughness:
Strain per unit volume up to rupture is called the modulus of toughness. It is
determined by calculating total area under stress-strain curve, from zero to
rupture point.

 Residual Strain:
When material is loaded beyond the elastic limit then after unloading the
material does not come back to its original position and there is a permanent
set in the specimen.

 Ductile Material:
Material having a relatively large tensile strain up to the point of rupture or
failure is called as ductile material e.g. mild steel.
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 Brittle Material:
Materials having a relatively small tensile strain up to the point of rupture are
called as brittle materials. E.g. cast iron, concrete, etcetera.

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METHODS TO OBSERVE YIELD POINT IN A SIMPLE


TENSION TEST
The yield point during simple tension test can be observed by any of the following
methods.

 Hauling of Machine:
In the method the machine stops for some time showing yielding stage. It is
the best method for observing yielding in ductile materials.

 Offset Method:
For material that doesn’t have any well-defined yield point, yield strength is
determined by offset method. This method consists of drawing a line parallel to
stress-strain curve at 0.2% strain. Where this intersects the stress-strain curve,
at that point stress ordinate is recorded as proof stress. This proof stress is
taken as yield stress.

 SPECIFIC STRAIN
METHOD:
In this method, yielding will occur at specific strain and according to standard, it
is 0.5%

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 Luder’s Line Method:


Luder is the name of the researcher who developed this method. According to
him at the time of yielding, a pattern of lines appears on the polished/painted
surface. These lines roughly intercept at right angle to each other and
approximately 450to the longitudinal axis of the bar.

Procedure:

 Clean the specimen


 Measure the diameter of the specimen at three different sections by Vernier
caliper
 Calculate the original diameter by taking average of three readings
 Gage mark the tension test specimen with a center punch with a 50mm gauge
length near the middle and 75mm near the edge of the specimen
 Record the maximum load
 Observe the decrease in load and neck formation on the specimen
 Record the load at fracture and turn off the machine

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 Remove the specimen and observe the cup and cone formation at the fracture
point
 Rejoin the two pieces, measure the final gauge length and the reduced diameter.

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Determination of Tensile Properties


Yield Point – Halt of the Pointer Method:

In this method and increasing load is applied to the specimen at a uniform rate. The load
at which there is a halt or hesitation of the load indicating pointer is noted and termed the
“yield point”.
The stress at this point is computed and termed the yield stress. Calculate the yield
stress by dividing the load at the “yield point” by the nominal cross-sectional area of the
test specimen.

TENSILE STRENGTH:

Calculate the tensile strength of the Deformed Bar by dividing maximum load that
specimen sustains during tension test by the original cross-sectional area of the
specimen.

ELONGATION:

To determine the percentage of elongation, fit the ends of the fractured specimen.
Elongation is the increase in length of the gage length, join carefully and measure the
distance between the gage marks. This is expressed as a percentage of the original
gage length. In reporting elongation values, give both the percentage increase and the
original gage length.

However, if the elongation is less than the minimum requirement, discard the specimen
and retest a new specimen.

 Percentage Elongation:
The change in length per unit original length expressed in percentage.

Lo−Lf
ε= Lo
X100
Where,
Lo = original length
Lf= final length

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 Percentage Reduction in Area:


Reduction in cross-sectional area per unit original area expressed in percentage.

Ao−Af
ε= Ao X100

Where,

Ao= Original X-sectional area


Af = Actual X-area at failure

If any part of the fracture takes place outside of the middle half of the gage length or in
the punched or scribed mark within the reduced section, the elongation value obtained
may not be representative of the material. If the elongation measured meets the
minimum requirements specified, no further testing is needed.

PRECAUTIONS:

 Specimen should be clean


 Diameter and gage lengths should be mark carefully
 Clamp tight the specimen to the UTM jaws
 Reading should be noted carefully
 Keep distance from machine when test is performing

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GAGE Deformed Length


Elongation (mm) %age Elongation
Serial # Length (mm)

mm L to R R to L L to R R to L L to R R to L
1 40 42 43 42.5 2.5 6.25 40
2 40 45 46 50 5.5 13.75 40
3 40 42 42 42 2.0 5.00 40
4 40 43 42 42.5 2.5 6.25 40
5 40 40 40 40 0 0 40
6 40 42 44 43 3.0 7.50 40
7 40 46 45 45.5 5.5 13.75 40
8 40 42 41 41.5 1.5 3.75 40
9 40 46 45 45.5 5.5 13.75 40
10 40 41 41 41 1.0 2.5 40
11 40 47 46 46.5 6,5 16.25 40

100
%age Elongation=( Elongation−Gage Length )×
Gage Lengt h

D =?
L = 61 cm
m = 0.965 Kg
ρ = 7850 kg/m3
m
ρ=
v
m
d=

π
4
D 2 xL
D = 16 mm

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COMMENTS:

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EXPERIMENT NO. 06
“TO PERFORM COMPRESSION TEST ON WOODEN CUBES WHEN LOAD IS
APPLIED:

 Parallel to Fibers.
 Perpendicular to Fibers.

