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NAME: ___________________________ SECTION: ____________

MODULE IN ADVANCED ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION


PRELIM

Objectives:

1. Define the meaning and scope of school administration and supervision


2. Distinguish administration from supervision
3. Identify the different types of administration and supervision
4. Describe the functions of school administration and supervision
5. Develop an understanding of the administrative and supervisory functions of the Bureau of Elementary
Education and the Bureau of Secondary Education
6. Develop an insight of the values of leadership in school administration and supervision

I. ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION DEFINED

ADMINISTRATION

Administration ordinarily connotes the machinery of an organization and its functions. It refers to the
plan of organization and how such organization is controlled and operated. It involves direction, control, and
operation of the organizational activities to accomplish the desired aims and objectives. School administration
therefore refers to our school system as an organization and its function.

must concern itself with the survival and maintenance of an organization and with the direction of the
activities of people working within the organization in their reciprocal relations to the end and that the
organization’s goal may be achieved.

SUPERVISION

Supervision ordinarily implies to the improvement of the total teaching-learning situation and the
conditions that affect them. School supervision is a specialized function which involves leadership in studying,
improving and evaluating teaching-learning situations and the conditions that affects both teaching and learning. It
can also be defines as a process of bringing about the improvement of instruction by working with people who are
working with pupils. It is a process of stimulating growth as a means of helping teachers to help themselves.
Adequate supervision is concerned with making adequate provision for all the conditions which are essential to
effective teaching and learning.

MODERN DEFINITION OF SUPERVISION

Barr, Burton and Brueckner


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Supervision is an expert primarily concerned with studying and improving conditions that surrounds
learning and pupils’ growth. This definition implies leadership on the part of the supervisor.

Melchoir

The words “supervisor”, “supervision”’ “supervisory program”, relate to the instructional phases of
school plan and activities.

Crow and Crow

“To supervise is to criticize, to evaluate, to appraise, or to praise.”

Wiles

Supervision is: (1) skill in leadership, (2) skill in human relation, (3) skill in group process, (4) skill in
personnel administration, and (5) skill in evaluation.

Modern supervision is based on the following educational concepts:

1. Instructional supervision is a dynamic, growing process that is occupying an increasingly important role in
the schools.
2. The aim of supervision is to offer leadership in the improvement of educational experiences for children
and youth.
3. Leadership is centered in a group, not in an individual. Leadership is guided by the spirit of cooperation
rather than competition.
4. The type of quality supervision are affected by the situation, the organization, in which the supervision
exists.
5. The climate of human relationships within the group and the degree to which the members are
committed to group goals influence the degree of change in practice.
6. The actual role of supervision and of instructional leaders is a composite of all the expectations held for
the role by the people associated with it.
7. The primary goal of supervisory leader is to foster democratic leadership in others.

In broad sense, supervision is a school service designed to improve the teaching-learning situations and the
conditions that affect teaching and learning.

II. TYPES OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION

A. TYPES OF ADMINISTRATION

1. Autocratic – authority and responsibility are placed on the chief executive or single individual. In this
type of organization, efficiency of operation is the primary goal. Under the autocratic type of school
organization are: (a) the extrinsic-dualistic – there is no centralization of authority, no definitions of lines, no
mechanism for cooperation. (b) line-and-staff - the authority is placed on the line officers or school
administrators who issue orders, the staff officers or the supervisors supply advice, information, and technical
assistance to line officers, areas of authority, (c) laissez-faire – individual schools represent supreme
authorities or independence and function with little reference to any central unifying organization

2. Democratic – the administrator’s position of leadership is derived from the position of authority but
out of the group decision and deliberation. In other words, authority is derived by person from the situation
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and is shared by all who participate in the planning. Final authority is vested in the group. The group, as well as
the individual, is held responsible for its actions. Group process is utilized in formulating school policies. It is
governed by the principle of cooperation rather than competition.

ANALYSIS OF THE TWO TYPES OF ADMINISTRATION (Koopman, Miel, and Misner)

Autocratic Administrator Democratic Administrator


1. Thinks and sees all angles of problem 1. Realizes the potential power of his subordinates
2. Is unable to use the experience of others 2. Knows how to utilize that power
3. Avoids to let any of the strings of management slip 3. Knows how to delegate duties
from his fingers
4. Tries to routine details and seldom tackles his 4. Turns his energy to creative leadership
large job
5. Reacts as when someone else makes a proposal 5. Quick to recognize and praise an idea that comes
a. feels that a suggestion implies a criticism and is
offended
b. kills a suggestions
c. while seeming to reject it neatly captures the idea
and restates as his own giving no credit to the
originator of the idea
6. Avoids group participation 6. Refers to the group in matters
7. Adopts a paternalistic attitude towards the group: 7. Maintains the position of friendly helpful adviser
i.e. I know best
8. Expects hero-worship 8. Fair and just individual as he respects others
9. Autocratic to the core 9. Consciously practices democratic techniques
10. Sacrifices everything, to the end of the smooth 10. Concerned with the growth of individuals
running system involved
11. Is greedy for publicity 11. Let others taste success
12. Gives to others as few opportunities for 12. Gives opportunities to take responsibility and
leadership as possible exercises leadership

B. TYPES OF SUPERVISION

Barr, Burton, Brueckner identified four excellent types of supervision, namely:

1. Laissez-fair. The laisse-fair type of supervision uses inspectorial supervisory methods unaided by any
objective control, in which the teachers are observed, but nothing is done to help them improve the work they
are doing. In other words, teachers are left free; they are not to be imposed upon or directed

2. Coercive. It is the opposite of the laissez-fair type. In it, the principal visit the teachers in order to observe
them. The teachers are required to follow ready made procedures or standards prescribed by the principal,

supervisor, or superintendent.

3. Training and guidance. Emphasis is placed upon the improvement of the teacher, as well as her technique
through direction, training, and guidance.

4. Democratic. Enlists the teacher cooperation in the formulation of policies, plans, and procedures. In this
type of supervision, the supervisor observes, with the aim to improve teaching-learning situations, through
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cooperative process or group action. The teachers, supervisors, and administrators are regarded as co-workers
in a common task.

Ayer, gives the following types of supervision:

1. Authoritative. Refers to supervision that is carried on with some degree of administrative authority. This
type of supervision is based on a standard program of instruction carried on through direction and guidance.

2. Creative Supervision. Is based on the idea that supervision is an originating enterprise which aims to
provide an environment in which teachers of high professional ideals may live a wholesome and creative life,
and may promote the potential powers of creativeness in pupils.

3. Organismic Supervision. Promotes the idea that the child develops as an organic whole; hence, teaching
and supervision should emphasize the unifying processes and integrated outcomes.

4. Democratic supervision involves leadership and participation. Scientific supervision is based on the idea
that improvement of instruction may be based upon measurable and controllable items. This type of
supervision makes use of the scientific principle that the solution of a problem should be based on facts.

III. ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION INTERRELATED

From the preceding defi niti ons of administrati on and supervision, onecan conclude that the two


terms are interrelated. Effective learning, which
ist h e   f u n d a m e n t a l   a i m   o f   s u p e r v i s i o n ,   c a n n o t   b e   a c c o m p l i s h e d   u n d e
r inefficient administration. It generally accepted that proper administration isone of the great factors to
learning. The procedure or technique used by theadministrator in determining the purpose of administration and
the way it isto be eff ected becomes part of the learning process for everyone aff ected  just as truly as
methods of teaching in a classroom are a help to the learningo f   t h e
p u p i l s .   A d m i n i s t r a ti o n   i s   i n t e n d e d   s o l e l y t o   f a c i l i t a t e   i n s t r u c ti o n ; instructi on must be
so administered as to make it effi cient and eff ecti ve.

The way the school plant is operated, the manner teachers are selected
anda s s i g n e d ,   t h e   m e t h o d s   o f   p r e p a r i n g   a   s c h o o l   b u d g e t ,   t h e   a tti t u d e s   o f   a d
m i n i s t r a t o r s   t o w a r d   t h e   p r o b l e m s   o f   c h i l d r e n ,   t h e   r e q u i r e m e n t s   f o r p r o m o ti
o n f r o m y e a r t o y e a r – a l l t h e s e a s p e c t s o f s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a ti o n become part of the ways
of learning of all human beings connected with thesystem. The purpose of school administration, then, is to bring
all phases of the total school enterprise into a harmonious working relati onship around s o m e
c e n t r a l c o n c e p ti o n o f u n i t y i n h e r e n t i n t h e p r o c e s s t o b e d e s i r e d i n learning. Since
administrati on is a means to learning whic h is the goal of supervision, it must exemplify in its practices
those democratic, interactive,integrati ng processes basic to the successful functi oning of the total
schoolenterprise.A d m i n i s t r a ti o n   h a s   a   l e a d i n g   r o l e   i n   e d u c a ti o n   a n d
c a n   s e r v e   a s   a powerful, constructi ve infl uence if it is centered on the ways and means
of att aining the purposes of the educati onal program.  Rorer (22.1942) in
hisremarkable analysis of the principles governing supervision believes thatadministrati on and
supervision should be diff erenti ated in
theirfuncti onof l e a d e r s h i p .   A d m i n i s t r a ti o n   r e q u i r e s   m o r e   t h a n   m e r e
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  k n o w l e d g e   o f   management or keeping the machinery oper ati ng smoothly. It demands


ac o n t i n u o u s   s t u d y   o f   g o a l s   t o   s e e   h o w   t h e y c a n   b e   b e s t   a tt a i n e d ,   a n d
a c o n s t a n t   a p p r a i s a l   a n d   a n a l y s i s   o f   p h y s i c a l   f a c i l i ti e s ,   t o o l s ,   e q u i p m e n t ,

materials, and personnel to determine how all these means can be utilized
tou t m o s t   a d v a n t a g e .   A d m i n i s t r a ti o n   r e q u i r e s   s p e c i a l i z e d   a b i l i t y   a n d   a t h o r o
u g h - g o i n g   k n o w l e d g e   o f   t h e   s c i e n c e   o f   a d m i n i s t r a ti o n ,   j u s t   a s   t h e p l a n n i n g and
d i r e c ti o n o f t h e l e a r n i n g a c ti v i ti e s o f b o y s a n d g i r l s r e q u i r e specialized abilities on the part
of the teachers.Supervision also plays major role in creating atmosphere in the school s y s t e m s ti m u l a ti n g t o
t h e g r o w t h o f m o r e a d m i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s a m o n g t h e personnel of the teaching staff. It is no
longer regarded as a mere inspection of the work of the teachers, but as a form of democratic leadership
– a clearing house of the best ideas of the work in the field. It is within the scope of supervision to
stimulate and inspire the teachers to do creative work and to encourage them to grow professionally.

