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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное


учреждение высшего профессионального образования
«Иркутский государственный университет»
Международный институт экономики и лингвистики

 
 
 
 

ISSUES
for
the YOUNG & RESTLESS
Учебное пособие
по практическому курсу английского языка

Составители:
Л. Э. Григорова, И. В. Пашкова, Е. А. Гугасян


 
УДК 802.0(075.8)
ББК Ш143.21-923
Г93

Печатается по решению ученого совета МИЭЛ ИГУ

Рецензенты:
Е. А. Колодина, канд. филол. наук
А. Б. Антонова, канд. филол. наук

Г93 Issues for the Young & Restless : учеб. пособие по практ. курсу
англ. языка / сост. Л. Э. Григорова, И. В. Пашкова,
Е. А. Гугасян. – Иркутск : Изд-во ИГУ, 2015. – 185 с.
ISBN 978-5-9624-1258-0

Пособие предназначено для студентов 2-го курса, обу-


чающихся по направлениям «Лингвистика», «Экономи-
ка», «Торговое дело», «Товароведение и экспертиза това-
ров» и изучающих английский язык по стандартной про-
грамме. Пособие направлено на формирование и совер-
шенствование навыков общения на английском языке.

УДК 802.0(075.8)
ББК Ш143.21-923

ISBN 978-5-9624-1258-0 © Григорова Л. Э., Пашкова И. В.,


Гугасян Е. А., сост., 2015
© ФГБОУ ВПО «ИГУ», 2015


 
Пояснительная записка

Цель предлагаемого учебного пособия – развитие


иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции студентов в
рамках дисциплины «Иностранный язык», предусмот-
ренной Государственным стандартом высшего професси-
онального образования.
Главными задачами данного пособия являются
овладение знаниями в соответствии с ситуациями обще-
ния и формирование навыков и умений оперирования
этими знаниями в коммуникативных целях. Пособие
предлагает учебный материал и комплекс упражнений
как для аудиторной, так и для самостоятельной работы
студентов в рамках изучения дисциплины «Практиче-
ский курс английского языка». Пособие предназначено
для студентов 2-го курса, обучающихся по направлениям
«Лингвистика», «Экономика», «Торговое дело», «Това-
роведение и экспертиза товаров» и изучающих англий-
ский язык по стандартной программе. Учебный материал
в пособии охватывает четыре лексических темы (Educa-
tion, Student Budget, Student Job и Consumerism), струк-
турно представленные в четырех блоках. Каждый блок
организован по единой схеме в виде пяти разделов:
Warm-up Questions, Reading, Listening, Writing и Transla-
tion и предполагает формирование и развитие навыков и
умений во всех видах речевой деятельности.
В разделе Warm-up Questions предложены вопросы
для вводной беседы по предстоящей теме.
В разделе Reading вводятся новые лексические еди-
ницы и словосочетания по теме (в части Vocabulary), ко-
торые затем отрабатываются и закрепляются в упражне-
ниях. Раздел Text (1, 2, 3, etc.) содержит тексты, состав-
ляющие предмет восприятия и обсуждения в соответ-
ствии с ситуациями социального взаимодействия, а так-
же послетекстовые упражнения, способствующие даль-
нейшему закреплению лексики по теме. В данный раздел


 
также включен список идиоматических выражений и
фразовых глаголов по теме с последующей демонстраци-
ей их функционирования в конкретном контексте.
В разделе Listening Comprehension представлены со-
ответствующие тематике задания на аудирование, кото-
рые способствуют формированию и развитию навыков и
умений понимать на слух аутентичные тексты.
В конце каждого урока студентам предлагается ис-
пользовать весь изученный ими материал в собственных
письменных высказываниях (в разделе Writing).
Пособие также включает диктанты по всем темам и
скрипты материала для аудирования.


 
UNIT I

EDUCATION

Educating the mind without educating


the heart is no education at all.
Aristotle


 
I. WARM-UP QUESTIONS
 What does ‘a good education’ include? How can you
recognise a well-educated person?
 Do you think that studing now is easier than it used to be?
 How important is a good education in order for someone
to be uccessful in life?

II. READING
TEXT 1
1. Discuss:
 Do you think that the education system in your country
is satisfactory? Why / Why not?
 What basic character traits make a good student?
 What do you know about differences between educa-
tional systems in Great Britain, the USA and Russia?

2. Vocabulary
A. Match the words and phrases with the definitions:

1. vocational A an essay embodying results of


original research
2. academic B an organization which performs a
particular function such as edu-
cation
3. advance C a course of study in which you
study at home, receiving and send-
ing off work by post, email, etc.
4. drop-out D one who gives advice
5. institution E the document stating the truth of
something
6. thesis (pl theses) F teaching, especially when given
to a small group or one person,
such as in a college or university


 
7. counselor G a child in the first period of life

8. infant H a forward movement

9. certificate I a natural ability or skill

10. tuition J related to a career, occupation or


profession

11. supplement K a student who left school before


graduating

12. correspondence L something that is added to some-


course thing else in order to improve it
or complete it

13. aptitude M related to schools or colleges


 

B. Read the following word combinations and


translate them into Russian:
to provide general education; to offer a practical (theoretical,
etc.) course; to receive the quality education; to advance one’s
potential; to benefit society; to pay fees; to award a degree; to
resist learning; an institution of higher learning; entrance re-
quirements; full-time education; a vocational course; a train-
ing course; adult education; individual tuition; curriculum
(pl. –la, -lums); drop-out rate; extra-curricular activities; co-
educational.

C. Study the phrases with prepositions and give their


Russian equivalents:
to be educated at a college, university; to offer a course in ra-
dio-engineering, etc.; to decide on one’s career; to do a de-
gree on a part-time basis; to be supplemented with; to study
by correspondence; admission to university; on a particular
subject; at an advanced level; a degree in history, economics,
etc.; on college, university graduation.


 
D. Complete each sentence with a word or phrase
from the box. Mind the form:
benefited values purpose
achieved convention govern
compulsory emphasize requirements

1. She was very helpful. I have ____ greatly from her wis-
dom.
2. We are close friends. She and I had the same _____ and
dreams in life.
3. The _____ of the research is to find out more about the
causes of the disease.
4. She finally _____ her ambition to visit South America.
5. In many countries it is a _____ to wear black at funerals.
6. The law says that it is _____ to wear seat belts in cars.
7. You can use italics or capitals to _____a word in
a piece of writing.
8. All jobs include performing certain tasks that may be con-
sidered job _____.
9. The newly elected president will _____ the country for
four years.

3. Read the introductory text. Share your own ideas


on the purposes of education:
To educate people means to supply
them with training or schooling; to su-
pervise their mental or moral growth.
Purposes of education. What
should be the true goal of education?
Purposes of education normally go
alongside with the nation’s basic values and ideals. The un-
derlying principle of the Western system is to educate people
in such a way that everyone has the opportunity to advance
their potential. The British and American systems tend to fo-
cus on educating people so that they could benefit society in
some way.


 
Another purpose is to lay the basis for achieving success
in the future. In this respect British and Americans value ed-
ucation largely as a means to reaching a higher standard of
living. The conventional belief is that the more educated a
person is, the higher paying career he or she will make on col-
lege or university graduation. .
In the USA education is a thing everybody believes in. A
famous English social reformer and political economist Mi-
chael Sadler put it as follows: ‘Education is the established
church of the United States. It is one of the religions’. The
idea of educating people here goes together with the motto
for life – equality of opportunity. As a matter of fact, the
goal of equal opportunity remains an ideal rather than a reali-
ty for it is discouraged by the very structure of education
which contains both public and private institutions where
teaching and learning are carried out. Developing a compet-
itive type of personality is another American ideal. Differ-
ent types of activities like sports, debating contests, students’
societies and associations contribute largely to competitive
skills and develop this kind of personality. Debating contests
are held in which students from one school compete with
those from others, sometimes on a national basis. The sub-
jects are often political and the matters of foreign as well as
domestic policy may be discussed.

4. Ask questions to the underlined words and


phrases:
1) Purposes of education normally go alongside with the na-
tion’s basic values and ideals.
2) In this respect British and Americans value education
largely as a means to reaching a higher standard of living.
3) Debating contests are held in which students from one
school compete with those from others, sometimes on a
national basis.


 
TEXT 2
1. Vocabulary
A. Study the table:
SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Stages Types
of Education of Educational Institutions
Playgroup
Nursery (BrE) / Nursery school (AmE)
Pre-school education
Kindergarten (AmE)
(ages from 2 to 5)
Childcare centers
Primary (BrE) / Infant schools (BrE)
Elementary (AmE) Junior schools (BrE)
education Elementary / grade school (AmE)
1. State Comprehensive Schools (BrE)
2. Grammar Schools (BrE)
3. Public schools (Public Boarding
Secondary education Schools) (BrE)
 Sixth-Form college (BrE)
 Junior high school (AmE)
Senior high school (AmE)
College of Further Education (BrE)
University
Polytechnics (BrE)
Open University (BrE)
Further Education
Law, Medical, Business, etc. School
(AmE)
(a university or part of a university)

2. Read the text below and translate it into Russian.


Do the tasks afterwards:
SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
IN GREAT BRITAIN
There are two systems of primary and secondary educa-
tion in the country – the state school and public school. The
former is in the majority; the latter are few in number but of
great influence.

10 
 
All children must, by law, receive a full-time education from
the age of five to sixteen. Any child may attend, without paying
fees, until they are eighteen. Education at this stage is compulsory.
Elementary education: In the state
primary school there are two sections – an
infant section, from five to seven, and a jun-
ior section, from seven to eleven. Before their
elementary schooling some children have an
opportunity to attend one of the Nursery Schools.
There is no official control of curriculum in the elemen-
tary system. State laws provide a general framework within
which the state schools operate and the central government
provides a large part of the money. The Department of Edu-
cation and Science establishes standards to which school
ought to conform and from to time it sends out one of Her
Majesty’s Inspectors to visit and make a report on the work of
the school. They give advice to the teachers and suggest new
ideas, but their function is above all advisory which means
that in a state school the head teacher has plenty of autonomy
in deciding what is to be taught and how teaching is to be car-
ried out.
Secondary Education. At this stage of
education, there are various types of schools.
They are grammar school, comprehensive
secondary school, secondary modern school
and public school. The first three schools be-
long to the state system, while public school belongs to the
category of the independent schools. They are supported en-
tirely by fees and private funds. The best known of these are
the ‘public’ boarding schools for boys aged thirteen to seven-
teen or eighteen. Many of them also take day-boys and day-
girls. Among the most famous public schools are Eton, Har-
row, Rugby and Winchester. To send a boy to a leading public
school costs about & 900 to & 4 000 a year.
In the state schools, the variety of patterns of secondary
school is bewildering as a result of recent reforms. Some au-
thorities are introducing a two-tier pattern (зд. двухуровне-
вая система), with a junior high school from 11 to 14 or 15

11 
 
and a senior high school from 14 to 18; others are concentrat-
ing on ‘sixth form colleges’, all pupils in the 15-18 age range
doing advanced work. Yet the most generally accepted pat-
tern is the one that retains the original wide age range of the
grammar school from 11 to 18.
At the age of 16 all children in Britain take the school-
leaving examination and get a certificate of secondary educa-
tion. Those who want to continue their education at universi-
ty have to stay on at school for two more years and take an-
other exam at an advanced level. The advanced level exami-
nation is very important because on the results of this exami-
nation the universities choose their students as there are no
entrance examinations.
Higher Education:
There are over forty universities in Britain.
They can be divided into several types.
The term ‘old universities’ refers to Oxford and Cam-
bridge which were the only two universities in England until
the nineteenth century. Oxford is gov-
erned by a governing council, while each
college is governed by its Fellows (the
members of the governing body) who are
responsible for teaching their own stu-
dents through a tutorial system, whereby each student gets
personal tuition once a week.
Each college in Cambridge is largely independent and
the university’s administration is run by a governing council
called the Senate. Cambridge is more developed than Oxford in
scientific studies. Other aspects are similar to those in Oxford.
The Open University. As the name suggests, it is open
to everybody, and does not demand the same formal qualifi-
cations as the other universities. The university offers courses
through one of the BBC’s television channels and by radio
and has tutors and counselors all over Britain, who read pa-
pers written by students and discuss them at meetings or by
correspondence.
Apart from the universities there are polytechnics (insti-
tutions for advanced full-time and part-time education, esp.

12 
 
in scientific and technical subjects) and colleges of higher ed-
ucation for those who fail to get to university or who choose
more practical courses.

SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
In the U.S.A. schools for children from 6 to 13 are called
elementary or grade schools. The school is called so because
each year of study is a grade. The next stage is secondary
school with its subdivisions – junior high school (grades 7-9)
or middle school (grades 5-8) and senior high school (grades
10-12 or 9-12).
Children in high school are called students. Instruction in
compulsory subjects is supplemented with a great variety of
optional courses (‘electives’). This type of school has been
adapting itself to the social needs offering driver’s education,
cooking classes, health education and
computer science.
Many high schools have a “tracking
system” according to which students are
grouped according to academic ability and
motivation. No overall exam is taken in
order to graduate. You just have to pass all the final exams
given each semester.
Public schools in the United States belong to the state
system.
Higher Education. The system of higher education in
the U.S.A. comprises universities, four-year colleges, tech-
nical training institutions and commu-
nity colleges (a community college is a
junior college established to serve a cer-
tain community and sometimes sup-
ported in part by it, often emphasizing
career, rather than academic progress).
Unlike the European system of higher education, colleges
and universities in the US do not have their own entrance ex-
aminations. Rather, admission is based on scholastic
achievement in high school and performance on standardized
13 
 
national tests (the SAT – the Scholastic Aptitude Test); a two-
part examination which must be taken by all students who
wish to attend US universities. Students in their senior year
take the SATs and have the results sent to the colleges they
want to attend or ACT – American College Testing. In addi-
tion, colleges and universities may require applicants to sub-
mit samples of their writing.
Depending on the source of financing higher education
institutions may be either state-supported or private. The tui-
tion at a private university can be $20.000-25.000 a year. A
state university can be ten times as less as that. There is at
least one university supported by public funds in each state. A
group of old and highly-respected universities of the eastern
U.S.A. is called Ivy League. These are Columbia, Harvard,
Cornel, Princeton and Yale Universities, Dartmouth College
and the University of Pennsylvania.
Church and state are separated in the U. S. A. therefore
religion cannot be taught in state-supported schools.
The terms ‘college’ and ‘university’ both in Great Britain
and the U.S.A. are often used interchangeably as ‘college’ is
used to refer to all undergraduate education; and the four-
year undergraduate programme, leading to a bachelor's de-
gree can be followed at either college or university. Universi-
ties tend to be larger than colleges and also have graduate
schools where students can receive post-graduate education
(studies beyond the bachelor’s degree).

3. Answer the following questions:


1. What are the purposes of education? What is the underly-
ing principle of the Western educational system?
2. What is American motto for life? In what way is it related
to education? Why does the goal of equal opportunity still
remain an ideal rather than a reality?
3. What types of activities in American schools and universi-
ties contribute to competitive skills?
4. What are the main stages of education in a) Great Britain;
b) the United States?

14 
 
5. What are the peculiar features of the elementary system in
Great Britain?
6. What types of schools are there at the secondary stage
a) in Great Britain? b) in the U. S. A.?
7. What is a “public” boarding school?
8. Why is the advanced-level examination very important in
Great Britain? What are a) the SAT b) ACT?
9. What are the main types of university education in
a) Great Britain b) the U. S. A.?
10. Does the term “public school” mean the same in the U. K.
and the U. S. A.?
11. What is post-graduate education? What are the academic
degrees in a) Great Britain b) the U. S. A.?

4. Underline the correct word or word combination.


Use a dictionary if needed:
1. A school for pupils (Great Britain) between the ages of 16
and 18, who are preparing to take their A (advanced) – lev-
el examinations is called Comprehensive School – College
of Further Education – Sixth-Form College.
2. Someone who has already taken one degree and is studying
for another, more advanced degree is called – a graduate –
a postgraduate – an undergraduate.

15 
 
3. A special type of university (Great Britain), open to every-
one, which uses radio and television for teaching is called –
Campus University – Polytechnic – Open University.
4. Courses for adults, where students for a small fee study a
variety of things from French to flower arranging are called
evening classes – vocational courses – training courses –
academic courses.
5. A course of lessons in which the student works at home
and sends completed work to their teacher by post is called
a correspondence course – a course of general lectures.
6. Careful detailed work that you do to discover new infor-
mation or produce new ideas on a particular subject is a
coursework – a research – homework.
7. The subjects that are taught by a school, college, etc., are
called a programme – a curriculum – a course.
8. Something that must be done because it is the law is com-
pulsory – voluntary.
9. An education system for both men and women at the same
institution is called general – vocational – co-educational.
10. Schools that admit pupils of all abilities are called gram-
mar – selective – comprehensive.
11. The number of people who drop out/ who do not finish
their courses is – a drop-out rate – percentage of gradu-
ates.
12. A school where pupils live during the term is a boarding
school – a modern school.
13. An award to someone who has successfully finished a
course is a degree – fees – a bonus.
14. Activities lying outside a student’s study routine; not di-
rectly a part of the curriculum of a school or college is in-
dividual tuition – extra-curricular activities.

5. Give Russian equivalents to the following word-


combinations:
a Harvard-educated (lawyer); a nation-wide (curriculum); all-
round (education); full-time (education); on a part-time (ba-
sis); an end-of-term (examination); a practically-oriented
(course); a mixed-ability (class); a day-boys / day-girls

16 
 
(school); a two-part (examination); a state-supported (col-
lege); a highly-respected ( university); a four-year (pro-
gramme); an advanced-level (examination); upper-class
(children).

6. Insert one of the words from the bank into the


sentences below. Use the appropriate forms:
belong; attend; operate; value; emphasize; graduate; take;
interview; pass; educate; accept; decide on; offer; receive

1. Private schools where tuition fees are relatively high


_____ primarily upper-class children.
2. Secondary schools in Great Britain _____on the basis of
the National Curriculum which covers Mathematics, sci-
ence, design, technology, history, geography, a modern
foreign language, art, music and physical training.
3. Under the old selective system in Great Britain children
had to _____ an examination called ‘eleven plus’ which is
now totally abolished (упраздненные), in their last year at
primary school. The results of the exam determined the
kind of secondary school a child would _____ .
4. Schools outside the state system _____ their own holiday
dates.
5. Secondary modern schools _____ general education, in-
cluding some practical instruction, up to the age of fifteen.
6. Smaller schools usually _____ a student before deciding
whether or not to _____ him or her.
7. If you want your children _____ the quality education
you should send them to one of the boarding schools in
Great Britain.
8. In order to _____ students have to _____ all the finals.
9. Grammar schools in Britain _____ Latin and Greek in
preparation for college.
10.A lot of families _____ education as a means of making a
good career.
11. Public schools in Great Britain _____ to the category of
the state system.

17 
 
TEXT 3
1. Vocabulary
A. Match the words with the definitions:
1. exceed A to divide into two or more parts
2. split B the fact that you own something
3. mutual C to see, recognize or understand
smth.
4. ownership D a teacher with responsibility for
a particular student
5. discern E a judgement or opinion that is the
result of this process
6. a supervisor F to be greater than a number or
amount

7. framework G feeling the same emotion, or doing


the same thing to or for each other

8. assessment H a system of rules, ideas or beliefs


used to plan or decide something

B. Complete each sentence with a word or phrase


from the box. Pay attention to the form:
literacy rate entitles to prolong
licensed prestigious guidance

1. Our products have been supplied to the most _____


buildings in Miami, New York and Dubai.
2. The _____ in India improved considerably to 69.1 % in
January-June 2014.
3. We were having such a good time that we decided to
_____ our stay by another week.
4. Being unemployed _____ you to free medical treatment.
5. We need more __ on how to handle these unusual cases.
6. The shop is not _____ to sell alcoholic drinks.

18 
 
2. Read the text below and translate it into Russian.
Do the proposed tasks:

EDUCATION SYSTEM IN RUSSIA


Russia has a long-standing tradition in high-quality edu-
cation for all citizens. It probably has also one of the best
mass-education systems in the world producing a literacy rate
(98 %) exceeding most Western European countries. In the
context of a changing society the educational system proved
to be capable, on the one hand, of adapting to rapid trans-
formations of new realities (while preserving its well-known
strong qualities) and on the other hand, to the phase of pro-
longed evolutionary reformation.
Education is split into a compulsory Basic Education, and
ongoing Higher Education.

History of education in Russia


Russia’s higher education system started with the foun-
dation of the universities in Moscow and St. Petersburg in the
middle of the 18th century. The system was constructed simi-
lar to that of Germany. In Soviet times all of the population in
Russia had at least a secondary education. The pursuit of
higher education was and still is considered to be very pres-
tigious. More than 50 % of people have a higher education.
Due in great part to demands of the international educa-
tional organizations, the system of education in Russia began
to change over the past four to five years. Universities began
transitioning to a system similar to that of Britain and
the USA: 4 years for the Bachelor’s degree and 2 years for a
Master’s degree. The universities are still in the process of
these changes; some of them offer the new system and others
still work according to the prior 5-year system, particularly in
programs such as law.

Compulsory Basic Education


Basic general education lasts for nine years. Gradu-
ates of this level may continue their education at senior high
school to receive secondary general education. They may

19 
 
also enter an initial vocational school or non-university level
higher education institutions:
 Initial vocational schools include PTU which offer
one-and-a-half to two years' purely professional education
and Professional'ny Litsei which offer joint
professional and secondary general educa-
tion for three to four years and skilled
workers’ training at different levels.
 Non-university level higher education institu-
tions also offer three- to four-year professional and second-
ary general education and two-year vocational training for
holders of the School Leaving Certificate. Secondary general
education on the basis of basic general education continues
for two years and ends when students are 17-18. Secondary
education leads to the award of the Certificate of Secondary
Complete General Education.
Graduates from a secondary general school may apply for
entrance to a higher education institution.

RUSSIAN SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION


Higher education is under the
jurisdiction of the Ministry for
Education and Science of
the Russian Federation, which is
responsible for the accreditation and
licensing of higher education estab-
lishments, and for developing and
maintaining State Educational Standards.
Only accredited higher education establishments have the
right to issue state diplomas and degrees ensuring full voca-
tional and academic rights, and are covered by the interna-
tional agreements on mutual recognition and validation of
education documents. Only accredited higher education es-
tablishments have the right to use the seal with the national
emblem of the Russian Federation. All state degrees award-
ing specific qualifications to a graduate, irrespective of the
type of educational institution (University, Academy, and In-

20 
 
stitute) and the ownership pattern (state, municipal, non-
state), are equal in status.
Higher education is provided by public and non-public
(non-State) accredited higher education institutions. There
are two levels of higher education:
a. Basic higher education (4 years) leading to the
Bachelor's degree, the first university level degree. This is
equivalent to the B.Sc. degree in the US or Western Europe.
b. Postgraduate higher education (5-6 years or
more). After two years, students are entitled to receive a Mag-
ister's degree. This is equivalent to a Master’s Degree (M.Sc,
M.A.) in the US or Western Europe. After a Master's degree,
students can continue to study towards a doctoral degree: the
first level, equivalent to Ph.D. and the second, highest level,
equivalent to Professor.
Since 1992, Russian higher education has introduced a
multilevel system, enabling higher education institutions to
award and issue the following types of degrees:
 Bachelor of Science degree (not less than 4 years of
training)
 Master of Science degree (2 years of training after
Bachelor degree)
Master of Science degree give graduates the right
to enter Postgraduate courses.
Having obtained the Bachelor's degree, students may ap-
ply to enter the Master's Degree pro-
gram or continue their studies in the
framework of the Specialist's Diplo-
ma programs. The Bachelor's degree
is awarded in all fields except Medi-
cine after defending a Diploma pro-
ject prepared under the guidance of a supervisor and passing
the final exams. In Medicine, the first stage lasts for six years.
(From: http://www.en.spbstu.ru/system_of_education/)

21 
 
3. Fill in the table below:
System of Education in Russia
Stages Educational
Age
of Education Institutions
From 3 to 5 Pre-school education

4. Speak on the similarities and differences of the


following types of higher education establish-
ments discerned by The Russian Federation: Uni-
versity, Academy and Institute.

5. Translate the following sentences into English us-


ing the vocabulary of the unit:
1. Среднее образование в России является обязательным
и бесплатным, хотя в последнее время в некоторых се-
мьях детей предпочитают обучать в частных школах.
2. Обязательное бесплатное образование включает два
этапа – начальное и среднее.
3. В старших классах средней школы учебные програм-
мы по многим дисциплинам очень сложны.
4. Одной из проблем средней школы в России является
то, что старшеклассники изучают большое количество
теоретических предметов, в то время как никакие прак-
тические навыки или умения у них не развиваются.
5. По окончании 11 класса школьники сдают государ-
ственные выпускные экзамены по 5 предметам на ат-
тестат о среднем образовании.
6. В течение последних двух лет школьного обучения
программа нацелена на подготовку к поступлению в
высшее учебное заведение.
7. Она хорошо успевает по гуманитарным предметам,
однако естественные науки даются ее с трудом.
8. Средние общеобразовательные школы обязаны при-
нимать и обучать всех детей независимо от их способ-
ностей и успехов в учебе.

22 
 
9. Она подала документы в несколько вузов, но успешно
сдала вступительные экзамены только в один универ-
ситет.
10. Хотя по закону среднее образование является обяза-
тельным для всех, многие дети из неблагополучных
семей вообще не посещают школу, и не умеют ни пи-
сать, ни читать.
11. В Великобритании в государственном секторе дети с
пяти лет поступают в начальную школу, где учатся до
11-летнего возраста. Затем они переходят в среднюю
школу, которую заканчивают в 16 лет, сдав экзамены
первого уровня. Если ученик выбрал ‘академический’
(теоретический) курс, то он получает Общее свиде-
тельство о среднем образовании (General Certificate of
Secondary Education, а в Шотландии – Scottish Certifi-
cate of Education).
12. В 16 лет, независимо от типа посещаемой школы,
учащийся должен решить, какой путь выбрать: про-
должить ли образование с тем, чтобы впоследствии
поступить в университет, или получить профессио-
нальную подготовку и начать работать.

6. Study the phrasal verbs related to education.


Translate them into Russian:
1. to catch on – to understand
2. to come (a)round – to be persuaded to change your mind
(about)
3. to cross out – to draw a line through smth. written
4. to dawn [dᴐ:n] on – if smth. dawns on you, you realise it
for the first time
5. to deal with – to handle, cope with
6. to drop out (of) – to leave school, etc. before you have fin-
ished a course
7. to get at – to try to express
8. to get on with – to continue doing
9. to give in – to stop making an effort to achieve smth. difficult
10. to keep up with – to stay at the same level as
11. to sail through – to do smth. or deal with smth. very easily

23 
 
12. to set out – to explain, describe or arrange smth. in a
clear and detailed way
13. to think over – to consider
14. to study under – to be taught by someone

7. Insert one preposition in each gap:


1. Just get _____ with Exercise С and I'll be back in a mi-
nute.
2. My teacher says that I should sail _____ the exam, but
I'm not so sure.
3. Dave didn't understand what Miss Smith was getting
_____, so he asked her to explain it again.
4. We all tried to convince our teacher to change his mind
about the school trip and he finally _____ .
5. If you make a mistake, just cross it ____ with a single line.
6. Belinda missed a few months of school because of illness
and found it difficult to keep _____ with her class-
mates.
7. The other kids were making fun of me, but I didn't catch
_____ until I heard them laughing.
8. I once studied _____ Mr. Jean-Luc Marion. That was a
complete disaster!

8. Complete each second sentence using the word


given so that it has a similar meaning to the first
sentence. Write between two and five words in
each gap.
1. The ideas in your essay need to be organised set
better.
You need to _____in your essay better.
2. Why don't you consider the college’s offer over
for a few days and then call them?
Why don’t you _____ for a few days and
then call them?
3. You’ll never pass the exam if you just stop in
trying like that.
You'll never pass the exam if you just
_____ like that.