ASTM D-1037”
Objective:
 To determine compressive strength of wood.
 To determine modulus of elasticity and modulus of stiffness.
 To study the anisotropic behavior of wood.

Apparatus:
 Universal Testing Machine.
 Wooden Cubes
 Vernier Caliper
RELATED THEORY
Compressive Strength:
Maximum compressive stress that can be developed in any member is termed as
compressive strength.

Modulus of Elasticity:
It is the ratio b/w the unit stress to unit strain. And it is determined as the slope of the
straight line from zero to proportional limit.

Modulus of Stiffness:

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The stiffness of a component means how much it deflects under the given load.
Modulus of stiffness can be defined as the force required producing unit
deformation.

P ∝δ
P = Kδ

Where,

K Is Modulus of Stiffness

Isotropic Material:
Materials showing same properties in different directions are called isotropic
materials e.g. Steel

Anisotropic Material:
Materials showing different properties in different directions are termed as
anisotropic materials e.g. wood.

Failure Parallel to Fibers:


When the load is applied parallel to Fibers, the wooden sample will take more loads
to fail. The ability of wood to take more loads parallel to Fibers before failure is
because each fiber act as a column to the applied load and even after  the failure of
the single fiber the rest of the fibers will keep on taking the load.

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Failure Perpendicular to Fibers:


When the
load is
applied

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perpendicular to the Fibers, the wooden sample takes comparatively less load. This
is because the failure of the single fiber will lead to the failure of the whole sample.

The strength of the wooden sample when the load is applied parallel to the Fibers is
about ten times more as compare to when the load is applied perpendicular to
Fibers.

Procedure:
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 Measure All the Dimensions of wooden cube. i.e. Length, Width, Height with the
help of Vernier caliper
 Fix the cube in the machine
 Gradually keep on increasing the load
 Note the load and deflection readings from attached computer
 Prepare a graph for it
 Repeat the procedure for load applying in perpendicular case.

PRECAUTIONS:

 Specimen should be clean


 Note the Dimension of specimen and Mark Parallel or Perpendicular.
 Clamp tight the specimen to the UTM Compression Plates.
 Reading should be noted carefully
 Keep distance from machine when test is performing

Cube-1 Cube-2
Failure Perpendicular to Fiber Failure Parallel to Fiber
l1 mm l1 mm
l2 mm l2 mm
A mm2 A mm2
Compressed Length mm Compressed Length mm
F F
σ= σ=
A A
σ =¿ kN/m 2
σ =¿ kN/m2
σ =¿ MPa σ =¿ MPa

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COMMENTS:

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EXPERIMENT NO. 07
“To study the bending behavior of beam and to determine modulus of
elasticity and modulus of rupture. ASTM D-6272”

APPARATUS:

 50 TON UTM

 DEFLECTION GAUGE

 WOODEN BEAM

RELATED THEORY
Shear Force:
A force which tends to slide one part of section against the adjacent part acting normal
to the longitudinal axis and tangentially to the cross section is called shear force.

Bending Moment:

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Algebraic sum of all the moments located between a cross section and one end of the
structural member.
Bending moment that bends beam convex downward is positive and one that bends
beam convex upward is negative.

Elastic Curve:
The deflected shape of longitudinal axis of beam is called elastic curve.

Modulus of Elasticity:
It is the ratio of unit stress to unit strain and it is determined as the slope of the straight
line from zero to proportional limit from stress strain diagram. Modulus of elasticity is
given by following relation:
σ= EԐ
Modulus of Rupture:
Maximum tensile/bending stress that can be developed in a beam before failure or it is
the energy absorbed per unit volume when the specimen is loaded from zero to failure
load.

Difference Between Modulus of Toughness & Modulus of Rupture:


Modulus of toughness can be determined by tension or compression test however
modulus of rupture is only determined for members subjected to bending.

Flexural Formula:
The relationship between flexural stress and bending moment is expressed by flexural
formula and is given as
σ= My/I ------- (1)

Where,

σ= Flexural stress

M=Bending moment at a particular section

Y=Distance of fiber from neutral axis

I=Moment of inertia

Loading Arrangement:
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We want such type of loading arrangement that can produce pure moment zone so
that failure is only due to moment not due to combine effect of moment and shear.
This can only be achieved by two-point loading arrangement.