IV. SCOPE OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISON

In order to have clear conception of the scope of school administration and supervision, below
are examples of administrative and supervisory activities:

Activities under administration according to Edmonson, Roemer and Bacon:

1. The selection of teaching staff

2. The organization of the administrative and teaching staff

3. Departmental organization

4. The present need for improving physical facilities, site, grounds, and size of building

5. Space devoted for the administration of facilities

6. Space devoted to instruction, for services, and equipment

7. Increasing office efficiency

8. System of records and reports

9. Office rotation and personnel

10. Widening participation in planning the budget

11. Accounting procedures

12. Accounting of supply and equipment

13. Making schedules

14. Importance and functions of discipline

15. Guidance program

16. School assembly


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17. Student organization and activities – Clubs, dramatics, publications, handwork

18. The curriculum

19. Selection of instructional materials

20. The school library

21. Appraising and reporting progress of students

22. The public relations program

23. Secondary schools and college relations

24. Faculty meeting

Activities under supervision (Barr, Burton, Brueckner)

1. Survey of the school system

2. The direct improvement of classroom teaching

3. The general improvement of teaching in-service

4. Organizing programs of cooperative activity

5. The development and maintenance of morale, or esprit de corps

6. The selection and organization of the material of instruction

7. Experimental study of the problems of teaching

8. Determining the desirable physical conditions of learning

9. Performance of professional and semi-administrative duties

Techniques of supervision (Gist)

1. Teacher diagnosis

2. Pupil diagnosis

3. Diagnosis of curricular offerings

4. Survey of methods of instruction

5. Budgeting of time in supervision

6. Classroom visitation

7. Teacher’s meeting and conference

8. Demonstration teaching

9. Professional growth
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10. Teacher-pupil relationship

11. Evaluation of supervision

V. THE FUNCTIONS OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION

Although school administration and supervision are interrelated, they compliment and supplement
each other, and they have different specific functions. Administration is job centered and the nature of the
work to be done makes a difference in administrative functions, are always developed in reference to
policies that have been established and jobs that have to be done and the effectiveness of administration
is reflected in the quality of job performance.

Some of the major functions of school administration are the following:

1. Planning – Planning is a fundamental function of school administration. It is the process of determining


the nature of the educational enterprise. Planning is a method of approaching problems. It is examining
problems to be done, gathering information on them, determining alternate courses of action, and making
decisions about how the problems should be solved. Planning as a function of school administration may
be defined as the activity of devising and selecting courses of action directed toward the achievement of
educational goals and objectives.

2. Organizing – The function of organizing can be thought of in several ways. It may be thought as
structuring. As such, it primarily involves placing job materials, and ideas in a structure. Organizing can
also be thought of solely in terms of purpose, as a means of unifying efforts to get things done. Thus a
definition of organizing as a function of educational administration is the activity of arranging and
structuring relationships in such a way that a unified effort is made in achieving the goals and objectives
of education.

3. Directing – Directing school work is another important function of administration. It includes a myriad of
tasks carried out daily by the school administrator. It involves decision as to who shall carry out plans;
determination of the subjects to included in each course; provision of physical equipment necessary to
carry out the work and many similar acts involved in carrying out all aspects of the educational program. It
may necessitate issuing orders, holding conferences, and supervising activities. Direction is a major
aspect of execution, and is particularly the province of school administration.

4. Coordinating –There are several needs for coordinating as a function of school administration. The
complexity of school program indicates a need for coordination. Coordination is needed to overcome the
limitations of planning and organizing as well as the inherent limitation of personnel. The function of
coordinating maybe defined as the activity of bringing people, materials, ideas, and techniques, and
purposes productive relationship.

5. Supervising – Supervising as a function of administration maybe defined as studying and improving


teaching-learning situations. Supervising can also be defined as the activity of determining that essential
conditions are provided which will ensure the achievement of educational goals and purposes. There are
two important aspects to the supervising functions: determining what conditions are needed and the
providing them in fact, as well as improving them.

6. Evaluating – Educational administration in action must include evaluation. Administration is concerned


with the efficiency with which the enterprise attempts to achieve its purposes. Evaluating as a function of
school administration, is simply determining how well educational purposes have been achieved.
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7. Providing leadership – In the operation of the school system, the administrator or the chief executive of
any school should be the professional leader of the teaching staff, working scientifically, conscientiously,
and democratically.

8. Recording and reporting – Recording and reporting are administrative functions to insure results with
maximum delegation of authority. School records should be kept for comparison and evaluation purposes.
Reporting results to the public is an administrative function. Annual reports and school publicity help the
public to understand what the schools can do and are doing, and are in themselves a democratic way of
operating the school system.

9. Promoting close school-community relationship – Promoting closer relationship between the school
and the community is an important function of administration and supervision. Education to be effective,
must be administered and supervised in an atmosphere of sympathy and understanding between the
school personnel and the public.

VI. THE MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF SUPERVISION

Supervision like administration, has multifarious functions. The five major functions of supervision
are the following:

1. Inspection – The term refers to the study of existing school conditions. The first task of a supervisor is
to survey the school system in order to discover problems or defects of the pupils, teachers, equipment,
school curriculum, objectives and methods of instruction, together with the conditions that surrounds
them. Problems or defects may be discovered through actual observations, educational tests,
conferences, questionnaires, and checklists.

2. Research – The fundamental aim of this function is to formulate a plan to remedy the weakness or to
solve the problem discovered. The supervisor should conduct research to discover means, methods, and
procedures fundamental to the success of supervision. Teachers in the filed should also be encouraged
to conduct their own research for self-improvement. Research as a function of supervision should be
practical and applicable to existing procedures and conditions.

3. Training – Acquainting the teachers with the solutions discovered or formulated through research is
within the training function of supervision. Training may take the form of demonstration teaching,
workshops, seminars, directed observation, individual or group conferences, intervisitation, professional
classes, or the use of bulletins and circulars.

4. Guidance – The concept of guidance has found expression in the field of school supervision.
Guidance involve giving personal help given by someone. It is the function of supervision to stimulate,
direct, guide, and encourage the teachers to apply instructional procedures, techniques, principles, and
devices. Assisting the teacher to accomplish his purpose and to solve the problems that arise in his
teaching are within the scope and guidance function.

5. Evaluation - This can be considered the ultimate major function of supervision. The purpose of
evaluation is to appraise the outcomes and the factors conditioning the outcomes of instruction, and to
improve the products and processes of instruction. This function calls for the use of educational tests and
measurement
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Evaluation as a function of supervision serves many significant purposes such as the following:

1. Evaluation discovers the needs of the individuals being evaluated and familiarizes the teachers with
the pupils’ needs and possibilities.

2. Evaluation relates measurement to the goals of the instructional programs

3. Evaluation serves as a guide for the selection of supervisory techniques

4. Evaluation appraises the educational growth of pupils which is the end-product of supervision

5. Evaluation appraises the quality of supervisory processes and supervisor’s competence

6. Evaluation appraises the quality of the teaching processes and the teacher’s efficiency

7. Evaluation aids pupil-teacher planning

8. Evaluation serves as a means of improving school-community relations

9. Evaluation improves the selection and the use of guiding principles in supervision

10. Evaluation appraises the success of the instructional program in particular and of the supervisory
program in general.

VI. OTHER FUNCTIONS OF SUPERVISION

Barr, Burton, and Brueckner give the following as the three major functions of supervision with the
supervisory activities under each:

1. Studying the teaching-learning situation

a. analysing the objectives of education and supervision

b. studying the products of teaching and learning

c. studying the satisfactory and unsatisfactory growth and achievement

d. studying the interests, abilities, and work habits of the pupils

e. studying the teacher at work and aiding her to study herself

f. studying the curriculum in operation

g. studying the materials of instruction and the socio-physical environment of learning

2. Improving the teaching-learning situation

a. improving the educational objectives and the curriculum

b. improving the teacher and her methods

c. improving the interest, application, and work habits of the pupils

d. improving the materials of instruction and the socio-physical environment


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3. Evaluating the means, methods, and outcomes of supervision

a. discovering and applying the techniques of evaluation

b. evaluating the general work of supervision

c. evaluating the results of supervising plan

d. evaluating the factors limiting the instructional outcome

e. evaluating and improving the personnel of supervision

VII. ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS OF THE BUREAUS OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION,


SECONDARY EDUCATION, AND HIGHER EDUCATION

A. The Bureau of Elementary Education

1. Charge with formulation and development of educational policies and programs with respect to
pre-elementary and elementary education in this country

2. Conduct studies and formulate standards for this level

3. Assess and evaluate aims and objectives and provide technical assistance to the Secretary of
Education on matters pertaining to elementary education

4. Undertake curricular design, including material preparation, prepare program to upgrade the
quality of staff and formulate guideline to improve school physical plant and equipment

5. Coordinate closely with the planning service of the department and the elementary level
specialists in the regional and province or city office

B. The Bureau of Secondary Education

1. Formulate and develop policies, plans, programs, and standards for secondary school level,
including adult education

2. Provide working guidelines to the schools to assure that the objectives of this level pertaining
to the pre-university preparation

3. Responsible for evaluating policies, plans, programs, and standards of curricular development,
staff development, and physical facilities

4. . Coordinate closely with the planning service of the department and the secondary level
specialists in the regional and province or city office

C. The Bureau of Higher Education

1. Develop, formulate, and evaluate program of higher education and scholarship as well as
develop and establish standards for all colleges, universities, and other post secondary institution of
learning

2. Provide technical assistance to encourage institutional development programs ans projects


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3. Coordinate closely with the planning service of the department and higher education
specialists in the regional and province or city office.

D. Primary Functions of the Three Bureaus are the following:

1. Planning

a. Planning school programs and activities for each level of instruction is the primary functions of
each bureau. It is an important function of school administration.

b. Planning is a method of approaching problems

c. Planning is an activity of devising and selecting courses of action directed toward the
achievement of educational goals and objectives

d. The multifarious school activities call for careful and scientific planning

2. Organizing

a. Organizing maybe thought of as structuring. It involves placing job materials and ideas in a
structure the part of the school administrator

b. The activity of arranging and structuring relationship in such a way that a unified effort is made
in achieving the goals and aims of education.

