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Redundant Number
Systems

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Dr. Shadrokh Samavi Isfahan University of Technology 1
Chapter Contents
3.1 Coping with the Carry Problem
3.2 Redundancy in Computer Arithmetic
3.3 Digit Sets and Digit-Set Conversions
3.4 Generalized Signed-Digit Numbers
3.5 Carry-Free Addition Algorithms
3.6 Conversions and Support Functions

## Textbook: Computer Arithmetic: Algorithms and Hardware Designs, Oxford

University Press, New York, 2000 , by Parhami, B.
Many of the slides are either from the textbook or from Parhami’s slides.
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3.1. Coping with the Carry
Problem

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Coping with the Carry Problem

## The carry problem can be dealt with in several ways:

1. Limit carry propagation to within a small number of bits
(hybrid redundant and residue number system)
2. Detect end of propagation; don’t wait for worst case
3. Speed up propagation via lookahead etc.
4. Ideal: Eliminate carry propagation altogether!
(this chapter)

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Dr. Shadrokh Samavi Isfahan University of Technology 4
Radix r = 10, digit set = [0, 18]

## No carry propagation at this stage.

But what about when two numbers
with digit set [0,18] are added?

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Adding radix-10 numbers with digit set [0, 18]

Convert
[0,36] to
[0,18].
Propagation
only in one
position

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Position sum decomposition [0, 36] = 10 × [0, 2] + [0, 16]
Absorption of transfer digit [0, 16] + [0, 2] = [0, 18]
So, redundancy helps us achieve carry-free addition.
But how much redundancy is actually needed? [0,18] is
too much, [0,11] would do.

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Ideal and practical carry-free addition schemes.

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3.2. Redundancy in Computer
Arithmetic

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Continue on next slide
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Addition of 4 binary numbers with stored-carry

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2-bit encoding for binary stored-carry digits
0 represented as 00
1 represented as 10 or 01
2 represented as 11

## Carry-save addition using an array of independent binary full adders.

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Example

6 2 2 operand in [0, 2]
+3 1 1 operand in [0, 1 ]
9 3 3 sum in [0, 3]

1 1 1 1
1 1
01 1 1 1 0
1 2 1 =9

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3.3. Digit Sets and Digit-Set
Conversions

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Example 3.1: Convert from digit set [0, 18] to the digit
set [0, 9] in radix 10.

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Example 3.2: Convert from digit set [0, 2]
to digit set [0, 1] in radix 2.

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Example 3.3: Convert from digit set [0, 18]
to the digit set [–6, 5] in radix 10 (same as
Example 3.1, but with an asymmetric target
digit set)

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Converting [0, 18] to [-6, 5]

## [0, 18] [-6, 5] [-6, 5] [0, 18] [-6, 5] [-6, 5]

18 2,-2 8 1,-2
17 2,-3 7 1,-3
16 2,-4 6 1,-4
15 1,5 2,-5 5 5 1,-5
14 1,4 2,-6 4 4 1,-6
13 1,3 3 3
12 1,2 2 2
10 1,0 1 1
9 1,-1 0 0

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Dr. Shadrokh Samavi Isfahan University of Technology 18
Example 3.4: Convert from digit set [0, 2] to digit
set [–1, 1] in radix 2 (same as Example 3.2, but with
the target digit set [–1, 1] instead of [0, 1])

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3.4. Generalized Signed-Digit
Numbers

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Binary vs multivalue encoding of GSD digit sets

## Four encodings for the BSD digit set [–1, 1]

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The hybrid example in Fig. 3.8, with a regular pattern of
binary (B) and BSD positions, can be viewed as an
implementation of a GSD system with r = 8
digit set [–4, 7] –1 0 0 to 1 1 1

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Breaking the Carry Chain Using SD

## Can make sum only a function of two digit positions

si  f ( xi , yi , xi 1 , yi 1 )

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where

## wi  xi  yi  rti 1 positional sum pi

and
 1 if ( xi  yi )  a

ti 1   1 if ( xi  yi )  a
0 if x  y )  a
 i i i

## Step 2: Find final sum si

si  wi  ti note : t0  0

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Signed Digit Addition Hardware

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SD Addition Example (Continued)

## Let X = 1634, Y = 3366 a=6

Using normal addition produces a carry chain
1 1 1
X 1 6 3 4
Y 3 3 6 6
5 0 0 0
But by the carry-free algorithm:

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Converting Decimal to SD

Let r = 10, a = 6
Consider the value as xi + yi and use algorithm
xi  yi 1 8 2 6
ti 0 1 0 1 0
wi 1 2 2 4
si 2 2 3 4

## Converting from SD to decimal: just add up the

plus and minus weights, i.e.:
2030 – 204 = 1826

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Selecting a to Eliminate Carry Chain in SD