24 
 
4. When he was at university, Nick just could- deal
n't handle all the work.
Nick just couldn't _____ at university.
5. I suddenly realised that I had left my home- dawned
work at home.
It _____ that I had left my homework at
home.
6. Ed was very lonely at university and he left out
after only one month.
Ed_____ after only one month because he
was very lonely.

9. Study the idioms and idiomatic expressions and


their explanations. Translate the phrases into
Russian:
1. bookworm – a person who is always studying.
2. copycat – a person who copies the words or actions of
another.
3. to live and learn – to learn as you grow older and gain
experience.
4. teacher's pet – the teacher's favourite student.
5. to pass with flying colours – to pass with a very high
grade.
6. to go back to basics – to return to the beginning.
7. to cover a lot of ground – to go through a lot of infor-
mation in class.
8. to pull an all-nighter – to study throughout the night.
9. school of hard knocks – Someone who goes
through the school of hard knocks learns through the posi-
tive and negative experiences of life rather than through a
formal classroom education.

10. Choose the correct idiom to complete the sentence:


1. Eleanor is a ___, her piece for Art lesson looks exactly like
mine.
a) bookworm
b) copycat

25 
 
2. Michael ___! He got the best grade in his class!
a) passed with flying colours
b) went back to basics
3. We have ___ in class today, so make sure you go through
your notes when you get home.
a) Covered a lot of ground
b) Lived and learned
4. Amy is definitely the ___. Mrs. Brown gives her the best
grades even when her work isn't very good.
a) bookworm
b) teacher's pet
5. I think we should ___ as none of you are using the past
simple correctly today.
a) Pass with flying colours
b) Go back to basics
6. I'm a ___. I love reading about history and politics.
a) bookworm
b) copycat
7. I should never have quit my degree. Oh well, we ___.
a) Live and learn
b) Go back to basics
8. I'm so exhausted, I ___ studying for this test.
a) Pulled an all-nighter
b) Went back to basics

11. Complete each sentence with one of the idioms


above:
1) I haven't been able to finish my homework and actually
there's a lot left of it so I think I might have to ____ today.
2) He never went to college but the _____ made him a true
businessman.
3) She called me a _____ for wearing the same dress.
4) My brother is very communicative, just an antipode to my
_____ sister.
5) Ok, guys, you all did well at the lesson but you still have to
_____ in your English.
6) At the end of the studying course I did my best and was
able to pass my final exams _____.

26 
 
12. Make up your own sentences with one of the idi-
oms above.

TEXT 4
1. Discuss:
 How greatly has modern studying transformed for the
past 20 years?
 How do you think learning and teaching will change in
the years to come?
 What do you think educational institutions will be like in
the future?

2. Read the text and decide which answer a, b, c or d


best fits each gap:
Until quite recently Silicon
Valley and 1) __________
innovations had little effect on
teaching and learning.
2)_________ with the rise
of the Internet, information
technology is now beginning to have 3) ________ more in-
fluence on education. Two areas 4) ________ are becoming
more and more significant are ‘blogs’ and ‘wikis’.
The word ‘blog’ is short for ‘weblog’. A blog is an online 5)
_______ or ‘log’ of someone’s life, thoughts, or opinions. 6)
____________ can create their own ‘blog’ and blogging is
becoming extremely popular – 7) __________‘blog’ into
Google and you’ll get 8) _________500 million results. For
educational purposes, academics, teachers, and students cre-
ate blogs 9) _________ personal online study sites: places
to work together and share information and ideas. Some uni-
versities even give their students and 10) __________free
space on a server to start their own blogs.
‘Wikis’ are websites 11) __________anyone can add
content and make changes, so that the site becomes a group
creation – ‘wiki’ stands 12) _______‘What I Know Is’.
These 13) ________can be a valuable source of information

27 
 
and opinion for students, though the information
14)_________not be totally accurate – some academics re-
fuse to use 15)________. Perhaps the best-known wiki is
the online encyclopedia, Wikipedia, 16) ________has more
than one million entries in over 100 languages. Wikipedia is
working hard to make sure that its information is completely
accurate, so students will be able to use it with confidence,
and there’s 17) ____doubt that it is an incredible resource.
(From: New English File)
1. A. his B. it’s C. it D. its
2. A. Although B. But C. However D. And
3. A. much B. many C. lots D. a lot of
4. A. what B. - C. who D. which
5. A. agenda B. diary C. timetable D. schedule
6. A. Nobody B. Somebody C. Anybody D. Everybody
7. A. write B. type C. search D. look up
8. A. many B. plenty of C. as much D. over
9. A. as B. like C. so D. such
10. A. people B. academics C. staff D. others
11. A. which B. that C. - D. where
12. A. for B. up C. in D. over
13. A. news B. places C. pages D. sites
14. A. must B. may C. should D. will
15. A. their B. they C. theirs D. them
16. A. which B. who C. what D. -
17. A. not B. some C. any D. no

Give answers to these questions:


1. Is information technology more or less important in edu-
cation than before?
2. Where does the word 'blog' come from?
3. What is a 'blog'?
4. What are blogs used for at universities?
5. What does 'WIKI' mean?
6. Who puts the information on this wiki websites?
7. Why do students need to be careful if they use 'Wikis'
when they study?
8. What is Wikipedia?
28 
 
TEXT 5
1. Vocabulary
A. Study the words and translate them into Russian:
1. to dispel – to get rid of unpleasant feelings or false beliefs
2. misconception – a wrong belief as a result of not under-
standing smth.
3. convention – a way of behaving that is generally accepted
as being normal and right
4. time-honoured – respected (tradition, practice, or meth-
od) because it has been done in the same way for a very
long time
5. to acquire – to get smth.
6. to attend – to be present at an event or activity
7. perception – the ability to notice something by seeing,
hearing, etc.
8. entrepreneur – someone who uses money to start business
and make business deals
9. venture – a new business or activity
10. establishment – an institution, organization, or business
11. collaboration – process of working together with some-
one to produce smth.
12. flexibility – ability to change or be changed easily accord-
ing to the situation

B. Find the synonyms A-K for the words 1-11:


1. venture A. participate
2. application B. customary
3. dispel C. at the same time
4. time-honoured D. cooperation
5. acquire E. rule, law
6. attend F. remove
7. convention G. equipment
8. entrepreneur H. past
9. background I. enterprise
10. collaboration J. businessman
11. simultaneously K. obtain

29 
 
2. Read the text and translate it into Russian. Do the
proposed tasks afterwards:
THE CYBERSPACE LEARNING INITIATIVE
Technological advances have a way of dispelling previ-
ously held misconceptions. One such misconception about
education is rooted in time-honoured conventions.
For instance, acquiring an education has, from time
immemorial, involved us physically attending a par-
ticular educational institution, for a specific period
of time, at a specific age. Advances in technology, however,
have generated revolutionary applications that could change
the face of education as we know it today. Online learning,
otherwise known as electronic learning, may not be new, but
our perception of its impact and functionali-
ty is. Initially, overenthusiastic entrepre-
neurs rushed into a number of e-learning
ventures, which failed to live up to their and
our expectations. However, in view of recent
developments in Internet and multimedia technologies, we
have been reassessing the potential of online learning.
There is presently much talk about cyberspace institu-
tions or online universities that may, in time, replace tradi-
tional educational establishments. Virtual classrooms will be
multi-functional, acting simultaneously as learning plat-
forms, forums and social networks. They will be adapted to
promoting the acquisition of knowledge as a life-long effort,
occurring through global collaboration. Cyberspace institu-
tions will go a long way towards achieving this as they will
liberate us from the limitations of time and space. Flexibility
of time and location makes e-learning a highly accessible, in-
ternational resource. Prospective students will thus, regard-
less of age, background or origin, have unlimited access to
both formal and informal learning opportunities. The pursuit
of knowledge will consequently become an end in itself and
not a means to an end.
(From: Traveller)

30 
 
3. Answer the questions. Choose a, b, c or d:
 Which misconception about education have technological
advances put an end to?
a. Technological innovations can affect time-honoured
conventions.
b. Education is rooted in practices that have been around
for a long time.
c. The nature of the learning process will change as a re-
sult of new applications.
d. Education is limited by time and place.

 What will the ultimate purpose of cyberspace institutions be?


a. the promotion of life-long learning and the acquisition
of knowledge
b. the unlimited provision of learning op-
portunities for people of a particular age
c. the promotion of formal learning initia-
tives exclusively
d. the pursuit of knowledge as a means of
achieving other more desirable goals

4. Find the English equivalents to the following Rus-


sian phrases:
1) ранее существующее ошибочное мнение
2) совершенно новые устройства
3) сверхусердные предприниматели
4) понимание влияния и функциональности
5) получать образование
6) избавляться от ошибочного мнения
7) соответствовать ожиданиям
8) посещать учебное заведение
9) достижения научно-технического прогресса
10) многофункциональный
11) усилия, предпринимаемые на протяжении всей жизни
12) укореняться в
13) впоследствии стать
14) действовать одновременно
15) оценивать заново
31 
 
16) легкодоступное образование
17) исконные, традиционные общепринятые нормы
18) виртуальные учебные заведения
19) с незапамятных времен
20) освобождать от ограничений

5. Fill in the chart with the derivatives and translate


the words:
NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE
acquire
immemorial
application
generate
perception
attentive /inattentive
establish
root
advance
revolution
access
liberate
innovation
establishing/established

TEXT 6
1. Vocabulary
A. Study the word combinations related to education:
1) rote learning – learning something in order to be able to
repeat it from memory, rather than in order to under-
stand it
2) boarding school – a school where students live and study
3) exchange student – an exchange student is a high school
or college student who travels abroad to live with a local
family and attend local school, usually as part of
an exchange program

32 
 
4) extracurricular activities – extra activities (such as sports)
that can be done by students in a school or a college but
that are not part of the regular schedule of classes
5) physical education – the sports and physical exercise that
children learn as a school subject
6) corporal punishment – the physical punishment of some-
one by hitting them
7) vocational training – training for a specific job in industry
or agriculture or trade
8) distance-learning course – a course which students do
while working at home with the help of television and ra-
dio broadcasts and send work to
their teachers by post or email

B. Use these word combinations to complete the sen-


tences 1-8:
1. When I was young, I attended a(n) _____ because my
parents travelled a lot and they didn't want me to have to
change schools all the time.
2. Traditional learning methods involved _____ whereby
students were expected to memorise facts word for word
as they appeared in their text books.
3. _____courses are designed to provide students with the
skills needed for a particular job.
4. Teaching _____ at school is important in that it helps
students realise the importance of adopting a healthy life-
style.
5. A(n)_____ is suitable for people who are interested in
furthering their studies but who do not have the oppor-
tunity to attend the academic institution at which they are
doing the course.
6. _____ give children the opportunity to take part in pur-
suits that interest them.
7. _____ is no longer considered an acceptable way to disci-
pline children who do not conform to an establishment's
rules and regulations.
8. As a(n) _____ I learnt a lot about the customs and tradi-
tions of the country I was studying in.

33 
 
C. Fill in the chart with the derivatives and translate
the words:
NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE
assess
instruction
expelled, expelling
suspend
collaboration
corresponded/corresponding

D. Complete the sentences below using either the


noun or the correct verb form of the words in ex-
ercise C. Translate the sentences:
1. After repeatedly violating the school rules James was
_____ .
2. Do students receive musical _____ in schools?
3. Continuous _____ involves using a variety of methods to
monitor a student's performance at regular intervals.
4. When doing project work students will be required to
_____ with their peers.
5. Jake was given a five-day _____ for bullying a younger
student.
6. Conventional means of _____ like letter writing, will
inevitably be made redundant by developments in tele-
communications.

2. Read the text and complete the blanks with the


correct form of the words in capitals:
AN AMAZING SCHOOL

Imagine walking out of your classroom


only to find a pterosaur hanging from the
ceiling! This is not a science fiction film;
it’s an (1) ____ ‘museum learning school’: ORDINARY
34 
 
the Langley Academy, in Berkshire, Eng-
land.
Setting up this exciting school was an
(2) _____ step in Britain, inspired by PRECEDENT
the New York Museum School, which was
founded in 1994.
Through (3) _____ with various mu- COLLABORATE
seums, Langley now offers its students
some 500 museum exhibits.
The idea is that bringing the museum
into the classroom helps promote debate,
research, and (4) _____ thinking. DEPEND
Museum learning (5) _____ teachers ABLE
to bring an otherwise dull school subject
into life and provide students with a
hands-on experience.
What better way to envisage the past
than, say, a bicycle from the early 1900s
right in your school hallway?
Instead of theoretical teaching, which
is often difficult and (6) _____ to some COMPREHEND
students, Langley offers a diverse educa-
tional experience.
But it’s not just fun; museum learning
is part of the students’ (7) _____ and is ASSESS
incorporated across the curriculum.
‘Langley is successful because most of
the learning takes place outside the class-
room and with real exhibits that stimulate
all the senses’, says one of the teachers.
It seems that the value of museum
teaching at Langley is not (8) _____ on ESTIMATE
the contrary, it is considered extremely
useful and hopefully other schools will fol-
low its example.
(From: Traveller)

35 
 
TEXT 7
1. Read three texts (A, B and C) below, answer the
questions after each of them and enrich your vo-
cabulary with new words and phrases:

A. Should students be admitted by academic merit?


A British student says: ‘Admission to Oxford
and Cambridge is mainly by academic merit,
but nearly half of the places are won by the
pupils of ‘public schools’.
A few colleges tend to be rather keen to
admit a few men who are very good at foot-
ball or some other sport, or sons of former
students or of lords or eminent citizens or of
millionaires. The extent of these non-
academic considerations cannot easily be
measured. The number of students whose parents are
wealthy is still much larger at Oxford and Cambridge than
that in other universities which I think is unfair’.
(Personal communication)

Answer the following questions:


1. Do you agree with the author’s opinion that the number of
students who are admitted to universities because they are
very good at sport is still very big? What about the children
of eminent citizens?
2. Do you think that students should be admitted only by ac-
ademic merit? Why or why not?

B. Should grading be replaced by testing?


Is grading inevitable?
Paul Goodman, a professor in a college in the USA, makes
a radical proposal to do away with grades:
‘I suggest that universities should abolish grading and use
testing only. For most of the students, the competitive grade
has come to be the main thing in their studies. At the same
time the great majority of professors agree that grading hin-
ders teaching and creates a bad spirit, going as far as cheat-
36 
 
ing. The grading, however, is inevitable; for how else will the
Universities, colleges and corporations know whom to accept,
reward, hire? I doubt, however, that many employers bother
to look at such grades; they are more likely to be interested
merely in the fact of a Harvard, etc. diploma. The grades have
most of their weight with the Universities – here, as else-
where, the system runs mainly for its own sake.
It is really necessary to remind of the ancient history of
examination. In the medieval university, the whole point of
the examination was whether or not to accept a candidate. It
was not to make comparative evaluations. It was certainly not
to pit one young fellow against another in an ugly competition.
Many students are lazy, so teachers try to threaten them by
grading. In the long run, I think, this must do more harm than
good, because laziness is only a way of saying ‘I won’t learn’.
(From: P. Goodman ‘Compulsory Mis-Education’)

Answer the following questions:


1. What are Goodman’s main objections to grading?
2. Do you agree that a) grading prevents you from learning
b) grading fosters competition, not learning? If so, say
whether you support Goodman’s claim by reporting what
your own experience has been.
3. If you disagree with Goodman, say what the benefits of
grading are.

C. Do co-educational schools encourage healthy atti-


tude to life?
A co-educational school offers
children nothing less than a true ver-
sion of society in miniature. Boys and
girls are given opportunity to get to
know each other, to learn to live to-
gether from their earliest years. They
are put in the position where they can
compare themselves with each other in terms of academic
ability, athletic achievement and many of the extra-
curriculum activities which are part of school life. What a

37 
 
practical advantage it is to be able to put on a school play in
which the male parts will be taken by boys and the female
parts by girls! What nonsense co-education makes of the ar-
gument that boys are cleverer than girls or vice-versa.
But perhaps the greatest contribution of co-education is
the healthy attitude to life it encourages. Boys don’t grow up
believing that women are mysterious creatures – more like
book-illustrations to a fairy-tale, than human beings. Girls
don’t grow up imagining that men are romantic heroes. Years
of living together at school dispel illusions of this kind. When
the time comes for the pupils to leave school, they are fully
prepared to enter society as well-adjusted adults. They have
already had years of experience in coping with many of the
problems that face men and women.
(From: L. Alexander ‘For and Against’)

Answer the following questions:


1. What is the practical advantage according to the author of
a co-educational school?
2. What is the other contribution of co-education?
3. What is the opposite for a co-educational school? (a segre-
gation school). What are the possible arguments for a seg-
regation school?

D. Read the text below. Compare the educational


problems facing America with those in Russia:
According to social scientists’ surveys the system of educa-
tion in the U.S.A. is facing a number of problems. As a result
children who leave a high school lack literacy and practical skills.
One of the reasons why this happens so is the fact that
a lot students do not have enough time to study as they
are often distracted by part-time jobs. They are not doing
it just for fun or to have something to do, but because they
have to. Some of them have been saving money for college
for a year or two.
Among other reasons are:
a) rigorous standards (students who lack abilities easily
drop out);

38 
 
b) efforts to educate students with different academic
abilities and motivation together. (The problem here is how
to challenge a person of above-average ability while taking
care of an average student. Experts say that this problem can
be solved through differentiated curricula);
c) unmotivated students and the students who make un-
suitable course selections who slow down the progress of the
class. This is especially true for state-supported schools;
d) lack of individual tuition;
e) changing classroom population;
f) disrespectful and uncooperative students who disturb
the class;
g) racial misbalance (misbalance between black and
white children).
h) inadequate support from the federal government.

E. Discuss:
1. What kind of extracurricular activities are popular with
students in your country?
2. Do you do any extracurricular activities? Why/Why not?
3. What skills do you think students can gain from taking
part in such activities?
4. Outdoor learning is a teaching method which gives chil-
dren the opportunity to experience and learn about the
natural world. It has become increasingly popular in edu-
cational institutions because it is an excellent way to stim-
ulate children while teaching them about the environment.
Why do you think it is important for children to be made
aware of issues regarding the environment?
5. Do you think schools should do more to encourage stu-
dents to take up extracurricular activities?
6. Do you think a person can learn everything there is to
know simply by attending school? What are some lessons
that people learn from life?
7. Is getting a good education the only way to improve your
chances of success in life?

39 
 
TEXT 8
1. Read the Internet article with a Cambridge stu-
dent’s personal story. Use the Text Vocabulary af-
ter the text. Do the proposed tasks:

HOW CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY


ALMOST KILLED ME
Written by Morwenna Jones
I had always been what they
call a good student. In 2011, aged
18, I had two As and two As at A-
level, various sporting successes
and plenty of friends. I was presi-
dent of more clubs and societies
than the school needed. I was go-
ing to Cambridge University to study English. By most
measures, things were going OK.
There was a problem, however – I had also developed an
eating disorder. Over the two years before I started universi-
ty, my body metamorphosed constantly. One week I would be
a size zero, the next I would look ‘normal’. Eventually I told
my parents, and after six months I was referred for counsel-
ling with the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service.
Once a week I explained to a woman called Lucy that my con-
dition was connected to an obsessive desire to be the best.
Eighteen months later I was in the passenger seat of my
parents’ car, the colleges of
Cambridge disappearing in-
to the rain behind me. For a
year and a half I had felt
completely out of my depth,
and finally cracked. No
longer was I thought ‘tal-
ented’ or ‘gifted’ because I
could work for eight hours
or read an 800-page novel in a day. At Cambridge everyone
I knew could do that. I was no longer special.

40 
 
I know this might not sound like the world’s worst prob-
lem. What did I have to complain about? I was at a top uni-
versity, with support – in theory
– everywhere I looked. But mis-
ery has a way of finding you in
the most unusual places. Inside
that bubble, where perfection
was the norm, falling short of my
own expectations tormented me.
I dropped out in January
2013. When my parents collected me, I hadn’t left my room in
two weeks. For two years I had been killing myself in the
name of perfection, unable to enjoy being anything less than
the best. As a result I had developed depression alongside se-
vere bulimia.
The fact is that I am by no means unique. Suffering from
an eating disorder and depression made me hardly more spe-
cial among the Oxbridge student population than the A-levels
that got me there. Last year a survey by student newspa-
per The Tab showed that 21 % of Cambridge students have
been diagnosed with depression, while a further 25 % think
they may be depressed. At my all-girls’ college, Murray Ed-
wards, 28 % of students have experienced eating disorders.
The National Union of Students surveyed 1,200 students and
found that 20 % believe they have a mental health problem,
while 1 in 10 experience suicid-
al thoughts. Cambridge alone
anticipates 50 to 60 suicide at-
tempts per year.
What I have seen in my
time at university is an epidem-
ic of students struggling with
mental health difficulties. Eve-
ry term more students ‘intermit’ – the Cambridge term for
taking some time out because they either wanted to do some-
thing perfectly or not do it at all.
At Britain’s universities many students crumble as they
realise they are only average-sized fish in a much larger pond.

41 
 
Part of the problem is that while we are used to praising or
criticising students, it is unusual to sympathise with them.
But the reality is that the pressure is putting thousands of
bright young people at risk of serious mental illness.
Oxbridge is a close-knit collegiate system. Within this
system, small communities of extremely motivated individu-
als live together in the intimate confines of an environment
characterised by centuries of academic achievement. But that
means you also then have a competitive environment. I think
Oxford and Cambridge are probably happy to admit that they
pre-select people at high risk of developing mental health dif-
ficulties, because they’re taking high-achieving perfectionist
young people, who come to be the best.
But things could be changing. Judith Carlisle, head
teacher of the independent Oxford High School, has started a
scheme to combat the rise of ‘unhelpful perfectionism’ among
her students. It’s called The Death of Little Miss Perfect. Its
goal, as Carlisle recently stated, is to teach students that per-
fectionism is only captured in a moment and is not achievable
long term. As well as encouraging students to use phrases
such as ‘Have a go’ and ‘Nobody’s perfect’.
If my school had offered a similar scheme, perhaps I
wouldn’t have suffered from taking a painful, expensive and
disruptive year out from university. The pressures of Cam-
bridge broke me but also gave me a whole new perspective on
my academic life.
Though even for the ‘bad’ perfectionist, Oxbridge could
still be a great environment. It’s very difficult to tell someone
that a certain atmosphere isn’t going to be right for him or
her. Such issues are problems across all universities, of
course. It’s just that they can seem most concentrated where
the pressure is greatest. University is a tough time for a lot of
people, whatever university you’re at. Your informal support
systems, like friends and family, and your formal support sys-
tems, like therapists and GPs, are left at home. You add pres-
sure from the university to achieve and you’re putting stu-
dents in a situation where they are going to be comparing
themselves to others. That’s a pretty hefty combination, and it

42 
 
creates quite a tough environment. It’s important that schools
try to help their students and promote discussions about
mental health.
When I returned to Cambridge in January I was nervous.
I felt that I had tamed some of the anxious, depressed teenag-
er who had struggled before, but would I be able to cope with
the isolation? I took a book out of the library and sat in a café
on King’s Parade working on my essay for that week. For the
first time since I started Cambridge, I read a book and en-
joyed every page.
Eight months later, the perfectionist in me is dead and I
don’t miss her. I was discharged from mental health services
at the end of last year, and I stopped seeing a therapist in
June. The eating disorder will probably always be at the back
of my mind, but in many ways it has been a full recovery. I
still have to be careful – I don’t drink to excess or sleep in,
and I try to avoid environments which I know might be tricky.
I feel I now have the mental equipment to deal with life. Ex-
cellence is fine, but nobody’s perfect.
(From: http://www.theguardian.com)
Abridged
Text Vocabulary
1. adolescent – подросток (13-18 лет)
2. obsessive – навязчивый
3. to feel/be out of depth – потерять почву под ногами
4. to crack – сломаться
5. misery – напасти, невзгоды
6. to fall short of one’s expectations – не оправдывать чьи-
либо ожидания
7. to torment – мучить
8. survey – опрос
9. suicidal – суицидальный, самоубийственный
10. to intermit – приостанавливать, остановить на время
11. to crumble – herein, разрушаться, гибнуть
12. to sympathise – сочувствовать
13. a close-knit collegiate system – академическая система,
связанная тесными узами
14. intimate – близкий

43 
 
15. confines – границы, пределы
16. to combat – бороться, сражаться
17. disruptive – разрушительный
18. tough – трудный, сложный
19. GP – herein, general practitioner – врач широкого про-
филя, терапевт
20. hefty – тяжелый, значительный, внушительный
21. to tame – укрощать, смирять
22. to discharge – herein, выписывать (из больницы)
23. to sleep in – вставать позже обычного, спать подольше
24. tricky – herein, коварный, трудный, ненадежный

2. Find the English equivalents to the following Rus-


sian word combinations:
1. получить две максимальные оценки
2. победы в различных спортивных соревнованиях
3. в соответствии с этим
4. расстройство пищевого поведения
5. болезнь развивается
6. постоянно видоизменяться
7. направлять на консультацию
8. Служба психического здоровья для детей и подростков
9. навязчивое желание
10. чувствовать себя не в своей тарелке
11. жаловаться на что-либо
12. трудности поджидают в самых неожиданных местах
13. мучительное несоответствие ожиданиям
14. во имя совершенства
15. никоим образом, далеко не
16. эпидемия борьбы с психическими расстройствами
17. маленькая рыбка в большом пруду (идиома)
18. хвалить, критиковать, сочувствовать студентам
19. чрезвычайно мотивированные личности
20. в тесном кругу
21. конкурентная среда
22. бороться с ростом
23. долгосрочная перспектива
24. попробовать, предпринять попытку

44 
 
25. сравнивать себя с другими
26. весьма весомое сочетание
27. тревожный и депрессивный
28. справляться с проблемой
29. выписаться из больницы
30. в глубине души, подсознательно
31. полное выздоровление
32. избегать скользких ситуаций
33. никто не застрахован от ошибок

3. The article gained 834 comments from real people.


Read some of them and speak about benefits and
drawbacks of a prestigious university education:
writastic
6 Oct 2014 17:51
This isn’t a new problem at Oxbridge and it’s the tip of
the iceberg. For every student who seeks formal help from
college / counselling services / GP there are 3 more quietly
self-medicating with booze, drugs or an eating disorder. It’s
the shock of being a big fish in a small pond and moving to a
much larger pool. That’s why Judith Carlisle’s project sounds
so great – we need to teach kids that it’s okay to make mis-
takes, to take a risk and to fail – as long as they get back up
again and have another go.

PeteinSQ writastic
6 Oct 2014 19:02
We also need to teach kids that it’s actually ok to not be
the ‘best’ (not a problem I ever had as I was never the best
anyway). Being happy is so much more important.

Swan17 PeteinSQ
6 Oct 2014 19:16
A few years ago I remember reading about a similar prob-
lem that one of the top US Universities had. With them it was
suicides. What they discovered was the cause of the high
number committing suicide was the students who had always
been the very best in their year suddenly NOT being the best.
45 
 
Their solution (which the article said worked) was to allow a
few students in with grades that were not the highest so that
the others would not feel so bad.
Not sure if that would work here but it might be worth
trying.