3. Coordinating

a. The complexity of school programs and other activities indicate a need for coordination

b. Coordination is needed to overcome the limitation of planning and organizing as well as the
inherent limitations of personnel

c. It is the function of school administration to coordinate all the activities of the school to make
them contribute to the realization of educational aims and objectives

4. Evaluating

a. Evaluation is an integral part of school administration

b. Evaluation is simply determining how effective educational programs and aims have been
achieved

c. Evaluation includes school survey and teacher rating

d. School programs and other school projects are evaluated through school survey

5. Leadership

a. The success of any school administration depends upon the leadership of the administrator or
the supervisor

b. An efficient school administrator exercises the necessary authority and definite responsibility
to ensure educational leadership
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c. The importance of total teaching-learning situations, of classroom facilities, and the


development of educational programs and policies- all these require democratic leadership

E. Characteristics of Democratic Leadership

1. It is the kind of leadership that is consistent with the principles of democratic school
administration and supervision. The democratic school administration and supervision calls for a way of
living within the school that is indicated by the concept of democracy.

2. In democratic leadership, people are respected. No one is pushed around. Individuals try to
help one another rather than get ahead through ruthless competition. Workers accept one another without
suspicion or distrust.

3. It ensures the making of cooperative or shared decision which are generally lasting and more
likely to be right than the decisions of any one person. This gives common understanding to common
purpose.

4. There is higher regard for people and for facts. People are more important than regulations;
responsibilities take precedence over rights; security displaces fear.

5. It draws efficiency from purposeful activity, wiser planning, greater flexibility, and group
discipline. Likewise, it generates enthusiasm for a project and inspires work towards the solution.

VIII. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISON

A. Basis of Administrative and Supervisory Principles

1. Principle maybe considered a law, a doctrine, a policy or a deep-seated belief which governs the
conduct of various types of human endeavour

2. It serves an important ways to guide one’s reflective thinking and choice of activities

3. It become parts of one’s general philosophy which serves to determine and evaluate educational
objectives, attitudes, practices and outcomes

4. A sound principle is formulated from carefully observed facts or objectively measured results which
are common to a series of similar experiences

5. Sound administrative and supervisory principles can harmonize all school activities into an
instrumentality for yielding results

B. Uses of Principles in School Administration and Supervision

1. Principles are means by which the administrator and supervisor proceed from one situation to another.
They are important in the exercise of administrative and supervisory activities.

2. Principles are instrumental in improving teaching and learning. Improvement of instruction and
promotion of better learning are the fundamental aims of school administration and supervision.

3. Principles makes for enormous economy of time and effort in choosing techniques to be used.
Principles govern the operation of administrative and supervisory techniques.
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4. Principles eliminates much of the blundering trial-and-error effort in a practical piece of work. They give
direction or point of destination

5. Principles greatly aids in the discovery of new techniques. They are hypotheses that direct the
search for new techniques in school administration and supervision.

6. Principles are needed to guide the choice and sequence of the appropriate techniques at hand but in
no way do they supplant the fundamental rule of techniques in carrying on the processes and activities
which make up the work of administration and supervision.

7. Principles aid in the evaluation of techniques, for they furnish a broader basis by which to judge the
techniques used in the school administration and supervision

8. Principles defines the items which must be scrutinized in evaluating results. This implies an
understanding of the fundamental principles and functions of school administration and supervision.

9. Principles are used to evaluate the success of administrative and supervisory programs.
Administration and supervisionare directed and evaluated in terms of principles.

10. Principles lead the administrators and supervisors to further activities for they are dynamic and not
static.

C. General Principles of Administration and Supervision

1. School administration and supervision must be democratic

2. School administration and supervision must be cooperative

3. School administration and supervision to be effective must be scientific

4. School administration and supervision must be based on accepted educational philosophy

5. School administration and supervision must be creative

6. School administration and supervision must be evaluated in the light of their results

7. Responsibility and control in matters of school administration and supervision must run parallel
throughout the system

8. School administration must be distinguish from supervision

9. School administration and supervision must be preventive and constructive

10. School administration and supervision must be centered on child growth and development

11. School administration and supervision must be flexible

Some characteristics or practices of an autocratic and democratic administrator or supervisor

Autocratic Democratic
Thinks he can sit himself and see all angles of a Realizes the potential power in thirty or fifty brains
problem
Does not know how to use the experience of others Knows how to utilize that power
Cannot bear to let any of the strings of Knows how to delegate duties
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management slip from his fingers


Is so tied to routine details that he seldom tackles Frees himself from routine details in order to turn
his larger job his energy to creative leadership
Is jealous of ideas; reacts in one of several ways Is quick to recognize and praise an idea that comes
when someone else makes a proposal from someone else
Makes decision that should have been made by the Refers to the group all matters that concern the
group group
Adopts a paternalistic attitude towards the group. “I Maintains the position of friendly, helpful, adviser
know best” both on personal and professional matters
Expects hero-worship, giggles with delight at his Wishes to be respected as a fair and just individual
attempts at humor, and so forth as he respects others
Does not admit even to himself that he is Consciously practices democratic techniques
autocratic
Sacrifices everything- teachers, students, progress- Is more concerned with the group of individuals
to the end of a smooth-running system involved than with freedom from annoyances
Is greedy for publicity Pushes others into the foreground so that they
taste success
Gives to others as few opportunities for leadership Believes that as many individuals as possible
as possible. Makes committee assignments, then should have opportunities to take responsibility and
outlines all duties and performs many of them exercises leadership
himself

Cooperative school administration and supervision observe the following practices:

1. Cooperative administration and supervision are highly socialized functions and imply willingness to
work together.

2. . Cooperative administration and supervision stimulate initiative, self-reliance, and individual


responsibility on the part of all persons in the discharge of their duties.

3. Cooperative administration and supervision substitute leadership for authority

4. Cooperative administration and supervision provide opportunity for growth and development

5. Cooperative administration and supervision promote understanding between administrators,


supervisors, and classroom teachers

6. Cooperative administration and supervision observe a code of professional ethics that is real, practical,
and vital

Scientific administration and supervision observe the following practices:

1. Scientific administration and supervision are based upon observable facts

2. Scientific administration and supervision employ the method of analysis in the comprehension of
complex administrative and supervisory problems by breaking them into comprehensive units

3. Scientific administration and supervision employ hypotheses in guiding the thinking process

4. Scientific administration and supervision are free from emotional bias

5. Scientific administration and supervision employ objective measurement and quantitative methods in
the treatment of data.
15

Creative administration and supervision observe the following practices:

1. Creative administration and supervision provide opportunities for the teachers and the pupils to grow
through the exercise of their talents and abilities under expert professional guidance and encouragement

2. Creative administration and supervision are from the control and tradition and actuated by the spirit of
inquiry

3. Creative administration and supervision need scientific mindedness, social mindedness, and a
recognition of the importance of human element

4. Creative administration and supervision provide opportunity for a conference or a meeting between the
administrator, the supervisor, and the teacher.

5. Creative administration and supervision recognize that every teacher and pupil have the capacity for
some degree of creative achievement in one field or another.

Flexibility in school administration and supervision observes the following practices:

1. Flexible school administration and supervision adopt activities to meet individual differences of
teachers in training, experiences, and abilities

2. Flexible school administration and supervision adjust the types and length of classroom visit to the
particular purposes and needs of the teaching-learning situation

3. Flexible school administration and supervision encourage and assist teachers to use flexible
assignments and methods

4. Flexible school administration and supervision adapt itself to the needs of each particular teaching-
learning situation

5. Flexible school administration and supervision encourage pupils to suggest ways they would like to
work and to give them opportunity to plan, work, and evaluate their own capacity

6. Flexible school administration and supervision meet the needs and desires of teachers.

EXERCISES FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION

I. Direction: Indicate whether these sentences are True or False.

________ 1. Administration and supervision are important parts of any educational program.

________ 2. The modern trend in school administration and supervision is based on the concept that the
teacher is the center of educative process.

________ 3. School administration refers to the plan of organization and control and operation of the
school system.

________ 4. In the Philippine school system, administration and supervision supplement and
complement each other.
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________ 5. Democratic administration and supervision are generally found in a line-and staff
organization.

________ 6. School administration is solely concerned with the plan of organization and the procedures
being utilized.

________ 7. The laissez-faire of supervision is scientific and creative.

________ 8. The modern concept of school administration and supervision derives its spirit from the
nature of our concept of democracy.

________ 9. To Barr, Burton and Brueckner, supervision is totally derived from leadership.

________ 10. The modern concept of administration and supervision puts more emphasis upon
imposed improvement of the teachers through teacher-training and rigid discipline.

________ 11. Function refers to activities used in accomplishing the aims or objectives of education.

________ 12. Evaluation of teaching results is within the scope of supervision rather than administration.

________ 13. Supervision must survey all conditions which affect the whole teaching-learning situation
so as to discover problems and defects.

________ 14. A supervisory plan is good if it contains aims, procedures, criteria, or check-up.

________ 15. Evaluation function, to be effective, must be brought down to the level of objectivity.

________ 16. The responsibility of administering and supervising private and public elementary
education is vested in the Bureau of Elementary Education.

________ 17. The guidance function of supervision will provide inspiration necessary in practice.

________ 18. Any function that is democratic implies issuing and obeying of directions or orders.

________ 19. Inspection, to be effective, must be quantitative rather than qualitative.

________ 20. Demonstration teaching is often used as a device to make the training function of
supervision effective.

________ 21. Any change in the philosophy of education will also change the principles governing
school administration and supervision.

________ 22. It is generally accepted in the school administration and supervision that principles and
techniques have the same meaning and function.

________ 23. An administrator is democratic if he keeps all administrative duties to himself.

________ 24. An autocratic supervision refers to the group all matters that concern to the group.

objectives.

________ 26. Sound administrative and supervisory principles can harmonize all school activities and
make them instruments form achieving results.
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________ 27. Creative supervision is the combination of democratic and scientific supervision.

