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Service & Technik

Informationen for the sewing industry

Garment dyeing
Sewing thread and sewing
recommendations
Garment dyeing – Sewing thread and sewing recommendations
Some call it garment dyeing, others speak of PPT (Pronto per Tinta),
others PAT (Pret a Teindre) or RFD (Ready for Dyeing) – but they are
Sewing threads for garment dyeing
all talking about the same thing: They speak of garments that are With regard to the sewing thread, special considerations are
sewn "raw" and dyed after sewing. They are usually made of natu- necessary to keep the quality of the seam at the usual standard. The
ral fibres, for the most part cotton, and for specific applications question of which will be the right thread for garment dyeing can-
polyamide as well. Garment dyeing is currently very fashionable; not be easily answered. There are different options – each with its
not very many collections do without it, especially for trousers. Its own advantages and disadvantages. These should be known in
unmistakable look and its matchless character are much valued. At detail to be able to choose the right sewing thread concept for a
the same time, garment dyeing allows high level of flexibility regar- specific application. The detailed information contained in this
ding colours, with great advantages in logistics, materials manage- AMANN S+T brochure will make this decision much easier.
ment, and supply. The standard sewing thread concept for a “normal” production
utilising polyester sewing threads does not make much sense for
garment dyeing – unless you are prepared to determine the colour
of the sewing thread way in advance. Then what is done is you sew
natural white material to be dyed in red later with a red sewing
thread, for example. Then, the seams and the sewing features will
be of the usual quality, but the flexibility as regards colour, and thus
the actual advantage of garment dyeing is lost. For some producers
with an awareness for quality, this can be the right way to go espe-
cially if the batches to dye are small and produced sporadically, as
is the fashion, and therefore it is really not worth looking for better
alternatives. For all other producers, however, this solution is not
very reasonable.
So, they will be looking for alternatives: Sewing threads with good
dyeing properties in connection to the material. An obvious solution
here is the cotton thread range. But Lyocell and polyamide sewing
threads are an option too. AMANN maintains all three product
ranges and has developed other solutions in addition to standard
cotton threads, for the benefit of improved seam quality. Many
things are happening in this sector – well-known standards and
possible concepts are presented in the following.
Garment dyed trousers – trendy season after season

From a production point of view, garment dyeing is very challen-


ging. The change in conventional work processes has consequen-
ces for sewing: materials and accessories that are used are
changing and thus also reliable processing and quality indicators,
therefore production parameters must adapt. Raw materials used
for garment dyeing have usually received some finishing (for exam-
ple: desizing, singeing, or sanforizing) to prepare them for the
subsequent dyeing processes and to facilitate sewing. All the
accessories like sewing threads, zippers, pocket linings, labels,
rivets, etc. must be suitable for the special requirements of the
subsequent dyeing process and finishing. Each accessory's suita-
bility must be tested in detail. Will the label be readable after
dyeing? Will the zipper tape take up the colour? Will the rivets
survive dyeing without any unwanted colour changes? ... These
issues must be clarified in prior tests, because the dyeing and
finishing conditions are often not actually known and they can only
be evaluated in practical tests.

Service &Technik
2
Cotton threads
The use of cotton threads has been the usual standard for garment
dyeing so far. When cotton materials are sewn with cotton threads,
then the later dyeing process is no problem. AMANN offers the
following cotton threads for garment dyeing:
MERCIFIL 12
CORNETA 24/2
MERCIFIL 40
MERCIFIL 50
CORNETA 24/2 in special colour 6231 that washes out – never a cause for confusion.

MERCIFIL CORNETA MERCIFIL MERCIFIL The use of cotton threads in garment dyeing seems so simple and
12 24/2 40 50 natural that an associated drop off in seam quality is often undere-
stimated or overlooked. In fact, important quality factors like tensi-
le strength, abrasion resistance, and elongation of cotton threads
area incomparable to industry-standard polyester corespun
threads! The diagrams 1, 2 and 3 demonstrate at a glance the
extreme differences in quality.