## We don’t want carry when adding ti and wi to get si

si  {a, a  1, ,1, 0,1, , a  1, a}
si  wi  ti  a
worst case ti  1 restricting
Worst case:
wi  a  1 equation (1)
must be true for all xi , yi where ti  1

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Selecting a to Eliminate Carry Chain in SD

case 1: xi+yi=2a

case 2: xi+yi=a

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In general we have:

## It does not work for r=2.

For radix 2 only digit set
[-1, 1] applies.

carry

## Looking at algorithm: wi  ( xi  yi )  2ti 1

Step 1:  1 if  xi  yi   1

ti 1   1 if  xi  yi   1
 0 if  xi  yi   0

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Unmodified Binary SD Addition Table

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Usefulness of Unmodified Table
Works if operands do not contain 1
If operands contain only 0’s and 1’s, no carry generated.
si  wi  ti
 
0 or 1 0 or 1

Example 1 1 .... 1 1 1
0 0 .... 0 0 1
1 1 1 .... 1 1 ti
1 1 .... 1 1 0 wi
1 0 0 .... 0 0 0 si

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Limitations of Table

## Does not work if operands contain 1

If wi  1  xi yi  0 1
and ti  1  xi 1 yi 1  01, 11
 si has carry.
Example (-9)10 + (29)10
0 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 1 0 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 ti
1 1 1 0 1 0 wi
* * * * 1 0 0 si
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Dr. Shadrokh Samavi Isfahan University of Technology 37
SD Addition Table Choices
Takagi, 1985

yi 1 0 1
xi
10
11
00 xi 1 or yi 1  1
1
01
11 01 ti wi
0 00
01 11 ti wi
01
1 00 10 xi 1 or yi 1  0,1
11
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Modified Binary SD Addition Table

xi,yi 00,11 01 01 01 01 11 11
xi-1,yi-1 neither
- neither at least
is
at - -
is one is 1 1 least
1 one is 1
ti+1
0 1 0 0 1 1 1
wi
0 1 1 1 1 0 0

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Repeating Example with Modified Table

## Example (-9)10 + (29)10

0 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 1 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1 ti
1 1 1 0 1 0 wi
1 1 0 1 0 0 si
no carries

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Singed Digit Encodings

two’s complement

Encoding 1 Encoding 2
x xh xl xh xl
0 00 00
1 01 01
1 10 11

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Encoding 1

## Satisfies simple relation

x = xl - xh
and 11 has a valid numerical value of 0.
SD to two’s complement conversion performed
by two’s complement subtraction
l l l
x n 1 ,x n2 , , x 0

x h
n 1 ,x h
n2 , , x h
0

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Encoding 2

Satisfies relation
xi = -2xih + xil
This means that xil and xi-1h have the same weight

regrouping bits

## xil , and xih1 , can be regrouped to form xˆi

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Two’s Complement/BSD Conversion
Two’s Complement to SD
Bits can be encoded directly with MSB negative one
BSD to Two’s Complement
One algorithm simpler than complete binary adder
zi is two’s complement result c0 = 0
yi ci zi ci 1 yi  ci  zi  2ci 1
0 0 0 0 Example -1010
0 1 1 1
yi 0 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 ci 1 1 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 0 zi 1 0 1 1 0
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
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Binary SD Representations

## Representation of a value with the minimum number of

non-zero digits – Important in multiplication and division
since each zero eliminates an operation
X = 5, n = 4, r = 2
8 4 2 1 Minimal SD
0 1 0 1 representation of X = 5
1 0 1 1 .
0 1 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1

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implementations for limited-carry addition

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Signed-Digit Number Systems

## • Fixed radix (positional)

• Allows each digit to carry a sign
example

xi {  1,   2,....,1,0,1,....,   1}

i  i
This signed digit (SD) is a new definition of the digit
complement

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Signed-Digit Example

  10

xi {9,8,....,1,0,1,....,8,9}
for a total of 19 possible
digits X min  99, X max  99
If n = 2 X  [99,99]
ulp  1

## 199 values, however there are

192 = 361 representations
possible which implies this is a
redundant number system

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Signed-Digit Example - Redundancy

## For n = 2, range is X  [99,99]

# of values=
# of representations=
% redundancy=
Redundancy index=

## Example redundant representation:

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Restricting Redundancy

## xi  {a, a  1, ,1, 0,1 , a}

where
Make restrictions on ‘a’ to restrict redundancy
 r  1
 a  r  1,
a=9 %redundancy=
  5a9 (r  10)
 2% redundancy=
a=8 

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Signed-Digit Characteristics

## • Positive radix, ß > 0

• X = 0 is unique

• Easy to convert

## • Constant Delay for Add/Sub Regardless of Word Size

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