Types of Failure:
a) Shear Failure is the one generated at support and cause diagonal cracks.
b) Flexural Failure is the one generated at the center and cause vertical cracks.
c) Flexural Shear Failure is the one generated between support and center and
cause the cracks which are vertical from the bottom and diagonal from the top.

Procedure:

 Measure length, width and depth of beam


 Mark the points on the beam showing position of support, point loads and
deflection gauge
 Set specimen in the machine according to two point loading
 Select suitable loading interval and apply loading gradually at approximate 0.5 to
6 tons
 At approximate 0.5 tons remove the deflection gauge and keep on applying load
until beam fails
Note the failure load and calculate modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture

Observations and Calculations


b=

h=

a=

L=

At Breaking Load P,

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Modulus of Rupture= 3P.a/bh2

Modulus of Elasticity =3aL2/4bh3 x [P’/D]

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Plotting of Graph:
Draw graph between Load and Deflection and get [P’/D] value from the graph that is
the slope of the straight line.

PRECAUTIONS:

 Specimen should be clean


 Note the Dimension of specimen and Marking
 Apply load gradually
 Read the breaking load carefully
 Reading should be noted carefully
 Keep distance from machine when test is performing

COMMENTS:

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EXPERIMENT NO. 08
“TO PERFORM HARDNESS TEST ON A GIVEN STEEL SAMPLE USING
BRINELL HARDNESS TESTING MACHINE. ASTM E-10”

Purpose:
 To check hardness of sample
 To check quality of sample in industry
 It gives indirect measure of strength of material

Apparatus:
 Brinell Hardness testing Machine

 Steel ball indenters

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 Steel sample

Related Theory:
Hardness:
It is property of material by the virtue of which it resists the plastic
deformation, usually by penetration. However; the term hardness may also
refer to resistance to bending, scratching, abrasion or cutting.

Methods of Measuring Hardness:


a) Brinell hardness testing
b) Vicker’s hardness testing
c) Rockwell hardness testing

Brinell hardness testing: BS (240-1961):


In this method a hardened steel bar is pressed into the surface under a
specified load for a fixed time and then released. Hardness which is
calculated as a number termed as the ratio of applied in Kg to the indenter
contact area in mm.

B.H.N=Load applied on indenter (Kg)/Contact area of indenter (mm)


P
B.H.N = π D ¿ ¿
2

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Where,

D=Diameter of indenter

d= Indentation diameter

Applications:

Because of the wide test force range the Brinell test can be used on almost any
metallic material. The part size is only limited by the testing instrument's capacity.

Indenters:
For soft material

 10 mm steel ball indenter

For hard material

 10 mm carbide indenter

Load

 3000 kg force for hard material


 500 Kg or 1500 Kg for soft material

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Time

 10 to 15 seconds for iron and steel


 30 seconds for all other materials

Observations and Calculations:

Mean
Dia. of indentation(d) Load
Sr.NO Ball Dia. Dia.(d) B.H. N
Specimen mm (Kg)
. (mm) (mm)
d1 d2 d3
1 Copper 10
2 Aluminum 10
3 Brass 10

Load applied on indenter (Kg) =P

D=diameter of indenter

d= indentation diameter

PRECAUTIONS:

 Specimen should be clean.


 Note the Dimension of specimen and Marking.
 Apply load gradually.
 Read the Peak load carefully.
 Reading and Time should be noted carefully.
 Keep distance from machine when test is performing.

COMMENTS:

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EXPERIMENT NO. 09
“TO STUDY COLUMN BUCKLING FOR DIFFERENT END-CONDITIONS.”

Objective:
 To find out critical buckling loads
 To check applicability of Euler’s Theory
 To study various end-conditions of column

Apparatus:
 Column buckling apparatus

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 Vernier calipers

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 Loads

Related Theory:

Column:

A bar or a member of a structure inclined at 90° to the horizontal and carrying an


axial compressive load is called a column.

Slenderness ratio:

The ratio of the equivalent length of the column to the least radius of gyration is called
the slenderness ratio.

Buckling load:

The minimum axial load at which the column tends to have lateral displacement &
buckle is called the buckling, crippling or critical load.

Equivalent length:

It is the length of the column which gives the same buckling load, as given by a both
ends hinged column.

Short Column:

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A column, for which the slenderness ratio is less than 32, is called a short column.

Medium Column:

A column for which the slenderness ratio lies between 32 and 120 is called a
medium column.

Long Column:

A column for which the slenderness ratio is more than 120 called a long column.

Safe load:

It is the load under which the column will not buckle.