________ 28. An administrator is autocratic if he realize and utilizes the potential powers and abilities of
others.

________ 29. Democracy is in the heart of administrator or supervisor rather than in the type of school
administration.

________ 30. An autocratic administrator gives more opportunities to others to exercise leadership.

QUESTION FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION (Select only 2 questions)

1. In what way are school administration and supervision interrelated?

2. Why is planning of the school program an important function of school administration?

3. Why is leadership necessary in school administration and supervision.

4. What are the advantages of democratic administration and supervision?

MIDTERM
Objectives:

1. Appreciate the legal bases with respect to school administration and supervision

2. Acquaint students with the fundamental bases of classroom observation

3. Develop an understanding of the basic principles to be followed in observing teaching-learning situations

4. Develop a valid concept of the meaning of guidance and school discipline

5. Obtain proper concept of the importance of tests and measurement in school administration and supervision

6. Develop understanding of the importance of school plant, ground, and equipment in education

7. Develop an understanding of the principles involved in the administration of teaching personnel

I. LEGAL BASES OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION

A. Laws Related to School Organization and Control

School laws give authority, purpose, and direction to school administrators, supervisors, and
classroom teachers. How our public and private schools are administered and supervised is outlined in
our school laws. The legal enactments in this country which has bearing on the status of school
administration and supervision are the following:

1. The Philippine Constitution – The most important legal basis of school administration and supervision
is found in certain provisions of the Philippine Constitution. Section 1 , Article XIV of the 1987 Philippine
Constitution states that “The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at
all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.” Likewise, Section 2
also state that “the State shall:
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a) Establish, maintain and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education
relevant to the needs of the people and society;

b) Establish and maintain a system of free public education in the elementary and high school
levels. Without limiting the natural rights of parents to rear their children, elementary education is
compulsory for all children of school age;

c) Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants, student loan programs, subsidies, and
other incentives which shall be available to deserving students in both public and private schools,
especially to the underprivileged;

d) Encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous learning systems, as well as self-learning,


independent, and out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs; and

e) Provide adult citizens, the disabled, and out-of-school youth with training in civics, vocational
efficiency, and other skills.

To comply with this Constitutional mandate, the task of regulating and supervising educational
institution is delegated to the Department of Education for Basic Education, Commission on Higher
Education for Higher Education and Technical, Vocational Skills Development Authority for vocational
education.

2. Republic Act No. 4670 – This act is known as the “Magna Carta for Public School Teachers” and shall
apply to all public school teachers except those on professional staff of state colleges and universities.
This law was passed to promote and improve the social and economic status of the public school
teachers, their living and working conditions, their employment and career prospects in order that they
may compare favourably with existing opportunities in other walks of life, attract and retain in the teaching
profession more people with proper qualifications and ability of the teaching staff and that education is an
essential factor in the economic growth of the nation as a productive instrument of vital importance.

3. Republic Act No. 9155 – Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001. An Act Instituting a Framework
of Governance for Basic Education, Establishing Authority and Accountability, Renaming the Department
of Education, Culture and Sports as the Department of Education, and for Other Purposes.

4. Republic Act No. 10157

AN ACT INSTITUTIONALIZING THE KINDERGARTEN EDUCATION INTO THE BASIC EDUCATION


SYSTEM AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR

Section 1. Short Title. - This Act shall be known as the "Kindergarten Education Act".

5. Republic Act No. 10533

AN ACT ENHANCING THE PHILIPPINE BASIC EDUCATION SYSTEM BY STRENGTHENING ITS


CURRICULUM AND INCREASING THE NUMBER OF YEARS FOR BASIC EDUCATION,
APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:

SECTION 1. Short Title.  — This Act shall be known as the “Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013″.
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6. Batas PambansaBlg. 232 – An Act Providing for the Establishment and Maintenance of an Integrated
System of Education.

II. CLASSROOM VISITS AND OBSERVING THE TEACHING-LEARNING SITUATION

A. New Trend in Classroom Visitation

Classroom visitation is considered a part of supervisory process. It should be given preference


over other duties. The supervisor should steadfastly prevent other matters from interfering with classroom
visitation, for it is where the teacher guides the child’s growth and development. Classroom visit offer
plenty of opportunities to a supervisor in studying, improving, and evaluating the teaching-learning
situation. Classroom visit which are helpful and friendly develop good rapport between teachers and
supervisors can be democratic, scientific, and dynamic. According to Alberty and Thayer, “visitation may
be an opportunity for democratic supervision”.

Modern visitation calls for a democratic classroom visitation. The purpose of democratic visitation
is primarily to help the teacher solve pedagogical problems and to help him grow, and thereby also to help
the pupils grow. The role of the supervisor should be that of a co-worker rather than a judge. In classroom
visitation then, the democratic supervisor evaluate teachers only incidentally, as he concentrates on
helping them to help the pupils grow.

Classroom visits should be made to help new and inexperienced teachers adjust themselves to
their new responsibilities. New teachers are usually in great need of stimulation and guidance. Practically,
all new teachers are anxious to do good work, and would like to have the supervisor tell them of their
weakness, and how to remedy them, or how they may improve the quality of their teaching and that of the
pupil’s learning.

B. Types and Length of the Visit

Classroom visit can be classified into three types:

1. Scheduled.

a. The scheduled visit is apt to be formal

b. The teacher generally knows in advance of the scheduled visit and purpose

c. The teacher prepares materials and instructions to enable the supervisor analyze the
problems he has in mind

d. The disadvantages of this type of visit are that it tends to disrupt the regular schedule of the
school

2. Unscheduled.

a. The supervisor may go to the classroom unannounced

b. For the supervisors, this type of visit is necessary if the teacher is unreliable and
untrustworthy.

c. It provides supervisor true picture of the school


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d. This type of supervision will create an atmosphere of confusion and put the teacher in
emotional tension

3. Invitational

a. The supervisor is given a definite invitation to see a classroom or an entire school for certain
purposes

b. The supervisor is evidently wanted for the purpose of analysing practices and results.

c. It shows a wholesome administrative condition and directs supervision where it is needed.

d. Visitation should grow out of the common interests, purpose, and the nature of the task of both
the supervisor and the teacher.

Determinants on the length of classroom visit

1. aim or purpose of the supervisor

2. the grade to be observed

3. the size of the school to be visited

4. the educational qualification and experience of the teacher

5. physical and mental maturity of the pupils to be observed

Planning the Supervisory Observation

Plan is always necessary in any undertaking in order to be successful and fruitful. Planning
supervisory observation is essential if the purposes of the supervisory program are to be carried out. If
observations are planned in advance, the supervisor will gain the information he desires and he will waste
no time in what maybe interesting but relevant visits.

The teachers themselves should play an important part in planning the classroom observation.
Giving teachers an active part in planning the supervisory program will make them aware of the problems
to be studied or the objectives to be accomplished. Supervisory plan should be done cooperatively, and
should be an expression of the combined thinking of the teachers, supervisors, and administrators. The
overriding purpose of visitation is to help teachers and children improve teaching and learning.

There are two guiding principles to be considered in supervisory planning:

1. Supervisory plan should be formulated cooperatively – The teacher in particular will not be indifferent
to supervision when they assist in setting up the objectives and in carrying out the plan or program. An
organized plan is always tentative, it will be revised freely as it progresses.

2. Supervisory plan must be flexible – A supervisory plan must be readjusted, replanned as the situation
changes. Flexibility is enhanced when all have participated in the cooperative formulation of the plan. The
group thus understands the aims and purposes set up.

There are three types of supervisory plan:


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1. Long-term or yearly plan –it is usually considered to include one or two years. This type involves
general problems or objective which cannot be accomplished in a short period of time

2. Short-term or weekly or monthly plan – it includes such varieties as daily lesson planning, weekly,
monthly, and term planning. This type involves more specific objectives but are related to the general
supervisory aims.

3. Emergency plan – it falls under short-term planning.

A good supervisory plan must contain the following items:

1. Supervisory aims – The plan must contain general and specific supervisory aims or purposes. The
aims must be based on the problems discovered in the classroom through the use of survey, actual
classroom observation, interview, conferences, analysis of existing records, recorded reports of past
supervisors and questionnaires. Problems common to the majority of the teachers, especially new
teachers, should be first considered. The number of aims must be few and possible of accomplishment.

2. Supervisory procedure – Supervisory plan should indicate special procedure as to the methods of time
schedule, and personnel involved, but should be kept sufficiently flexible to permit readjustments and
replanning as the situation may change. Some procedures that can be used in accomplishing supervisory
aims are direct teaching or demonstration, conference, intervisitation, workshop and forum.

3. Criteria for evaluation – Supervisory planning should make provision for its own evaluation. The
effectiveness of the procedure utilized can be measured by the use of criteria based on the principles of
good teaching and learning. Teaching must be evaluated in terms of principles rather than techniques
while learning must be evaluated in terms of activities.

4. Follw-up work – Provision should be made for carrying out definite follow-up work. The purpose of
follow-up visit is to aid in effecting instructional improvement. Likewise, the follow-up visit will give the
supervisor opportunity to check whether the previous suggestions written or given in BPS Form 178 were
fruitful or effective.

Bases of Classroom Observation

1. The Philippine Educational Aims – Educational aims should be kept clearly in mind by school
administrators and supervisors. The aims of education serve as a guideposts for the educative process.
The aims of education give school administrators and supervisors a general idea of the type of citizens
that the country wants its school to produce.

2. Child Growth – Child development is the most important objective of supervision. Schools should
provide conditions favourable to children’s growth, and supervision therefore must be so organized and
administered as to make this growth possible.

3. Good Teaching and Learning – The improvement of teaching and learning is the fundamental aim of
supervision. The true function of teaching is to provide the best stimuli so that the best learning may take
place. The quality of learning achieved by the pupil is related to the quality of teaching done by the
teacher. The test of effective teaching is productive learning. Teaching is the process of stimulating,
directing, guiding and evaluating the learning. Learning, is on the other hand a process of growth and
development through experiencing.

4. Democratic Teaching Procedure – The total growth and development of the child can be realized best
through the use of democratic process. Democratic teaching procedures are based on democratic
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principles and practices. They provide pupils’ participation in planning, carrying over, and evaluating
classroom activities.

Principles to be Considered in Observing the Teaching Learning Situation

1. The supervisor should enter the classroom quietly and be seated in a manner that will not distract the
teacher’s attention and of the class. The supervisor should sit behind the class where he can have a good
view of the entire class. Greeting the teacher and the class is not necessary.

2. The supervisor must study the teacher and his teaching carefully in order to be genuinely helpful. His
advice must grow out of the knowledge of the situation on hand. In studying the work it is necessary to
secure objective data, after a careful analysis and interpretation of facts.

3. The supervisor must not criticize the teacher before or within the hearing of the pupils and other
teachers; otherwise, the pupils will lose their respect for their teacher. The supervisor should show only
interested, courteous, and self-effacing behaviour, no matter what his inner response maybe.

4. The supervisor must not butt in during the recitation. He may do so through the request or the
permission of the teacher. Permission must be asked first before the supervisor takes charge of the class.

5. The supervisor must preserve the impersonal, objective, and scientific attitude during the period of
observation and consultation.

