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Olga I.

Safronenko
Karine S. Petrosyan
Svetlana Yu. Reznikova

Academic
English
for Students
in Sciences

Southern Federal University

Faculty of Philology
of Saint Petersburg
State University
УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ-923
C21

Рекомендовано Ученым советом


Санкт-Петербургского государственного университета
в качестве учебного пособия
для студентов высших учебных заведений,
обучающихся по естественнонаучным
специальностям и направлениям

Ответственный редактор
кандидат филологических наук, доцент Л. Б. Кузнецова,
Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет

Сафроненко, О. И., Петросян, К. С., Резникова, С. Ю.


C21 Academic English for Students in Sciences: Английский язык для учебных целей для студен-
тов ­естест­веннонаучных специальностей: учебное пособие / О.  И. Сафроненко, К.  С. Петросян,
С. Ю. Резникова. — СПб. : СПбГУ, 2013. — 184 с. — (Learning Paths to Professional English.)
ISBN  978–5–8645–0862–0
ББК 81.2Англ-923

Целью учебника «Academic English for Students in Sciences» является формирование иноязыч-
ной коммуникативной компетенции в сфере учебной и, частично, будущей профессиональной
­деятельности студентов естественнонаучных специальностей. Учебник, построенный на модуль-
ной основе, ориентирован на создание условий для приобретения студентами опыта использова-
ния английского языка в различных ситуациях общения, формирование навыков планирования
учебной деятельности, развитие творческого подхода к решению учебных и профессиональных
задач, a также на совершенствование умений самостоятельной работы, коллективной познава-
тельной деятельности, самоконтроля и оценки усвоения знаний, то есть навыков и умений, при-
меняемых в ситуациях, составляющих основу базовых языковых и учебных компетенций. Учебник
разработан на основе активного использования современных методик и информационных техно-
логий в обучении английскому языку.
Учебник предназначен для студентов I–II курсов естественнонаучных специальностей универ-
ситетов.

© Санкт-Петербургский
ISBN  978–5–8645–0862–0 государственный университет, 2013
Contents

Предисловие 4

Module 1 Learning to learn


Unit 1 The way we learn 8
Unit 2 Study smart, not hard 15
Unit 3 Review 20

Module 2 What’s it like being a student in sciences?


Unit 4 Making choice can be hard work 24
Unit 5 There is so much to study in science 32
Unit 6 Review 39

Module 3 How to survive in the information age?


Unit 7 Information hunting 42
Unit 8 Treasure house 50
Unit 9 Review 59

Module 4 Evolution of natural sciences


Unit 10 Necessity is the mother of invention 62
UNIT 11 A giant leap 73
UNIT 12 Review 82

Module 5 Burning issues


Unit 13 Our home—Planet Earth 86
UNIT 14 The downside of the computer era 98
UNIT 15 Review 105

Module 6 The 20th century and beyond


Unit 16 Gaining on previous success 110
UNIT 17 Visions of the future 119
UNIT 18 Review 126

Module 7 On the job


Unit 19 Jobs for students 130
UNIT 20 The skillful me! 138
UNIT 21 Review 145
Scripts 148
Keys 161
Resources 178
Предисловие