AMANN cotton threads for garment dyeing – an overview of ticket numbers Comparison in tensile strength
When choosing the suitable count, the ticket number system must 4500
be taken into consideration too. The count of a MERCIFIL 50 thread
4000
cannot be compared with the count of a SABAC 50 or RASANT 50
thread. With cotton threads, the ticket number is usually stated in 3500
NeB (Number English Baumwolle (= Cotton). The following table 3000
Tensile strength (cN)

shows how the ticket numbers of AMANN cotton threads translate


into the usual ticket numbers in the industry. It also states the appro- 2500

priate colour numbers. 2000


Ticket number Count Count Ticket number Colour number
1500
AMANN (Nm) (dtex) commonly used
cotton threads in the industry
1000
MERCIFIL 50 53/2 189 x 2 Between No. 80 and No. 100 3000 or 6231
MERCIFIL 40 43/2 233 x 2 No. 80 3000 or 6231 500
CORNETA 24/2 26/2 385 x 2 No. 35 3000 or 6231
0
MERCIFIL 12 25/3 395 x 3 No. 25 0001 CORNETA SABAC 35 MERCIFIL SABAC 80
24/2 40
Translation of cotton thread ticket numbers into ticket numbers common in the industry, plus
AMANN colour numbers for garment dyeing. Diagram 1 – Comparison of linear tensile strength: Cotton thread MERCIFIL or CORNETA / PES-
corespun thread SABAC (Test in accordance with DIN EN ISO 2062)
The cotton threads used for garment dyeing are usually not natural This noticeably lower tensile strength has a direct effect on the seam
undyed cotton, because depending on their origin the actual colour breaking strength, which is reduced: this is a problem for all seams
can differ, sometimes they are yellowish-grey. At least with lighter that are exposed to greater stress, such as the back seams on
colours, for example pastel tones, this can have an influence on the trousers. In some cases, seam breaking strength can be reduced
dyeing results. Therefore, the cotton threads are usually dyed in a to a level where a seam will even break by manual force.
standardised natural tone (colour number 3000). To avoid any con-
fusion – natural coloured polyester threads should by no means be
used mistakenly because the seams would remain natural white
after dyeing – we recommend using coloured cotton threads for this
special purpose. AMANN has developed the special-purpose
colour 6231 – an uncommon light green. Practice has proven that
this is a safe method to prevent confusions. This colour washes out
at the beginning of the dyeing process so as to not impair the
dyeing in the required colour tone for the article.

3
Comparison in abrasion resistance Comparison in elasticity
45.000 The significantly lower elasticity of cotton threads compared to
polyester threads has a noticeable influence on their sewing cha-
40.000
racteristics and seam elasticity. In today's production environments
35.000 – sometimes fully automated with high sewing speeds – the use of
Abrasion resistance (Touren)

cotton threads is difficult. Concretely, this means a large number of


30.000
thread breaks if the machines have not been set correctly. Absolu-
25.000 tely critical is the use of cotton threads on multidirectional automa-
20.000
ted machines, for example to sew on back pockets on trousers, or
on very old sewing machines that work with extremely high thread
15.000 tensions. So, if the problem of sewing cotton threads has been
10.000 solved, the next problem is low elasticity. Dyed parts of garments
sewn with cotton threads show an extremely low seam elasticity at
5.000
all seams – which is a problem, when the material itself is elastic.
0
SABAC 35
The results are broken seams under slight stress when worn.
CORNETA 24/2

Diagram 2 – Comparison in abrasion resistance: Cotton thread CORNETA 24/2 PES- 20


corespun thread SABAC 35 (Abrasion test with Martindale tester on dyed seams)
18

Special attention should be paid to this abrasion resistance com- 16


parison. A low cotton thread abrasion resistance is the biggest 14
Elongation at break (%)

problem regarding seams in the garment dyeing industry. First the


12
mechanical stress during the sewing process and then during the
dyeing and finishing processes and lastly the normal wear and tear 10
on the garment – this is really hard on cotton threads. Worn out and
8
open seams, especially at heavily exposed areas, is the result.
6

0
MERCIFIL 40 SABAC 80

Diagram 3 – Comparison of elongation at break: Cotton thread MERCIFIL 40 / PES core-


spun thread SABAC 80 (Test in accordance with DIN EN ISO 2062)

The quality-relevant differences are increased by dyeing and finis-


hing process stress. While polyester sewing threads survive the
dyeing process almost unharmed, cotton threads are additionally
damaged by each individual process. Depending on the dyeing
conditions, the drop off in quality is sometimes significant. It is not
surprising that dyed garment parts often show damaged or
Frequent quality problem areas in garment dyeing: Fraying seams at heavily exposed areas destroyed seams, even when brand new. A large portion of second
such as ornamental seams on back pockets or bobbin thread loops at trouser waist bands. quality goods, many complaints, and the resulting loss of reputati-
on are a logical consequence.
To keep the difference in quality as low as possible, coarser than
usual threads should be chosen when determining the sewing thre-
ad concept. The size concept must be worked out individually,
depending on the product group, the seam concept (seam type and
stitch type), and the stress, to which the thread is exposed during
the dyeing and finishing processes. The following table offers some
orientation here.