6. The supervisor must not criticize the error of the teacher if he has no solution to offer. He must offer a
substitute plan for the teacher to consider, rather than criticize him for what he has done.

7. The supervisor must know that democratic leadership must be based on respect for the personality
and opinion of the teacher and the pupils.

8. The supervisor must concentrate on one or two items at a time. His notes or suggestions must be
confined only to significant points.

9. The supervisor, in leaving the classroom after a supervisory visit, should avoid disturbing the class. A
natural break in the teaching program provides best opportunity for the supervisor to leave the classroom.

10. The supervisor must keep some form of the visitation record. A record of activities and things
observed is the only safe basis for a professional discussion.

Principles to be Observed in Giving Suggestions:

1. Suggestion must be encouraging, and given in a friendly attitude

2. Suggestions must be constructive and forward-looking

3. Suggestions should lead to self-analysis and self-criticism

4. Suggestions must be discriminating, and must be adapted to the time, place, situation, and problem on
hand, as well as to the personality of the teacher under observation.

5. In writing suggestions, the use of the pronouns “I” and “You” must be minimized.

6. Suggestions must be specific rather than general, psychological rather than logical.
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7. Suggestions must be given or written after a conference.

8. Suggestions must take into consideration the training experience, equipment and other instructional
materials.

9. Suggestions must be given immediately after the observation and conference with the teacher.

10. In writing the suggestions, good English must be observed. Suggestions must be simple and direct to
the point in question.

11. Suggestions must be followed but not rigidly.

III. ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY USES OF TESTS AND MEASUREMENT

A. The Importance of Tests and Measurement in School Administration and Supervision

School administration and supervision cannot be operated effectively without tests and
measurement of any kind. Like teaching, administration and supervision becomes more productive when
followed by an accurate appraisal of its results and the test scores are used to guide, to adjust, or to
revise the status of the pupil’s learning.

Importance of Testing

1. Aids teachers in their work

2. Its findings influence the adjustment of the school organization, the curriculum, and the method of
instruction to the varying needs and abilities of the pupils.

3. It provides each pupil with an opportunity to master the content of instruction and to learn the subject
matter without undue expenditures of time and energy.

4. Tests are essentials, not only in measuring tangible results of instruction, but aslso in diagnosing the
pupils’ needs and difficulties.

5. Tests are needed in preparing a program of remedial instruction and in subsequent checking of the
results of this program.

B. Types of Tests Useful in School Administration and Supervison

1. Intelligence Tests – These tests attempts to measure the degree of potential ability which an individual
possesses, or his innate capacity to adapt himself to novel situations.

2. Educational Tests or Achievement Tests – These types of tests measure the achievement of the pupils
in different subjects. All tests of subject matter taught un schools fall under this class. Educational tests
maybe either standardized or non-standardized tests. Standardized achievement tests include items that
have been selected and checked empirically. Such tests are provided with exact procedures controlling
the methods of administration and scoring and with norms and data concerning the reliability and validity
of the test.

C. Criteria of Good Tests


24

1. Validity – The validity of the test is determined by the degree to which it actually measures what it is
supposed to measure. A test is supposed to be valid when it accomplishes the purpose that it intended to
perform. Validity is the most significant single characteristic of a test.

2. Reliability – This term is synonymous with consistency of measurement. Consistency refers in a


general way, to freedom from error. The reliability of the test maybe determined by using the same test
twice with the same group under the same conditions.

3. Objectivity – A test is objective when personal opinion is eliminated from giving and scoring. It
possesses complete and precise directions concerning its administration and scoring and accurate
scoring keys.

4. Graduated difficulty – A good test contains items arranged according to graduated scale of difficulty.
The difficulty of the exercises is such that every individual responding to them will be able to do at least a
few exercises correctly

5. Ease of administration and scoring – This refers to the case in giving and taking the examination, as
well as in correcting and scoring the test papers.

6. Having fixed norm – A fixed norm is an important characteristic of a standardized test. This refers to a
fixed standard by which the results achieved may be interpreted. The norm is valuable for comparison
against achievement standard, either of schools in general or of schools in a given subject

Administrative and Supervisory Uses of Intelligence Tests

1. Admission to college or university

2. Classification of students

3. Guidance

4. Scholarship

5. For discovering exceptional students

6. For curriculum making

Administrative and Supervisory Uses of Educational Tests

1. To measure the growth of the pupils in knowledge, habits, skills, abilities and attitudes

2. To measure the standard of the school or schools under one’s supervision and direction

3. To diagnose the difficulties or weakness of the students and the teaching staff

4. To measure the effectiveness of the teaching methods and techniques

5. To measure the progress of the pupils or the school by comparing the results of their past tests

6. To measure the efficiency of the teachers in-service

7. To classify students into sections or classes

8. To set up standards of the pupil’s performance in different subjects


25

9. To guide the administrator and supervisor in planning their educational program and work of the
school

10. To provide good public relations between the school and the community

D. Limitations of Standardized Educational Tests

1. Standardized educational tests do not measure all contents of learning

2. They are not adapted to all conditions

3. Standardized educational tests tends to produce mediocrity in teaching

4. The fixed norms penalizes the dull or slow pupils

5. Standardized tests are not valid, owing to differences in materials taught and methods and devices
used

6. Standardized tests do not prove helpful in many experimental situations.

IV. THE ADMINISTRATION OF PUPIL GUIDANCE AND DISCIPLINE

A. Meaning and Scope of Guidance

Guidance implies advice. The term includes all those influences and opportunities designed to
assist the pupil in discovering how he may make his educational, vocational, social , cultural, and
recreational choices and adjustments most successfully and happily. One purpose of guidance is to make
the individual discover the mode of life by which he can realize most fully his potentialities for worthy and
satisfactory service.

A more comprehensive definition of guidance is given by A.J. Jones: “Guidance involves personal
help given by someone; it is designed to assist a person to decide where he wants to go, what he wants
to do, or how he can best accomplish his purpose; it assists him to solve problems that arise in his life.”

B. Modern Trends in Guidance

The modern trends in guidance can be generalized as follows:

1. The trend toward increasing responsibility for guidance in the part of the school administrators and
classroom teachers

2. The trend toward more adequate training of guidance personnel

3. The trend toward the guidance of the individual as a whole in all his many sided aspects

4. The trend toward increase use of tests and measurement in the guidance program

C. Kinds of Guidance

1. Educational Guidance – This refers to the assistance given to a person by the use of certain facts and
standardized procedures that he may plan and pursue his education in the light of the abilities, past
achievements, difficulties and interests.
26

2. Vocational Guidance – This concern that phase of guidance which are presented facts about jobs and
occupational fields, requirements of various occupations, and employment possibilities, in order to help
pupils or students select vocation more intelligently.

3. Personal Guidance – This type aims to assists an individual witrh respect to his personal habits,
attitudes, and intimate personal problems.

4. Social Guidance – This concerns that phase of guidance which assists person or groups in their
adjustments to social customs and practices that maybe develop satisfactorily relationship with their
fellowmen.

5. Moral Guidance – This refers to the phase of guidance that assists in the development of moral
character based on high standards of ethics and moral.

6. Avocational Guidance – This refers to assistance given to individuals to enable them to spend their
leisure in worthwhile activities

7. Health Guidance – This type of guidance aims to help the students to attain a greater measure of
physical and mental health.

8. Civic Guidance – This is concerned with enabling the individual to be an efficient factor in the local,
provincial and national government.

D. The Role of Principal in Guidance

1. To lead his teachers in the endeavour to increase their understanding of child behaviour.

2. To acquaint his teachers with ways of helping children attain their best development

3. To plan the administration of the testing program and the interpretation and use of its results

4. To acquaint himself with, and make use of facilities within the school system and community for giving
help in cases where children are experiencing adjustment difficulties.

5. To lead in the organization of guidance committee.

E. Principles to be Observed in Planning the Guidance Program

1. The guidance program must be organized in terms of certain desires, attitudes, and beliefs on the part
of all members of the teaching staff.

2. In developing a guidance program, the administrator must give careful attention to the organizational
and administrative factors that will condition the effectiveness of the resulting program.

3. The guidance functions are never the same in all schools

4. The guidance program must result in careful planning

5. The organization and administration of the guidance program and the activities of the guidance office
must be centered to the principal or to the director of guidance in the case of a big school

6. The success of the guidance program must be evaluated in terms of the appreciation and support
received from the staff.
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F. the Modern Concept of School Discipline

The modern concept of discipline is that it is both regulative and educative where the attention of
the administrator or the teacher is directed to constructive attitudes and habits of conduct, rather than to
the regulations of control negative in nature. The true function of classroom discipline is to create a desire
to help establish and maintain good working conditions to further the accomplishment of the objectives for
which the teacher and the pupils are working.

Likewise classroom discipline is educative. According to Mueller, the purpose of discipline is to


help the individual to acquire knowledge, power, habits, interests, and ideals which are designed for the
well-being of himself and his fellows, that discipline is a matter of education.

The modern concept of discipline is based on the following democratic principles:

1. Discipline based on devotion to humanitarian principles and ideals such as freedom, justice,
and equality for all, rather than discipline based on a narrower and more egoistic affiliation

2. Discipline which recognizes the inherent dignity and rights of every human being, rather that
discipline attained through humiliation.

3. Discipline which develops self-direction, self-discipline rather than principle based on


compulsion and blind obedience.

4. Discipline based on understanding of the goal in view rather that discipline based on high
authority.

G. Causes of Disciplinary Problems

1. The teacher’s personal factors

2. Physical factors

3. Individual factors

4. Social factors

5. School factors

6. Lack of training

7. Work factors

H. Improving Classroom Discipline

In casting a favourable teaching-learning situation for good discipline the following points are
suggested

1. The teacher or the administrator should create an environment that is socially and emotionally
pleasant, satisfying, and stimulating

2. The teacher or administrator should create an attitude or atmosphere that is conducive to


learning.
28

3. The teacher or administrator should create goals for the work of the pupils – goals which are
meaningful and achievable.

4. the teacher or the administrator should create meaning in the materials and the activities
which the pupils will undertake.