JaelBreak ID5339723
6 Oct 2014 23:22
This is very true. I don’t know for sure that all of my men-
tal health problems were caused by my school – I’ve always
been a weird kid and I suspect I’m hardwired for depression
and anxiety. But seven years of having it drummed into me
that anything except an A was a failure certainly didn’t help.
BENEFITS DRAWBACKS

4. Give the summary of the story.

III. LISTENING
1.
A. Listen to the speaker and fill in the gaps:
Home School
I think home schooling 1) _____________________ . I
wish my parents had 2) ______________________ .
The idea of never going to school 3) _________________
good to be true. I hated school. I wanted to stay at home every
day. I really wouldn’t 4)_______________________
staying at home and studying. Of course, you need 5)
_______________________ not to forget studying. One
thing about home schooling I like is visiting museums or
watching 6) _______________________ learn more.
This is so much better than learning in school. I think my
learning at school 7)_______________________ there
were many kids who didn’t 8)_____________________.
I could have got 9)_______________________ if I had
stayed at home. Perhaps there’ll 10) _________________
home schooling in the future because of the Internet.
46 
 
B. Ask five different type questions about home edu-
cation.
2.
A. Listen to the speaker and fill in the gaps:
STUDENTS
Being a student 1)__________________. I don’t think
most students understand this. A lot of students complain
they have no money and 2)__________________. They
never complain that they have 3)__________________
time, don’t have to go to work and have really long holidays.
When students finish being students and go to work, they
understand how 4)__________________ a student. Be-
ing a student at high school 5)__________________. You
have to study boring things and deal with things like bullying.
Going to college or university is 6)__________________.
Just 7)__________________ classes a week and lots of
student parties. I’d love to be a student again. I know many
people who’d like to be full-time students forever. All you
need is 8)__________________.

B. Ask five different type questions about student life.

3. You will hear two different extracts. For questions


1-4, choose the answer (a, b or c) which fits best
according to what you hear.
Extract 1
Before you listen.
Discuss:
 If you had to choose between attending a course at a uni-
versity and doing a course online, which would you prefer
and why?
 What are the advantages of taking an online course?

Study the vocabulary:


to adopt – herein, брать на вооружение, перенимать
inadequate – herein, несовершенный
to reduce – уменьшать, снижать
47 
 
to enhance – расширять, углублять
tutorial – практическое занятие, урок
enormous – огромный
bulletin board – доска объявлений
supplementary – дополнительный
counseling – консультация
pace – скорость, темп
to be catered for – предназначаться, предусматриваться
to fall behind – отстать (от программы)
to outweigh – перевешивать, превосходить
to convince – убеждать

Listen to the recording.


You hear part of a radio interview with a university
professor discussing the topic of online learning:
1. How does the man try to convince listeners of the benefits
of e-learning?
a. by comparing e-learning to traditional learning
b. by listing the advantages of e-learning
c. by mentioning how few and insignificant the disad-
vantages are
2. What is one conclusion the man reaches about e-learning?
a. E-learning may not be for everyone and for all situations.
b. Some of the drawbacks are so serious they may over-
shadow all the advantages.
c. The low cost of e-learning is what attracts most people to it.

Extract 2
Before you listen.
Discuss:
 Do you believe that music can affect one’s behaviour? If
so, how?

Study the vocabulary:


to increase – повышать, увеличивать
intelligence – умственные способности, интеллект

48 
 
brain – мозг
willingness – herein, готовность
compulsory – обязательный
hardship – трудная ситуация

Listen to the recording.


You hear two people talking about how music can
improve children’s psychology and learning ability:
3. What does the man think of the research?
a. He welcomes its promising potential.
b. He thinks it is of no value.
c. He is doubtful that it will have any effect on society.

4. What does the woman believe about music and young


people?
a. There is no link between their behaviour and learning
music.
b. Participating in musical activities can help them over-
come some hardships.
c. Young people who commit crimes have never had any
musical training.

4. You are going to listen to the article about the situa-


tion with tuition fees for higher education in Britain.
Before you listen.
Discuss: 
 Every year, it costs students more and
more to attend university. Students are
graduating with larger and larger debts.
So is a university degree really worth it?

Match the words and phrases a-j to their definitions


1-10:
A. challenging 1. difficult but rewarding
B. summer job 2. extra money paid on a loan or bank
savings

49 
 
C. having a career 3. fight
D. voluntary 4. getting a better job or salary within a
company over time
E. crunch 5. money a student pays to a university
F. wage 6. money borrowed from a bank or fi-
nance company
G. struggle 7. money paid back on a loan
H interest 8. money paid for a week’s work
I. white collar 9. regular monthly or annual pay packet
J. salary 10. work between academic years
K. student loan 11. done, made, or given willingly, without
being forced or paid to do it
L. repayment 12. relating to people who work in offices,
making mental rather than physical ef-
fort
M tuition fees 13. a critical moment or event

Listen to the article.

Do the tasks:
Task 1. Decide if each of the statements about the
text are true or false:
1. More than three quarters of all university
students in England and Wales borrow mon-
ey to study.
2. Students tend to buy a house soon after
graduating.
3. Paying back a student loan is always voluntary.
4. A degree gives people an advantage when applying for
white collar jobs.
5. Graduates often feel their first job doesn’t live up to their
expectations.

50 
 
6. Numbers of British university students began to decline
after the credit crunch.
7. Students sometimes break the law to finance their studies.
8. More international students are coming to Britain because
the UK currency is weaker.

Task 2. Complete the sentences using the vocabulary:


1. We will lend you £3,000, which you will need to repay
with _____ of 3 % after three years.
2. Paying my fees every year has been a constant _____ .
3. With such a small loan, I don’t know if I’ll be able to pay
the _____ .
4. I’ve got a good job, but I just wish the work was more
_____ .
5. When term ends, I’ll have to get ____ just to make ends
meet.
6. The _____ is £140 a week, but it’s cash-in-hand, so you
don’t pay tax.

IV. WRITING
1. A. Comment on the following English proverbs.
Find Russian equivalents closest to the meaning:
If you think education is expensive try ignorance.
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

Whatever is good to know is difficult to learn.


__________________________________________
__________________________________________

You can swim all day in the Sea of Knowledge and still come
out completely dry.
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

51 
 
B. Comment on the following statements:
‘Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you
were to live forever’.
― Mahatma Gandhi
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

‘I have never let my schooling interfere with my educa-


tion’.
― Mark Twain
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

‘Education is what remains after one has forgotten


what one has learned in school’.
― Albert Einstein
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

‘I would rather entertain and hope that people learned


something than educate people and hope they were en-
tertained’.
― Walt Disney Company
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
‘A man who has never gone to school may steal a
freight car; but if he has a university education, he may
steal the whole railroad’.
― Theodore Roosevelt
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

‘He who opens a school door, closes a prison’.


― Victor Hugo

__________________________________________
__________________________________________
52 
 
2. Write your own comment to the article (Text 8).

3. Prepare a presentation about the Institute of Eco-


nomics and Linguistics of Irkutsk State Universi-
ty. Remember to mention the facilities, programs and ac-
tivities it offers. You may also illustrate your presentation
with the photos and stories of your own student life here.

4. Many students decide to further their study


abroad what are the benefits and drawbacks of
studying abroad. To what extent do you agree or
disagree with this statement?
Write a ‘for and against’ essay in 200-250 words in an ap-
propriate style.

5. Writing task
A. Read the rubric and underline the key words.
What are you required to write? To whom? About
what?
Last summer you spent two months at a language school in
Torquay in the UK. A friend of yours has written to you ask-
ing about it.

Read the extract from your friend’s letter and an advertise-


ment for the language school below. Then, using the infor-
mation appropriately, write a letter to your friend saying
whether or not you would recommend the school and give
your reasons.

В. Now read the extract from your friend’s letter


and the advertisement for the language school,
and answer the questions that follow:
1) Do you think the English Language Learning Centre is a
school your friend would like? Why? / Why not?
2) What does your friend ask about specifically?

53 
 
Do you think I’ll like the school? What were the teachers like? Did
the school arrange any extracurricular activities or excursions to plac-
es of interest? I would like to use the opportunity to see some of Eng-
land. As you know, I'm keen on watersports so I am hoping to do some
sailing while I’m there, too.

Our school offers:


 small group classes
 courses from beginners up to advanced level
 a friendly learning environment
 accommodation with a host family
 a wide range of extracurricular activities including watersports,
football, an arts and crafts club
 excursions to nearby places

Torquay is the ideal location to learn English with


its pretty marina, sandy beaches and sheltered bays.
By coming here, you have a wonderful opportunity
to make some great friends, learn about British cul-
ture and enjoy yourself.

С. Think about how you will organise your reply to your


friend and copy and complete the outline below for
your letter. Take into consideration what information
is relevant to each question your friend is asking.

54 
 
TIP:
When writing a letter based on prompts:
 read the rubric and the input carefully.
 decide how to organise and develop the information in
paragraphs.

Opening paragraph:
Main part (Paragraph 1, Paragraph 2):
Closing paragraph:

 write in an appropriate style according to who the person


you are writing to is and the tone of the input.
 avoid ‘lifting’ language from the input; try to rephrase it in
your own words.
 expand on any points you think appropriate.
 make an effort to use a range of structures and vocabulary.
 aim at achieving a positive effect on the reader.

D. Write your letter to your friend based on the out-


line you have made (180-220 words).

V. TRANSLATION
A. Translate the following text from Russian into
English in writing:
ХОРОШЕЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ В АНГЛИИ
Тех английских детей, чьи родители достаточно состо-
ятельны, чаще всего отдают в какую-нибудь «паблик-
скул» (что на самом деле означает вовсе не «публичную»
школу, а частную), то есть в закрытую школу, обычно с ин-
тернатом. Родители таких детей весьма положительно от-
носятся к пребыванию своего чада в интернате, полагая,
что чем дальше дети от дома, тем они лучше развиваются.
Хотя в Англии и есть небольшое количество смешан-
ных частных школ, большая их часть все же принимает
учеников только одного пола, чтобы они с раннего воз-
раста получили возможность в какой-то степени приоб-
щиться к монашескому или тюремному образу жизни.
55 
 
Альтернативой «паблик-скул» является государ-
ственная бесплатная публичная (на сей раз это название
соответствует действительности) дневная школа. В таких
школах, правда, периодически не хватает преподавателей
(слишком низкая зарплата), оборудования и канцеляр-
ских принадлежностей (нехватка фондов обеспечения),
учеников (хронические прогулы) и помещений (каждый
день сгорает, по крайней мере, одна школа). Кроме того,
эти школы являются неким полигоном для испытаний
переменчивых взглядов философов от образования и
школьных методистов.
Однако, отдают ли англичане своих детей в школу
государственную или частную, забота у них все равно од-
на: ребенок должен получить «хорошее образование», то
есть обрести ощущение того, что после окончания школы
жизнь полностью в твоих руках и перед тобой открыва-
ются головокружительные возможности. Но, как и во
многих других случаях, «получаешь то, за что платишь»,
так что англичане понимают: если не платишь ничего,
так ничего и не получишь.
(From: Майол Э., Милстед Д. Эти странные англичане)

B. Give a written translation of the text:


НЕУЧЕНЬЕ – СВЕТ
Американцы твердо убеждены, что высшее образова-
ние – замечательная вещь, поскольку позволяет полу-
чить работу получше, особенно если при этом еще и ни-
чему не надо учиться.
Начальное образование в Америке состоит из детско-
го сада, до шестилетнего возраста, и начальной школы,
до двенадцати лет. Среднее образование – из еще двух
ступеней и заканчивается лет в восемнадцать. Эти ступе-
ни проходят все, хочешь не хочешь. Американские город-
ские школы славятся тем, что особо выдающиеся их вы-
пускники не умеют ни читать, ни считать. Государствен-
ные школы еще называются «общественными», потому
что они общедоступны; платные школы называются

56 
 
«частными». В частные школы отдают своих детей роди-
тели, которые сообразили, что общественные школы ни-
куда не годятся. Частные школы бывают разные, от эли-
тарных, готовящих к поступлению в университет, до от-
щепенских, основанных расистами или религиозными
фанатиками.
Университетское образование доступно любому аме-
риканцу, который в состоянии за
него заплатить (в крупных универ-
ситетах это выливается тысяч в два-
дцать в год), а также тем, кто доста-
точно беден, атлетически подготов-
лен или башковит, чтобы получить
стипендию, а еще тем, кому удается
взять ссуду в банке. Все больше и больше студентов вы-
бирает последнее и после выпускного экзамена выходит в
жизнь с дипломом в одной руке и долговой распиской на
сумму, равную закладной на дом, в другой.
Около трети американцев, получив среднее образо-
вание, поступают в университет, но они не слишком до-
веряют тому, чему их там учат. Строго говоря, с точки
зрения американской широкой публики, любой человек,
который слишком много знает, выглядит подозрительно.
Книг американцы не читают, разве что романчик-
другой Джона Гришэма или Роберта Ладлэма. Да и за-
чем? Единственное, что должен твердо знать каждый
американский работник умственного труда, – это фут-
больные правила.
(From: Фол С. Эти странные американцы)

C. Give a free translation of the text:


Гарвард показался мне, восемнадцатилетнему, ги-
гантской, сложенной из красного кирпича потогонной
фабрикой. От первых семестров у меня сохранилось в па-
мяти смутное ощущение паники, моя уверенность перво-
го парня на деревне рассыпалась, пока я в спринтерском
рывке пытался нагнать остальных. Из нашего городишки
в Гарварде никто до той поры не учился, и реакция на

57 
 
мое сенсационное поступление в этот университет про-
стиралась от озадаченной (это как, в тот самый Гарвард?)
до недоуменной (и зачем тащиться в такую даль?), а там
и до откровенно враждебной (не много ли он о себе возо-
мнил?). Да и прорехи в моем образовании были просто-
напросто пугающими. Я учился в государственной школе.
Рядом с другими студентами, многие из которых закон-
чили подготовительные курсы, я чувствовал себя само-
званцем. Даже освоение их жаргона, и оно потребовало
огромных затрат умственной энергии.
И все-таки мне здесь нравилось. Впервые в жизни я
чувствовал, что попал домой и что меня окружают моло-
дые люди, для которых великое будущее не просто легко
вообразимо – ожидаемо. Подлинная история: мой това-
рищ по комнате потратил целый семестр на то, чтобы со-
брать крошечный, но прекрасно работавший магнитно-
резонансный томограф, с помощью которого мы проска-
нировали нашего ручного хомячка. Мне здесь нравилось.
Нравилось, что наш кампус старше нашего государства.
Нравились здешние традиции, нравились слащавые ис-
тории, которые рассказывают первокурсникам во время
обзорной экскурсии по кампусу. Я коллекционировал
Гарвард, совершив паломничества в такое число его биб-
лиотек, а их здесь семьдесят с чем-то, какое мне удалось
обойти. Я посещал каждое университетское мероприятие,
старался прослушать все знаменитые курсы лекций, чи-
тавшиеся прославленными профессорами, бывал на всех
чаепитиях, которые декан устраивал для студентов. Я
впитывал все это в себя и, разговаривая с бывшими од-
ноклассниками, понимал, что обрел свободу.
(From: Келлерман Дж. Философ)

58 
 
UNIT II

STUDENT BUDGET

A budget is telling your money where to


go instead of wondering where it went.
Dave Ramsey

59 
 
I. WARM-UP QUESTIONS
 How can you achieve your goals in life?
 Do you think that financial success can lead to happiness?
 Is wealth accessible for a student while at college or
university?

II. READING
TEXT 1
1. Discuss:
 Are you wise with the money you regularly get?
 What does a notion ‘budget’ mean for you?
 Are you financially literate?
2. Vocabulary
A. Study the words and phrases and translate them
into Russian:
1. budget – an amount of money available for spending that
is based on a plan for how it will be spent
2. to manage – herein, to have control
3. overwhelming – 1. emotionally or mentally stressful, 2.
very great in number, effect, or force
4. frustrating – causing feelings of anger and annoyance
5. to feel/be broke – to have no or very little money
6. to live paycheck to paycheck – to spend all that one earns
without saving anything
7. literate – having knowledge or skill in a specified field

B. Find the synonyms A-H for the words 1-8:


1. budget A stable
2. manage B educated
3. overwhelming C funds
4. frustrating D handle
5. broke E depressing
6. paycheck F bankrupt
7. literate G unbearable
8. constant H earnings

60 
 
C. Complete each sentence with words/phrases in
Exercise A. One word will be used twice. Change
the form if necessary:
1) He is skillful in _____ horses.
2) If someone is computer-_____, they have enough skill
and knowledge to be able to use a computer.
3) Every family obviously needs to balance the _____ each
year.
4) ‘Hey dude, you coming to the club for a drink Saturday?’
‘Nah man, I _____’.
5) An _____ amount of homework is almost impossible to
get done.
6) The equipment should be stored at a _____ temperature.
7) If you’re _____, dreams about a new car are simply un-
reachable in the foreseeable future.
8) Linda disliked her new job and found it _____ at first.

3. Read the letter from Lifehacker website and do


the proposed tasks:
Dear Lifehacker,
I know managing money comes
naturally to some people, but
for me it’s just overwhelming
and frustrating. No matter how
hard I try to budget, I always
feel broke. Saving for the future
seems impossible, and I hate living paycheck to paycheck.
How can I become more financially literate or get help so I
don’t have to constantly worry about money?
Sincerely,
Frugally Frustrated
(From: http://lifehacker.com/)

4. Answer the questions:


a. Can you say that the letter is about you?
b. Do you know many people who could write the letter of the
like?
c. What piece of advice would you help the writer with?

61 
 
5. Fill in the chart with the derivatives and translate
the words:
NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE
break
manage
literate
balance/balancer
foreseeable

TEXT 2
1. Vocabulary
A. Study the words and phrases and translate them
into Russian:
1. debt paydown – to reduce (a debt) by repaying in part
2. to pretend – to imagine and act out (a particular role, sit-
uation, etc.)
3. concept – an idea of what something is or how it works
4. spreadsheet – a document that has columns and rows
which are used to calculate numbers and organize infor-
mation
5. to transition – to change from one state or condition to
another
6. leap – a sudden change to another time or situation
7. purchase – something that is bought
8. brand – trademark or distinctive name identifying a prod-
uct or a service
9. rack – a framework or stand in or on which to hold, hang,
or display various articles
10. to slip through the cracks – to get lost or be forgotten
or dealt with by a system
11. to eliminate – to remove or take away someone or some-
thing
12. a dime – 1. a coin of the United States or Canada worth
ten cent, 2. A small sum of money
13. unattainable – impossible to achieve or obtain
14. precisely – exactly
62 
 
15. to assume – to believe that something is true, even
though no one has told you or even though you have
no proof
16. to stick to something – to do something that you prom-
ised or decided you would do, or that you believe you
should do
17. to stick with – to continue to do or use something, and
not change it
18. to envision – to see something within one’s mind; to im-
agine
19. decimal – relating to or expressed in a system of counting
based on the number ten (десятичная дробь)
20. mind-numbing – extremely boring
21. commitment – enthusiasm for something and
a determination to work
22. ultimately – finally, after a series of things have happened

B. Complete each sentence with one of the words or


phrases from Exercise A. Use the correct form:
1) A move towards healthy eating could help _____ heart di
sease.
2) Luckily, it is possible (and actually quite simple) to start
up a business without spending _____ which means with
no starting capital.
3) She knew he wanted her only because she had been
_____.
4) He knows _____ what we want.
5) We said we’d give her the cash, and we must _____to
our agreement.
6) They’re going _____ with the same team as last Saturday.
7) Three fifths expressed as a _____ is 0.6.
8) I can’t agree this is a good job. Actually it is _____.
9) _____, of course, he'd like to have his own business.

63 
 
2. Read the article and do the proposed tasks:
TWO AND A HALF BUDGETING MISTAKES
I’LL NEVER MAKE AGAIN
 This post was published by Ben, Content
Manager and Writer for ReadyForZero.
ReadyForZero is a company that helps people
get out of debt on their own with a simple and
free online tool that can automate and track
your debt paydown.
There are two kinds of people in the world: those who
budget and those who don’t. Actually, I’m sure that’s a much-
too-simple view of the world. But let’s pretend it’s true for the
moment (at least while you read this article).
Anyway, the point is, for most of my life I was one of the
‘Non-Budgeting People’. When I was kid I understood the
concept of a budget in an abstract kind of way, like ‘Oh yeah,
there are spreadsheets and calcula-
tions and you write down numbers
to make sure your money does what
it’s supposed to’. I always figured I
would start budgeting eventually,
but in between all the life events
that happened as I transitioned
from being a kid to a teenager to a
young adult, I never made that leap
to using a budget. And I now realize why that was.
I think what stopped me from becoming one of the
‘Budgeting People’ sooner were the following two and half
mistakes:
Budgeting Mistake #1:
Believing that being frugal is the same as budgeting
I’ve always tried (usually with some degree of success) to
be frugal. At least in the sense that I always did a good job
avoiding any purchases that I didn’t really need and finding
the less expens ive way to do something when possible.
For example, if I had a choice between buying a brand
name pair of jeans or buying one from the discount rack, I’d
64 
 
go for the discount rack. So I figured I was doing
pretty well. But the problem is that even if you’re
being frugal, when you’re not tracking your
spending, it’s still easy for money to slip through
the cracks.
As it turned out, once I finally started budgeting, I no-
ticed that too much money was being taken up by certain
things, such as eating lunch out during the workweek. Only
after getting serious about budgeting (not just frugality) was I
able to identify some of those unnecessary expenses and start
eliminating them.
Budgeting Mistake #2:
Thinking that you have to be perfect to budget
I used to think that budgeting meant accounting for every
cent and never spending a dime on something you weren’t
‘supposed to’ purchase. Since that seemed like an unattaina-
ble standard, I figured maybe budgeting wasn’t for me. If on-
ly I had learned then that budgeting is
helpful precisely when you aren’t able to
be 100 % disciplined.
You can actually include a category
in your budget for ‘fun’ or ‘unexpected’
things. And even if you go over your
budget each month, you’re still better off knowing why – it
gives you the power to change your habits over time and
eventually take more control over your finances. In other
words, I eventually realized you don’t have to be perfect to be
a successful ‘Budgeting Person’.
Budgeting Mistake #2.5:
Assuming it would take lots of time to budget properly
I’m counting this as only half a mistake because it ended
up being partially true. I used to assume that budgeting
would take up so much time that I would get fed up with it
and never stick with it. I envisioned countless hours staring at
a computer screen, entering numbers and decimals into a
mind-numbing spreadsheet.

65 
 
Instead, once I finally got around to trying a budget, I re-
alized it doesn’t take that much time or effort. When you first
start, there is a certain amount of time commitment neces-
sary to go through and write down your expenses and then to
push yourself into the habit of writing things down regularly.
But ultimately, that doesn’t take very much time, espe-
cially after you get in the habit of doing it.
And I guess that’s why I’m now happy as a “Budgeting
Person.”
What about you?
(From: http://blog.readyforzero.com/)

3. Find the antonyms A-L for the words 1-12:


1. frugal L. wasteful
2. tart M. end up
3. avoid N. meet, face
4. purchase O. sale
5. expensive P. worthless
6. eliminate Q. create
7. power R. inability
8. successful S. poor
9. partial T. total
10. countless U. limited
11. expenses V. costs
12. get in W. leave
 
4. Fill in the chart with the derivatives and translate
the words:
NOUN ADJECTIVE
frugal
purchase
expensive
part
precise
power
attainable
vision
countless
66 
 
TEXT 3
1. Find out your attitude towards money:
Answer the questions as honestly as you can for an insight in-
to your financial personality.
CAN YOU MANAGE YOUR MONEY?
1. There’s a party on Saturday night and you want to dress
to impress. You are short of cash. You:
(a) Swap clothes with a friend so that you have something
new to wear
(b) Wear an old favourite
(c) Hit the high street and look for a bargain
(d) Hit the high street with your credit card
2. You go shopping on a Saturday afternoon. You:
(a) Hold out till you get exactly what you are looking for
(b) Shop around to get the best bargain
(c) Try to be sensible but cannot resist temptation
(d) If you see something you like you buy it
3. Your mobile phone credit is running low. You:
(a) Always have money to top up your credit
(b) Use text messages until your credit runs out then top
it up
(c) Have to make do with incoming calls and Wi-Fi until
you get some money
(d) Have a contract – you could not live without your
phone
4. Time to buy new jeans. You:
(a) Buy high street jeans that look expensive but are half
the price of designer jeans
(b) Refuse to pay for a logo and stick to your usual high
street jeans
(c) Look out for designer jeans that are in the sale
(d) Insist on buying a designer label
   

67 
 
5. There is a new games console you want. You:
(a) Have been saving for it since it was announced and
you’ll shop around till you find the best price
(b) Know your parents will give you some cash for your
birthday and will get it then
(c) Look for a good deal but get it on your credit card
(d) Were in the queue the night before it came onto the
high street
6. A relative opened a savings account for you when you
were younger. You:
(a) Transfer the money into a high interest account
(b) Continue to save on a regular basis
(c) Spend some of the money and not really save
(d) Emptied the account years ago
7. How often do you borrow money from friends or family?
(a) They always want to borrow money from you
(b) Never
(c) Occasionally – when you’re strapped for cash
(d) Always – you’ve lost track of how much you owe them
8. You’re fed up – what effect does a shopping trip have on you?
(a) You would never go shopping just because you feel
upset
(b) You are too upset to think about shopping
(c) Buying a few things would distract you for a while
(d) Shopping makes everything better
9. You’ve arranged to go for night out with your mates, it’s
nearly the end of term and money’s tight. You:
(a) Make your apologies and not go
(b) Suggest you get some cans and have a night at your
place
(c) Get some cash out on your credit card, you cannot let
your mates down
(d) Arrange to go places you can use your credit card be-
cause you’re getting the first round for all your mates
and probably a few more...

68 
 
10. What sums up your aim in life when it comes to money?
(a) This time next year you’ll be a millionaire
(b) Save and plan for a rainy day
(c) Spend today and worry tomorrow
(d) Buy what you want when you want it

Your financial personality


Did you answer mostly (a), (b), (c) or (d)? Check the an-
swers below to see your attitude towards money:
Mostly (a)
You make your money work for you and you are clever
with your finances. Your aim is to make lots of money.
Mostly (b)
You are planned and controlled when money is con-
cerned. Unexpected expenses cause you concern, so you are
happy when you have money saved for a rainy day.
Mostly (c)
You tend to live for today but worry for tomorrow. You
often get tempted, but a little planning and budgeting will
help you.
Mostly (d)
Where to start?! You borrow constantly and lose track of
your finances. You shop beyond your means. Your carefree
approach to spending will lead you to debt, time to take con-
trol and make some serious adjustments.
(From: https://www.york.ac.uk)

6. Read the following word combinations from the


text and translate them into Russian:
swap clothes with a friend; hit the high street; to resist temp-
tation; to run low; to make do; games console; on a regular
basis; to empty the account; to lose track of; to be fed up; to
arrange to go for night out; to get some cans; to let your ma-
tes down; to get the first round; for a rainy day.

69 
 
7. Find English equivalents for the following Russian
words/phrases in the text:
(вам) не хватает наличности; удачная сделка; сдержи-
ваться; прицениваться; пополнить кредит (баланс); про-
даваться за полцены; продаваться на распродаже; остать-
ся верным чему-либо; купить на свои деньги; открыть
сберегательный счет; перевести деньги на счет; брать
деньги в долг у друзей; не иметь никакой наличности; от-
влечь (внимание); денег не хватает; подвести итог.

8. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions where neces-


sary:
1) Look out _____ designer jeans that are _____ the sale.
2) Insist _____ buying a designer label.
3) Look _____ a good deal but get it _____ your credit
card.
4) How often do you borrow money ____ friends or family?
5) Shop _____ to get the best bargain.
6) Refuse to pay _____ a logo and stick _____ your usual
high street jeans.
7) Transfer the money _____ a high interest ac-
count.
8) Get some cash _____ _____ your credit
card, you cannot let your mates _____ .
9) Buy high street jeans that look expensive but are _____
half the price of designer jeans.

9. Study the idiomatic expressions related to finance


with their explanations. Translate the phrases
into Russian:
1. chicken feed – an amount of money considered small or
unimportant.
2. ill-gotten gains – money, profit or benefits that are
made in a dishonest or illegal manner.
3. money for jam – a very easy way of earning money.
4. money spinner – If an activity is a money spinner, it is a
very successful way of making money.