Service &Technik
4
Product group
Closing seams
Sewing thread concept
Topstitching Edge-finishing
Lyocell sewing threads
seams**
An alternative for garment dyeing processes, which has been under
Trousers, skirts, MERCIFIL 40* Lock stitch: MERCIFIL 40 or 50
jackets (stitch type 301) for finer materials
discussion for years, is the use of Lyocell sewing threads. This raw
MERCIFIL 12 material is similar to cotton, and therefore a good alternative.
CORNETA 24/2 Lyocell is a cellulose chemically developed fibre and thus has the
(Needle thread)
MERCIFIL 40 same beneficial dyeing properties as cotton.
(Bobbin thread)
Shirts, blouses, MERCIFIL 40 or 50 MERCIFIL 40 or 50 MERCIFIL 50
A possible size concept with multifilament threads made of Lyocell
dresses for finer materials -- developed and tested at the AMANN R&D department – is the
T-Shirts MERCIFIL 50 MERCIFIL 50 MERCIFIL 50 following:
* For closing seams exposed to greater stress, we urgently (!) recommend an additional top-
stitching seam to ensure a sufficient cross-resistance of the seam. LYOCELL 20 – for ornamental seams and topstitching seams
** Chose the thread with the best decorative effect.
LYOCELL 40 – for closing and joining seams
Size recommendations for garment dyeing, for sewing with cotton threads
For edge-finishing, we recommend staying with MERCIFIL 50.
One option for this sewing thread concept worth considering is the
use of cotton-polyester corespun threads for all closing and joining
MERCIFIL 50
seams that are not visible. The use of RASANT (in the colour 0003)
would be extremely beneficial for seam quality. Tensile strength,
abrasion resistance, and elongation of closing and holding seams
would be of the same high quality. However, the dyeing results
would be rather imperfect:
LYOCELL 40

LYOCELL 20

AMANN development project: Lyocell threads for garment dyeing; an overview of possible
thread sizes.

Comparing the Lyocell concept with the standard cotton concept


Seams tinged with grey due to the polyester core of cotton corespun threads makes it easy to assess this solution:

The polyester core of corespun thread does not take up dye; this is
why the seam is tinged with grey if cotton corespun threads are
used in garment dyeing processes. Every producer must decide if
such a seam look is acceptable for inside seams in favour of opti-
mal durability. Considering the quality problems when using pure
cotton threads, this option should not be opted out too quickly.

5
Comparison in stability Comparison in abrasion resistance
70 7000

60 6000

Seam abrasion resistance (Tours)


Seem breaking strength (daN)

50 5000

40 4000

30 3000

20 2000

10 1000

0 0
LYOCELL 40 MERCIFIL 40 LYOCELL 20 CORNETA 24/2

Diagram 4 – Comparison in seam breaking strength: LYOCELL 40 / cotton thread MERCIFIL 40 Diagram 5 – Comparison in abrasion resistance: LYOCELL 20 / cotton thread CORNETA
(Test with dyed material in accordance with DIN 53 857) 24/2 (abrasion test with dyed seams using Martindale tester)

Lyocell is known for its high stability when compared to other Wetness and mechanical stress during the dyeing process are
cellulose fibres such as viscose, modal, cupro, or the natural fibre killers for seams made with Lyocell threads. Therefore, the abrasion
cotton. In the industry, this feature is often the main argument in resistance of cotton and Lyocell seams is at the same low level.
favour for the use of Lyocell for garment dyeing sewing threads. Basically, seams damaged by worn out stitches at all exposed
However, as shown in Diagram 4, this Lyocell fibre advantage is not seams cannot be prevented.
reflected in the seam: The stability of Lyocell thread seams is at
about the same low level as cotton thread seams. This is due to the
Lyocell’s comparably low wet strength. The strength of Lyocell and
cotton wet is at about the same level. At the same time, Lyocell has
a tendency to fibrillation when wet. This property is often used to
advantage in the designing of fabrics, for example to produce a
“fuzzy” effect. However, for sewing threads, this fibrillation has an
adverse effect since it reduces the stability of a seam.