I. Corrective Measures Prescribed by the Bureau of Public Schools

1. Suspension or Expulsion

2. Withdrawal of Privileges

3. Corporal Punishment Prohibited

4. Hazing Prohibited

J2. Principles Governing the Handling of Disciplinary Problems

1. The administrator should provide for a unifying philosophy of discipline

2. The administrator should secure cooperative teacher-pupil planning

3. The administrator should not handle extreme cases alone

4. The administrator should apply punishment in a corrective rather than punitive manner.

5. The administrator must encourage constructive teacher solution of disciplinary problems

6. The administrator should not make the correction within the hearing of other pupils

7. The administrator should not undermine the teachers authority

8. The administrator should endeavour, through a talk with the pupil, to make clear to him the
need for correction

9. The administrator should never use corporal punishment as a solution to any disciplinary
problem

10. The administrator should establish a referral procedure to be followed in his own school.

V. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL OF SCHOOL PLANT, GROUND AND EQUIPMENT

A. Importance of

School Plant and Equipment

The term “school plant” includes the school site, the school building, and the school equipment. It
also refers to the housing operation, upkeep, and extension of the existing plant. School administration
and supervision have to provide a school system with the adequate plant and equipment to promote
efficient instruction and to meet the requirement of space and safety.
29

B. The Selection of School Site

A standard school site is one meeting the following conditions:

1. The size of the site must meet the requirements of the enrolment and the kind of school as
well as the recreational needs of the students and the site must be wide enough to make adequate
provision for an athletic field, playground, lawns, agricultural activities and future building expansion

2. The site must be well located and easily accessible, it must have suitable frontage on a public
road preferably on a quiet street if it is in the city, it must not be shut in, from the main highway of private
property, and the site should be free from noise, odors, and dust, and not close to the heavy traffic
highways, cockpits, jails, dance halls, and other recreational places of questionable character, and
bowling alleys, shipyards, railroads yards, and manufacturing and industrial establishments

3. The site must be well drained and sanitary, and it should therefore not be close to a public
market, slaughterhouse, garbage dump or stage.

4. The topography must be such that a satisfactory athletic field can be laid out and the general
contour of the land should be level

5. The soil should be suitable for some form of gardening or agricultural work

6. The site should permit the proper orientation of the school buildings to secure the best
ventilation and light.

School site may be secured in the following ways:

1. Municipal or provincial government may set aside land for school purposes.

2. By purchase

3. By donation from private citizen

4. By expropriation proceedings

5. By national government grant

C. Factors to be Considered in the Construction of School Buildings

1. Location – the school building should be located and constructed in the quietest section of the
town and city

2. health – Health of the children should be an important consideration in the construction of the
school building

3. Safety – In like manner, the safety of the school children is of great importance in the
construction of the school building.

4. Lighting – Proper lighting in the classroom is fundamental in the operation of the school.

D. Funds for the Construction, Repair, or Improvement of School Buildings

The funds for school buildings comes from the following sources:
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1. Appropriation made by the national government

2. Loans made by the national government to provinces and municipalities

3. Municipal and national bond issues

4. Municipal and national school funds

5. Voluntary contributions of private individuals

6. Contributions from the PTA

7. War damage payment

8. I.C.A. ( International Cooperation Administration)

VI. ADMINISTRATION OF TEACHING PERSONNEL

A. Meaning and Scope of Teaching Personnel

Good, states that the teaching personnel refers to those person employed in an official capacity
for the purpose of giving instruction, whether public or private. The teaching personnel covers the school
administrator s, supervisors, classroom teachers, and school librarians.

The administration of teaching personnel includes all the policies, activities, and practices of the
administration and staff designed to increase the effectiveness of the teaching personnel.

B. Privileges of the Teaching Personnel

1. Teachers as person in authority – Commonwealth Act No. 578 recognizes the public and
privates school teachers as person in authority. This means that the teachers cannot be attacked
physically when performing their duties. This law protects the teachers from being physically harmed by
parents and other individuals who may have grudges against them.

2. Maternity leave

3. Study Leave

4. Outside teaching

5. Vacation and sick leave

6. Compulsory insurance

7. Vacation Pay

8. Service credit

9. Salary loans

10. Free medical consultation

11. Cost of living and special hardship allowance

12. Joining teachers’ organization


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13. Enjoy academic freedom

14. Working hours for teachers

15. Compensation of injuries

16. Retirement benefits

C. Guidelines in Hiring Teacher I Positionand Promotion of Teachers and School Heads


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D. Principles to be Observed in the Administration of the Teaching Personnel

1. In the administration of teaching personnel, the responsibility for making decisions that affect
the school enterprise should be placed upon the group – the teachers, as well as the administrators,
rather than the administrators alone.

2. In the administration of teaching personnel, only the best qualified and the most competent
must be considered.

3. In the administration of teaching personnel, the merit system should constitute the sole
consideration in determining who shall be promoted.

4. In the administration of teaching personnel, the guarantees and security and welfare of the
teachers that insure their efficiency should be provided

5. In the administration of teaching personnel, there must be provision made for insurance or
retirement.

6. In the administration of teaching personnel, it is desirable to select teachers who came from
many institutions of higher education so that the impact of their difference in training and in personality will
impinge desirably upon a school system.

7. In the administration of teaching personnel, there should be provision for orientation of new
teachers, in-service improvement program, and maintenance of high morale in the teaching staff.

8. In the administration of teaching personnel, there should be provision for evaluation.

Suggested Exercises for Study and Discussion

Direction: Write True if the statement is correct and False if the statement is uncorrect.

________ 1. Observation should be made in terms of a carefully formulated criteria of good teaching
and learning.

________ 2. The length of observation varies with the purpose of the supervisor and nature of the
situation.

________ 3. It is sound supervisory practice to criticize the teacher within the hearing of the pupils.

________ 4. The frequency and duration of visit to each classroom will depend upon the purpose of
supervision and training and experiences of the teaching personnel.

________ 5. The supervisory plan should be an expression of the combined thinking of the teachers,
supervisors and the administrators.

________ 6. Educational test is used in appraising the general level of the pupil’s mental ability.

________ 7. Achievement test measure the accomplishments of the pupils in a given subject.

________ 8. The best means of classifying students is through the use of intelligence test.

________ 9. Standardized educational tests tend to produce mediocrity in teaching.

________ 10. Teacher-made tests are more reliable than the standardized achievement tests.
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________ 11. Guidance is limited to aiding the pupils in the selection of their life career.

________ 12. The material reward must be the guiding philosophy in selecting a vocation.

________ 13. Guidance has long been recognized as an important function of the education particularly
in secondary schools and colleges.

________ 14. The total personality of the individual must be taken into consideration in any guidance
program.

________ 15. Classroom teachers and psychiatrist have no place in any guidance program.

________ 16. It is difficult to do a go0d job of teaching in a poor building without adequate equipment.

________ 17. School plant and equipment are permanent possession of the school system.

_______ 18. The selection of school site is an administrative, as well as supervisory function.

________ 19. Most of the present school plants of our communities are within the required standard.

________ 20. Public school building can be used for political meetings.

________ 21. As a general rule, a promotion in position involves also promotion in salary.

________ 22. Public school teachers are required to have annual physical check-up.

________ 23. Public school teachers are allowed to engage in private business to improve their social
status.

________ 24. Promotion of the teaching personnel in public schools is based on objective and scientific
criteria.

________ 25. All public school teachers are required by law to improve themselves professionally while
in service .

Essay Question: (Select only 3 questions)

1. Why is careful planning necessary before visiting the classroom for supervisory purposes?

2. Why are tests and measurement essential in school administration and supervision?

3. Why have you chosen teaching as your profession? List the characteristic that you believe you should
possess in order to become an efficient and effective teacher.

4. Explain different ways of acquiring school sites in our country.

5. State your opinion on the present method of selection and appointment of the teaching personnel in
public schools.
60

FINALS
Objectives:

1. Appreciate the importance of in-service education to teachers

2. Develop an understanding of the provision in the Constitution regarding the responsibility of the government in
the support of education

3. Develop an understanding of the importance of evaluation in school administration and supervision

4. Develop the ability to appreciate teaching as a profession

5. Acquaint students with the Code of Ethics for public school teachers and officials

6. Identify the different interpersonal and technical skills a supervisor must possess

7. Describe the different tasks of supervision

I. IN-SERVICE EDUCATION OF TEACHERS AS AN ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY FUNCTION

A. The need for In-Service Education

In-service education of teachers, supervisors, and administrators is a legal requirement and an ethical
mandate. Section 370 of the Revised Service manual states that the Division Superintendent, district supervisors,
and principals are expected to plan for the improvement of teachers in-service.

It can be said that the purpose of in-service education are the following:

1. To promote the continuous improvement of the total professional staff of the system. All teachers
must constantly study in order to keep up with advances in subject matter, in the theories and practices of
teaching and learning.

2. To give the much needed help to the teachers who are entering a responsibility or a new field of work
within the profession, especially the new teachers.

3. Continuous in-service education is needed to keep the professional abreast of new knowledge and to
release creative activities.

4. In-service is needed to eliminate deficiencies in the background, preparation of teachers and other
professional workers in education.

B. Guiding Principles of In-Service Education

1. Progress in the art of teaching is the real goal of in-service education.

2. The work of the teacher in the classroom and in the related activities of the school and the community
should be the most important single course of problems which form the basis of in-service education.

3. The motivation for effective in-service education should come from within the teacher and his sense of
need rather than from someone else’s desire to change him
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4. The major motivating factor for in-service growth should be the desire to meet fully one’s
responsibility as a teacher.

5. The desire for professional improvement must be based on the spirit of service.

6. The in-service education must utilize democratic principles.

C. Devices Used in Improving Teachers In-Service

1. Demonstration-Teaching – Demonstration teaching as a supervisory procedure is defined as “teaching


activities by skilled or experienced teachers for the purpose at illustrating materials, procedures or
techniques in connection with pre-service or in-service education of teachers. Its chief purpose is to show
observers how to do it, to present sound and approved methods of procedures and techniques.
Demonstration teaching should adhere closely to classroom conditions both as to subject matter, method,
time element, devices and the like. Demonstration teaching should be used only when there is a need for
it. It should be used to convey to the observers the desired standard of instruction.

In planning for the demonstration teaching, the following points must be taken into consideration:

a. Determine the specific needs or weaknesses of the teachers to be met by demonstration

b. Selecting and preparing the demonstrator to present competently the desired demonstration

c. Preparing and guiding the observers for the demonstration

d. Follow up the demonstration

2. Teacher’s or Faculty Meeting – A faculty meeting held regularly is the most common device
used by school administrators and supervisors to increase the efficiency of the teachers. Other activities
carried on during the teacher’s meeting are the following:

a. Discussion of administrative policies, bulletins, circulars, and other professional problems


within the school.

b. Demonstration and critical consideration of procedures in classroom teaching

c. Discussion of problems pertaining to professional growth or in-service training

d. Critical discussion of failing students

e. Announcements and explanations of administrative and supervisory organization and


regulation.

f. Reports of teachers or committees dealing with specific experiences

g. Review of professional literature on education

h. Inviting outside speakers to talk on important subjects or vital issues

i. Report on some experimental studies by some of the members of the teaching staff

j. Report of the outstanding achievements of individual school or district.