70 
 
5. on a shoestring – If you do something on a shoe-
string, you do it with very little money.
6. make a go of – When you make a go of something, you
succeed in your enterprise or produce good results.

10. Complete each sentence with one of the


expressions above:
1) I got a job during the holidays but the pay was _____.
2) Washing cars was quite a _____ when I was a student.
3) When I was a student I lived _____.
4) He opened a restaurant and worked hard to _____ it.
5) All you’ve got to do is hand out brochures. It’s _____!
6) He won money by cheating and is now enjoying his ____.

11. Study the phrasal verbs related to money.


Translate them into Russian:
1. To get by – to have just enough money for
what you need in life.
2. To mark down – to reduce the price.
3. To splash out on – to spend freely on some-
thing without worrying about it.
4. To chip in – to contribute some money with other people.
5. To fork out/over – to pay for something you would rather
not have to pay for.
6. To dip into savings – this means to go into your savings
account and take a bit of money out.
71 
 
7. To pay something off – this means to completely pay a
loan or debt.

12. Translate the following sentences using the


phrasals from above: 
1. Сейчас распродажа, и это пальто уценили на 40 %.
Беги и насладись удачной покупкой!
2. Она часто берет деньги из своих собственных сбереже-
ний, когда ей не хватает купить то или другое.
3. Что с ним происходит? Он всегда такой экономный, а
сегодня кутит!
4. Сегодня я полностью выплатил свой студенческий
кредит. Поздравьте меня!
5. У моей девушки юбилей, и мне придется раскоше-
литься на бриллиантовый подарок.
6. Нашей фирме не выжить без машины. Давайте ски-
немся и купим подержанную иномарку.
7. Ей никак не удавалось укладываться в зарплату.

TEXT 4
1. Discuss:
 How can you get your financial solutions?
 Where could good financial advice come from?
 Do you feel that it is necessary to start saving money
from a young age? Why/Why not?

2. Vocabulary
A. Study the text vocabulary:
1. to encourage – воодушевлять, поддерживать
2. cautious – осмотрительный, осторожный
3. rush – спешка
4. concepts – понятия, идеи
5. to bear – производить, приносить
6. to run up – увеличивать, накапливать
7. to prolong – продлевать, продолжать
8. to flatter – льстить, приукрашивать
9. to play down – умалять, приуменьшать
72 
 
10. claim – требование, претензия (по гарантии)
11. to tempt – привлекать, соблазнять
12. property – собственность
13. share – зд. акция
14. investment – капиталовложение
15. to generate – порождать, производить
16. income – доход
17. debt – долг
18. debit card – расходная дебетовая карточка
19. to lend – давать взаймы, ссужать деньги под проценты
20. to borrow – брать взаймы, получать ссуду
21. interest – зд. проценты
22. grand total – общая сумма, суммарный итог
23. to be caught in a trap – быть пойманным в ловушку
24. to owe – быть должным, задолжать
25. profit – выгода, прибыль
26. at one’s expense – за чей-либо счет
27. loan – ссуда, кредит, займ
28. term – зд. условие
29. a bank deposit account – депозитный счет в банке (вклад)
30. insurance – страхование, страховка
31. asset protection – обеспечение сохранности активов
32. retirement – выход на пенсию/ в отставку
33. to outweigh – превосходить, перевешивать
34. consequence – последствие
35. while – зд. затраченные усилия и время
36. deceptive – лживый, вводящий в заблуждение
37. prevent – предотвращать
38. unpredictable – непредсказуемый

B. Do the exercises:
1. What do the words and phrases mean? Choose a,
b or c.
1. rush 6. prolong
a. time a. extend
b. way b. decrease
c. hurry c. experience

73 
 
2. concepts 7. flatter
a. ideas a. treat fairly
b. proplems b. give gifts to
c. expressions c. praise incincerely
3. bear 8. play down
a. eat a. joke about
b. produce b. lower
c. own c. minimise the
importance of
4. run up 9. claim
a. buy a. demand for money
b. accumulate b. payment
c. pay c. complaint

5. income 10. unpredictable


a. money you a. hard to anticipate it
borrow from a b. hard to believe it
bank c. hard to change it
b. money you earn
for work
c. money you lend
others

2. Complete these sentences using a suitable word


combination from those in the box:
monthly income interest rate
personal property
our own expense bank deposit account

1. My _____ is hardly enough to cover my expenses so I


have to stick to a tight budget to make end meet.
2. Borrowing money from a bankmay seem like a good idea
but the _____ is so high that you always end up paying a
lot more than you borrowed.
3. A(n) _____ does notonly keep your money safe but you
also earn some interest on it.
4. We were supposed to provide safety equipment at _____.

74 
 
5. The term _____ is used to describe consumer goods such
as cars, household and personal items, industrial or farm-
ing equipment.

3. Read the text below quickly. Why was it written?


a. to give teenagers information about credit cards
b. to encourage teenagers to be more cautious with money
c. to advise teenagers on how to best spend their money

4. Read the text again and do the proposed tasks:

TEN OF THE BEST MONEY TIP$


FOR TEENAGERS
Money is a passport to an easier
and more comfortable life, says
Jonathan Self, so it pays to learn
how to deal with it. Here are 10 tips
from his book The Teenager's Guide
to Money.
1. The sooner you start managing your money,
the richer you’ll be
When you are young it is quite tempting to think there is
no rush to manage your money; it is easy to imagine that you
have plenty of time. But the longer you leave it the more diffi-
cult it will be. Suppose you want to have savings of £10,000
on your 30th birthday:
You could save 78p a day from the age of 13
You could save £4.47 a day from the age of 25
You could save £27 a day from the age of 29
Every day counts when it comes to making the most of
your money, and it is never too early to begin.
2. It isn’t just about money
Shopping well isn’t just about saving your money; it is
about saving your time. Suppose, for example, that you earn
£3 an hour looking after your neighbour’s children. If you
spend £15 on a CD in a record shop when you could have
brought the same CD in a supermarket for £9, then you aren’t
just wasting £6. You are wasting two hours of your time (two
75 
 
hours at £3 an hour = £6). Time you might prefer to spend
doing something else.
3. What is capital? What is income?
One of the most important money concepts is to under-
stand the difference between "capital" and "income". Capital
is something – it could be money, a property, shares or some
other investment – that generates an income for whoever
owns it.
A good way to remember the difference is to think of a
fruit tree. The tree itself is the "capital". The fruit is produces
is the "income". You continue to own the tree (capital) and it
continues to bear fruit (income) every year. Your wage or sal-
ary is the income that comes from the capital of your labour –
hence the expression "human capital". Money is not just
money – it is either capital or income.
4. If in doubt, just say no
Credit cards are an expensive way to borrow money. The
big risk with a credit card is that you will run up large debts
that you have no way of paying off. If
you need to borrow money, there are
much cheaper ways to do it. And if you
don’t want to carry cash when you go
shopping, use a debit card. Don’t let the
banks fool you into taking a credit card
out. Unless you have a real need, just say no.
5. When you borrow, you are kissing goodbye to
"future" income
When you borrow, what you are doing is giving away
some or all of your future income. Let’s say you borrow £250
at 12 % interest and repay it over 36 months. What you are
giving the lender is £9.44 of your monthly income for the
next three years. What you are paying for this privilege is a
grand total of £90 in interest.
6. Don’t get caught in the minimum-payment trap
Lenders want you to repay them. Wrong. The last thing
most lenders want is for you to pay back the money you owe
them. Why would they, when they can make massive profits
at your expense? This is why lenders frequently set very low

76 
 
minimum monthly payments. By making sure that most of
what you repay them is interest (and not the debt itself), they
can prolong the agony for you and increase the profits for them-
selves. Nothing makes lenders so happy as a customer who falls
into the minimum-payment trap.
7. The language lenders use to make you feel special
Lenders use language to great effect to make borrowers
borrow more. To begin with, they
flatter their customers by telling
them that they have been "specially
selected" or are in some other way
honoured to be offered a particular
loan. Then they play down the ex-
pense of the loan with expressions
such as "low cost" and "value for money". Finally, they focus
not on the interest rate or term but on the monthly payments,
which they will describe as being "easy" and "convenient".
8. You control the risk
Not the best way to invest your money. One of the first
questions every investor has to ask him – or herself is: how
much risk am I willing to take? In general, the more cautious
you are, the less reward (or profit) you can expect. Whereas,
if you are willing to take a greater risk, you will be in with the
chance of a much higher reward.
A bank deposit account is not at all risky. But your reward
will only be a small amount of interest every year. Gambling on
a horse, on the other hand, is very risky. If it loses the race, you
lose all you money. But if it wins, you could make a huge profit.
9. Insurance doesn’t provide total cover
It would be very rare for anyone making a claim on their
insurance to receive every penny they ask for. This is because
most policies have something called an "excess". This is an
amount of money that the insurance company expects you to
pay if there is a claim. Suppose your excess is £100. If you put
in a successful claim for £500 of damage, you will get £400 –
that’s £500 less the £100 excess. The bigger the excess, the
less expensive the insurance.

77 
 
You should also be aware that an insurance company’s
idea of what a car is worth and your own may differ. If you
make a claim, expect at best to receive the car’s "market val-
ue", which is the same as its second-hand value. If you want
to insure your car for what you paid for it (a good idea if
you’ve borrowed money to buy it), you can take out some-
thing called guaranteed asset protection (Gap) insurance.
10. Don’t be an ostrich
If you want to build up enough wealth to make sure you
can give up work at a reasonable age and never have to worry
about money, then don’t forget about pension planning. And
in particular, don’t act like an ostrich when it comes to the
pensions crisis. To guarantee yourself a comfortable retire-
ment you need to start planning early.
Copyright Guardian News & Media Ltd. 2007
The Teenager’s Guide To Money by Jonathan Self is published by
Quercus Publishing.

5. Answer the questions 1–7. Choose a, b, c or d:


1. What does the author say about money and time?
a. Spending money is always a waste of time.
b. There is no connection between them.
c. There is a strong association between them.
d. There are better things for you to do with your time
than shop.
2. The author uses the example of a fruit tree to illustrate
a. the similarity existing between capital and income.
b. that capital produces income just as a tree produces
fruit.
c. that capital is like the fruit of a tree.
d. the ephemeral nature of income
3. According to the text, which one of these statements is
true?
a. There is a low risk involved in borrowing money be-
cause you can always pay it back later.
b. Credit cards ensure that you do not run up large debts.
78 
 
c. Debit cards are better than credit cards if you do not
wish to carry cash around.
d. Credit cards are an inexpensive way of borrowing money.
4. According to the text, what is true about borrowing money?
a. It is synonymous to losing a percentage of your future
earnings.
b. The privilege of borrowing it far outweighs the negative
consequences of paying it back.
c. The interest you pay makes it worth your while.
d. It is worth it because you have money when you need it.
5. What does the author say about the low minimum month-
ly payment system?
a. It makes borrowing worth your while.
b. It is a privilege that only ‘specially selected’ customers
have.
c. It is used by lenders to help you pay back the money you
owe them.
d. It is designed to make a profit for lenders.
6. What point does the author make about the language
used in the lending process?
a. It is deceptive.
b. It assists effective communication.
c. It aims to prevent the building of miscon-
ceptions.
d. It is convenient and easy to use.
7. The writer uses the example about horse racing to illustrate
a. his approval of investments such as this.
b. the unpredictable nature of high-risk investments.
c. that investments such as this are wise because they
bring greater profits.
d. the necessity of high-risk investments.

6. Discuss:
 Which of the tips mentioned in the text do you consider
most useful? Why?

79 
 
III. LISTENING
1.
A. Listen to the speaker and fill in the gaps:
CREDIT CARDS
Many years ago I read that credit cards were 1) _________
the future. Credit card companies were 2) __________
plastic would replace cash. Well, this hasn’t happened. People
3) __________ notes and coins. The Internet has in-
creased 4) __________ credit cards, but many people
worry about putting their card details online. Lots of personal
info 5) __________ fake sites pretending to be famous
banks or online stores. Personally, I love credit cards. I al-
ways 6) __________ by card than by cash. When you use
your card, you 7) __________ and every six months you
can 8) __________ for presents. I do worry about credit
card security. I keep waiting to see a 9) __________ on
my statement that 10) __________ .

B. Ask five different type questions about credit


cards.
4.
A. Listen to the speaker and fill in the gaps:
MONEY
‘Money makes 1) _________’. I wonder if this famous
English expression is very true. If you have money, the world
goes 2) __________ and you are happy. If you don’t have
money, the world might not go 3) _________. They also
say that ‘money is 4) __________’. I think this is so true.
Money makes people kill and steal. Greed means there are
things in the world like blackmail, corruption, slave labour
5) ________ terrible things. Another common saying in
English is ‘money can’t buy happiness’. I’m 6) _________
this one. I know if I had loads of money I’d be pretty happy. I
think if all the world’s money 7) __________, the world
would go round more happily, and there would
8) __________ happiness.

80 
 
B. Ask five different type questions about money.

5. You are going to listen to


some interviews about mates
and money – how to be on
your personal budget while
studying far from your par-
ents.

Before you listen.


A. Study the words and phrases:
a strain on the pocket – тяжелое финансовое бремя
afford – позволять себе
Boxing Day – День рождественских подарков
cost of living – прожиточный минимум
encounter – неожиданно встретиться
impulse buy – спонтанная покупка
to loot – грабить
on a tight budget – стесненный в средствах
Student Union – студенческий клуб
tips – зд. полезная информация, подсказки
trendy – ультрамодный
in terms of – что касается
expenses – расходы, затраты
entry fee – плата за вход

B. Use the words and phrases in the table to com-


plete the sentences below.
a. a strain on the e. encounter i. Student
pocket Union

b. afford f. impulse buy j. tips

c. Boxing Day g. loot k. trendy

d. cost of living h. on a tight budget

81 
 
1. If you ________ something or someone, you discover
it/them unexpectedly.
2. ________ are useful pieces of information.
3. The ________ is the amount of money someone needs to
live on.
4. If you can ________ something you have enough money
to pay for it.
5. If something is more than you can usually afford we say
this is ________ .
6. The ________ is a place on campus that hosts student
services such as a canteen, bar, lounge, health facilities etc.
7. If you don't have much available income to spend we say
that you are ________ .
8. ________ means fashionable or up with the latest ideas.
9. ________ is the day after Christmas day. In the UK most
shops have a sale which begins on this day.
10.If you _______ something, you steal or obtain it illegally.
11. An ________ in which you have a sudden desire to buy
something that you see in a shop.

Listen to the interviews.


Do the task:
Put the experiences and tips about student money in
the order you hear them:
Even though you go out a lot, you can save money by not
buying alcohol or tobacco.

If you study away from home, you have to pay for accom-
modation, study materials and entertainment.

It is possible to spend most of your money getting to and


from university.

London is great because of the diversity of people you can


meet.

Try not to buy things suddenly without thinking.

82 
 
You can earn extra money by giving lessons.

You can save money by buying clothes from your home


country.

You can watch films at home instead of going to the cinema.

IV. WRITING
1. A. Comment on the following English proverbs.
Find Russian equivalents:
Those who save – have; those who have – get.
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
He who pays the piper calls the tune.
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
When poverty comes in at the door, love flies out of the win-
dow.
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

B. Comment on the following statements:


‘Cheops’ Law: Nothing ever gets built on schedule or
within budget’.
― Robert A. Heinlein
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
‘Don’t tell me what you value, show me your budget,
and I’ll tell you what you value’.
― Joe Biden
_____________________________________

83 
 
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
‘We must consult our means rather than our wishes’.
― George Washington
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_________________________________________
‘It’s easier to feel a little more spiritual with a couple
of bucks in your pocket’.
― Craig Ferguson
_____________________________________
__________________________________________

‘The quickest way to double your money is to fold it in


half and put it in your back pocket’.
― Will Rogers
_____________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

‘Finances flow along the lines of relationships in the


kingdom of God’.
― Fred C. White
_____________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

If you won a prize in a competition and you could


buy three things for $500 each. What would you buy
and why?
Write an essay in 200-250 words in an appropriate style.
Use the following plan:
- think about whether the choice would be easy or difficult
- express your personal opinion and give reasons for it
- include reasons for choosing it
- summarise your reasons for choosing these items.

84 
 
2. Create your budget plan!
Designing and sticking to a budget can be a challenge for
anyone, but especially when you’re a college student who’s
had little or no experience managing your own money.
Below there is an example to give you some idea of what
your budget plan can look like.

Student budget item Estimated annual cost

Rental booking fee for NTU Halls of £200


Residence

Standard room with shared facilities £4,074.84


(NTU halls)

TV licence £145.50 (You will only need


one licence per house in pri-
vately shared accommoda-
tion.)

Food, toiletries and household items £1,110

Clothes £420

Travel (local) £336

Books and stationery £250

Socialising (average two nights) £740

Phone (pay as you go) £180

Contents insurance £65

Travel home (six journeys per year, £90


average £15 journey)

Laundry £160

Total £7,771.34 (if you are living


in halls of residence)

Now make up your own budget plan for one academ-


ic year.
85 
 
It is important that you know how much you will be
spending on priority items from the start.
Work out your essentials / priorities such as rent, food,
bills (gas, electric, water, phone) and travel costs in the first
instance.

3. Compare you budget plan with your mate’s one


and with the standard one of a student of the Uni-
versity of Toronto. Which plan is better?

University of Toronto
Sample Student Annual Budget
for typical full-time Arts & Science
student studying September – May
Living Living Living
on Off at
Campus Campus Home
Tuition + Fees
domestic students $6 000 $6 000 $6 000
Tuition + Fees
international stu-
dents $21,344 $21,344 $21,344
Books & Sup-
plies (NOT includ-
ing a computer) $900 $900 $900
Residence $4 500-$7 000 $0 $0
Rent + Utilities $0 $3 200 $0
Food $2 000- $4 000 $2 000 $1 000
Phone $400 $400
Personal Items $400 $400 $400
Bus Pass $0 $800 $800
Clothing $600 $600 $600
Entertainment $800 $800 $800
Laundry $200 $200 $0
TOTAL
domestic students $15 800 – $20 300 $15 300 $10 500
TOTAL
international
students $31,144 – $35,644 $30,644 N/A

86 
 
V. TRANSLATION
A. Translate the following text from Russian into
English in writing:

6 ОСНОВНЫХ ШАГОВ,
КАК РАСПРЕДЕЛИТЬ ДОХОДЫ
Стало известно, что осенью нас ждет финансовый
кризис. Чтобы денег хватало на все, нужно их правиль-
но распределять. Вот 6 шагов, как это сделать.
1. Финансовая независимость – 10 % от любого
дохода. Установите правило: получили зарплату (или
любой другой доход), сразу же отложите 10 % от суммы.
Но важно не просто отложить эти деньги, а не тратить их.
Даже если хочется купить новый телевизор или наконец
позволить себе шубу. Скопленные деньги станут вашим
инструментом для создания собственного капитала.
Деньги можно положить на банковский депозит, купить
пай в ПИФах, акции или недвижимость для дальнейшей
сдачи в аренду. Важно, чтобы эти деньги работали на вас
и приносили пассивный доход.
2. Крупные покупки – 10 % от ежемесячного
дохода. В эту копилку вы будете откладывать деньги на
вещи, стоимость которых не позволяет вам совершить
желаемую покупку сразу. Вот тут как раз можно погово-
рить и о телевизоре, и о шубе, и о ремонте, и об отпуске.
Это поможет вам планировать покупки заранее, избежав
кредитного бремени.
3. Текущие расходы – 55 % от ежемесячного
дохода. Сюда входят коммунальные платежи, расходы
на еду, транспорт, одежду и т.д. Если данная статья заби-
рает у вас более 55 % доходов, то следует подумать над
оптимизацией расходов. А если, наоборот, остаются сво-
бодные деньги, то часть их можно распределить между
другими тратами
4. Самообразование – 10 % от ежемесячного
дохода. В эту статью входят различные курсы, повыше-

87 
 
ние квалификации, семинары, покупка профильной ли-
тературы и т.д. Старайтесь не жалеть деньги на собствен-
ное образование и развитие – эти инвестиции обязатель-
но себя оправдают.
5. Хобби, развлечения и досуг – 10 % от ежеме-
сячного дохода. Позвольте себе тратить эти деньги на
то, что вам доставляет истинное удовольствие. Это может
быть поход в театр или салон красоты, в кино или ресто-
ран, покупка спортивного инвентаря или материалов для
вашего хобби. Не жалейте этих денег, ведь вы зарабаты-
ваете для того, чтобы жить, а не наоборот.
6. Благотворительность – 5 % от ежемесячного
дохода. Всего 5 % – небольшая доля, которую можно без
особых стеснений выделить из своего бюджета, но в то же
время за год набежит ощутимая сумма, которая может
реально помочь кому-либо. Кстати, автор книги «Путь к
финансовой независимости» Бодо Шеффер сделал инте-
ресное наблюдение: «Удивительно, но у людей, жертву-
ющих частью своего дохода на благотворительность, ни-
когда не бывает денежных проблем».
(From: http://sobesednik.ru/)

B. Give a written translation of the text:


Part I
ИСТОЧНИКИ ПАССИВНОГО ДОХОДА
Все источники дохода можно грубо разделить на две
группы – активный доход и пассивный доход.
Активный источник дохода требует постоянного
внимания и участия. Если перестать поддерживать ис-
точник активного дохода, то он исчезнет. Примерами та-
ких доходов могут быть: наемная работа, бизнес, где вы
играете ключевую роль и пр. Если прекратить работать,
то перестанут платить зарплату, если вы прекратить за-
ниматься бизнесом, где вы играете ключевую роль, то
бизнес развалится.

88 
 
Самое интересное то, что всех поголовно обучают со-
здавать активные источники дохода – для этого учат в
школе, потом в институте, потом на курсах повышения
квалификации и даже при получении дополнительных
образований. Учат работать наемниками и продавать
свое время за деньги. Но никто не учит продавать свои
знания и опыт без личного участия. Подобный источник
дохода обладал бы гораздо большим потенциалом, ведь
он не привязан напрямую ко времени. Обладая уникаль-
ными знаниями и опытом, достаточно было бы создать
механизм, который конвертирует ваш профессиональ-
ный опыт в деньги. Далее механизм можно клонировать
сколько угодно раз.
Пассивный источник дохода не требует постоянного
внимания и участия. Он может работать 24 часа в сутки, 7
дней в неделю, 365 дней в году – т.е. всегда, вне зависимо-
сти от того, что вы делаете – спите или бодрствуете, рабо-
таете или отдыхаете. Чтобы прийти к Финансовой свобо-
де, так или иначе, придется освоить искусство создания
пассивных источников дохода. Рассмотрим примеры.
1. Депозит в банке. Вы кладете деньги в банк под
проценты. Плюсы: практически не требует вашей актив-
ности вовсе – главное выбрать правильный банк. Мину-
сы: низкий доход по сравнению с инфляцией (в основном
менее 10 % годовых) при высоких инвестициях.
2. Ценные бумаги (securities). Инвестиции в ак-
ции компаний на фондовых рынках. Так называемые,
Паевые Инвестиционные Фонды (ПИФ). Плюсы: доступ-
ность и относительно высокий доход (в среднем 10-20 %
годовых). Минусы: требует умения грамотно выстраивать
финансовые стратегии долгосрочных инвестиций, требу-
ет дополнительных знаний в сфере экономики.

89 
 
Part II
3. Спекуляция на валюте и акциях. Спекуляция
(bulling) на колебании курсов валют на валютных рынках
(Forex) и котировок акций на фондовых рынках (ПИФ)
(stock markets). Плюсы: при должной автоматизации
процесса, можно получить "быстрый" доход. Минусы: до-
ход и убытки не прогнозируемы, поэтому делать ставку в
основном на этот источник дохода не разумно.
4. Персональный сайт в Интернете. При созда-
нии и раскрутке качественного сайта, он будет являться
генератором Интренет-трафика (т.е. посетителей). Суще-
ствует масса способов конвертировать Интернет-трафик в
деньги (реклама, партнерские программы, сетевой биз-
нес и пр.). Плюсы: постоянный стабильный источник до-
хода, не требующий много времени на поддержание. Ми-
нусы: требует специализированных знаний и высоких
трудозатрат на создание сайта, наполнение содержанием
и раскрутку.
5. Тиражируемые публикации. Отличный при-
мер – написать книгу и получать доход с каждого тиража.
Плюсы: доходы пропорциональны размеру тиража, одну
книгу можно тиражировать много раз. Минусы: наличие
уникальных знаний и навыков писателя, значительное
время и трудозатраты на написание книги, опыт работы с
издательствами.
6. Самодостаточный (self-sufficient) бизнес.
Бизнес, построенный по принципу системы, не требую-
щей вашего непосредственного участия для ее поддержа-
ния. Т.е. начинать бизнес вы можете сами, а потом свой
труд заменяете на чужой (в основном наемный) труд и
становитесь лишь инвестором. Плюсы: возможность
"клонирования" бизнес-системы, т.е. отсутствует потолок
уровня дохода. Минусы: необходимо сочетание уникаль-
ных навыков предпринимателя, управленца, лидера и
специалиста в определенной предметной области. Зача-
стую для создания такого бизнеса требуются хотя бы ми-

90 
 
нимальные регулярные инвестиции на начальном
уровне, т.е. наличие иных стабильных источников дохода.
7. Сдача в аренду (to lease, to rent) недвижимо-
сти. Отличный способ получить стабильный источник
дохода при минимальных временных затратах. Плюсы:
стабильность и прозрачная схема дохода, не требует спе-
циальных навыков. Минусы: нужна недвижимость, цены
на недвижимость зачастую так высоки, что инвестиции в
недвижимость не приносят даже 10 % годовых, которые
можно легко получить, отнеся деньги в надежный банк.
8. Авторские отчисления. У вас (или у ваших ро-
дителей) есть авторские права (copyrights) на какое-то
изобретение. Вы получаете доход с каждого товара или
услуги, использующей это изобретение. Плюсы: стабиль-
ный и не требующий вложений доход. Минусы: для начала
нужно что-то полезное изобрести и запатентовать.

Part III
Рассмотрим инвестиционно-финансовую деятель-
ность. Представьте себе, что вы оптимизировали расход
своих средств и высвободили 100$ в мес. Как говорят,
сэкономленные деньги – это заработанные деньги. Да-
лее вы можете сохранить приумножить эту сумму. Вкла-
дывать их в банк невыгодно, т.к. рост инфляции суще-
ственно выше процентной ставки по вкладам в любом бан-
ке. Более правильно было бы вложить деньги в ценные
бумаги – ПИФ. Вы фактически становитесь акционером
крупных компаний. Если вы разбираетесь в построении
грамотных долгосрочных финансовых стратегий инвести-
рования, то вы без труда сможете зарабатывать в среднем
10-20 % годовых. Не путайте этот вид дохода со спекуляци-
ей на колебании курсов ценных бумаг. При спекуляции
можно много выиграть, но можно и все проиграть. Мы го-
ворим о стабильном и надежном источнике дохода.
К примеру, если бы вы с 1 января 2009г вкладывали
по 100$ в месяц в фонды телекоммуникационных компа-

91 
 
ний, то сейчас ценность ваших активов составила бы
примерно 4125$. Неплохо? Для этого нужно создать себе
банковский счет с дистанционным обслуживанием и
уметь грамотно выстраивать долгосрочные инвестицион-
ные стратегии. Считайте, что это ваши уникальные зна-
ния и опыт, а Инвестиционный рынок – это механизм по
конвертации ваших знаний в деньги.
Если же вы не обладаете знаниями в финансовой
сфере, тогда вперед учиться! По данной тематике суще-
ствует масса литературы и обучающих курсов.
(From: http://freeyourself.ru/income)

92 
 
UNIT III

STUDENT JOB

Choose a job you love, and you will


never have to work a day in your life.
Confucius

93 
 
I. WARM-UP QUESTIONS
 Have you got or have you ever had a job? Doing what?
 What kind of a job do you imagine yourself doing in the fu-
ture? Why?
 What skills/qualities do you think help people get good
jobs?