Service &Technik
6
Comparison in elasticity Polyamide sewing threads
14 Opting for polyamide sewing threads in garment dyeing is less
obvious but possible, for a good reason. The PA type 6 (not 6.6
12
as in common PA sewing threads like SRONGFIL/ONYX) allows for
Elongation at break (%)

10 a feasible dyeing concept. This solution affords more effort in the


dyeing process, but offers considerable benefits in seam quality.
8
AMANN has developed the following multifilament threads and
6 bulk yarns of polyamide 6 for use in garment dyeing:
4 GARMENT DYEING 20
2 GARMENT DYEING 30
0 GARMENT DYEING 60
LYOCELL 40 MERCIFIL 40

Diagramm 6 – Comparison in elongation at break: LYOCELL 40 / cotton thread MERCIFIL 40 GARMENT DYEING 120
(test in accordance with DIN EN ISO 2062)
PA BAUSCHGARN SGD 120
The greater elongation of Lyocell sewing threads compared to
cotton is beneficial under various aspects: It makes for an impro-
ved sewability, greater seam elasticity, and to some extent more
even seams. With an elongation at approx. 12 %, Lyocell sewing
threads are almost comparable to standard polyester sewing thre-
ads. They can balance tension peaks during sewing much better,
and this is why threads won't break as often. Seams of Lyocell fea-
ture a greater elongation reserve under stress in a lengthwise
direction. Seam breaks occur less frequently. Moreover, practice
has shown that the balanced stress-strain ratio and the thinner
cross-section of Lyocell threads compared to cotton threads redu- PA BAUSCH- GARMENT GARMENT GARMENT GARMENT
ces the risk of pucker. GARN DYEING 120 DYEING 60 DYEING 30 DYEING 20
SGD 120
This comparison qualifies the much-discussed advantages of
Lyocell over cotton, and identifies the actual strong points of this AMANN polyamide threads for garment dyeing – an overview of ticket numbers

concept, which are mainly based on its greater elongation The wide range of ticket numbers and the additional bulk yarn qua-
characteristic. lity allow use in a very broad range of applications: Aside from tra-
When compared to the polyester threads commonly used in the ditional garment dyeing, the threads GARMENT DYEING 120 and
industry, the extreme differences in quality become very distinct. PA BAUSCHGARN SGD 120 can also be used for pre-dyed under-
Stability and abrasion resistance are way below the normal level, wear and medical textiles. The following pictures show real-life
so seam quality is just as low. And this is additionally influenced by examples:
the dyeing process. Unfavourable conditions here can lead to an
extreme reduction of the already low seam quality.
The size concept for the use of Lyocell sewing threads can be deri-
ved from the recommendations for cotton sewing threads (Table on
page 5). With Lyocell, too, one should try and compensate the low
stability values by choosing thicker threads.

Pre-dyed jeans -- sewing thread concept:


Topstitched seams: GARMENT DYEING 20 (Needle thread)
GARMENT DYEING 60 (Bobbin thread)
Closing seams: GARMENT DYEING 60 (Needle and bobbin thread)
Edge-finishing: GARMENT DYEING 120 (Needle and bobbin thread)

7
The decisive advantage of the polyamide concept is its high seam To ensure a perfect dyeing result with PA sewing threads, the dyeing
quality. All the quality problems that occur when using Lyocell or method must be extended. An acid dyeing processing step for
cotton threads are of no significance here. Seam stability, seam ela- polyamide must be added to the reactive dyeing method used for
sticity, and seam abrasion resistance are at an average good level cotton. The following diagram shows an example for a suitable
– exceeding it even with regard to abrasion resistance. Damaged dyeing method. When comparing it with the standard cotton
seams due to seam breaks or worn out stitches are not possible. dyeing method, the differences become clear at once.
The price to be paid for this kind of quality is a more complicated Dyeing method with/without dyeing of the PA-thread
dyeing process. Because the standard dyeing processes for cotton
D 15 Min. 20 Min.
will not suffice to thoroughly dye polyamide threads. The following 100
90
pictures show seams, where the special requirements for dyeing D
80
PA were taken into consideration. 70
AB C 45 Min.
60
Often, when producers try out the PA concept results are as shown