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3. Individual or Group Conference- Closely related to teachers meeting is a conference which


may be either individual or group. A conference should follow teaching as soon as possible

4. Intervisitation – Intervisitation is another device used to improve teachers in-service. It gives


teachers time to visit and observe schools or classes other than their own

5. Bulletins – The bulletin is an important economical device often used by the Bureau of Public
Schools. This device is also sometimes used by the Division Superintendent when he needs to
communicate with the teachers without calling a meeting. The two types of bulletins are:

a. Administrative – It provide instruction to teachers regarding routine matters of the school,


appraisal of school work, and school organization

b. Supervisory – used to convey to the teachers instructions regarding sound educational


methods and techniques,, the uses of devices, directions on subject matter, and instructions on tests and
measurement. In other words, supervisory bulletins are used to raise teaching standards and levels of
achievement.

6. Summer Classes- Summer classes make it possible for public and private school teachers to
utilize the summer vacation for a systematic study leading to higher degrees.

7. Workshop – The term is applied to many situations which are not workshops at all. It basically
refers to a group of people working together on their own problems which maybe either vocational or
academic in character.

D. Principles To Be Observed in In-Service Education of Teachers

1. A program of in-service education of teachers should focus directly on the improvement of


pupil learning experiences

2. A program of in-service education of teachers should be products of cooperative staff activity

3. A program of in-service education of teachers should be flexible and should include many
varied activities

4. A program of in-service education of teachers should be included with regular school program.

5. A program of in-service education of teachers should be recognized as an integral part of the


total school program.

6. A program of in-service education of teachers should be promote the development of the


teacher’s personality

7. A program of in-service education of teachers should center attention on significant problems


which have meaning for the teachers, and which are bound up intimately with his day-to-day activities.

8. A program of in-service education of teachers should be in education being conducted or


recently completed in other school situation.

9. A program of in-service education of teachers should provide for participation of forums,


meetings, and conferences on current social problems.
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II. FINANCING EDUCATION AS AN ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTION

A. Financing School Facilities

1. Basis and Sources

1.1 The principal sources of the funds for educational facilities in public schools are the national,
provincial, city, municipal governments. Other sources of funds which serve to hjelp finance public
elementary and secondary educational facilities are the Special Education Fund, voluntary contributions,
donations, etc.

2. School Building Program

2.1 National funds needed to finance elementary and secondary schools and educational
facilities are provided in the yearly General appropriations Act, or the national budget for each calendar
year.

2.2 The annual appropriations in the national budget for the Department of Education include
fund allocations for capital outlays, for maintenance and other operating expenses, and for sundries.
Capital outlays are provided for the acquisition of school sites as well as the acquisition of equipment for
public elementary and secondary schools.

2.3 The amount allocated for maintenance And other operating expenses include provisions for
such expenditures as travel expenses, purchase of supplies and materials, and for equipment. The
allotment for sundries include such miscellaneous expenses as repair of equipment, freight and shipping
charges, rental of buildings for school use, etc.

2.4 Part of the allotment for capital outlays provides funding for the implementation of the
national school building program which includes the construction of new school buildings as well as the
rehabilitation and improvement of existing ones. The allotment for the maintenance and repair of
elementary and secondary school buildings are to be sub-alloted to the heads of the schools for use in
financing minor or emergency repair.

2.5 The construction and repair of building supported by funds appropriated in the national
budget shall be supervised by the district engineer of DPWH in coordination with the DepEd. Minor or
emergency repairs of school buildings shall be undertaken by the principal or school administrator in
coordination with PTA under the supervision of DPWH and the Schools Division Superintendent.

2.6 Alterations, additions, extensions, and other construction which materially increase the value
of a structure or equipment constitutes permanent improvement, the cost of which may not be charged
against the appropriation for repair, but shall be added to the value of the asset on which the
improvements have been affected

3. Local Government Funds

3.1 In support of national funds, the local governments are allowed to set aside local funds for
the support of existing or new elementary and secondary schools in their respective localities. This is
provided through appropriate resolutions or ordinances of the municipal or city councils.

3.2 Municipalities and cities are responsible for the financing of acquisition of school sites for the
public schools in their territories. They are further responsible for providing local funds for the survey and
registration of public elementary school sites.
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3.3 Financing school building repairs. Whenever possible, municipal and city councils should
appropriate funds for school building repairs inasmuch as such appropriations are legal in accordance
with the ruling of the Commission on Audit. Necessary expenditure in any amount may be made for repair
of a municipal school building or for other permanent improvement on school property

3.4 Expenditures in excess of P250,000.00 under conditions other than those noted in the
preceding section, on school property located on unregistered municipal land or on leased or rented
areas may be made only with the approval of the Secretary of DepEd if used for school house
construction, or of the President of the Philippines if for any other purposes.

4. Special Education Fund (SEF)

4.1 The Special Education Fund (RA 5447) was created to provide additional financial support
exclusively for public schools. The fund comes from the proceeds of an additional tax of 1% on the
assessed value of real property in addition to the real property tax levied thereon under existing laws
(Sec. 20 of RA 7160). An additional source of revenue for the SEF is derived from portions equivalent to
10% of the taxes on Virginia type cigarettes and the duties on imported tobacco, which are remitted to the
national treasury.

4.1.1 Sharing of Funds. The proceeds occurring to the SEF shall be automatically released to the
local school boards. In cases of provinces, the proceeds shall be divided equally between the provincial
and municipal boards (RA 216, Sec. 272)

5. Voluntary Contributions

5.1 Pertinent Rules Regarding Accepting Contributions

5.1.1 To collect voluntary contributions for the construction, repair, or improvement of school
buildings, permission should be requested form the DSWD or its local office.. This should be made by the
PTA or other entities but never by school authorities or teachers. The request should state the purpose of
the collection, the amount desired to be collected and the period during which the collection is to be
made.

5.1.2 If the PTA is registered under the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) and is treated
as a private corporation, permission from the DSWD is not obligatory. However, a financial statement of
the collections and disbursement made in relation to the project should be submitted to the Division
Superintendent and the school principal.

5.2 Foreign Assisted Schoolbuilding Program. Foreign governments, e.g. the Japanese
government through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has been donating school
buildings and other school facilities through grants or aid.

6. Adopt-A-School Program (ASP)

6.1 Adopt-A-School Program which was established through RA 8525 aims to create multiple
partnership with the business sector, foundations, non-government organizations, and individual team-up
with DepEd in providing the needed assistance and service to the public schools.

6.1.1 This program is a pro-poor movement that will help ensure access to quality education for
the Filipino youth
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6.1.2 This program give opportunity to a private entity to extend assistance to a public school in
particular aspects of its educational programs within an agreed period.

6.2 The ASP addresses the needs of school with severe classroom shortage; school in low
income municipalities; schools with insufficient number of textbooks and instructional materials;
overcrowded schools. Schools with malnourished children; schools with poor but high performing
students and schools with insufficient budget of funds.

6.3 The package of assistance which a donor may give includes infrastructure, teaching and
skills development, learning support, computer and science laboratory equipment plus library materials,
food and nutrients and donor’s choices

6.4 Benefits accruing to the private adopting entity are: deduction from its gross income the
amount of expenses actually, directly and exclusively incurred for the program plus an additional amount
equivalent to 50%. In addition, the adopting entity shall be entitled to have its name emblazoned under
the name of the adopted public school – indicating that said school in under the ASP.

B. CODE OF ETHICS FOR PROFESSIONAL TEACHERS

Pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (e), Article 11, of R.A. No. 7836, otherwise known as the
Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994 and paragraph (a), section 6, P.D. No. 223, as
amended, the Board for Professional Teachers hereby adopt the Code of Ethics for Professional
Teachers.

Preamble
Teachers are duly licensed professionals who possesses dignity and reputation with high moral values as
well as technical and professional competence in the practice of their noble profession, and they strictly
adhere to, observe, and practice this set of ethical and moral principles, standards, and values.

Article I: Scope and Limitations


Section 1. The Philippine Constitution provides that all educational institution shall offer quality education
for all competent teachers. Committed to its full realization, the provision of this Code shall apply,
therefore, to all teachers in schools in the Philippines.

Section 2. This Code covers all public and private school teachers in all educational institutions at the
preschool, primary, elementary, and secondary levels whether academic, vocational, special, technical, or
non-formal. The term “teacher” shall include industrial arts or vocational teachers and all other
persons performing supervisory and /or administrative functions in all school at the aforesaid levels,
whether on full time or part-time basis.

Article II: The Teacher and the State


Section 1. The schools are the nurseries of the future citizens of the state; each teacher is a trustee of the
cultural and educational heritage of the nation and is under obligation to transmit to learners such heritage
as well as to elevate national morality, promote national pride, cultivate love of country, instill allegiance to
the constitution and for all duly constituted authorities, and promote obedience to the laws of the state.

Section 2. Every teacher or school official shall actively help carry out the declared policies of the state,
and shall take an oath to this effect.

Section 3. In the interest of the State and of the Filipino people as much as of his own, every teacher shall
be physically, mentally and morally fit.

Section 4. Every teacher shall possess and actualize a full commitment and devotion to duty.
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Section 5. A teacher shall not engage in the promotion of any political, religious, or other partisan interest,
and shall not, directly or indirectly, solicit, require, collect, or receive any money or service or other
valuable material from any person or entity for such purposes.

Section 6. Every teacher shall vote and shall exercise all other constitutional rights and responsibility.

Section 7. A teacher shall not use his position or official authority or influence to coerce any other person
to follow any political course of action.

Section 8. Every teacher shall enjoy academic freedom and shall have privilege of expounding the
product of his researches and investigations; provided that, if the results are inimical to the declared
policies of the State, they shall be brought to the proper authorities for appropriate remedial action.

Article III: The Teacher and the Community


Section 1. A teacher is a facilitator of learning and of the development of the youth; he shall, therefore,
render the best service by providing an environment conducive to such learning and growth.

Section 2. Every teacher shall provide leadership and initiative to actively participate in community
movements for moral, social, educational, economic and civic betterment. 

Section 3. Every teacher shall merit reasonable social recognition for which purpose he shall behave with
honor and dignity at all times and refrain from such activities as gambling, smoking, drunkenness, and
other excesses, much less illicit relations. 