Euler’s Theory of Column Buckling


The following assumptions are made in this theory:
1. The column is initially straight and the applied load is truly axial.
2. The material of the column is homogeneous, linear and isotropic.
3. The length of the column is very large as compared to the cross-sectional
dimensions of the column.
4. The cross-section of the column is uniform throughout.
5. The shortening of the column due to axial compression is negligible.
6. The self-weight of the column is neglected.
7. The ends of the column are frictionless.

Depending upon the end conditions, there are four types of columns.

 Both ends hinged


 Both ends fixed
 One end fixed and another end hinged
 One end fixed and another end free
ᴫ 2 EI
Pcr = 2
Le
Where,

E=Modulus of elasticity

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I=Moment of Inertia

Le=KL

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End-Conditions:

Procedure:
 Find out critical load for each column
 Find out column dimensions with Vernier calipers
 Calculate critical load
 Comparison

Observations and Calculations:

Column
Le I Pcr
Dimensions
(mm) (mm4) (N)
Sr. End-
K H
no. conditions B L
(mm)
(mm) (mm)

1 Fix-Fix 0.5 0.9 0.7 13.9 169 152 0.39730

2 Fix-Hinge 0.7 0.98 0.7 13.9 178 174 0.39730

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Hinge- 1 0.7 13.9 184 184 0.39730


3 1.0
Hinge

4 Fix-Free 1.0 0.97 0.7 13.9 177 172 0.39730

Sr# Pexp (N) Pcr (N) % Difference


1
2
3
4

PRECAUTIONS:

 Apparatus should be clean.


 Apply load gradually.
 Read the Peak load carefully.
 Reading should be noted carefully.
 Keep distance from machine when test is performing.

COMMENTS:

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EXPERIMENT NO. 10

“TO DETERMINE THE SHEAR MODULUS AND SHEAR STRESS FOR A GIVEN
SHAFT USING TORSION APPARATUS.”
Objective:
 To Determine Shear stress
 To Determine Shear Modulus

APPARATUS: -
Torsion apparatus, dial gauge, lever, L-key, Weights, test shaft.

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Torsion apparatus

RELATED THEORY: -
Torsion is the engineering word used to describe the process of twisting a member
about its longitudinal axis. A torsion test is quite instrumental in determining the value
of modulus of rigidity (ratio of shear stress to shear strain) of a metallic specimen.

Member in torsion are encountered in many engineering applications. The most


common application is provided by transmission shafts, which are used to transmit
power from one point to another. For example, the shaft used to transmit power from
the engine to the rear wheels of an automobile. These shafts can be either solid or
hollow.
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Procedure:
 Set the clamping distance of the supports at 600 mm and clamp the test shaft at
both ends.
 Position the lever and set the dial gauge tip on the lever groove in compressed
form.
 Set the gauge scale to Zero.
 Note that 1 mm reading of the dial gauge measures 1 °angle of twist.
 Now put the load in suitable increments and for each load record the angle of
twist.
 Calculate the corresponding values of shear modulus and shear stress.
 Repeat the experiment with a new span of 200 mm of the same shaft.
 You can also repeat the entire experiment with new test shaft specimen.

OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS


diameter of shaft =d=8 mm

span length=L=600 mm

moment arm=R=60 mm

applied load=W

π d4
polar moment of inertia=J =
32

torque=T =F × R

angle of twist=φ

16 T
shear stress=τ=
π d3

TL
shear modulus of rigidity=G=57.3 × N /mm 2

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Shaft 1 ( d=9.5mm , J =799.63mm 4 ) L=500 mm


Obs. m W R T φ τ G
( kg ) (N) ( mm ) ( N ∙mm ) (°) ( N /mm 2) ( N /mm 2)
1 0.2 2 60 120 0.14 0.712 30710.63
2 0.41 4 60 240 0.34 1.425 2529.10
3 0.61 6 60 360 0.53 2.138 2433.72
4 0.82 8 60 480 0.75 2.851 2293.60
5
6
7
8
9
10
Shaft 1 ( d=9.5mm , J =799.63mm 4 ) L=2 00 mm
Obs. m W R T φ τ G
( kg ) (N) ( mm ) ( N ∙mm ) (°) ( N /mm 2) ( N /mm 2)
1 1 9.81 80.15 786.27 1.68 4.67 6707.6
2 2 19.62 80.15 1572.54 3 9.34 7512.25
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

PRECAUTIONS:

 Specimen should be clean.


 Note the Dimension of specimen and Marking.
 Apply load gradually.
 Reading should be noted carefully.
 Keep distance from apparatus during performs.

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COMMENTS:

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