Temp. ° C
50
in the pictures, since the required adjustments in the dyeing proces- 40
EF

ses were not implemented – at least not properly. By taking a look 30


at industry practice the causes are quickly understood: Usually 20

dyeing is done in distant countries, in large quantities, and in many 10


0
different dye houses. If you know production conditions there, you 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260
will know how hard it is to implement new standards and require- Time Min.
Reactive dyeing with Rinsing with Acid dyeing with
ments for new dyeing methods. with dyeing
BEZAKTIV S interim cleaning BEMAPLEX

Reactive dyeing with Rinsing with


without dyeing
BEZAKTIV S soaping process

Dyeing method for garment dyeing: Standard cotton dyeing and standard cotton dyeing
with additional dyeing of the PA sewing thread; Source: Bezema

If you are willing to invest into this additional dyeing step, the result
will be perfect. A basic condition for a successful realisation is a
close cooperation of all the parties involved: Producer, AMANN,
dyestuff producer and dye house must work out a solution together!
For the best possible dye formulas and methods, rely on the dyestuff
producers' experience.

Unsatisfactory seam quality: PA sewing threads dyed in standard cotton dyeing process

Service &Technik
8
Sewing recommendations
Assuming cotton threads to be the standard sewing threads in Under the aspect of seam elasticity, however, double chain-
garment dyeing, their selection and adhering to production para- stitching is to be favoured. The greater thread reserve provides
meters are of utmost importance. Firstly sewing conditions must be a better seam elasticity. Lockstitching cannot provide sufficient
adjusted to the special sewing properties of cotton threads, and seam elasticity required for the processing of elastic materials, not
secondly critical seam quality must be optimized as far as possi- even with a sufficiently high stitch density and low thread tension.
ble. The following overview shows the most important recommen-
For a proper inside workmanship of a garment piece, we recom-
dations.
mend using seam types such as felled seams, cased seams or bound
seams.
Stitch density The various advantages and disadvantages of the various stitch
The stitch density has a direct influence on the cross-resistance and and seam types prove once again how carefully and individually
seam elasticity, the weak points of garment dyeing. Seams that will they must be determined for each sewing operation.
be subjected to a high level of wear and tear should therefore be
sewn with a higher stitch density than usual. Exact parameters must
be determined for each sewing operation (seam and stitch type)
Choosing the needle
individually. For the AMANN cotton threads we recommend using the following
needle sizes:
For finishing the cut edges, a minimum stitch density of 4 stitches/cm
is required to prevent fraying during the dyeing and finishing MERCIFIL 12 Needle size Nm 110-130
processes. CORNETA 24/2 Needle size Nm 100-130
MERCIFIL 40 Needle size Nm 80-90
Thread tension
MERCIFIL 50 Needle size Nm 70-80
The correct thread tension is the key for ensuring even seams and a
satisfactory seam stability and elasticity. It should be as low as The precise adjustment and selection of the suitable needle point
possible to achieve the proper thread distribution from needle must be done keeping the material and the sewing operation in
and bobbin thread. mind. To avoid fabric damage by needle penetration – a common
problem in garment dyeing – the needle should always be as fine
as possible. It has proven beneficial even to use rounded needle
Stitch and seam type points (FFG or SES) for delicate materials.
Not every stitch type or every seam type is suited for every sewing Above sewing recommendations also apply for the use of Lyocell
operation. With respect to the seam breaking strength, the simple threads. It is just as important for these to improve the seam quality
lock stitch closing seam or a double chainstitch is the weakest by choosing the best suited sewing parameters. Polyamide sewing
solution. Depending on the sewing thread concept and sewing threads, of course, are different: For these, you can use your
operation, this sewing method should not always be applied. For standard sewing parameters. There is no need to adjust the sewing
example, when using MERCIFIL 40 for needle and bobbin thread to conditions for reasons of quality. Only their greater elongation,
close a back seam on trousers, this simple closing seam is absolu- compared to standard polyester sewing threads, can to some
tely unsuitable. Here, it is necessary to add a topstitched seam to extent require an adjustment of thread tension.
increase the seam breaking strength to the required level. In gene-
ral, a topstitched seam significantly improves the seam breaking
strength. 2-needle-topstitching or sewing operations, especially
felled seams, are beneficial for seam breaking strength, but at the
same time aggravate the problem of seam pucker.
Experience in practice has shown that double chainstitching is more
susceptible to stress in the dyeing and finishing processes than
double lock stitching. Since the looping of needle and bobbin
thread occurs outside the material plies, the looping points of
double chainstitching, especially the pointed loops visible on the
underside of the material, are more susceptible to damage. This
behaviour must be given special consideration when determining
the waist band seam on jeans, which in general is a very critical
seam with respect to abrasion. The waist band seam in pre-dyed
garments should not be sewn with double chainstitching.