II. READING
TEXT 1
1. Discuss:
 Having a part-time job for students is a good idea. Do
you agree? Your parents?
 What jobs seem to be most suitable for scholars?

2. Vocabulary
A. Match the words with the definitions:
1. experience A short journey either to take a
message or to take or collect
smth.
2. appreciate B someone’s opinions or feelings
about smth., especially
as shown by their behaviour
3. value C the importance or worth of
smth. for someone
4. errands D to finish something successfully
or to achieve something
5. attitude E a feeling of confidence in some-
one that shows you believe they
are honest, fair, and reliable
6. accomplish F to succeed in doing
or dealing with smth. especial-
ly smth. difficult

94 
 
7. manage G (the process of getting)
knowledge or skill from doing,
seeing or feeling things
8. trust H to recognize how good someone
or smth. is and to value him,
her, or it

B. Complete each sentence with words in Exercise A:


1) People here have a more relaxed _____ to their work
2) I don’t think I can _____ a long walk today.
3) Do you have any _____ of working with kids?
4) There’s no point buying him expensive gifts – he doesn’t
_____ them.
5) I’ll meet you at six, I’ve got some _____ to do/run first.
6) I feel as if I’ve _____ nothing since I left my job.
7) _____ is an important issue between teenagers and
their parents.
8) For them, the house’s main _____ lays in its quiet coun-
try location.

3. Read the text and do the proposed tasks:


GET A JOB!
It is a fact that the younger one is, the less experience one
has. Consequently, it can be far harder to find a job. However,
when young people work, they learn how to appreciate the
value of money and they also are able to learn a lot of the se-
crets of the business world first hand. If you are a teenager
who is looking for a part-time job, what kind of things can
you do? A few of the most common jobs teenagers do are, for
example, working as waiters, shop assistants or bag boys at
supermarkets. Are you too young to get a job like that? Maybe
you could try babysitting, dog walking or running errands for
busy people.
Careers counsellor, Janet Burton, has a word of advice for
teen job hunters. ‘If you look at a job as an opportunity to
learn, you will be able to earn money and gain experience,
too. On the other hand, many teenagers just say ‘I hate work-
95 
 
ing here,’ and close their eyes to opportunity. Unless they
change their attitude, there is no way that they are going to
accomplish anything’.
Parents might wonder ‘Is it a good idea for high-school
students to work when they already have enough to do at
school?’ Well, the way I see it, they shouldn’t worry too much
about that. It’s not so hard to manage as you may think. Trust
your kids! If they felt they couldn’t manage both, they certain-
ly would not do it.
So, all you teenagers out there, bear in mind that lots of
millionaires started working in their teens! You never know
how things might turn out. Give it a shot! Get a job!

Sam Morrison, 18, is a year 11


student at Trinity Grammar who
works at Coles while completing
his final years at high school and
just purchased his first car with his
earnings.

4. Answer the questions:


1. What advantages are mentioned in the text?
2. Is there any practical advice given?
3. What is the author’s conclusion?

5. Ask questions to the underlined words and


phrases:
1. However, when young people work, they learn how to ap-
preciate the value of money and they also are able to learn
a lot of the secrets of the business world first hand.
2. On the other hand, many teenagers just say ‘I hate work-
ing here,’ and close their eyes to opportunity.
3. Unless they change their attitude, there is no way that they
are going to accomplish anything.

96 
 
TEXT 2
1. Discuss:
 About 40 per cent of adults do not believe children
should combine part-time employment while complet-
ing high school. What arguments may they offer?
 Some experts consider them overprotective parents
who are wrapping their children in cotton wool by fail-
ing to encourage them to have part-time jobs while at
school. What are their points?

2. Vocabulary
A. Study the words and phrases and translate them
into Russian:
1. approach – herein, the fact of coming closer in time or
in distance
2. to accept – herein, to allow someone to join an organization
3. beneficial – helpful, useful, or good
4. minority – a smaller number or part
5. to put in – to spend a particular amount of time doing
something, or to make a particular amount of effort in
order to do something
6. to keep / be on track – doing or saying things that are
likely to be successful or correct
7. to stretch – if jobs or tasks stretch you, they make you
learn new things that use your skill and experience more
than before
8. to miss out – to fail to use an opportunity to enjoy or get
an advantage from something
9. to overwhelm – to affect someone’s emotions in a very
powerful way
10. appropriate – suitable or right for a particular situation
or occasion
11. well-rounded – involving or having experience in a wide
range of ideas or activities

97 
 
B. Find the synonyms A-L for the words 1-12:
1. responsibility A. burden
2. attendance B. load
3. grades C. obligation
4. pressure D. participation
5. amount E. proper
6. employer F. ballanced
7. rapidly G. enter
8. appropriate H. demanding
9. overwhelming I. marks
10. well-rounded J. agenda
11. schedule K. speedily
12. be accepted L. entrepreneur

3. Read the article with two students’ opinion and do


the proposed tasks:

HEAD2HEAD – STUDENTS
SHOULDN’T HAVE PART-TIME JOBS
Written by Janna Wing’12
Having a job takes a lot of time,
effort, and responsibility. During the
school year, your focus should be on
your studies. As your senior year ap-
proaches, having great grades, at-
tendance, and involvement in extracurricular activities are
important in getting accepted into colleges. Student’s grades
easily start dropping when the work load increases.
Although jobs could be beneficial, high school is a busy
time in a student’s life and managing time can be very difficult
when dealing with the pressure of a job on top of school work.
As students strive to find a part time job during high
school they usually believe that they will work a limited

98 
 
amount of hours a week, but what they don’t realize is, as a
minority, the employers often pressure them to put in more
hours a week. During holidays, stores begin to also increase
work load and as the stores get busy they will make the em-
ployees do a lot of extra hours to keep everything on track.
With their already busy schedules filling up quickly, the time
that students need for school work is decreasing rapidly. Stu-
dents need to see that they are only part-time workers. Is it
really worth getting a job that has low pay and requires little
skill that does not stretch them mentally and teaches them lit-
tle compared to school?
High school is much more then lessons. The best times of
high school take place after school. The time that is not spent
doing hours of school work should be spent hanging with
friends, family and going to school events. We are still young
and should enjoy our childhoods before we have to enter the
real world where work is necessary. Having a part-time job
will make you miss out on these opportunities and memories
that can’t be remade.
A part-time job during the school year can be too over-
whelming. During the summer would be a more appropriate
time. Grades are too important for college. Students need
time to experience life, grow up and become well-rounded in-
dividuals. Having a job can feel as if your being pushed into
the world of work way too quickly.
(From: http://barkonline.blogspot.ru)

4. List the reasons of these authors in brief:


1. _____________________________________
2. _____________________________________
3. _____________________________________
4. _____________________________________

99 
 
5. In the article find the English equivalents to the
following Russian phrases:
1) выпускной класс
2) сосредотачивать внимание на чем-либо
3) поступить в колледж
4) общественные мероприятия
5) посещаемость
6) нагрузка возрастает
7) быть выгодным
8) справляться с давлением
9) ограниченное рабочее время
10) поддерживать на должном уровне
11) плотный график
12) стремительно снижаться
13) проводить время с друзьями
14) упускать возможности
15) подходящее время
16) быть непомерным
17) получать жизненный опыт
18) всесторонне образованный человек
19) выталкивать кого-либо в мир

TEXT 3
1. Vocabulary
A. Match the words and phrases with the expla-
nations and translate them:
1. paycheck A start to think that something is
normal or natural because you
have experienced it regularly over a
period of time
2. counterpart B an amount of money that a person,
business or country borrows, esp.
from a bank
3. boost C disapprove of something
4. loan D improve or increase something

100 
 
5. frivolous E a false reason that you give to ex-
plain why you do something
6. excuse F lacking any real purpose or im-
portance

7. frown upon G a person or thing that has the same


purpose as another one in a differ-
ent place or organization
8. be accustomed to H the amount of money a person earns
 
B. Complete each sentence with one of the words or
phrases from Exercise A. Use the correct form:
1) It’s easy to go on expensive holidays when you have a
_____ the size of hers.
2) I’ve worked nights for years now so I’ve grown _____
to it.
3) The theatre managed to
_____ its audiences by cutting ticket prices
4) I feel like doing something completely _____ today.
5) The new model is vastly better than its 2014 _____.
6) Smoking is _____ in many societies.
7) She’s trying to get a $50,000 _____ to start her
own business.
8) You’re always making _____ for not helping me.

2. Read the text below and translate it into Russian.


Do the proposed tasks:

WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS


OF PART-TIME JOBS FOR STUDENTS?
by Darlena Cunha, Demand Media
Holding a job during college teaches responsibility.
Taking on a part-time job while pursuing a degree is hard
work, but the benefits are typically greater than the amount
of a paycheck. Students who work during their college careers
may have better time-management skills than their counter-

101 
 
parts. They must understand responsibility and
apply it to their daily lives. They earn money
that can be used for fun or for tuition, while
gaining experience in the workplace that will be
attractive to future employers after graduation.
Money
Simply put, students who hold down part-time jobs will
have more money than they would have otherwise. As they
come into adulthood, earning an income can boost their con-
fidence and allow them to have some fun within the limits of
their paychecks. Some students need to work through school
to afford tuition. Others will set the money aside to pay back
student loans. Still, the money will be theirs to spend as they
wish, and they may appreciate it more because they worked
for it.
Budgeting
Students earning their own money get les-
sons on spending wisely. They may be less likely
to spend their hard-earned money frivolously
and learn to delay gratification to pay for neces-
sities, such as text books and rent. At the same
time, they can save for non-essential purchases,
such as a car.
Time Management
Students taking on a job on top of their studies will have
less free time than non-working students. When working stu-
dents have to measure out their time, they tend to be better
planners as they make sure they complete every task expected
of them on deadline. They learn to weigh their priorities,
sometimes skipping fun activities to finish their responsibili-
ties. This prepares them for life after school when excuses
and tardy work will be frowned upon.
Experience
Often, students work jobs that introduce them to their
preferred career after school is over. This allows them to gain
important introductory experience in the business and begin
networking with those in that field. Even students who work

102 
 
in places not connected to their majors will look more im-
pressive to potential employers. They’ll have some kind of
work experience on their resumes to start, and the fact that
they’ve been able to hold a job while a school attests to their
level of maturity, responsibility and time management. Em-
ployers look for employees who understand the work envi-
ronment and work well as part of a team. Having a part-time
job shows that the student is at least somewhat accustomed
to the professional world, which will make the transition that
much easier.
(From: http://work.chron.com)

3. Find the synonyms A-I for the words 1-9:


1. benefit A. unnecessary
2. confidence B. certainty
3. non-essential C. experience
4. priorities D. verify
5. attest E. enjoyment
6. gratification F. time limit
7. deadline G. hop
8. maturity H. advantage
9. skip I. preferences
 
4. Fill in the chart with the derivatives and translate
the words:
NOUN ADJECTIVE
benefit
essential
priority
confident
maturity
accustomed
gratification

103 
 
5. Answer the questions:
1. What aspects of life does part-time employment benefit in? 
2. How does part-time job gain you
experience?
3. What character traits are considered to
be mature?
4. How can a student job contrubute to a
person’s future career?

6. Study the idiomatic expressions related to busi-


ness and work with their explanations. Translate the
phrases into Russian:
1. carve out a niche – a person or company who carves out
a niche concentrates on a particular segment of the mar-
ket, to which they supply a product or service, and develop
their expertise in that area.
2. too many chiefs, not enough Indians – this expres-
sion refers to a situation where there are too many people
giving instructions and not enough people doing the work.
3. make cold calls – if you make cold calls, you telephone
potential customers from a list of people you do not know.
4. eager beaver – the term eager beaver refers to a person
who is hardworking and enthusiastic, sometimes consid-
ered overzealous.
5. foot in the door – to say that someone has a foot in the
door means that they have a small but successful start in
something and will possibly do well in the future.

7. Complete each sentence with one of the


expressions above:
1) In today’s competitive market it is better to _____ and try
to become the best in that area.
2) The new accountant works all the time – first to arrive
and last to leave. He’s a real _____!
3) The business wasn’t successful. There were _____.
4) With today’s unemployment, it is difficult to get a _____
in any profession.
5) In my first job I had to ___ using the telephone directory.

104 
 
8. Make up your own sentences with one of the idi-
oms above.

TEXT 4
1. Discuss:
 You have discussed the advantages and disadvantages of
having a part-time job for students who are employees.
And what does it look like from the point of view of em-
ployers – businessmen recruiting staff?

2. Vocabulary
A. Read the phrases with their explanations and
translate them into Russian:
1) overtime pay – compensation for extra hours that some-
one works at their job
2) to buy in – acceptance of and willingness to actively sup-
port and participate in something
3) temporarily – for a limited period of time only
4) a customer-driven organization – a business focused on
delighting customers through offerings available when and
where they need them (клиенто-ориентированная орга-
низация)
5) designate – to give someone or something a particular
name, title, or description
6) commitment – enthusiasm for something and a determi-
nation to work hard at it
7) attachment – the process of fixing one thing to another
8) retirement benefit – a monthly payment made to some-
one who is officially old enough to stop working

3. Below there is an article by one of the experts in


the field. Read the text and do the proposed tasks:
About the Author
Neil Kokemuller has been an active business, finance and education
writer and content media website developer since 2007. He has been a
105 
 
college marketing professor since 2004. Kokemuller has additional
professional experience in marketing, retail and small business. He
holds a Master of Business Administration from Iowa State University.

ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES


OF A PART-TIME EMPLOYEES
Part-timers working more than 40 hours in a
week qualify for state-required overtime pay.
Small businesses, along with many larger com-
panies, make regular use of part-time employees.
Part-time employees usually work less than full-
time employees and may work anywhere from a
few hours up to 40 hours per work, though this is
typically not a guarantee with part-time em-
ployment. Some states designate 35 hours or less
as part-time employment. Part-time employees
offer businesses many advantages over full-time
employees, but also pose some disadvantages.
Costs
One of the most recognized benefits of using part-time em-
ployees is lower costs. Companies typically pay part-time em-
ployees an hourly wage and can schedule them for whatever
number of hours the company desires. Additionally, part-
time employees often receive no benefits. Even those that
work a lot may qualify only for retirement benefits. This lack
of benefits saves companies significantly when compared to
the total compensation packages paid to full-time or regular
employees.
Flexibility
A second key benefit of using part-time workers is flexibility.
The company has no obligation to schedule part-timers for 40
hours a week if the workload does not require it. Thus, man-
agers only need to schedule when work is needed. Workers
and the company often like the flexibility of part-time sched-
uling from the standpoint that it allows for work on varying

106 
 
days and times. Many businesses use part-time workers to fill
evening and weekend hours not covered by full-time workers.
Commitment
A common drawback of part-time workers is their lack of
commitment relative to full-time workers. Full-time workers
that rely on the consistent income and benefits typically buy
in to the organization more strongly and feel a deeper at-
tachment. Part-time workers usually have less commitment
because they spend less time at the company and find it easi-
er to leave because of the lack of full-time income and bene-
fits. Thus, losing part-timers to other jobs is more common.
Knowledge
Part-time workers, especially those that work more temporarily
or seasonally, usually have less knowledge and familiarity with
the company because they work less. This can affect employee
performance on both tasks and service. Customer-driven or-
ganizations may notice less successful sales and service with
part-time employees that do not become as familiar with ap-
proaches to selling and servicing the needs of the company’s
customers. Training can help offset these issues, but part-
timers take longer to gain experience than full-time workers.
(From: http://smallbusiness.chron.com)

4. Find the synonyms A-L for the words/phrases 1-12:


1. designate A. outweigh
2. wage B. awareness
3. costs C. determine
4. compensation D. salary
5. obligation E. duty
6. standpoint F. connection
7. commitment G. bonus
8. consistent H. steady

107 
 
9. attachment I. payments
10. familiarity J. pension
11. offset K. viewpoint
12. retirement benefit L. engagement

5. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions where neces-


sary: 
1. Small businesses, _____ with many larger companies,
make regular use _____ part-time employees.
2. 40 hours _____work is not a guarantee _____ part-time
employment.
3. Companies can schedule part-timers _____ desirable
number of hours.
4. Part-timers working more than 40 hours _____ a week
qualify _____ state-required overtime pay.
5. This lack _____benefits saves _____ com-
panies significantly.
6. Many businesses use part-time workers to fill
evening and weekend hours not covered
_____ full-time workers.
7. Full-time workers that rely _____ the con-
sistent income and benefits typically buy _____ to the or-
ganization more strongly and feel _____ a deeper at-
tachment.
8. Losing part-timers _____ other jobs is more common.
9. Temporarily working part-time employees have less
knowledge and familiarity _____ the company because
they work less.

TEXT 5
1. Discuss:
 Do you think some people get paid too much?
 Which jobs do you think should be the highest paying
ones?
 If you had to choose between a low-paying job which
gave you lots of satisfaction and a high-paying job which
was very stressful, which job would you choose and why?
108 
 
2. Vocabulary
A. Fill in the chart with the derivatives and translate
the words:
NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE
satisfaction
valid/ invalid
consider
consequent
encourage
remuneration

3. Read the essay below and circle the correct linking


words/ phrases:
A question that people are commonly asked about career
choices is whether the pay or job satisfaction is more im-
portant. (1) Although / As a matter of fact the issues this
question raises seem valid, I would like to point out that I
consider this a false dilemma.
(2) First of all/ However, it is obvious that these two fac-
tors go hand in hand. (3) Therefore / For example, if you are
satisfied with your pay, you are more likely to be happy with
your job than if you feel you are underpaid. Conversely, no
matter how much you are paid, if you dislike the job you are
doing, it is difficult to be happy with it. (4) On the whole /
Consequently the one factor leads to the other in either case.
(5) What is more/ For instance, I think it is misleading to
suggest that this is an ‘either or’ question. (6) Nonetheless
/In fact, I believe people should be encouraged to seek both
adequate remuneration and a sense of satisfaction from the
job they decide to do. (7) All the same / Thus, what will be
gained is a better balance all round.
(8) Furthermore / Nevertheless, if one is actually faced
with the dilemma of having to choose one or the other, it is a
difficult choice to make. (9) All in all/ As a result, I would say
that it is a choice that requires one to take their own personality
into consideration and to weigh the pros and cons as well.
(From: Traveller)

109 
 
4. To what extent do you agree with the author?

5. Study the idiomatic expressions related to


business and work with their explanations.
Translate the phrases into Russian:
1. tricks of the trade – this term refers to a clever or ex-
pert way of doing things, especially in a job.
2. wear many hats – someone who wears many hats has to
do many different types of tasks or play a variety of roles.
3. donkey work – this expression is used to describe the
unpleasant, repetitive or boring parts of a job.
4. do the spadework – someone who does the spade-
work does the preparatory work or the preliminary re-
search.
5. cash cow – a product or service which is a regular source
of income for a company is called a cash cow.
6. keep head above water – to keep one's head above wa-
ter means to try to survive by staying out of debt, for ex-
ample a small business.

6. Complete each sentence with one of the


expressions above:
1) He’s a tough negotiator; he knows all the _____.
2) Business has been slow, but we’ve managed to _____.
3) Although I did all the spadework, my name was never
mentioned.
4) I do the _____ – my boss gets the credit!
5) His latest invention turned out to be a real _____.
6) Our company is small so the employees need to be flexible
and accept to _____.

7. Study the phrasal verbs related to work and


business. Translate them into Russian:
1. To get ahead is to be successful in your work or your life.
2. To knuckle down is to start to work or study very hard.
3. To measure up is to be good enough; to have the necessary
abilities, skills or qualities.

110 
 
4. To pick up If something picks up, it increases or improves
after a slow start or a bad period.
5. To be snowed under is to be overwhelmed: to have too
much work to do.
6. To team up is to join another person, or group, in order to
do something together.
7. To take over something/something over is to start doing
something that someone else was responsible for before
you.

8. Translate the following sentences using the phrasals


from above:
1) Их новый бизнес медленно начинался, но через пару
месяцев дела пошли в гору.
2) Мы все решительно взялись за дело и закончили рабо-
ту до крайнего срока.
3) Нашего менеджера по продажам уволили, потому что
качество его работы не соответствовало требованиям.
4) Если ты хочешь преуспеть в жизни, нужно много ра-
ботать и никогда не сдаваться.
5) Исаак принял руководство семейной компании у свое-
го отца.
6) Если мы объединим усилия, то вполне можем достичь
успеха в этом деле.
7) Джон только в прошлом месяце открыл свой бизнес, а
у него уже куча заказов!

TEXT 6
1. Discuss:
 Read the following quotations from successful entre-
preneurs. How far do you agree with them? Do you find
them inspirational?

‘I had to make my own living and my own opportunity!


But I made it! Don't sit down and wait for the opportuni-
ties to come. Get up and make them!’

111 
 
(Madam C.J. Walker, creator of a popular line of African-
American hair care products and America’s first black female
millionaire)
‘Business opportunities are like buses, there’s always another one
coming’.
(Richard Branson, founder of Virgin Enterprise)

 How would you feel about starting a business of your


own when you are still studying at the university?

2. Vocabulary
A. Study the words and phrases and translate them
into Russian:
1. to be skint – not to have money
2. diversity – variety or assortment
3. overdraft – a negative balance in the bank’s records for
sb’s checking account
4. odd – herein, not happening frequently or regularly
5. property – things, especially valuable things, that are
owned by someone
6. to hold down a job – to succeed in keeping a job
7. to toil – to work very hard doing something difficult and
tiring, especially, physical work
8. passion – a strong enthusiasm or interest
9. expertise – special skill or knowledge that you get from
experience, training or study
10. ad – an advertisement on television or radio, on the In-
ternet, in a newspaper or magazine etc.
11. revenue – income from business activities or taxes
12. promoter – one that promotes, furthers, or encourages
13. to farm out – to delegate something, especially a task or
responsibility to send part of your work to be done by
people put outside a company
14. freelance work – done by a person who is not permanent-
ly employed by a particular company but who sells their
services to more than one company

112 
 
15. developer – someone whose job is to create new ideas
and products
16. accountancy – the work or profession of an accountant
17. venue – the place where an activity or event happens
18. punter – herein, a customer, or someone who uses a par-
ticular service
19. overheads – money that you pay regularly as the costs of
operating a business or organization
20. budding – at the very beginning of a career in writing,
acting, politics etc. and likely to be successful at it
21. exposure – herein, the act of allowing something that was
covered or hidden to be seen
22. to leverage – to make someone do what you want
23. ultimate – of the greatest possible size or significance;
maximum
24. odd – herein, not happening frequently or regularly
25. DIY – Do It Yourself – the activity of making or repairing
things for your home instead of paying someone to do
them for you
26. GCSE – General Certificate of Secondary Education: an
examination in a wide range of subjects taken by students
in England and Wales, usually at the age of 15 or 16
27. to run – herein, to organize and provide something such
as a service

3. Read the article and do the proposed tasks:


HOW TO START A STUDENT BUSINESS
Feeling a bit skint? If you’re a
student or you’ve just graduated,
now is the perfect time to start a
business.
So you’re thinking of starting a
business?
If those who have already done it are to be believed, the
three years we spend at university are the best days of our lives.
The freedom, the intellectual stimulation, the drinking, the ab-
solute wealth and diversity – it’s all yours for the taking.

113 
 
Then again, those who have already done it probably
didn’t have to deal with tuition fees. Or credit cards. Or mas-
sive student loans. Or overdrafts. In fact, they probably sur-
vived off grants and the odd friendly wink from their parents. 
How’s a student to enjoy their time at Uni with all that on
their shoulders? Start a business, we say – and the great news
is it’s easy.
Why you should start a business
If you’re at university or you’ve just graduated, now is the
best possible time to start a business. Think about it: what do
you have to lose? It’s unlikely you’ll own property, have a job
to hold down or have a family to support – when will you get
another opportunity to do this? This may be the only time in
your life you have the freedom to make mistakes – so take
advantage.
Businesses don’t necessarily cost
a lot to start – and they don’t have
to take up all your time. While your
friends might be toiling their free
time away in the student union, you
could be making the most of your
passion or expertise, raking in the
ad revenue from your blog,  getting
your career as a promoter off to a
start or farming out your skills as a
freelance graphic designer, writer or
developer.
It’s not just about money, though – starting a business is
great for your CV as well: think about how impressed pro-
spective employers will be if you tell them you’ve started a
business. During a time when graduates are finding harder
and harder to get a job, starting a business will give you the
edge over other candidates, providing you with skills from ac-
countancy to sales to management and teamwork – and you’ll
be able to demonstrate to employers just how self-motivated
you are.
So what are you waiting for? Get started!

114 
 
What kind of business should you start?
As a student, it’s important you choose the kind of busi-
ness you run carefully. You’ll need to be able to fit it in with
your studies and, while we wish it were different, it’s unlikely
bank managers or investors will take your idea seriously be-
fore you graduate.
Try these:
Promotions
If you like music, running a club night is a great way to
make money: because you can often hire venues for free, as
long as your punters spend an agreed amount at the bar, your
overheads are low and because budding bands are usually so
keen to get any exposure they possibly can, they’ll sometimes
accept a crate of beer and a promise of a repeat booking as
payment. Just make sure you’re good at marketing: you’ll
need to leverage your best social media and flyering skills to
get the word out.
Freelancing
From dancing to writing, if you’re good at something,
you’ll be able to freelance. Freelancing is flexible – you can do
as much or as little work as you need to do, cutting down dur-
ing exam time and building up more during the holidays.
eBay business
eBay is the ultimate online marketplace. While it can be
tough, and there’s a lot to learn about earning a living on it, if
you get it right, there’s no limit to the amount of money you
can make. And you don’t even need storage space for your
products. It’s especially good if you hand-make your products.
Odd jobs
As a student, you have an advantage over 9-to-5 workers
because you get to see daylight on a regular basis. This means
you’re perfect to do those odd jobs people don’t get around to
during the weekend – whether it’s cleaning, DIY or dog walking.
Tutoring
The fact you are studying means you are an expert in one sub-
ject. Use your expertise to teach the next generation. It isn’t
just GCSE students who need tutoring: this is a chance to put
that Grade Eight violin or modern dance certificate to use.

115 
 
Online business
Websites are the ultimate student business: they cost very
little to start, can be run from your bedroom and, because
you’re at university, if you don’t have the skills to design the
site, you probably know someone who does. There’s a lot to
learn about starting a web business, but if you get it right,
success could be just around the corner.
(From: http://www.smarta.com)
Abridged

4. Can you offer any other business ideas for students?

5. Find the English equivalents to the following Rus-


sian word combinations:
1. редкие знаки дружеского внимания
2. частная собственность
3. материальная поддержка семьи
4. иметь свободу пробовать и совершать ошибки
5. выполнять тяжелую работу, «вкалывать»
6. использовать что-либо наилучшим образом
7. увлеченность и знание дела
8. быть охваченным страстью
9. зарабатывать много денег, «грести деньги лопатой»
10. доход с рекламных объявлений
11. внештатный разработчик программ
12. давать преимущество над кем-либо
13. обеспечивать кому-либо навыки
14. быть целеустремленным, ицициативным
15. брать в аренду помещение для вечеринки
16. низкие издержки
17. начинающие, подающие надежды музыканты
18. показать себя, выступить, «засветиться»
19. заставить заговорить о себе
20. сокращать время на работу
21. зарабатывать на жизнь
22. случайные заработки
23. на постоянной основе
24. воспользоваться дипломом
25. успех не заставит себя ждать

116 
 
III. LISTENING
1.
A. Listen to the speaker and fill in the gaps:
CAREERS
Choosing a career 1)______________________ biggest
decisions we make in life. It used to be that we
2)______________________ career. People
3)______________________ a job when they were 18,
19 or 20 and 4)______________________ same career
for life. Their career path 5)______________________
straightforward. Nowadays, it is normal for people to change
careers, five, six, seven times. New technology and globaliza-
tion means things change quickly. We need to study and
6)______________________ all the changes. I’ve had
four different careers now. I like moving from
7)_____________________ another. It means life
8)______________________ boring. It’s much better to
keep learning different things in different careers. I
9)______________________ what career I’ll choose
next. Perhaps one that doesn’t 10)_________________ .