У чебник academic english for students


in sciences предназначается для студентов
I–II курсов естественнонаучных специальностей
готовки специа­листов естественнонаучных направ­
лений. В свою очередь каждый модуль состоит из
трех уроков (Units). В первых двух уроках рассмат-
университетов. Его целью является формирование риваются раз­личные аспекты тематики модуля,
иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции, аде­ вводятся и закрепляются общие учебные стратегии
кватной как общим целям овладения английским и  определенный языковой материал, развивают-
языком как средством межкультурного общения, ся и  совершенствуются коммуникативные навыки.
личностного развития и самореализации, так и по­ В третьем уроке приводятся задания для проверки,
требностям рынка труда в специалистах, готовых осмысления и закрепления материала, пройденно-
к продолжению своего образования и профессио- го в первых двух уроках, а также задания для само-
нальной деятельности в иноязычной среде. стоятельную работу и проектные задания.
4 Одна из основных задач данного учебника — Типология разработанных заданий представле-
развитие академических компетенций и овладе- на следующими рубриками:
ние студентами общими учебными стратегиями  Lead-in включает задания, имеющие своей це-
в ходе изучения английского языка. Предлагаемая лью выяснить фоновые знания, мнения студен-
в учебнике система заданий соответственно ориен­ тов по обсуждаемой в каждом уроке тематике;
тирована: на создание условий для приобретения  Reading предлагает задания на развитие навы-
студентами опыта использования языковых знаний ков в  различных видах чтения, на извлечение
и  умений в различных ситуациях общения; фор- информации, понимание структуры, организа-
мирование навыков планирования учебной дея­ ции и содержания текста;
тельности; совершенствование навыков самосто-  Listening представляет собой аудиозаписи мо-
ятельной работы; развитие творческого подхода нологов и интервью академической направлен-
к решению учебных и профессиональных задач; ор- ности, сопровождающиеся заданиями, нацелен-
ганизацию и осуществление коллективной позна- ными на извлечение конкретной информации,
вательной деятельности; осуществление самоконт­ развитие навыков конспектирования, перера-
роля и оценки усвоения соответствующих знаний ботки и передачи информации на английском
и  умений; активное использование современных языке;
информационных технологий в учебной работе.  Focus on language акцентирует внимание на
Особый акцент делается на развитие базовых на- определенных грамматических аспектах, клю-
выков работы с информацией на английском языке: чевых словах и словосочетаниях из изученного
быст­рый поиск, оценка, выбор, обработка и пред- в разделе текста, включает задания на расшире-
ставление информации в различных формах и др. ние словарного запаса студентов;
 Discuss содержит вопросы, позволяющие вы-
Учебник состоит из семи модулей и раздела явить отношение студентов к прочитанному ма-
«Scripts», который включает текстовую основу ма- териалу и соотнести его с собственными знания-
териалов для аудирования, а также ключи к наибо- ми, интересами и имеющимся опытом;
лее трудным заданиям. В начале каждого модуля  Get real предполагает включение навыка поис-
сформулированы его учебные цели, что позволяет ка информации на интернет-сайтах, в условиях,
студентам получить более четкое представление максимально приближенных к ситуациям реаль-
о направленности предстоящей работы. ной учебной деятельности;
Все модули имеют определенную тематическую  Writing предлагает задания, развивающие на-

(академическую или профессиональную) направ- вык фиксирования информации на английском
ленность, разработанную с учетом требований под­- языке в различных письменных жанрах (состав-
ление плана, коротких заметок, конспектирова-  Useful sites to search содержит ссылки на ин-
ние, аннотирование, реферирование и т. п.); тернет-сайты, рекомендуемые для выполнения
 In the realm of science включает дополнитель- самостоя­тельной работы и заданий творческого
ный справочный материал, отражающий спе- характера.
цифику естественнонаучных специальностей
(общепринятые сокращения, математические Работая с материалами учебника, студенты по-
символы и т. д.); лучают также навык ведения Portfolio («языкового
 Role play предлагает задания с определенным портфеля») — пакета «документов, в  которых его
социально-ролевым статусом учащихся, что обладатель в течение длительного времени фик-
позволяет повысить их мотивацию к овладению сирует свои достижения и опыт в  овладении язы-
иностранным языком и создает обстановку пси- ком, полученные квалификации, а также отдельные
хологического комфорта; виды выполненных им работ» (Европейский языко- 5
 Project work включает проектные задания вой портфель, 1997).
проб­лемного, поискового, исследовательского Использование этой технологии, с  одной сто-
характера, в рамках которых создается есте­ роны, позволяет развивать в процессе изучения
ственная ситуация для широкого переноса иностранного языка способность студентов к це-
учебных стратегий и интеграции различных ви- леполаганию, умение анализировать и оценивать
дов иноязычного общения, необходимых для процесс собственного развития, с другой — яв-
решения реальной проблемы; ляется ин­струментом реализации прин­ципа авто-
 Each one teach one акцентирует внимание на номного изучения языка. Результаты выполнения
закреплении в рамках парной работы студентов творческих заданий, которые являются средством
навыка объяснять друг другу определенные ас- объективной самооценки для студента и объектив-
пекты языкового материала и применять их на ной оценки для преподавателя, отмечены значком
практике. и предполагают сохранение в языковом порт­феле
студента.
В учебник включены специальные рубрики: Учебник построен с использованием аутентич-
 Study help содержит полезные советы по ис- ных материалов, основными источниками которых
пользованию стратегий изучения иностранного являются британские и американские академи-
языка, а  также рациональные приемы работы ческие и научно-популярные издания, проспекты
над лексиче­ским и грамматическим материа- ведущих университетов англоязычных стран, сло-
лом; вари, энциклопедии, интернет-ресурсы. При под-
 Functional language демонстрирует речевые боре учебных материалов учитывались такие
клише, используемые для сообщения информа- характеристики, как новизна информации, ее по­
ции, побуждения к действию, выражения прось­ знавательность, соответствие учебным и профес-
бы, согласия/несогласия с мнением собеседника сиональным потребностям студентов и др. Модуль-
и прочее; ный характер построения учебника предоставляет
 Progress monitoring представляет задания, сти- возможность его гибкого использования с учетом
мулирующие рефлексивную самооценку про­ различных целевых установок и количества часов,
цесса изучения английского языка, позволяю- выделяемых на изучение курса.
щие студентам последовательно и адекватно
отслеживать свои учебные достижения, успеш- О. И. Сафроненко
ность продвижения в овладении иностранным К. С. Петросян
языком; С. Ю. Резникова
They know enough who know how to learn.
(Henry Brooks Adams, 1838–1918)