9
At a glance: Sewing threads for garment dyeing
Which sewing thread concept is the right one for garment dyeing? Cotton, Lyocell, or polyamide – which raw material provides the best
conditions? Which are the advantages or disadvantages of the individual solutions? To answer these questions it is necessary to have all the
information and arguments available. Here are the most important decision factors at a glance:

Standards and alternatives: Raw material and size concepts


Standard Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3 Alternative 4
Raw material/ Cotton spun Lyocell Polyamide 6 Polyester Combination of alternative1 +
construction thread multifilament threads multifilament threads corespun thread cotton polyester corespun thread

Closing and MERCIFIL 40 LYOCELL 40 GARMENT DYEING SABAC 80, RASANT 75 or 120
joining seams and 60 100 or 120
bobbin threads for GARMENT DYEING
topstitching seams 120 (underwear)
Ornamental and CORNETA LYOCELL 20 GARMENT DYEING SABAC 25, CORNETA 24/2
topstitching seams 24/2 20 or 30 30, 35 or 50 MERCIFIL12
(Needle thread) MERCIFIL 12
Edge-finishing MERCIFIL 50 MERCIFIL 50 GARMENT DYEING SABAC 80, 100, RASANT 75 or 120
120 120 or 150
PA-BAUSCHGARN SABATEX
SGD 120 (underwear) 120

You will find all of these alternatives in practice. Besides the standard concept, mainly alternatives 1 and 2 are discussed. Alternative 4 is a
modification of the standard concept with an improved seam quality for closing seams. Alternative 3 is based on the common polyester con-
cept. This solution is unusual at first glance, but still useful for some producers of high-quality goods.

Standards and alternatives in comparison: Technical Data


Ticket numbers for topstitching seams (needle thread)

C
MERCIFIL 12 CORNETA 24/2 LYOCELL 20 GARMENT GARMENT SABA 35
DYEING 20 DYEING 30
Count [dtex]* 395 x 3 377 x 2 513 x 2 601x 3 338 x 3 411 x 2
Maximum tensile 3900 2100 3300 6600 4550 4100
strength [cN]*
Elongation at Break 8 7,5 12,8 66 57 18
[%]*
* Mean values of one production year

Ticket numbers for joining and overlock seams

C
MERCIFIL 40 MERCIFIL 50 LYOCELL 40 GARMENT GARMENT BAUSCH- SABA 80 RASANT
DYEING 60 DYEING 120 GARN PA 75
SGD 120
Count [dtex]* 230 x 2 189 x 2 165 x 3 268 x 2 134 x 2 182 x1 222 x 2 214 x 2
Maximum tensile 1300 1100 1400 2000 1100 700 2050 1900
strength [cN]*
Elongation at Break 6,5 7 11,5 43 43 34 18 21
[%]*
* Mean values of one production year

Service &Technik
10
Standards and alternatives in Elongation at break
comparison: Important parameters 50
for evaluation 45
An analysis of complaints received pertaining to garment dyeing 40
reveals weaknesses: Seam stability and seam abrasion resistan-
ce are the most common issues here. In addition, the thread's elon- 35

Elongation at break (%)


gation at break is decisive when evaluating the quality, since it 30
influences the sewability and seam elasticity. For consumers, the
25
most important factor is the look of a seam: Irrespective of the
sewing thread concept, the seam must look good – therefore this 20
comparison. 15