B. Ask five different type questions about wealth.

2.
A. Listen to the speaker and fill in the gaps:
QUALIFICATIONS
Qualifications are 1)__________________ days. Many
years ago, a university degree was enough. A B.A. or B.Sc.
2)__________________ a good job. Not now. Not even a
Master’s degree is enough these days. It
3)__________________ a Master’s degree. Some of the
jobs I want now require a Ph.D. It’s also not enough nowa-
days 4)__________________ the qualifications you have.
You 5)__________________ qualifications up to date, re-
qualify, get new qualifications. It seems life has
6)__________________ certificate chase. Especially so
now that many people will have several careers in their life. I

117 
 
know someone 7)__________________ in physics, then
became an accountant, didn’t like it and studied to be a law-
yer. He’s now studying 8)__________________ license!

B. Ask five different type questions about wealth.

3. You are going to hear 5 short dialogues related to


work.
Before you listen.
Match the situations 1-6 with the phrases a-f.
1. job interview A. low wages, go on strike
2. a new job B. unemployed, on the dole
3. workers feeling dissatisfied C. pension, part-time job
4. asking for a pay rise D. previous experience, CV
5. getting fired E. starting salary, benefits
6. retirement F. doing my job well, improved
qualifications

Listen to the dialogues.


Do the tasks:
Task 1. Match the speakers 1-5 to the statements A-F.
There is one extra statement that you do not need to
use:
A. Someone is going to retire soon.
B. The boss is going to fire someone.
C. Employees are protesting against unfair treatment at
work.
D. Someone is trying to get a job with an airline.
E. Someone is trying to get a pay rise.
F. Someone is explaining to new employees how good their
job is.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

118 
 
Task 2. Listen to dialogue 4 again. Complete this list
of advantages of the job the person is talking about:
‘We’ve got the best starting 1s _____ in the country; fan-
tastic 2b _____ ____ : six weeks’ 3p _____ h _____ a
year, guaranteed 4s _____ p _____, free 5d _____ c
_____ for pre-school children’. You can easily be 6p _____ .

Which of these things would be most important to you?


Discuss with a partner.

Task 3. Listen to dialogue 5 again and write down the


names of all the jobs the man has done (there are
six!). Which of the jobs could you do for some time?
1. ________________________________________
2. ________________________________________
3. _______________________________________
4. ________________________________________
5. ________________________________________
6. ________________________________________

4. You will hear part of an interview with a young


fashion designer who is studying full-time at uni-
versity while running her own business.
Before you listen.
Discuss:
• How difficult do you think it is to work and study at the
same time?

Study the vocabulary:


to suffer – страдать
sense of pride – чувство гордости
contribution – вклад, участие
to hang out – зд. тусоваться
tough – трудный
challenging – трудный и интересный
to regret – сожалеть

119 
 
Listen to the interview.
Do the task:
Choose the answer (a, b or c) which fits best accord-
ing to what you have heard:
1. How did Sally feel about helping to support her family?
a. It gave her a sense of satisfaction to be a productive
member of the family.
b. She felt sorry for herself for missing out on a lot of the
things kids her age did.
c. She found working and studying very stressful.

2. What does Sally think about going to university?


a. It’s tested her and helped her to expand her horizons.
b. It’s given her the chance to broaden her social circle.
c. The Business and Management courses proved to be the
most useful ones.

IV. WRITING
1. A. Comment on the following English proverbs.
Find Russian equivalents:
Every man to his trade.
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
A busy bee has no time for sorrow.
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
If the wind will not serve, take to the oars.
__________________________________________

B. Comment on the following statements:


‘Pleasure in the job puts perfection in the work’.
― Aristotle

__________________________________________
__________________________________________

120 
 
‘Some women choose to follow men, and some wom-
en choose to follow their dreams. If you’re wondering
which way to go, remember that your career will never
wake up and tell you that it doesn’t love you anymore’.
― Lady Gaga
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

‘I choose a lazy person to do a hard job. Because a lazy


person will find an easy way to do it’.
― Bill Gates
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

‘I don’t consider my work a job. I consider it a career.


And you don’t quit a career’.
― Candace Bushnell
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

‘We often miss opportunity because it’s dressed in


overalls and looks like work’.
― Thomas A. Edison
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

‘Indeed I have always been of the opinion that hard


work is simply the refuge of people who have nothing
to do’.
― Oscar Wilde
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

121 
 
2. A. You have taken part in a class discussion on the
topic of young people and unemployment. Now
students are asked to write an essay on the topic
below:
A current trend in the UK is to encourage school leavers and
new graduates to become entrepreneurs and run their own
businesses. In fact, an academy has been established to teach
young people how to become entrepreneurs. What factors
have contributed to this trend? Discuss, giving examples.

Answer the questions 1-3:


1. What are the students required to write?
a. an essay presenting arguments
b. an essay discussing a topic
2. What is the issue the students are required to discuss?
a. what has caused more young people to start up business
b. what young people need to become entrepreneurs
3. Who is the essay intended for?
a. the general public
b. a specific reader, for example a teacher

B. Read the example essay below. What two factors


does the writer believe have contributed to the
current trend in the UK?
In recent years, a growing number of young people have
started setting up and running their own businesses. This
trend can be attributed to economic factors as well as the
changing workforce needs оf many industries. Young people
are amongst the hardest hit, with unemployment of 16-24
year olds at a record high.
Possibly the most significant factor is the current econom-
ic climate which has put a strain on employment; record
numbers of people are being made redundant as both the
commercial and public sectors struggle to survive in the re-
cession. In particular, school leavers and new graduates are
most affected as they are coming into a job market with little
or no work experience or skills. On the other side of the coin,
many employers believe young people have little to offer and

122 
 
are reluctant to waste precious resources on training. In this
competitive environment, young adults are having to create
their own job opportunities.
Moreover, in major employment sectors, such as agricul-
ture, manufacturing and services, the use of advanced tech-
nology is reducing the number оf jobs available as people find
themselves being replaced by machines. Consider for instance
the ubiquity (доступность) оf automated gas pumps, ATMs
and vending machines. A large section of the workforce has
been adversely (неблагоприятно) affected by these changes.
Consequently, school leavers who are left with fewer job op-
portunities have been obliged to find alternative solutions.
To sum up, it is clear that nowadays anyone entering the
workforce for the first time will have to use their initiative
and creativity in order to succeed. In a world where jobs are
few and far between, imagination and drive are what counts
towards success.

C. Read the essay again and answer the questions


that follow:
1) In what part of the essay does the writer first mention the
two factors he considers important?
2) In what part does he refer to the two factors in depth?
3) Which sentence in each of the paragraphs above summa-
rises the general topic of the paragraph?
4) What is the term commonly used to refer to these sentences?
a. summary sentences
b. topic sentences
5) In each paragraph, how does the writer further develop
the idea expressed in the topic sentence? Give examples.
6) In what part of the essay does the writer express his/her
own opinion?

D. Write an essay of your own on the topic: “Young


people and entrepreneurship in contemporary
Russia” (230-250 words).

123 
 
V. TRANSLATION
A. Translate the following text from Russian into
English in writing:
УЧЕБА И РАБОТА
СОВМЕЩАТЬ ЛИ (НЕ)СОВМЕСТИМОЕ?
Чтобы устроиться на работу, нужно иметь опыт работы.
А чтобы получить опыт работы, нужно работать.
Никак не могу решить, с чего же мне начать.
Студенческая жизнь до предела насыщена не только
учебой, но и яркими тусовками, встречами, творчеством.
До недавнего времени жертвовали ею ради работы в ос-
новном те, кто хотел заработать. Но сейчас необходи-
мость совмещения учебы с работой видят все больше сту-
дентов. И это неудивительно: работодатели не хотят
брать на работу вчерашних выпускников без опыта работы.
К совмещению работы и учебы относятся по-разному.
Кто-то считает, что это возможно только для студентов-
заочников, а вот для студентов дневного отделения не-
приемлемо: пострадает и эффективность обучения, и ре-
зультативность работы. Но большинство из тех, кто не
набрался опыта во время учебы и теперь обивает пороги
агентств по трудоустройству, жалеют о том, что слишком
много времени посвящали учебе.
Сторонники совмещения могут назвать десяток при-
чин, по которым обязательно нужно работать, начиная с
3-4 курса. Во-первых, это возможность приобрести прак-
тический опыт в своей специальности. То, о чем другие
читают только в учебниках, ты узнаешь на собственной
практике. Во-вторых, ты можешь понять, какие дисци-
плины тебе реально пригодятся, на что можно тратить
меньше сил, а на чем лучше сконцентрироваться. В-
третьих, на рабочих материалах можно писать курсовые
работы и дипломный проект. В то время пока ты работа-
ешь, естественным образом обзаводишься деловыми свя-
зями, накапливаешь опыт работы в команде. И еще важ-
ный психологический момент озвучила одна из участниц
интернет-сообщества: «Работа во время учебы хотя бы не

124 
 
оставляет тебе иллюзии, какой ты ценный специалист, и
как тебя после вуза все ждут сразу на зарплату в 100 тысяч».
Но самая главная причина – это опыт работы в глазах
работодателя. На оценки в дипломе смотрят мельком, а
опыт пристально изучается. Почти всегда именно его
наличие становится решающим в выборе сотрудника.
Несмотря на все плюсы, совмещать работу с учебой
нелегко. Главное – помните, что можете остановиться в
любой момент. Вы не подписывали трудовой договор
кровью. Вас никто не приковывал цепями к парте в уни-
верситете. Это ваша жизнь, и в ваших силах в любой мо-
мент отказаться от всего, что считаете ненужным.
(From: http://www.sbt-univer.ru)

B. Give a written translation of the text:


СТОИТ ЛИ РАССКАЗЫВАТЬ
НА РАБОТЕ О ТОМ, ЧТО ВЫ СТУДЕНТ,
А НА УЧЕБЕ О ТОМ, ЧТО ВЫ РАБОТАЕТЕ
Сообщить своему работодателю о том, что вы студент,
безусловно, стоит. Помните, что на учебе у вас случаются
сессии, серьезные пары, которые не прогуляешь, или ка-
кие-либо ответственные мероприятия, то есть в любом
случае будут такие моменты, когда вам нужно будет при-
сутствовать в университете в рабочее время. Не забывай-
те, что часто вы не просто работаете в коллективе — вы
работаете в команде, где ошибка или пофигизм одного
может свести на нет все усилия и достижения другого.
А вот сообщать на учебе о том, что вы работаете, стоит
не всегда.
Многие преподаватели негативно относятся к вторич-
ной занятости студентов, считая, что она будет отрица-
тельно сказываться на учебе.
Другое мнение часто бывает у преподавателей-
практиков, которые работают на предприятии и пару раз
в неделю ведут у вас профильные дисциплины. У таких
преподавателей можно спокойно отпроситься с пары, а
потом закрыть пропуски дополнительными выступлени-
ями, докладами и т. д.
125 
 
Вы знаете нравы своих преподавателей, поэтому,
прежде чем во всеуслышание объявлять о том, что вы ра-
ботаете, подумайте, а не выйдет ли это вам потом боком.
(From: http://lifehacker.ru)
 
C. Give a written translation of the text:
ИДЕИ ПРИБЫЛЬНОГО БИЗНЕСА С НУЛЯ
С нуля прибыльный бизнес начинается с идеи. Если
своим умом трудно придумать направление его развития,
то скопируйте наиболее удачные стороны деятельности
успешного предпринимателя. Когда-то смелая идея вы-
пуска дешевых полиэтиленовых пакетов принесла их со-
здателям миллиарды долларов.
Идея 1. Чтобы открыть бизнес, который приносит удо-
влетворение, делайте то, что вам нравится. Если хорошо
вяжете или шьете, стартовый капитал заработать можно,
продавая вещи через интернет. В крайнем случае, сде-
лайтесь фрилансером, выполняя любую работу, за кото-
рую хорошо платят заказчики. Включайте в деятельность
фантазию и сможете получить хорошую прибыль.
Идея 2. Заявите о своих услугах в интернете с помо-
щью сайта. Если включить фантазию, то можно соору-
дить очередной веб шедевр и удачно его продать, купив
на 5$ 1000 показов.
Идея 3. Чтобы разобраться в узкоспециализированной
отрасли следует устроиться на работу в успешную фирму,
занимающуюся нужным видом услуг. Получив практиче-
ский опыт, сможете организовать свое дело, повторив удач-
ные особенности деятельности успешной организации.
Идея 4. Учитывая возрастающую потребность населе-
ния в экологически чистых продуктах без консервантов,
ароматизаторов и генетически модифицированных ве-
ществ успехом будет пользоваться доставка экопродуктов
по нужному адресу. Для этого нужно лишь найти в городе
магазины, в которых они продаются.
Лучше вначале организовать маленький бизнес без
внешних, дополнительных инвестиций, чтобы узнать все
тонкости ремесла.
(From: http://10kilogramm.ru/)

126 
 
UNIT IV

CONSUMERISM

There is enough in the world for everyone's need;


there is not enough for everyone's greed.
Mahatma Gandhi

127 
 
I. WARM-UP QUESTIONS
 Do you like shopping? For what?
 What are your shopping habits?
 What is the role of material goods in the modern society?

II. READING
TEXT 1
1. Discuss:
 Do you think that children today are spoilt by their
parents? How?
 Do you think that TV commercials that are addressed to
children have a positive or negative influence on them?

2. Vocabulary
A. Match the words and phrases with the definitions:
1. peer pressure A a small shop that sells fashionable
clothes, shoes, jewellery, etc.
2. sale B an occasion when goods are sold at
a lower price than usual
3. brand C a person with no home, job, or
money who asks for money from oth-
er people
4. demand D a need for something to be sold or
supplied
5. make E a group of shops that belong to a
single company, have the same
appearance, and sell similar goods
6. obsession F the strong influence of group,
especially of children, on members of
that group to behave as
everyone else does
7. boutique G modern, recent, or containing the
latest information

128 
 
8. tramp H a type of product or the name of
the company that made it
9. to be up to date I something or someone that you
think about all the time
10. chain store J a type of product made by a
particular company
 
B. Complete each sentence with a word or phrase
from the box:
tiring label desperate
bargain exploiting fashion
give in

1. Looking after small kids is extremely ___________.


2. Laws exist to stop companies ________ their employees.
3. Whatever the latest ___________ trend, you can be sure
Nicki will be wearing it.
4. Keep asking and eventually she'll ___________.
5. Her favourite designer ___________ (= maker of expen
sive clothes) is Armani.
6. The situation is ___________ – we have no food, very
little water and no medical supplies.
7. The airline regularly offers last-minute bookings at _____
prices.

3. Read Michael’s story and answer the questions:


a) Why does Michael complain about shopping with his
mother?
b) Have you ever found yourself in the situation of this kind?
Last Saturday I went shopping with my mother. First, she
spent an hour trying on different styles of jeans and asking
me: ‘How do I look?’ I just kept saying: ‘You look great’, but
that wasn’t good enough for her. She wanted me to tell her
which ones she looked best in. Well, you know, I love my
mum and everything, but she’s not exactly slim. I mean, she
looks much better in her red dress than in jeans. Anyway, she

129 
 
finally found a pair she liked. Then we went to the
supermarket. She picked out three saucepans and asked me
which one I liked best! What did I care? They all looked the
same to me! Fourtunately, she decided herself, and after
another hour’s shopping for food she was ready to go home. I
had to carry about ten tons of shopping, but believe me, that
was the least tiring bit!
(From: Activator)

4. Read the following text about fashion for kids. For


the questions 1-4 choose the best alternative A-D.
1. Why didn’t the writer’s son like the shoes?
A They has been bought in a sale
B They were not a fashionable brand.
C He thought they were ugly.
D They were uncomfortable.
2. Why does the writer’s son’s classmate wear
expensive clothes?
A He is interested in fashion.
B His parents are rich.
C His mother buys the clothes at reduced prices.
D He is afraid of peer pressure.
3. According to the writer, who is to blame for
children’s obsession with fashion?
A The parents.
B Society.
C Fashion companies.
D She doesn’t say.
4. Which statement summarises the main point of
the text?
A Today’s children behave badly.
B We must stop the exploitation of children by fashion
companies.
C Parents should not give in to children’s demands for
expensive clothes.
D You can buy designer clothes at bargain prices in sales.

130 
 
FASHION FOR KIDS
Last week, I bought my nine-year-old son a new pair of
trainers that were reduced in a sale. They fit him fine and
they looked good, but afterwards he didn’t seem very happy
with our bargain. He was worried that some of the kids at his
school would laugh at him because his new shoes didn’t have
a well-known brand name. I seriously thought about taking
the shoes back to the shop to exchange them for a more ex-
pensive and fashionable make. But why should I pay money I
can’t afford, or get into debt just because of peer pressure?
One boy in my son’s class wears jewellery and clothes
with designer labels to school. He even wears Calvin Klein af-
tershave! And he isn’t old enough to shave! I spoke to him
and he told me why he had to have the latest fashions. One
day he had worn his old trainers to school. They were a well-
known brand, but they were last year’s model and the price
had been cut to £25 in the sales. When his pals saw him, they
called him a tramp! He went straight home and put on his
new trainers. His mum isn’t well off, but she always finds the
money so that he looks good in front of his mates.
I’ve seen children as young as six going round shoe shops
and fashion boutiques looking for the latest styles, desperate
for the expensive designer clothes they see on TV. What’s
wrong with these kids? Or is it their parents? Or our material-
istic, consumer society?

131 
 
All the major fashion labels
have got special children’s
brands. It’s a market which gen-
erates £5 billion a year in the UK
alone. The big clothing compa-
nies and chain stores exploit
children at both ends of the pro-
duction line: in the factories full of child workers in the Far
East where the products are made. And in our shopping
centres full of child consumers competing with each other to
be up to date.
If you are a parent, don’t give your kids all the clothes and
fashion accessories they ask for. Explain patiently why they
can’t get everything they want. Because one thing is sure: you
won’t make your kids happy by spoiling them.
Maggie from Bootle
(From: Activator)
5. Answer the questions:
1. The writer of the letter asks: ‘What’s wrong with these
kids?’
Who do you think is responsible for young children’s
obsession with fashion?
 the children themselves?
 the parents?
 peer pressure?
 our consumer society?
2. In your opinion is having a wide range of choices more
confusing and stressful than beneficial?
3. To what extent do you agree with the writer that society
today is not teaching children the right values?

6. Ask questions to the underlined words and


phrases:
1. They were last year’s model and the price had been cut to
£25 in the sales.
2. Some of the kids at his school would laugh at him because
his new shoes didn’t have a well-known brand name.

132 
 
3. I’ve seen children as young as six going round shoe shops
and fashion boutiques looking for the latest styles, desper-
ate for the expensive designer clothes they see on TV.
 
7. Read what some school students say about buying
clothes. Answer these questions:
 Which of the speakers is most like you?
 Which of them would you like to be friends with?
I only buy designer clothes. I think it’s important to look smart.

I like buying unusual clothes in second-hand shops and creat-


ing interesting combinations. And I make my own jewellery. I
think it’s more important to have your own style than to wear
expensive things.

I like fashionable clothes, but designer labels are too expensive. I


usually buy clothes in sales. You can get some great bargains!

I like wearing my old jeans and a T-shirt. I don’t care what peo-
ple say. I just like to be comfortable. If I have some money I pre-
fer to spend it on CD’s.

I ask my parents to buy me well-known brands, because I don’t


want people at school to laugh at me.

My mum can’t afford expensive clothes. But in my cheap su-


permarket trainers I can still run sixty metres in 7.3 seconds!

I can’t afford expensive clothes. I think it’s quite normal, but


some people are thoughtless, you know?

133 
 
TEXT 2
1. Discuss:
 Do you think that people today are concerned with
material goods too much?
 Does the intensity of human consumption have any impact
on environment?
 In your opinion, how have technological advances
benefited mankind? Are there any negative consequences?

2. Vocabulary
A. Study the words and phrases related to spending
habits. Translate them into Russian:
1. to be careful with: to use wisely, to be sensible with
2. to fritter away (phrasal verb): to spend money frequently
on unimportant/trivial things
3. to squander: not keeping money, spending on unnecessary
things, opposite of careful spending
4. to splash out (phrasal verb): to spend more than usual; e.g.
crockery (посуда, гончарные изделия): china plates,
cups, dishes.
5. to run up: to accumulate quantity of costs not paid. Your
debts and money you owe increase repeatedly. Their total
cost gets higher, and higher.
6. to pay off: to pay the debt off (it is finished, payment is
completed)
7. to be hard up: to have very little money/not enough money
8. to settle something: to finalize, to pay money, pay your
debt in full
9. to be overspent: spent more than you had
10. to be overdrawn: taken more money from the bank than
was in your account
11. pay back (phrasal verb): to return the money to the lender
12. to raise money: to collect money from other people
13. to save up (phrasal verb): saved a lot, or what you needed
to buy something.

134 
 
14. gold digger: someone looking for people with money.
Sometimes through marriage, sometimes looking for a
business partner with money.

B. Give your answers to the questions paying


attention to the underlined words and phrases:
1) Are you usually careful with money; or do you fritter it
away?
Do you know anyone who squanders/wastes money?
2) Have you ever splashed out on new furnishings or crock-
ery for your home, when guests were coming?
3) Do you know someone who has ran up a large debt? How
did he/she pay it off?
4) Have you ever lent someone money because they
were hard up/broke?
5) How long did he/she take to settle/to clear his/her debt?
6) Have you ever borrowed money from someone because
you had foolishly overspent/ overdrawn?
7) Was it easy to pay back the money which you bor-
rowed/owed?
8) Have you ever had to raise money for a big project?
9) Have you successfully saved up to buy an expensive
item/product? Will you save up for something in the fu-
ture?
10) Do you know anyone who is a 'gold-digger'?

C. Study the idiomatic expressions and their


explanations. Translate the phrases into Russian:
1. shop till you drop – if you shop till you drop, you go
shopping for a very long time, until you are exhausted.
2. burn your fingers – if you burn your fingers (or get
your fingers burnt), you suffer financially as a result of
foolish behaviour.
3. live beyond means – if someone lives beyond their
means, they spend more money than they earn or can af-
ford.

135 
 
4. pay over the odds – if you pay over the odds, you pay
too much or you pay more for something than it is really
worth.
5. champagne taste on a beer budget – someone who
likes expensive things that they cannot afford has cham-
pagne taste on a beer budget.

D. Complete each sentence with one of the


expressions above:
1) If you go to London with Ashley, you'll _____, so take
comfortable shoes!
2) Jack _____ playing on the stock market.
3) The cost of living was so much higher in New York that he
was soon _____.
4) She's willing to _____ for an original Kelly handbag to
add to her collection.
5) Eve borrows money to buy expensive designer clothes –
_____!

3. Read the text below and decide which answer a, b,


c or d best fits each gap:

UP TO THE NECK IN DEBT


Do you find yoursel overspending whenever you feel 1)
_____ in the dumps? Do you wish you could have more
money 2) _____ ? Does shopping give you a thrill, and the
more expensive goods you get, the 3)_____ you feel? If
that’s the case, shopping is not just a favourite pastime for
you. A psychologist would tell you that it’s more like an 4)
_____.
Laura James, a consumer who admitted being a 5)
_____ , shares her experience with us: ‘It first started as a
pleasant pastime but turned 6) _____ an addiction. I wish I
had taken my husband’s advice to visit a 7) _____ earlier. If
I had done that, I wouldn’t have got 8) _____ into debt. In
fact, if I hadn’t started going to a support group, I would have
definitely gone 9) _____ . In the beginning, it was just one
credit card, but then there was another one, and another one
136 
 
and the nightmare started.Whenever I had problems, I used
to go shopping, I would buy my kids and husband expensive
presents because I wanted to make up 10) _____ all my
shortcomings. You see, I knew I wouldn’t have been able to
11) _____ all the goods I wanted to buy 12) _____ I had
been working long hours. Unfortunately, the result was that I
couldn’t spend quality time with my family. I wish I had been
clever enough to realise that money and presents can’t buy
love. At some point, though, I started spending money I
didn’t have. I had lost control and that was it. Now, I’m up to
my 13) _____ in debt. My advice? 14) _____ your budget,
and spend within your 15) _____ .
(From: Traveller)

1. A. up B. down C. off D. on
2. A. spend B. spending C. could spend D. to spend
3. A. well B. best C. better D. good
4. A. addiction B. disease C. habbit D. weakness
5. A. customer B. buyer C. shopaholic D. addiction
6. A. up B. down C. into D. at
7. A. consultant B. psychologist C. assisstant D. physician
8. A. deep B. well C. low D. bad
9. A. broken B. penniless C. wasteful D. bankrupt
10. A. for B. of C. with D. after
11. A. consume B. spend for C. afford D. earn
12. A. if no B. unless C. providing D. if
13. A. eyes B. mouth C. neck D. ears
14. A. Follow B. Audit C. Have D. Buy
15. A. means B. hands C. bills D. credits

TEXT 3
1. Vocabulary
A. Find the synonyms A-M for the words 1-13:
1. over-consumption A. improve
2. basic B. valuable
3. essentials C. present
4. goods D. impractical
5. desire E. necessities
6. upgrade F. fundamental
7. waste G. misuse

137 
 
8. price H. crash
9. rate I. items for sale
10. collapse J. cost
11. currant K. wish
12. precious L. consumerism
13. frivolous M. speed

B. Find the antonyms for the words and phrases 1-9:


1. pollute A. minority
2. consequence B. dirtiness
3. increase C. plant
4. cut down D. drop
5. limited E. endless
6. upgrade F. purify
7. majority G. degrade
8. sanitation H. cancel
9. fulfill I. source

C. Study the words and phrases related to


consumerism. Translate them into Russian:
1. cost of living: the overall cost of general expenses and
products we need to survive e.g. rent, electricity, water,
food.
2. circumstances: life situation/family costs/work
3. shopaholic: someone who loves shopping/cannot stop
themselves shopping (similar to ‘alcoholic’)
4. in the red (phrase): your bank account is overdrawn, you
owe money to the bank
5. in the black (phrase): you have some money in your bank
account, you are not in debt
6. moneylender: a person or organization whose job is to
lend money to people in return for payment
7. go without (phrase): live without because of the high cost

D. Give your answers to the questions paying


attention to the underlined words and phrases:
1) Why is cost of living increasing in many places now?
2) Has your cost of living increased over the last few years?

138 
 
3) Have your circumstances been affected by the cost of living?
4) Are some people becoming shopaholics?
5) Is your bank account usually in the black, or in the red?
6) Have you ever used a moneylender?
7) If you lost your job, which products and services could you
live without/go without?

E. Study the idiomatic expressions and their


explanations. Translate the phrases into Russian:
1. keep up with Joneses – someone who tries to keep up
with the Joneses tries to have the same possessions or so-
cial achievements as someone else.
2. made of money – a person who is made of money is very
rich and can buy whatever they want.
3. shopping therapy – this term refers to the idea that
buying things can make you feel better.
4. suit every pocket – this term refers to the amount of
money you are able to spend or the price you can afford.
5. saddled with debt – if you are saddled with debt, the
amount of money that you owe is a financial burden.

F. Complete each sentence with one of the


expressions above using appropriate form of the
verbs:
1) First the Browns moved their children to an expensive
school. Now the Smiths have done the same. It's silly how
some people feel they have to _____ !
2) Hey! I can't afford that much. I'm not _____!
3) A little _____ can usually cheer up bored teenagers.
4) The store offers a wide range of computers at prices
_____.
5) Be careful. If you buy a house that is too expensive, you
could be _____ for many years.