Learning to learn

Learning objectives
In this module you will:
 start developing good study skills
 talk about your ways of learning English
and effective learning techniques
 learn to organize information in a mind map
 start keeping a learner diary
 learn how to give advice
 revisit Present Tenses
Lead-in

Discuss the reasons people have to study the English language.

to improve their mother tongue


for interest
because it is fun
8
for future job
because parents want them to learn it
because it was a part of the school programme
because it is an international language
to improve the knowledge of the world

Think about the reason(s) why you learn the English language and finish the sentence:

to...
I learn English... because...
for...
Reading

Read these interviews with three people who were asked why they study English as
a foreign language. Complete the following chart.

Reason(s) Main focus of study Ways of learning

Antonio

Natasha

Christina

You
UNIT 1: The way we learn

Antonio:  Well, it will be necessary in Natasha:  I have studied English for 5 years. Christina:  Actually, English was a
my future job as a personal assistant. Honestly, I had many reasons. First, my part of my school programme, but
So, I do a course in English at an adult parents wanted me to learn it, then I got I wasn’t very much interested in it.
institution here in Madrid. I’ve been interested in movies and music, so I read a So now I am taking extra classes to
studying for three months here. lot of magazines. Finally, I want to travel and improve my skills, I would say. And,
Interviewer:  Which skills do you meet people. That’s why I mainly focus on um, I really enjoy it.
focus on? speaking now. Interviewer:  How do you study
Antonio:  I mainly need to practise Interviewer:  How do you learn it? Do you English?
speaking, writing and reading, of have any special methods? Christina:  I watch a lot of video,
course. All in all I’m doing quite well, Natasha:  I do a lot of conversations. I education programmes and films.
but I find the grammar difficult. I am mean I talk in English with friends and even They give me a real taste of the
not saying I hate it—I just don’t like to myself in the shower. Besides I learn a British people and their way of
doing the exercises. Though I think lot of new words. I believe fluent English life. Of course I don’t understand
you can’t really learn a language if is absolutely impossible with limited every word but I find it very useful
you don’t understand how it works. vocabulary, so I keep a vocabulary notebook. to watch and guess. Besides,
I mean, the way sentences are I think a good way to learn new words and I can stop or rewind the tape to
structured. The thing that annoys me phrases is write them on pieces of paper and listen again to the part I haven’t
most is that I’m always mixing verb stick them on the walls in my flat. Each time I understood or even to read the
forms. pass them by, I look at them and read. script.

Discuss  How do you learn a foreign language?  What way(s) of learning do you enjoy?
 What aspects of the language (e.  g.:  Which of them do you find easy/diffi-
grammar, vocabulary, …) do you find cult? 9
most important?

Focus on language
Read the sentences. What grammar tenses are used?
1)  I watch a lot of video, education programmes and films.
2)  I am taking extra classes to improve my skills.
3)  I have studied English for 5 years at school.
4)  I have been studying here for 3 months.