10
Seam breaking strength
5
Seams made with SABAC 80 and GARMENT DYEING 60 feature
0
much better seam stability than cotton or Lyocell thread seams. SABAC RASANT GARMENT MERCIFIL LYOCELL
And, depending on the dyeing conditions, the results for MERCIFIL 80 75 DYEING 60 40 40

and LYOCELL can even be less favourable in practice, so that Sewing thread test in accordance with ISO 2062
the difference to the usual quality is even greater. The low elongation inherent to cotton threads is problematic for
sewability and has a strong adverse effect on seam elasticity. In
60
practice, this causes a high thread break rate and seam breaks at
Seem breaking strength (dAN)

50 low stress in the lengthwise direction and this despite carefully set-
40
ting the sewing machines. All the other concepts are clearly better
here. The high elongation of the polyamide thread provides an
30 extremely good seam elasticity, which makes sense for all elastic
20 garment pre-dyed parts. In production, high elongation requires a
precise thread tension adjustment.
10

0
SABAC RASANT MERCIFIL LYOCELL GARMENT
80 75 40 40 DYEING 60
Look of the seam
Test of dyed goods in accordance with EN ISO 13935

Seam abrasion resistance


60.000
Seam abrasion resistance (Tours)

50.000

40.000

30.000 Cotton concept Lyocell concept Polyamide concept PES concept


Perfect dyeing Perfect dyeing Perfect dyeing Perfect look
20.000 with standard with standard with adapted with adjusted
cotton dyeing cotton dyeing dyeing method cotton dyeing
10.000

0
An optimal look, meaning perfect matching of sewing thread and
SABAC CORNETA LYOCELL GARMENT material, is possible with any of these concepts. Only the methods
35 24/2 20 DYEING 30
of getting there differ.
Abrasion test with dyed seams using the Martindale tester

The results of the cotton and Lyocell tests show the significant weak
points of these sewing thread concepts. The seam abrasion resi-
stance is extremely low. In practice this leads to worn out seams,
frequently visible on new products or even a shortly after first use.
In comparison, the polyamide concept features an outstanding
abrasion resistance. It guarantees an optimal seam quality even
under extreme use.

11
Standards and alternatives: Advantages and disadvantages
Standard Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3 Alternative 4
COTTON LYOCELL POLYAMIDE POLYESTER COTTON/COTTON-POLYESTER
ADVANTAGES Easy dyeing Easy dyeing Best possible seam quality Best possible seam quality Perfect seam quality for all inside
· 1 dye bath · 1 dye bath · Highest abrasion resistance · Highest abrasion resistance closing and joinging seams
· matching dyeing results for · usually matching dyeing results · Maximum seam breaking · Maximum seam breaking · High abrasion resistance
material and sewing thread for material and sewing thread strength strength · High seam breaking strength
· low costs · low costs · Excellent seam elasticity · Good seam elasticity · Good seam elasticity
· Good look of the seam and · Good look of the seam with · Best conditions for preventing
Good sewability good dyeing result correct colour sewing thread seam pucker
· Best conditions for preventing
Good conditions for preventing seam pucker
seam pucker
Perfect sewability
DISADVANTAGES Extremely low seam quality Extremely low seam quality Greater expense for dyeing Advantage of flexibility in All inside seams tinged with grey
· Low abrasion resistance of seam · Low wet stability · Dyeing method must be adapted determining the colour is lost;
· Low seam breaking strength · Low abrasion resistance of seam to polyamide 6 the colour must be chosen prior
· Low seam elasticity · Low seam breaking strength · Adding the step of acid dyeing to production
· Tendency to develop seam pucker to the standard dyeing method
Risk of seam damage · Higher costs Logistic advantage of garment Multi-thread concept
Risk of seam damage Highest risk of complaints dyeing is lost Low abrasion resistance at all
Highest risk of complaints More time-consuming topstitching seams (needle thread)

Service &Technik
Higher costs
Realisation is only possible when Inside look not perfect
working closely together with
dyestuff producers and dye houses High risk of complaints
(damaged topstitching seams)

12
Service &Technik
Amann & Söhne GmbH & Co. KG

Hauptstraße 1
D-74 357 Bönnigheim
Phone +49 (0) 71 43/277-250
Fax +49 (0) 71 43/277- 460
nt@amann.com
www. amann.com 101971
GB02000046

All facts and figures are intended exclusively for your information
All recommendations presuppose adjustment of the sewing conditions to the appropriate sewing fabric.

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