G. Make up your own sentences with one of the idi-


oms above.

139 
 
2. Read the text and do the proposed tasks:
OVER-CONSUMPTION
To live means to consume; and consume we do. 24 hours
a day, we consume air for breathing, water to drink and food
to eat. In addition to these basic essentials, we consume ever
increasing amount of goods and services – cars, houses, ap-
pliances, computers, furniture, books, travel and entertain-
ment. The list of things and services we have come to depend
upon on is endless. The American market system depends on
our continued and increased consumption, so it does its best
to make us want more, desire more, buy more, upgrade more,
pollute more and waste more.
Environmental Consequences
However, there is a price to pay for this uncontrolled con-
sumption. Perhaps, we do not yet realize that everything we
consume comes from the natural world – it is extracted,
mined, farmed, grown, fished, cut down – and the resources
on this planet are limited. As we continue to consume at an
ever increasing rate for the illusion of a ‘comfortable’ life, the
planet suffers from this over-extraction of resources – forests,
fish, soil, minerals, water... resulting in degraded and collaps-
ing ecosystems, habitats and species. In addition, increased
consumption creates increased pollution and waste and the
very essentials for life – air, land and water get more and
more polluted and toxic.
Social Consequences
Perhaps, we also do not realize that if we take up the lion’s
share of the planet's resources, then others have less to live on.
Currently, 80 % of the world's resources are used by a minority
of the world's population (17 %). There is a flow of precious re-
sources from the global South to the North. These resources are
exploited and used for producing goods and services for the
minority of the world's population instead of being used to pro-
vide the basic necessities of food, water, health, sanitation etc.
for the rest of the world's population. Moreover, in order to ful-
fill the consumption ‘wants’ of the rich minority, precious re-
sources are often directed towards frivolous or luxury items
further depriving the poor of the world.
(From: http://worldcentric.org/
conscious-living/increasing-consumption)
140 
 
3. Find the English equivalents to the following
Russian words and phrases:
1) предметы первой необходимости (3)
2) всевозрастающее количество
3) товары и услуги
4) бытовые приборы
5) развлечение
6) зависеть от
7) заставлять кого-либо желать большего
8) модернизировать, улучшать
9) бесконтрольное потребление
10) добывать, получать
11) страдать от
12) перерасход, истощение
13) ареал обитания
14) гибнущие экологические системы
15) львиная доля
16) кормиться, продолжать жить
17) большинство / меньшинство
18) драгоценные ресурсы
19) исполнять желания
20) бессмысленные предметы роскоши
21) обделять, лишать, отнимать

4. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions where necessary:


1. We consume air _____ breathing, water to drink and
food to eat.
2. Everything we consume comes _____ the natural world –
it is extracted, mined, farmed, grown, fished, cut _____ .
3. We continue to consume _____ an ever increasing rate
_____ the illusion of a ‘comfortable’ life.
4. _____ addition, increased consumption creates _____
increased pollution and waste and the very essentials
_____ life.
5. If we take _____ the lion’s share _____ the planet's re-
sources, then others have less to live _____ .
6. 80 % of the world's resources are used _____ a minority
of the world's population.

141 
 
7. _____ order to fulfill the consumption ‘wants’ of the rich
minority, precious resources are often directed _____
frivolous or luxury items further depriving the poor
_____ the world.
8. The American market system depends _____ our contin-
ued and increased consumption.
5. Read the definitions of the noun consumerism from
three dictionaries. Which is the best from your point
of view and why? Formulate your own definition:
The noun consumerism refers to the theory that spending
money and consuming goods is good for the economy. Oppo-
nents of consumerism suggest simple living is a more sus-
tainable lifestyle and better for the environment.
Consumerism comes from the verb consume, which is
rooted in the Latin word consumere, meaning to use up or to
waste. The noun consumerism also refers to a movement that
promotes the interests of consumers — that is, people who
purchase goods, use them, and then buy more — especially
the protection of these consumers from things like fraud (об-
ман) or price gouging (незаконное взвинчивание цен).
(From: http://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/consumerism)

The definition of consumerism is the protection of the


rights and interests of the general pool of buyers, or an obses-
sion with buying material goods or items.
a. Laws and rules that protect people who shop and
spend are examples of consumerism.
b. An obsession with shopping and acquiring stuff is an
example of consumerism.
(From: http://www.yourdictionary.com/consumerism)
(countable and uncountable, plural consumerisms)
1. A policy of protecting and informing consumers through
honesty in advertising and packaging, improved safety
standards etc.
2. A materialistic attachment to possessions.
3. An economic theory that increased consumption is benefi-
cial to a nation's economy in the long run.
(From: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/consumerism)

142 
 
TEXT 4
1. Read the Internet article with a personal opinion
and prepare a written translation. Do the pro-
posed tasks:

IS CONSUMERISM KILLING OUR CREATIVITY?


by Jocelyn K. Glei
Have you ever fallen into a black hole
of comparison shopping? You’re looking
for a new digital camera, for instance. You
head over to Cnet.com and read some re-
views of various cameras, watch the video
demos, identify the model you want. Then
perhaps you employ Google’s shopping
search to price out the options and find the best deal. All of
the sudden, it’s four hours later. You’ve found the perfect
camera, but your purchasing triumph is tainted by a creep-
ing feeling of, well, disgust. Couldn’t that time have been
used better?
I was thinking recently about what my biggest distrac-
tions were – the things keeping me from pushing my creative
projects forward. As I scanned through my daily activities, I
found that the most insidious distraction was, in fact, things.
More specifically, the wanting, hunting, and getting of
things – whether they be tangible (a new computer) or intan-
gible (information).
As Annie Leonard says in The Story of Stuff, “Our prima-
ry identity has become that of being consumers – not moth-
ers, teachers, or farmers, but of consumers. We shop and shop
and shop.” We love our stuff. Yet more than the stuff itself, we
love the act of finding it – the search, the anticipation.
But why is consumerism – and particularly, an online
hunt for the ideal purchase – so addictive?
It turns out that our consumerist impulse stimulates the
same part of the brain that fires when we’re on the trail of a
great idea. As we go through the trial and error of executing
an idea – What if I tried this? Ah! Now what about this? –

143 
 
we’re using those same wanting, hunting, getting instincts
but in a nobler pursuit.
Neuroscientist Jaak Panksepp calls this highly addictive
emotional state “seeking.” The consumerist search capitalizes
on the same “seeking” part of the brain that fuels the creative
rush. Of course, while consumerism can serve as an addictive
substitute for the stimulation of creative activity, it offers no-
where near the same reward in the long term.
As creatives, we can often rationalize spending time on
shopping by telling ourselves that we’re investing our time,
energy, and money in a new tool – an item that’s going to cat-
apult our creativity to the next level. Maybe it’s a new com-
puter, maybe it’s a musical instrument, maybe it’s a studio of
one’s own. Once you get that new thing, you think, you’ll have
a superior means to complete your work.
It’s a false promise, of course. A means of procrastination
baked into our consumerist culture. No external thing can
prompt creativity, and there’s no substitute for just getting
down to doing the work. In fact, it’s been proven that hard-
ship – being deprived of things – stimulates creativity more
than being well-off. Highly creative adults frequently grew up
with hardship. Hardship by itself doesn’t lead to creativity,
but it does force kids to become more flexible – and flexibility
helps with creativity.
When we have less to work with, we have to be more
creative. Think about that the next time the consumerist im-
pulse is threatening to encroach on your creativity.
(From: http://99u.com/)

Text Vocabulary
1. consumerism – культура потребления, защита прав по-
требителя, потребительство
2. to head over (to something) – herein, перейти к какой-
либо вкладке в браузере
3. Cnet.com — американский веб-сайт, посвященный
компьютерным технологиям, публикующий новости,
статьи, блоги, обзоры и подкасты различных техно-
логий и бытовой техники.

144 
 
4. demo – демонстрационная версия, показ товара
5. to price out – выбрать товары путем сравнения цен
6. to taint – испортить
7. a creeping feeling – противное чувство
8. disgust – herein, недовольство, раздражение
9. distraction – herein, отвлекающий фактор
10. insidious – коварный, предательский
11. tangible – материальный
12. anticipation – предвкушение, ожидание
13. purchase – покупка, приобретение
14. to be on the trail – herein, быть захваченным
15. a nobler pursuit – более благородное устремление
16. to capitalize on – herein, использовать
17. rush – натиск, напор, прилив, гонка
18. substitute – заменитель, суррогат
19. the long term – долгосрочная перспектива
20. item – вещь, предмет, средство
21. superior – herein, лучший
22. procrastination – промедление, отсрочка
23. hardship –невзгоды, лишения
24. deprive – лишать
25. flexible – гибкий, легко приспосабливающийся
26. encroach on – вторгаться в, покушаться на

2. Find the English equivalents to the following Rus-


sian words and word combinations:
1. суррогат творческой деятельности
2. черная дыра
3. сравнительные покупки
4. воспользоваться поиском
5. вдруг, внезапно, неожиданно
6. способствовать продвижению
7. желание, поиск и приобретение вещей
8. материальный и нематериальный
9. определять желаемую модель
10. предвосхищение
11. интерактивные поиски
12. вызывающий быстрое привыкание

145 
 
13. оказываться
14. радость приобретения
15. быть захваченным идеей
16. метод проб и ошибок
17. реализовывать идею
18. неприятное чувство раздражения
19. невролог
20. активизировать часть мозга
21. разжигать
22. совершенно другое вознаграждение
23. логически обосновывать трату времени
24. ложное обещание
25. покупательский импульс
26. долгосрочная перспектива
27. основные отличительные черты
28. средство отсрочки
29. внешний
30. коварный отвлекающий фактор
31. трудности
32. угрожать

3. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions where neces-


sary:
1. Have you ever fallen _____ a black hole ___ comparison
shopping?
2. You head ____ to Cnet.com.
3. I was thinking recently about the things ___ keeping me
___pushing my creative projects _____.
4. You employ Google’s shopping search to price ____ the
options.
5. All ____ the sudden, it’s four hours later.
6. I scanned ____ my daily activities.
7. But why is consumerism – and particularly, an online hunt
___ the ideal purchase – so addictive?
8. Our consumerist impulse stimulates ___ the same part
___ the brain that fires when we’re ___ the trail ___ a
great idea.

146 
 
9. We’re using those same wanting, hunting, getting instincts
but ___ a nobler pursuit.
10. We can often rationalize ___spending time on shopping
___ telling ourselves that we’re investing our time, ener-
gy, and money ___ a new tool – an item that’s going to
catapult our creativity ___ the next level.

4. Fill in the chart with the derivatives and translate


the words:
NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE
consume
various
shop
purchasing/purchased
rationalize
execute
create
addictive
procrastinate
substitution

TEXT 5
1. Read the Internet article with a personal opinion
and say in brief the main ideas of the author. Do
the proposed tasks on the text.
10 REASONS TO ESCAPE
EXCESSIVE CONSUMERISM
written by Joshua Becker
I am trying to live a minimalist life. But that
doesn’t mean I still don’t own stuff.
My family of four still owns three beds, three
dressers, two couches, one table with chairs,
one desk, eight plates, eight bowls, eight
glasses… My kids own toys and books. My
wife sews. I read, play sports, and care for the house. We may
be seeking to live a minimalist life, but we are still consumers.
After all, to live is to consume.

147 
 
But we have worked hard to escape exces-
sive consumerism. Consumerism becomes
excessive when it extends beyond what is
needed. When we begin consuming more
than is needed, boundaries are removed. Per-
sonal credit allows us to make purchases be-
yond our income-level. Advertisements sub-
tly reshape our desires around material possessions. And the
consumption culture that surrounds us begins to
make excessive consumption appear natural and normal.
Excessive consumption leads to bigger houses, faster
cars, trendier clothes, fancier technology, and overfilled
drawers. It promises happiness, but never delivers. Instead,
it results in a desire for more… a desire which is promoted by
the world around us. And it slowly begins robbing us of life. It
redirects our God-given passions to things that can never ful-
fill. It consumes our limited resources.
It is time to take a step back and realize that excessive con-
sumption is not delivering on its promise to provide happi-
ness and fulfillment. Consumption is necessary, but excessive
consumption is not. And life can be better lived (and more
enjoyed) by intentionally rejecting it.
Consider this list of ten practical benefits of escaping ex-
cessive consumerism in your life:
1) Less debt. The average American owns 3.5 credit cards
and $15,799 in credit card debt… totaling consumer debt of
$2.43 trillion in the USA alone. This debt causes stress in our
lives and forces us to work jobs that we don’t enjoy.
2) Less life caring for possessions. The never-ending
need to care for the things we own is draining our time and
energy. We are far better off owning less.
3) Less desire to upscale lifestyle norms. Today’s
media age has caused us to envy (and expect) lifestyle norms
well beyond our incomes by promoting the lifestyles of the
rich and famous as superior and enviable. Only an intentional
rejection of excessive consumerism can quietly silence
the desire to constantly upscale lifestyle norms.

148 
 
4) Less environmental impact. Our earth produces
enough resources to meet all of our needs, but not all of our
wants. Consuming more resources than the earth can replen-
ish is not a healthy trend—especially when it is completely
unnecessary.
5) Less need to keep up with evolving trends. A cul-
ture built on consumption must produce an ever-changing
target to keep its participants spending money. As a result,
nearly every year, a new line of fashion is released as the
newest trend. And the only way to keep up is to purchase the
latest fashions and trends when they are released… or remove
yourself from the pursuit altogether.
6) Less pressure to impress with material posses-
sions. Social scientist Thorstein Veblen in his book The The-
ory of the Leisure Class coined the phrase “conspicuous con-
sumption” to describe the lavish spending on goods and ser-
vices acquired mainly for the purpose of displaying income or
wealth. No human being (in consumption cultures) is free
from its temptation.
7) More generosity. When we begin rejecting the temp-
tation to spend all of our limited resources on ourselves, our
hearts are opened to the joy and fulfillment found in giving
our personal resources to others. Generosity finds space in
our life to emerge.
8) More contentment. The intentional rejection of ex-
cessive consumption opens the door for contentment to take
root in our lives. Somehow, minimalism results in a far great-
er contentment with life than we ever enjoyed prior.
9) Greater ability to see through empty claims. Ful-
fillment is not on sale at your local department store – nei-
ther is happiness. We all know that more things won’t make
us happier. It’s just that we’ve bought into the subtle message
of millions upon millions of advertisements that have told us
otherwise. Intentionally stepping back for an extended period
of time helps us get a broader view of their empty claims.
10) Greater realization that this world is not just
material. True life is found in the invisible things of life:
love, hope, and faith. Again, we all know there are things in

149 
 
this world that are far more important than what we own. But
if one were to research our actions, intentions, and receipts,
would they reach the same conclusion? Or have we been too
busy seeking happiness in all the wrong places?
Escaping excessive consumption is not an easy battle. If it
were, it would be done more often… myself included. But it is
a battle worth fighting because it robs us of life far more than
we realize.
Excessive consumption promises happiness, but never de-
livers. True life must be found somewhere else.
(From: http://www.becomingminimalist.com/ )
Abridged
Text Vocabulary
1. excessive – избыточный, чрезмерный, излишний
2. dresser – амер. туалетный комод с зеркалом
3. couch [kaυt∫]– herein, диван
4. boundary – граница
5. subtly [sᴧtli]– незаметно, неуловимо
6. possessions –собственность, имущество, добро
7. to overfill – переполнять
8. drawer [drᴐ:] – ящик стола
9. to deliver – доставлять, предоставлять
10. passion – страсть, пыл, энтузиазм, увлечение
11. fulfillment – удовлетворение, осуществление, саморе-
ализация
12. intentionally – умышленно, намеренно, специально
13. to reject – отвергать, отбрасывать, отказываться
14. debt [det] – долг
15. to drain – истощать, опустошать
16. to upscale – наращивать, усиливать, повышать уровень
17. to envy – завидовать
18. enviable – вызывающий зависть
19. impact – влияние, воздействие
20. to replenish – пополнять, восполнять
21. to keep up with – держаться наравне с, идти нога в ногу с
22. evolve – развиваться, эволюционировать
23. target – цель
24. participant – участник

150 
 
25. pursuit – погоня, поиски, стремление
26. to coin – herein, вводить в употребление
27. conspicuous [kənˈspɪkjuːəs]– видимый, очевидный, явный
28. conspicuous consumption – расточительное потребление
29. lavish – расточительный
30. to acquire – приобретать, получать, достигать
31. temptation – соблазн, искушение
32. generosity – великодушие, благородство, щедрость
33. to emerge – появляться, возникать, проявляться
34. contentment – удовлетворенность, довольство
35. root – корень
36. see through – распознать
37. claim – требование, притязание
38. to buy into – купиться, поддаться
39. receipt – herein, квитанция об оплате

2. Find the English equivalents to the following Rus-


sian words and word combinations:
1. избегать чрезмерного потребления
2. выходить за пределы
3. стирать границы
4. совершать покупки
5. уровень дохода
6. видоизменять, придавать новую форму
7. материальное имущество
8. оказываться естественным
9. отнимать, лишать чего-либо
10. отступать
11. преимущества
12. задолженность по кредитной карте
13. бесконечная потребность
14. истощать энергию
15. самый лучший, вызывающий зависть
16. подавить желание
17. повышать нормы жизни
18. удовлетворять потребности
19. восстанавливать
20. не отставать от тенденций

151 
 
21. самоустраниться
22. производить впечатление с помощью материальных
ценностей
23. приобретать что-либо с целью
24. расточительное потребление, потребительство
25. демонстрация благосостояния
26. появляться, выявляться
27. намеренный отказ
28. открыть путь, сделать возможным
29. предшествующий, существующий ранее
30. распознавать
31. пустые притязания
32. рекламные объявления
33. купиться на рекламный посыл
34. длительный период
35. лучшее понимание
36. прийти к заключению
37. поиск счастья
38. заслуживать борьбы

3. The article gained 193 comments from real peo-


ple. Read some of them and speak about benefits
and drawbacks of consumerism mentioned:
Rob says
May 18, 2014 at 10:56 pm
I just started getting my finances under con-
trol. I found a helpful video on YouTube explain-
ing the zero sum budget. I am excited to have a
budget that will get me out of debt and living
simply.

Lessons Of A Dad says


June 3, 2013 at 5:36 am
Wow, you so nailed it. I consider myself a minimalist, myself.
I don’t always succeed in being frugal, but definitely that’s
where my heart lies. This is great stuff. Worth sharing.

152 
 
Kimberly says
July 4, 2013 at 12:18 am
Over lunch recently, a colleague raised the topic of
shopping at ‘Costco.’* I told him that I never buy in bulk be-
cause all that stuff represents an obligation – a commitment
I’m not comfortable making. I was laughing when I made this
comment, but it’s my truth. My friend laughed, too, because
he couldn’t conceive of such a notion. Is this minimalism?
Not sure. It’s just what fits right for me.
As for managing the things I own (myself and two teen-aged
sons), I ask myself a simple question: if I were to move, would
I be willing to pack and carry this to my new home? The an-
swer is most often ‘no’.
Thanks for letting me share.

* Costco Wholesale Corporation — крупнейшая в мире сеть складов


самообслуживания клубного типа и пятое по величине продаж
розничное торговое предприятие в США. В целом Costco фокуси-
руется на продаже товаров ограниченного числа производителей
по минимальным ценам.

Jessica says
September 22, 2014 at 7:31 am
I shop in bulk and still consider myself a minimalist at
heart. I have 7 (yes 7!) children. We go through a lot of food,
toilet paper, etc., each and every day. For us it makes sense to
buy in bulk (cheaper per pound or ounce, less packaging
waste, etc.). I realize some people would say I am not mini-
malist because I have an extra freezer full of meat, but it is
necessary to affordably feed my kids. I buy a whole hog at a
time, once a year. I save time, gas, and sanity because I don’t
run to the grocery store every few days, because I just have to
walk out to the garage and grab whatever I need.

Emily says
July 30, 2013 at 11:36 pm
It is very courageous of you to take this attitude towards
life. I am going to start to do the same. Between the number
of people in this world who are suffering with far less than
153 
 
me, and the woman at work today who told me she just went
on holiday and bought 20, yes 20, pairs of shoes for herself, I
think I am experiencing a wake up call. Thank you for your
very insightful piece!

Holly says
October 21, 2013 at 12:51 pm
Everything I own I can fit inside my Honda Civic!

Michael says
February 23, 2014 at 10:00 am
I agree, but consumerism also provides many jobs. Where
would we be if we all lived minimally?

Lina says
March 28, 2014 at 6:53 am
Great tips. Makes me rethink and edit my bucket list. The less
I spend, the more I can travel. Thank you!

Jim says
June 24, 2015 at 10:12 am
This is absolutely great for the people who do it but I wouldn’t
spread the word if you live in America. The entire debt based
system we live in is completely propped up by consumerism.
The problems with our economy now have basically been
brought on by Americans just consuming a tiny bit less and
saving a tiny bit more. If every American adopted this way of
thinking our entire economy would fully collapse in less than
a month. Thanks greedy Americans!!

BENEFITS DRAWBACKS

154 
 
III. LISTENING
1.
A. Listen to the speaker and fill in the gaps:
STANDARD OF LIVING
Standard of living is something 1)________________
of us. We all want a better standard of living. We all do our
best 2)__________________ to improve it. I’m quite
happy with my standard of living. I’m not rich, I don’t have
expensive furniture (in 3)__________________ used
furniture) and 4)__________________ holidays over-
seas. I don’t 5)__________________ lot of money to
have a good standard of living. As long as you are comfortable
in your home and you can buy food
6)__________________ times a week, your standard of
living 7)__________________. Mine is much better than
90 per cent of the world’s population. This is
8)________________ you, if you are reading or listening
to this. We all need to think how lucky we are.

C. Ask five different type questions about standard


of living.
2.
A. Listen to the speaker and fill in the gaps:
WEALTH
There’s 1)___________________ the world. And
there’s so much poverty and suffering. Thousands of billion-
aires live like kings and queens 2)___________________
hungry. They show off their wealth to each other. They fill
their gigantic mansions with 3)___________________ of
wealth. They must have luxury cars, expensive artwork and
over-priced jewelry. 4)___________________ people ev-
er think about how much 5)___________________ their
wealth could help others. Many billionaires could give billions
of dollars away and never even notice it has gone. But that
money 6)___________________ of people around the
world. If the 7)___________________ wealth, millions of
starving children could eat. I suppose greed is a
8)___________________ wealthy. You just want more.

155 
 
B. Ask five different type questions about wealth.

6. You are going to listen to the article by Julie Bray


talking about consumer society.
Before you listen.
There is a list of the words from the text. Below are
sentences containing these words. Can you put them
into the gaps in the sentences?
choice choose influenced probably rewarding
unemployed wrapping

1. The _____ could find work more easily if we didn't work


more than 6 hours per day.
2. Being able to make your own things is more _____ than
buying.
3. We should be able to _____ environmentally friendly
products.
4. Consumers enjoy having a _____
5. Some products have too much _____
6. Try not to be _____ by advertising.
7. If you enjoy making something it is _____ good quality.

Listen to the article.

Do the tasks:
Task 1. Select the best answer for each of the ques-
tions/statements:
1. Taking a job where you work less and are paid less
is called:
A. consumerism
B. downshifting
C. conservation

156 
 
2. If you are a conserver, you:
A. you throw your things away so you have less
B. look after your things well and keep them for a long time
C. only eat vegetables you grow yourself
3. When we buy something, we can usually choose:
A. the size and color.
B. where it comes from.
C. where it is made.
4. We can tell that the people who made a product
were not paid well when:
A. the product is not made well
B. they forget to put the label on
C. the product is unbelievably cheap
5. Most perfumes and creams are made from:
A. plastic
B. alcohol and petroleum
C. plants
6. If we don't use something very often we should:
A. put it in a safe place
B. buy a cheaper one
C. borrow one from somebody else or lend our own to others.
7. The working day could be:
A. reduced to 6 hours
B. from 6-8 hours
C. reduced to 8 hours

Task 2. Match the words 1-7 to their definitions A-G:


1. downshifting A. people who buys goods or services
for their own use

2. consumers B. leaving a job that is well paid and


difficult in order to do something
that gives you more time and satis-
faction but less money

157 
 
3. conservers C. people who care more about the
environment than spending money

4. rewarding D. able to last a long time without be-


coming damaged

5. durable E. making you feel satisfied that you


have done something important or
useful

6. luxuries F. things that are expensive and are


pleasant to have but not necessary

7. packaging G. the materials in which objects are

 
IV. WRITING
1. A. Comment on the following English proverbs.
Find Russian equivalents closest to the meaning:
A fool and his money are soon parted!
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
Take care of the pennies and the pounds (£GBP) will take
care of themselves!
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
All that glitters is not gold!
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

B. Comment on the following statements:


‘I’m not a consumer, because consumers are consumed
with shopping. No, I prefer shoplifting’.
― Jarod Kintz
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

158 
 
‘A person buying ordinary products in a supermarket is
in touch with his deepest emotions’.
― John Kenneth Galbraith
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

‘If everyone wanted peace as much as they want a


new iPhone, then there would be peace’.
― Shira Tamir
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

‘Generally, people need less than a quarter of what they


want’.
― Mokokoma Mokhonoana
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

‘People buy things they don’t need, with money they


don’t have, to impress people they don't like’.
― Clive Hamilton
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

‘Novelty is a new kind of loneliness’.


― Wendell Berry

__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

2. Write your own comment to one of the articles


(Text 3 or Text 4).

159 
 
3. Consumerism vs. Creativity – Your Thoughts?
Do you feel like our consumerist culture suppresses creativity?
Have you battled against the consumerist instinct?
Write an opinion essay (130-150 words).

4. What do you personally think about consumerism


and minimalism as a lifestyle?
Would you inspire others to live more by owning less or
persuade them from it?
Write a passage (about 100 words) stating some ideas of
your own. Give examples from your or your friends’ lives.

V. TRANSLATION
A. Translate the following text from Russian into
English in writing:

ПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ
И ПОТРЕБИТЕЛЬСТВО
Какая разница между этими двумя словами?
Потребление – это условие суще-
ствования человека. Потребление ка-
чественных товаров и услуг – одно из
условий достойной жизни. Потреби-
тельство – это возведение потребления
в степень, превращение в цель и смысл жизни. Негатив-
ные последствия в том, что исчезают высокие светлые
устремления, приземляются мечты, уходит духовность.
В первом есть мера, во втором ее нет. Потребительство
обычно бездумно.
Есть замечательная пословица: «Каждый хочет иметь
друга, но не каждый хочет им быть». Сейчас все чаще мы
хотим «иметь». «Хочу ребенка» — вместо «хочу быть ма-
терью», «хочу иметь мужа» — вместо «хочу быть женой».
За этими тонкостями языка стоит отношение человека к
жизни, его девиз: или— я для кого-то, или — кто-то для
меня. В своем желании иметь мы ломаем жизни, разби-
ваем сердца и страдаем от одиночества. «Человеку обла-
160 
 
дающему» всегда будет мало того, что есть. Мало денег,
мало власти, мало одной жены, мало друзей, мало весе-
лья, мало самого себя. Потребитель, не имея собственной
сути, состоит из того, чем он обладает.