Section 4. Every teacher shall live for and with the community and shall, therefore, study and understand
local customs and traditions in order to have sympathetic attitude, therefore, refrain from disparaging the
community.

Section 5. Every teacher shall help the school keep the people in the community informed about the
school’s work and accomplishments as well as its needs and problems. 

Section 6. Every teacher is intellectual leader in the community, especially in the barangay, and shall
welcome the opportunity to provide such leadership when needed, to extend counseling services, as
appropriate, and to actively be involved in matters affecting the welfare of the people. 

Section 7. Every teacher shall maintain harmonious and pleasant personal and official relations with other
professionals, with government officials, and with the people, individually or collectively.

Section 8. A teacher posses freedom to attend church and worships as appropriate, but shall not use his
positions and influence to proselyte others.

Article IV: A Teacher and the Profession


Section 1. Every teacher shall actively insure that teaching is the noblest profession, and shall manifest
genuine enthusiasm and pride in teaching as a noble calling. 

Section 2. Every teacher shall uphold the highest possible standards of quality education, shall make the
best preparations for the career of teaching, and shall be at his best at all times and in the practice of his
profession.

Section 3. Every teacher shall participate in the Continuing Professional Education (CPE) program of the
Professional Regulation Commission, and shall pursue such other studies as will improve his efficiency,
enhance the prestige of the profession, and strengthen his competence, virtues, and productivity in order
to be nationally and internationally competitive. 
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Section 4. Every teacher shall help, if duly authorized, to seek support from the school, but shall not make
improper misrepresentations through personal advertisements and other questionable means.

Section 5. Every teacher shall use the teaching profession in a manner that makes it dignified means for
earning a descent living.

Article V: The Teachers and the Profession


Section 1. Teachers shall, at all times, be imbued with the spirit of professional loyalty, mutual confidence,
and faith in one another, self-sacrifice for the common good, and full cooperation with colleagues. When
the best interest of the learners, the school, or the profession is at stake in any controversy, teachers shall
support one another.

Section 2. A teacher is not entitled to claim credit or work not of his own, and shall give due credit for the
work of others which he may use.

Section 3. Before leaving his position, a teacher shall organize for whoever assumes the position such
records and other data as are necessary to carry on the work.

Section 4. A teacher shall hold inviolate all confidential information concerning associates and the school,
and shall not divulge to anyone documents which has not been officially released, or remove records from
files without permission.

Section 5. It shall be the responsibility of every teacher to seek correctives for what may appear to be an
unprofessional and unethical conduct of any associate. However, this may be done only if there is
incontrovertible evidence for such conduct.

Section 6. A teacher may submit to the proper authorities any justifiable criticism against an associate,
preferably in writing, without violating the right of the individual concerned.

Section 7. A teacher may apply for a vacant position for which he is qualified; provided that he respects
the system of selection on the basis of merit and competence; provided, further, that all qualified
candidates are given the opportunity to be considered.

Article VI: The Teacher and Higher Authorities in the Profession


Section 1. Every teacher shall make it his duty to make an honest effort to understand and support the
legitimate policies of the school and the administration regardless of personal feeling or private opinion
and shall faithfully carry them out. 

Section 2. A teacher shall not make any false accusations or charges against superiors, especially under
anonymity. However, if there are valid charges, he should present such under oath to competent
authority.

Section 3. A teacher shall transact all official business through channels except when special conditions
warrant a different procedure, such as when special conditions are advocated but are opposed by
immediate superiors, in which case, the teacher shall appeal directly to the appropriate higher authority.

Section 4. Every teacher, individually or as part of a group, has a right to seek redress against injustice to
the administration and to extent possible, shall raise grievances within acceptable democratic possesses.
In doing so, they shall avoid jeopardizing the interest and the welfare of learners whose right to learn must
be respected.

Section 5. Every teacher has a right to invoke the principle that appointments, promotions, and transfer of
teachers are made only on the basis of merit and needed in the interest of the service.

Section 6. A teacher who accepts a position assumes a contractual obligation to live up to his contract,
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assuming full knowledge of employment terms and conditions.

Article VII: School Officials, Teachers, and Other Personnel


Section 1. All school officials shall at all times show professional courtesy, helpfulness and sympathy
towards teachers and other personnel, such practices being standards of effective school supervision,
dignified administration, responsible leadership and enlightened directions.

Section 2. School officials, teachers, and other school personnel shall consider it their cooperative
responsibility to formulate policies or introduce important changes in the system at all levels.

Section 3. School officials shall encourage and attend the professional growth of all teachers under them
such as recommending them for promotion, giving them due recognition for meritorious performance, and
allowing them to participate in conferences in training programs.

Section 4. No school officials shall dismiss or recommend for dismissal a teacher or other subordinates
except for cause. 

Section 5. School authorities concern shall ensure that public school teachers are employed in
accordance with pertinent civil service rules, and private school teachers are issued contracts specifying
the terms and conditions of their work; provided that they are given, if qualified, subsequent permanent
tenure, in accordance with existing laws.

Article VIII: The Teachers and Learners


Section 1. A teacher has a right and duty to determine the academic marks and the promotions of
learners in the subject or grades he handles, provided that such determination shall be in accordance with
generally accepted procedures of evaluation and measurement. In case of any complaint, teachers
concerned shall immediately take appropriate actions, observing due process.

Section 2. A teacher shall recognize that the interest and welfare of learners are of first and foremost
concern, and shall deal justifiably and impartially with each of them.

Section 3. Under no circumstance shall a teacher be prejudiced or discriminate against a learner.

Section 4. A teacher shall not accept favors or gifts from learners, their parents or others in their behalf in
exchange for requested concessions, especially if undeserved.

Section 5. A teacher shall not accept, directly or indirectly, any remuneration from tutorials other what is
authorized for such service.

Section 6. A teacher shall base the evaluation of the learner’s work only in merit and quality of
academic performance.

Section 7. In a situation where mutual attraction and subsequent love develop between teacher and
learner, the teacher shall exercise utmost professional discretion to avoid scandal, gossip and preferential
treatment of the learner.

Section 8. A teacher shall not inflict corporal punishment on offending learners nor make deductions from
their scholastic ratings as a punishment for acts which are clearly not manifestation of poor scholarship.

Section 9. A teacher shall ensure that conditions contribute to the maximum development of learners are
adequate, and shall extend needed assistance in preventing or solving learner’s problems and
difficulties.

Article IX: The Teachers and Parents


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Section 1. Every teacher shall establish and maintain cordial relations with parents, and shall conduct
himself to merit their confidence and respect.

Section 2. Every teacher shall inform parents, through proper authorities, of the progress and deficiencies
of learner under him, exercising utmost candor and tact in pointing out the learner's deficiencies and in
seeking parent’s cooperation for the proper guidance and improvement of the learners.

Section 3. A teacher shall hear parent’s complaints with sympathy and understanding, and shall
discourage unfair criticism.

Article X: The Teacher and Business


Section 1. A teacher has the right to engage, directly or indirectly, in legitimate income generation;
provided that it does not relate to or adversely affect his work as a teacher.

Section 2. A teacher shall maintain a good reputation with respect to the financial matters such as in the
settlement of his debts and loans in arranging satisfactorily his private financial affairs.

Section 3. No teacher shall act, directly or indirectly, as agent of, or be financially interested in, any
commercial venture which furnish textbooks and other school commodities in the purchase and disposal
of which he can exercise official influence, except only when his assignment is inherently, related to such
purchase and disposal; provided they shall be in accordance with the existing regulations; provided,
further, that members of duly recognized teachers cooperatives may participate in the distribution and
sale of such commodities.
Article XI: The Teacher as a Person
Section 1. A teacher is, above all, a human being endowed with life for which it is the highest obligation to
live with dignity at all times whether in school, in the home, or elsewhere.

Section 2. A teacher shall place premium upon self-discipline as the primary principle of personal
behavior in all relationships with others and in all situations.

Section 3. A teacher shall maintain at all times a dignified personality which could serve as a model
worthy of emulation by learners, peers and all others.

Section 4. A teacher shall always recognize the Almighty God as guide of his own destiny and of the
destinies of men and nations.

Article XII: Disciplinary Actions


Section 1. Any violation of any provision of this code shall be sufficient ground for the imposition against
the erring teacher of the disciplinary action consisting of revocation of his Certification of Registration and
License as a Professional Teacher, suspension from the practice of teaching profession, or reprimand or
cancellation of his temporary/special permit under causes specified in Sec. 23, Article III or R.A. No.
7836, and under Rule 31, Article VIII, of the Rules and Regulations Implementing R.A. 7836.

Article XIII: Effectivity


Section 1. This Code shall take effect upon approval by the Professional Regulation Commission and
after sixty (60) days following its publication in the Official Gazette or any newspaper of general
circulation, whichever is earlier.

Suggested Exercises For Study and Discussion

Direction: Write True if the statement is correct and False if the statement is wrong

________ 1. Modern education calls for more professionally trained teachers and educational leaders.
70

________ 2. Improvement of teachers in-service is both administrative and supervisory function.

________ 3. The majority of our public school teachers and school officials have the right attitude toward
in-service education

________ 4. The responsibility for a good in-service education program rests with the administrative and
supervisory staff.

________ 5. The rapid changes in educational practices make imperative a continuous growth in-
service.

________ 6. Supervisory meetings should be used for routine administrative purposes

________ 7. The aim of demonstration teaching should be clearly known before the performance
begins.

________ 8. The conference should inspire the teachers with renewed interest and enthusiasm.

________ 9. Demonstration teaching, to be effective, must be followed by a conference.

________ 10. Workshop is a democratic form of in-service education for teachers, administrators and
supervisors.

Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion (Select only 5 questions to be answered)

1. Why should teacher grow professionally while in-service?

2. What are the different devices used in the field in improving teachers in-service?

3. Explain why individual or group conferences call for a democratic leadership.

4. What are the common sources of funds to support public elementary and secondary education?

5. What is the main purpose of Adopt-A-School Program?

6. What recommendations can you offer to attract more person to the teaching profession?

7. In your opinion, what are the advantages of prohibiting public school officials an d teachers from
engaging in [politics?

8. Why should the teachers establish and maintain cordial relations with the parents of their pupils?

9. Justify, from your own experience, the value of informing the people of the community of the good
work and accomplishment of the public schools.

REFERENCES
71

Gregorio, H.C. (1980). Administration and Supervision. Revised Edition


R.P. Garcia Publishing Company. Quezon City

DECS SERVICE MANUAL. (2000)