B. Give a written translation of the text:


ЭРА ПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ — ЖИЗНЬ
В СОВРЕМЕННОМ МИРЕ ЧТО ТАКОЕ УСПЕХ?
Part I
Успехом в современном мире считается
финансовое благополучие. Сегодня человек
стремится к высокому социальному статусу
и материальному преимуществу. Это его
ценность. Тот, кто может потреблять боль-
ше всех, тот и считается сейчас успешным.
Если спросить у среднестатистического человека о его
целях, желаниях и планах, они окажутся материальными
и будут связаны с потреблением. Купить дом, квартиру
или машину, посетить какую-то страну или сделать ре-
монт. Целями принято считать то, что связано с добычей
и потреблением.
Откройте любую книгу об успехе – там под словом
«успех» имеются в виду деньги. Под словом «цели» — мате-
риальные ценности, которые можно приобрести за деньги.
Любой тренинг успеха говорит о том же: «Поставьте
себе цели», как будто достижение этих целей – и есть
успех. А вы никогда не задумывались, почему эти тре-
нинги не работают? Почему большинство людей никогда
не делают того, что их учат на тренинге? Почему некото-
рые из них оказываются полностью неприспособленны-
ми к жизни в современном мире?
Ответ прост: тем, кто способен добиться успеха, не
нужны тренинги успеха – руководствуясь своими врож-
денными желаниями и стремлениями, они достигают
успеха сами, благодаря своим психическим свойствам. И
такому человеку действительно принесет удовлетворе-
ние, радость и счастье, материальное и социальное пре-

161 
 
имущество. Это – его ценность. Он почувствует, что он
реализовался в этой жизни.
Но это не ценность остальных людей. Остальные
сколько бы тренингов успеха не проходили, никогда не
станут стремиться к тому же. А если и станут, это не при-
несет им счастья и радости, так как их врожденные, ис-
тинные желания не будут удовлетворены.
Part II
Жизнь в современном мире, мире потребителей, дает
много возможностей для комфортной, интересной жиз-
ни. Эти возможности безграничны, но на них нужны
деньги. Жить бесплатно никак не получается. За все пре-
лести современности – интернет, телефон, транспорт,
комфорт – за все нужно платить. А если хочешь большего –
нужно больше денег. Именно поэтому жизнь многих лю-
дей превратилась в гонку за потреблением. Потребление
в современном мире стало смыслом жизни.
В гонке за благами человек не обращает внимания на
свои внутренние ощущения – счастлив он или нет? По-
лучает ли он радость от жизни или нет? Удовлетворен ли
он своей жизнью, или чего-то не хватает?
И это, пожалуй, самая большая ловушка современно-
сти. Если человек не реализует свои психические свой-
ства, если он не удовлетворяет свои врожденные жела-
ния, если, другими словами, он не выполняет свое при-
звание, свою видовую роль, то у него неизбежно будут
возникать бессознательные внутренние нехватки. Это
выливается во внутреннее напряжение, которое копится
годами и оборачивается неприязнью ко всем и вся.
Человек с нехватками не чувствует радости и удовле-
творения от жизни в современном мире, какой бы при-
влекательной она ни была и сколько бы много он не по-
треблял. Он не понимает, что не так – это бессознатель-
ная неудовлетворенность.
(From: http://www.vitamarg.com/ )

162 
 
DICTATIONS
Unit I
EDUCATION
1. INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION WEEK
International Education Week is an opportunity to cele-
brate the benefits of international education and exchange
worldwide. This joint initiative of the U.S. Department of
State and the U.S. Department of Education is part of our ef-
forts to promote programs that prepare Americans for a glob-
al environment and attract future leaders from abroad to
study, learn, and exchange experiences in the United States.
We encourage the participation of all individuals and in-
stitutions interested in international education and exchange
activities, including schools, colleges and universities, embas-
sies, international and community organizations, businesses
and associations.
Kenny Nicholl, the leading specialist provider of technol-
ogy products, is sure that the Internet allows him to know his
students before they arrive. ‘I'm working with a number of in-
stitutions to develop an online orientation system. This is
based on the feedback from some of our international univer-
sity partners who want to have an early insight into
knowledge gaps of their students before they even arrive for
the first time on campus. The key emphasis being to prepare
them for campus life and this does not mean academic life’.

2. ACADEMIC CHEATING
Academic cheating is defined as representing someone
else's work as your own. It can take many forms, including
sharing another's work, purchasing a term paper or test ques-
tions in advance, paying another to do the work for you. Sta-
tistics show that cheating among high school students has
risen dramatically during the past 50 years. 73 % of all test
takers, including prospective graduate students and teachers
agree that most students do cheat at some point.

163 
 
According to one recent survey of middle schoolers, 2/3
of respondents reported cheating on exams, while 9/10 re-
ported copying another's homework.
Cheating no longer carries the stigma that it used to.
Grades, rather than education, have become the major focus
of many students, so academic dishonesty increases due to
pressure for high grades. In most cases cheaters don't get
caught. If caught, they seldom are punished severely, if at all.

Unit II
STUDENT BUDGET
1. TO WORK OR NOT TO WORK
With the various costs associated with higher education
slowly rising, working part-time while studying is a necessity
for many students – be it to cover living and academic ex-
penses or to just for the sake (ради чего-либо) of getting
hold of a bit of spending money.
But money is not the only thing you can gain from part-
time work. It’s a great way to get a hands-on feel (чутье) for
the real working world and what it’s like to work with and for
other people, as opposed to the often solitary pursuits in-
volved in studying.
You might even be able to get some experience in the field
into which you wish to go, demonstrating your passion and
getting an invaluable head start (главный старт, хорошее
начало). And they can be particularly useful for international
students trying to get a feel for the language and culture of
their host country.
However, it goes without saying that there can be a less
positive side to working part-time, which is that it quite simp-
ly takes up time. As you’ll soon find out, at university, time
can become a pretty valuable asset (зд. ценность) at the best
of times, and a seemingly unattainable (недосягаемый) pre-
cious resource during harder ones.

164 
 
2. PERSONAL BUDGET
There has never been a bigger need than there is today for
families and individuals to establish personal budgets. In the
long run, increased life expectancies have raised the average
levels of retirement income that is now needed to survive.
This translates into a need for increased retirement savings at
a time when many people are living paycheck to paycheck. In
the short run, there is a greatly increased temptation to be-
come caught in a trap of easily accessible credit card debt.
The best way to handle both of these factors is through the es-
tablishment of an effective personal budget.
On the Internet you can find various web sites explaining
what a budget is, what it is good for, and how it is used. Sug-
gestions are given for changing spending habits and practic-
ing more self-control.
Some articles focus on cash flow, income and expenses.
You will be able to analyze your spending habits and work out
an effective money saving plan. Also discussed will be the
pros and cons of using credit, the importance of using it wise-
ly and your credit history.

Unit III
STUDENT JOB
1. WORKING IN COLLEGE
For some students, working in college is a necessity; for
others, it is simply a desire. Whatever the reason, however,
it's important to know the pros and cons of working while in
college before agreeing to take a job.
According to the National Center for Education Statistics,
79 percent of undergraduates in 2007-2008 worked while
they were enrolled. When it comes to having a college job,
perhaps the most important thing to keep in mind is not nec-
essarily where you'll work in college—but how much.
Research shows that students who restrict their working
time to 10-15 hours per week, on campus, are more likely
than other students to persist and earn degrees.

165 
 
But what exactly should students look for in a college job?
While some jobs can offer the obvious benefits, such as extra
income and a better college experience, others can offer perks
that extend well past graduation.

2. CAREER DECISIONS
Good career decisions require good information
about your personal traits. Information about the world of
work is everywhere—not just in libraries and career centres.
Even television shows can influence your views of specific oc-
cupations. Government departments, sector councils and
professional associations publish great information. Personal
contacts are extremely valuable, often providing ‘up-close and
personal’ views of occupations. Mentoring and job shadowing
programs can help you develop professional networks. Don't
forget to speak with teachers, professors, friends and rela-
tives. Be creative. Remember—good research can lead to
more satisfying career decisions!

Unit IV
CONSUMERISM
1. SHOW OFFS
These are people that constantly tell you about their
achievements and successes, their wisdom and their abilities.
When you are next to them, they tell you the same victory sto-
ries over and over again, as if they are trying to convince you
they are great.

Being around a show off increases our feeling of inade-


quacy. I had a friend that told everyone about how much she
spent on every item she bought and how expensive it was. She
used to say, “I bought this dress for US$700. Wow, it was so
expensive”. At first, I was happy for her, but after a while, I
could not stop thinking I could buy more than 7 dresses for
the same price. I think I was exhausted, because it was hard
for me to manage my feeling of jealousy.

166 
 
2. HOW MUCH IS ENOUGH?
We the richest fifth of the world's population already con-
sume more than our fair share of the world's resources.
Consumerism is a social and economic creed that encour-
ages us to desire even more than that share, regardless of the
consequences.
The USA alone, with only 6 % of the world's population,
consumes 30 % of its resources.
20 % of the world's population consumes over 70 % of its
material resources, and owns over 80 % of its wealth. Alt-
hough this global elite includes people in almost every coun-
try, the most consumerist nations are: the USA, Canada,
Western Europe, Saudi Arabia, Australia and Japan.
It is important to bear in mind that this elite does not
simply consist of the super-rich strata with incomes of above
half a million pounds a year. It includes the majority of the
citizens of these countries.
Measured in dollars, the world's people have consumed
as many goods and services since 1950 as all the previ-
ous generations put together.

167 
 
TAPESCRIPTS

Unit I
EDUCATION

1. A. I think home schooling is great. I wish my parents


had done this. The idea of never going to school sounds too
good to be true. I hated school. I wanted to stay at home every
day. I really wouldn’t have minded staying at home and stud-
ying. Of course, you need to be careful not to forget studying.
One thing about home schooling I like is visiting museums or
watching documentaries to learn more. This is so much better
than learning in school. I think my learning at school suffered
because there were many kids who didn’t want to learn. I
could have got better marks if I had stayed at home. Perhaps
there’ll be more home schooling in the future because of the
Internet.

2. A. Being a student is a good life. I don’t think most


students understand this. A lot of students complain they
have no money and too much homework. They never com-
plain that they have loads of free time, don’t have to go to
work and have really long holidays. When students finish be-
ing students and go to work, they understand how good it is
to be a student. Being a student at high school can be tough.
You have to study boring things and deal with things like bul-
lying. Going to college or university is when the fun starts.
Just a few hours of classes a week and lots of student parties. I’d
love to be a student again. I know many people who’d like to be
full-time students forever. All you need is a bit more cash.

3. Extract 1

Jason: More and more universities are adopting Virtual


Learning Environments. However, many feel this form of ed-
ucation is inadequate because it reduces face-to-face interac-
tion between students and teachers. I believe that if e-

168 
 
learning is carried out correctly, it can enhance the learning
experience. An e-learning course allows students to do self-
study tutorials online and access multimedia course material.
There are also enormous online libraries, forums, bulletin
boards and chat rooms, which allow students and staff to dis-
cuss topics and get supplementary materials. Some universi-
ties are even able to provide counselling and study support
services online. There are various advantages to e-learning.
Firstly, distance learners with busy lifestyles are able to study
any time, anywhere as long as they have access to the Inter-
net. Self-paced tutorials can be done at the learner's own pace
-I think this is particularly important for those trying to man-
age study with work. Various learning styles and abilities are
catered for. The overall cost of learning is reduced for the in-
stitution and the student. However, there are some disad-
vantages worth considering. Students who are not disciplined
enough to study on their own may fall behind. The lack of so-
cial interaction may cause some students to become isolated.
Problems with Internet connections can cause frustration and
slow down the learning process. Overall, I think that the ad-
vantages outweigh the drawbacks. E-learning provides a
wealth of information to students, and in using the software,
learners gain an additional skill.

Extract 2

Alex: Did you know that learning a musical instrument


can improve a child's behaviour? It can even improve their
memory and increase their intelligence.
Tess: That's interesting.
Alex: I've just read an article about it. Researchers have
discovered that playing a musical instrument makes the left
side of the brain bigger. This means students that play an in-
strument can remember more. In addition, it's been shown
that children who play musical instruments behave better;
they are more likely to demonstrate qualities such as respect,
politeness, willingness and trust. I think this is very interest-
ing research and it could have an important impact on society

169 
 
as a whole. It's a change from some of the research I've read
about, which is a waste of time and is of no benefit to anyone.
Tess: I know what you mean. I suppose the connection
between the children's behaviour and learning music comes
from the fact that music does influence who we are as people
and being part of a music group can offer young people support
when they are having a difficult time. I think learning a musical
instrument should be compulsory for primary school children.
Maybe it would reduce the crime rate among young people.
Alex: I agree. In fact, so does the government. They plan
to dramatically increase the number of primary-aged children
learning musical instruments.

4. Every year, it costs British students more and more


to attend university. Students are graduating with larger and
larger debts. So is a university degree really worth it?
In 2006, the UK government started to allow universities
in England and Wales to charge British students tuition fees.
As a result, more than 80 % of students in England and Wales
now take out a student loan in order to go to university. They
use the loan to pay for tuition fees, books and living expenses.
Although the interest on student loans is quite low, it begins
as soon as the student receives the loan.
The average student in England and Wales now graduates
from university with debts of around £12,000. Students of
medicine, who study for longer, usually have debts of more
than £20,000. That is a lot of money. It means graduates
cannot afford to buy a house for many years. They even
struggle to pay rent on a flat, because they have to start pay-
ing back the student loan when they reach the April after
graduating (or after leaving a course). If you start to earn over
£15,000 a year, the government takes repayments directly
from your monthly salary. Is it any surprise, therefore, that
the average British person does not leave their parents’ home
until they are 30 years old?
You might think that a British person with a degree will
find it easy to get a well-paid job. However, most people in
“white-collar jobs” seem to have a degree these days, so there

170 
 
is a lot of competition. Also, British companies tend to value
work experience over a piece of paper. Like everyone else,
graduates usually have to start at the bottom and work their
way up. That can be very frustrating for them, since they are
often over-qualified for the work they are doing. While at
university, they had dreams of getting an exciting, challeng-
ing job. Therefore, life after university ends up being quite
disappointing for a lot of graduates.
All of the above is beginning to make British people ques-
tion whether a university degree is really worth the money.
Even before the credit crunch started, the BBC stated, ‘The
number of British students at UK universities has fallen for
the first time in recent history... from 1.97 million in 2007 to
1.96 million last year [2008]’. It looks like the figures will
continue to decline, since loan companies are now telling
some student that there are no loans available for them. Fore-
casts are that between 2009-19 there will be fall of 6 % in the
number of 18-25 year-old university applicants across the UK.
Students have always been seen as not having a lot of
money, but ‘student poverty’ is now considered a real prob-
lem in the UK. Most British students expect to get a loan,
part-time job or summer job. Worse than that, however, is the
fact student leaders report there are increasing numbers of stu-
dents turning to crime to support themselves financially.
By contrast, things are now easier for students from other
countries coming to study in the UK, since the value of the
British pound has fallen. More international students come to
Britain each year. The British universities offer more and
more of the available places to richer international students
rather than poorer British students. Some British people fear
that, one day, there won’t be any university places left for
British students at all.

171 
 
Unit II
STUDENT BUDGET
1. A. Many years ago I read that credit cards were the
thing of the future. Credit card companies were telling us that
plastic would replace cash. Well, this hasn’t happened. People
are still using notes and coins. The Internet has increased the
use of credit cards, but many people worry about putting
their card details online. Lots of personal info gets stolen by
fake sites pretending to be famous banks or online stores.
Personally, I love credit cards. I always prefer to pay by card
than by cash. When you use your card, you get air miles and
every six months you can cash them in for presents. I do wor-
ry about credit card security. I keep waiting to see a huge pur-
chase on my statement that I didn’t make.

2. A. ‘Money makes the world go round’. I wonder if


this famous English expression is very true. If you have mon-
ey, the world goes round very gently and you are happy. If
you don’t have money, the world might not go round so
smoothly. They also say that ‘money is the root of all evil’. I
think this is so true. Money makes people kill and steal.
Greed means there are things in the world like blackmail, cor-
ruption, slave labour and a lot more terrible things. Another
common saying in English is ‘money can’t buy happiness’. I’m
not so sure about this one. I know if I had loads of money I’d
be pretty happy. I think if all the world’s money was shared
out, the world would go round more happily, and there would
be less evil and more happiness.

3. Hello and welcome to Trend UK, your shortcut to


popular culture from the British Council. In the next few
minutes we’re going to be talking about mates and money.
Moving away from home to go to university can be a stressful
time. First, there are all the social pressures that can be en-
countered. And then there’s the strain on your pocket, what
with living expenses, books and going out with your friends.
And on top of all that, you’ve got to study as well. So, is there
a way to be careful with your money and have a good and

172 
 
productive time? Our reporter Mark went to meet the stu-
dents at a large UK university to find out.
Looking around the Student Union at this university, eve-
ryone seems to be having a good time but the reality is that
students are often on a tight budget and going out with your
friends for a meal or a drink is often something that has to be
thought about quite carefully. I’ve assembled a group of typi-
cal students here who are going to tell us what it’s like to have
so many social opportunities and yet be on a budget. And
hopefully they can give us the tips for having the best and
cheapest of times.
- How do you find the cost of living here?
- Very expensive.
- Everything including clothing accommodation, travel-
ling, everything is expensive here.
- In terms of: housing…transport especially.
- So what do you think you spend most on?
- Transport I think. Yeah, food if you eat at home, it’s very
cheap. The train. In a week was spending more than one
hundred pounds.
- And how do you afford clothing? I mean ‘trendy’ isn’t
cheap.
- I’m from China, and actually in my place there’s also
nice clothes there, so I normally bring my clothes here! He
he-he.
- So you don’t shop here? You shop at home.
- Yeah all that from home. Except jackets, I love jackets so
I make sure if there’s any sale going around, especially Boxing
Day I go and loot the shopping centre and buy all the stuff
and get cheap prices.
- And what’s the social side like?
- I love it because has so many cultures, I was so shocked
actually it took me quite some time. Because it’s Chinese,
Japanese, African people. I like that, to me it’s very interesting.
- I like to go for movies with my friends once a month like
that, and also for dinner.
- I’m a very social person, I love socialising with people
and meeting new people and I love partying. Thankfully I

173 
 
don’t drink and I don’t smoke so only expenses like, you know,
maybe entry fee to the disco clubs and something like that.
- And do you have any money saving tips for other people
who might want to come and work or study here in the UK?
- You just have to watch anything you buy, just don’t im-
pulse buy things.
- If you rent a house, with your friends then it will be
cheaper.
- I teach a lot, I teach piano and the violin, so that covers a
little bit of what I want to spend on clothes and stuff and ex-
tras yeah.
- I bought DVD player can watch all the movies at home
ha-ha! So I can entertain myself at home. Cheaper ha-ha.
- Don’t drink too much ha-ha.
- Well, plenty of good advice here from the students.
Thanks to all of you for coming along.
Our reporter Mark with the students there. And that’s it
for this time.

Unit II
STUDENT JOB

1. A. Choosing a career is one of the biggest decisions we


make in life. It used to be that we chose only one career. Peo-
ple would start a job when they were 18, 19 or 20 and stay in
that same career for life. Their career path was quite straight-
forward. Nowadays, it is normal for people to change careers,
five, six, seven times. New technology and globalization
means things change quickly. We need to study and keep up
with all the changes. I’ve had four different careers now. I like
moving from one job to another. It means life never gets bor-
ing. It’s much better to keep learning different things in dif-
ferent careers. I have no idea what career I’ll choose next.
Perhaps one that doesn’t even exists today.

2. A. Qualifications are so important these days. Many


years ago, a university degree was enough. A B.A. or B.Sc.
would guarantee you a good job. Not now. Not even a Mas-

174 
 
ter’s degree is enough these days. It seems everyone has a
Master’s degree. Some of the jobs I want now require a Ph.D.
It’s also not enough nowadays to be happy with the qualifica-
tions you have. You have to keep your qualifications up to
date, re-qualify, get new qualifications. It seems life has be-
come one long certificate chase. Especially so now that many
people will have several careers in their life. I know someone
who got a degree in physics, then became an accountant,
didn’t like it and studied to be a lawyer. He’s now studying for
his teaching license!

3. 1)
Mrs. Atkins: Joe! You're late.
Joe: I know, Mrs Atkins, but...
Mrs. Atkins: I've got a business to run.
Joe: Yes, but...
Mrs. Atkins: There are lots of people who'd love to get a
job here. Do you want me to sack you?
Joe: No, but...
Mrs. Atkins: You know what it's like to be on the dole,
don't you?
Joe: Yes.
Mrs. Atkins: And you don't want to be unemployed?
Joe: No, Mrs. Atkins.
Mrs. Atkins: You wouldn't get much unemployment ben-
efit... So clock on at the right time!
Joe: Yes, Mrs. Atkins.
Mrs. Atkins: Why were you late anyway?
Joe: Mr. Atkins asked me to wash his car.
Mrs. Atkins: Oh.
2)
Hi Ted, would you like to come to a party?... To celebrate
my retirement... Yes, I'm retiring... I can't see myself as a
pensioner... Worried I might feel bored... And I'm not sure we
can get by on my pension... I'm looking for a part-time job...
Maybe a pilot or a stockbroker or a taxi driver... No, just jok-
ing... Nothing so stressful. Maybe a shop assistant or a lolli-
pop man... Anyway, can you come? It's next Friday at 9 pm...

175 
 
3)
The management have lied to us again and again. Our
working conditions are terrible! We have the lowest wages in
the sector, and they always pay us late! They don't pay us
when we're off sick! They're talking about making fifty work-
ers redundant when this company has been making huge
profit for years! It's time to go on strike!
4)
Welcome to your first training session at Feelgood Indus-
tries. My name is Barbara and let me tell you this is a great
company! We've got the best starting salaries in the country.
Fantastic benefits: six weeks paid holiday a year, guaranteed
sick pay, free day care for pre-school children... If you work
hard, you can get promoted within six months.
5)
Mrs. Binns: Could you tell me something about your pre-
vious experience?
Tim: Well, as you can see in my curriculum vitae I've had
lots of jobs. I've worked as a bus driver, a driving instructor, a
factory worker, a cook, a postman, a sales rep... I've never
known what I really wanted to do... until now, of course.
Mrs. Binns: So why do you think you would make a good
flight attendant?
Tim: I'm good at dealing with people ...

4.
Interviewer: How long have you been designing clothes?
Sally:I first started making my own clothes when I was
11.I spent most of my free time making things. When my
friends saw my designs, they asked me to make clothes for
them. Back then, my family was suffering from financial diffi-
culties. It was very stressful. I was able to make some extra
money on the side. This couldn't have happened at a better
time. I had a great sense of pride that I was able to make a
contribution. I would work after school; when most kids my
age were hanging out, I was in my bedroom poring over de-
signs. It was exhausting but it didn't matter to me because I
loved it.

176 
 
Interviewer: How do you manage to study for a degree
and manage your business?
Sally:It's tough, especially this year as I'm in my final
year and I have a project and lots of exams. The business has
been really challenging this year as well. Sometimes it's hard
to do everything but I do my best. I'm studying Fashion De-
sign Technology. It's been really helpful to me. There have
been so many changes taking place in the fashion world and I
wanted to keep up to date with the technology. There are also
modules in Business and Management in my degree which
have helped me understand managing a business better. I
think at the end of the day it was worth going to university
because the experience served to broaden my mind and chal-
lenge me. Unfortunately, because I've been so busy, I haven't
really had the chance to do much socialising. That's some-
thing I regret.

Unit IV
CONSUMERISM

1. A. Standard of living is something very important to


all of us. We all want a better standard of living. We all do our
best for most of our lives to improve it. I’m quite happy with
my standard of living. I’m not rich, I don’t have expensive
furniture (in fact I have cheap used furniture) and I don’t
have luxury holidays overseas. I don’t think you need a lot of
money to have a good standard of living. As long as you are
comfortable in your home and you can buy food and go out a
few times a week, your standard of living should be fine. Mine
is much better than 90 per cent of the world’s population.
This is probably true for you, if you are reading or listening to
this. We all need to think how lucky we are.

2. A. There's so much wealth in the world. And there's


so much poverty and suffering. Thousands of billionaires live
like kings and queens while billions go hungry. They show off
their wealth to each other. They fill their gigantic mansions with
all the trappings of wealth. They must have luxury cars, expen-

177 
 
sive artwork and over-priced jewelry. I wonder if these people
ever think about how much a tiny part of their wealth could
help others. Many billionaires could give billions of dollars away
and never even notice it has gone. But that money could help
millions of people around the world. If the rich shared their
wealth, millions of starving children could eat. I suppose
greed is a big part of being wealthy. You just want more.

3. Consumer society
by Julie Bray
‘There is enough on earth for everybody’s need, but not
for everyone’s greed’. Gandhi
If we only bought things we needed, there would be
enough for everybody. What do we need? What you need de-
pends on how old you are and your way of life. Rearrange the
list of things you can buy and put the things you think we
most need at the top of the list.
 A coat
 A pair of trainers
 Levi’s jeans
 Water
 A CD player
 A pair of jeans
 A dental check-up
 Paper
 A restaurant meal
 A telephone
 Jewellery
 Gold-coloured laces in your trainers
 Food
 An appointment at the hair salon
 Paracetamol
 Shampoo
 An iPod
 Beer
 Toothpaste
 A packet of M&Ms
 Cushion covers

178 
 
 Table mats which match the curtains
If we don’t need to buy so much, we don’t need to work so
much. We can take part-time jobs or reduce our working day
from 8 hours to 6 hours. Some people are leaving very well-
paid jobs to live a healthier life in the countryside or a more
exciting life abroad. This is called ‘downshifting’. Parents can
spend more time with their children and the unemployed are
given more opportunities to work.
If we start to respect saving the earth more than spending
money, we will become ‘conservers’. When we are conservers,
we try to choose environmentally friendly products which are
durable and last a long time. We may find growing our own
vegetables or making our own clothes more rewarding than
buying them.
What was the best thing you bought last week?
Could you choose from lots of different types? We like
having a choice of what to buy. People who buy things are
called consumers. Consumers have choices. We usually
choose the colour, taste, smell or size of what we buy, but
there are other choices we can make. The following questions
will help you to consider these choices.
Where was it made?
If you don’t like the place it was made, you might decide
not to buy that particular product. A lot of people don’t buy
products from certain countries when they don’t like the way
the country is run. Was it made in a factory or on a local
farm? If the product was unbelievably cheap, the people who
made it might not have been paid much.
Who made it?
Do you know? If a friend made it, you probably like it
more and you will want to keep it for a long time. If it was
made by somebody who enjoyed making it, the quality and
the design are probably better. Or does it look like it might
have been assembled in a large factory?
There are children in Asia who make Santa Claus dolls for
European children to play with. The children who make the
toys don’t celebrate Christmas because they are not Christian;

179 
 
they think of the dolls as work. Would it be better if the chil-
dren in Europe made their own Christmas dolls?
What is it made from?
One of the places where we want to buy expensive luxu-
ries is at the airport’s duty-free shop. Next to the chocolate
and cigarettes, there are beautifully shaped bottles and com-
pact boxes full of perfumes and creams which promise to
make you look and feel more beautiful. If you look at the in-
gredients you will find that the perfumes are mainly alcohol
and the creams are mainly made of petroleum!
Almost all products are sold in packaging. Some products
have too much packaging, creating more rubbish and using
up resources. Some use recycled packaging, which is better
for the environment.
Next time you go shopping, think about what you really
need to buy. Don’t deprive yourself of things you like, but de-
cide what you should buy before you go out, so that you won’t
be influenced by advertisements or promotions. If it is more
expensive to buy goods which don’t have much packaging and
things which are more durable, buy less. If you can choose to
work less, decide which things you would like to make, do or
grow yourself. Even though you have less money, your life
will become richer!

180 
 
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184 
 
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Пояснительная записка ................................................ 3
Unit I. EDUCATION ........................................................ 5
Unit II. STUDENT BUDGET ......................................... 59
Unit III. STUDENT JOB ................................................93
Unit IV. CONSUMERISM ............................................ 127
Dictations ..................................................................... 163
Tapescripts ................................................................... 168
Список литературы ..................................................... 181

185 
 
Учебное издание

ISSUES
for
the YOUNG & RESTLESS
Составители:
Григорова Людмила Эдуардовна,
Пашкова Ирина Владимировна, Гугасян Елена Анатольевна

ISBN 978-5-9624-1258-0

Печатается в авторской редакции


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Темплан 2015. Поз. 66.
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