Present Tenses

We use the Present Simple to speak about permanent situations and routines.
We use the Present Progressive to describe activities that are happening at or around the time of speaking.
We use the Present Perfect for the event that started in the past and has been recently completed.
We use the Present Perfect Progressive to speak about activities that began in the past, continue to the
present and are still in the proces.
N o t e The verbs that describe states are not normally used in the Present Progressive tense,
e. g.: to like to remember to own to hear to consist
to enjoy to suppose to have to smell to include
e. g., I hate sitting in front of the class.
He doesn’t realize the responsibility he has put on his shoulders.
The verbs have, think, see and some others can be used in the Present Progressive tense but with
the different meaning,
e. g., I think I’d take Chemistry classes this semester. (opinion)
Kathy is thinking of getting another computer. (she is planning)
If a speaker wants to express anger, annoyance, complaint, etc. the Present Progressive with always
and constantly may be used,
e. g., Tony’s driving me crazy. He is always talking during classes.
Module 1:  Learning to learn

List time expressions under the correct tense heading. Some expressions can be used
more than once.
for every day still so far
since today just always
never now nowadays at the moment

Present Present Present Present


Simple Progressive Perfect Perfect Progressive
.............................................. .............................................. .............................................. ..............................................
.............................................. .............................................. .............................................. ..............................................
.............................................. .............................................. .............................................. ..............................................

Complete the sentences with the correct Present tenses.


1)  Mike is a student, but he (go, not) ......................... to school right now because it’s
summer. He (attend) ......................... college from September to May every year, but in
the summer he (have, usually) ......................... a job at the post office. In fact, he (work)
......................... there this summer.
10 2)  How many tests you (take) ......................... since the beginning of the semester?
3)  A: I am worried about Bob. He doesn’t go out to have fun or have a minute to chat.
B: Why?
A: He (study, always) ......................... something. At the moment he (do) .........................
an evening class in Spanish and (enroll, just) ........................ on an Information Technology
course.
4)  Jane (tutor, often) ......................... other students in her English class. This afternoon
she (help) ......................... Denny with his assignment because he (understand, not)
......................... the material they (work) ......................... on in their class this week.
5)  I’m trying to study. I (try) ......................... to study for the last hour, but something
always seems to interrupt me. I think I’d better go to the library.

Speaking

Complete the questionnaire. Tick () five most useful techniques for learning English.

useful useful

Listening to the tapes and repeating after them Doing translation exercises

Talking to native speakers  Writing letters

Practising dialogues with partners Chatting in the internet

Reading books and magazines in English Watching movies in English

Writing down and learning every new word Keeping a vocabulary notebook

Learning dialogues by heart Having classes with a private tutor

Making up sentences to learn new words Translating English songs


UNIT 1: The way we learn

Functional language
Work with a partner and discuss how you prefer
Giving explanations
learning foreign languages. Are you different? Make
use of the phrases in the Functional language box. I mainly need to practise…
The thing that annoys me most is…
I like/prefer/enjoy studying…
Listening Different people learn languages in different ways.
…is a major part of my learning English
Listen to six people talking about the ways they because…
learn English. Match the speakers with the types of
I try hard to…
language learners below.
The best way to learn a language
for me is…
a child-like
a risk taker a translator When I … I am trying to…
unconscious learner
As for … I want to…
a teacher I feel I need…
a systems person a reader
depender
Study help
Discuss  Which type of learner do you feel close to? There are no “ideal learners”. The
 What are your strengths in learning? important thing is to understand
what kind of learner you are, develop
 What are your weaknesses? How do you cope with your strengths and overcome your
them? weaknesses. Knowing your learning 11
style will help you to develop coping
 What do you think the qualities of a good language strategies to compensate for your
learner are? Work with a partner. Choose 5–10 weaknesses and capitalize on your
most important qualities from the list below and strengths. J
explain your choice:

 Do these qualities help a person in other studies?

Reading

Read the article on lifelong learning and


guess the meaning of the highlighted
phrases. Check as a class.

ep learning? Keep earning!”


Abridged and adapted from “Ke
by Michelle L. Casto
dent for life, start by

1 College is just the


learning journey. With
beginning of a lifelong
the rapid advancement
you
3 To become a stu
finding out how you lea
main ways of learning:
rn best. There are three
hearing (auditory learni
ng),
in economy and society, ) and doing (ki nes the tic
of technology, changes sty le if you wa nt seeing (visual learning typ e you pre fer ,
learning t sure which
must adapt an effective ear nin g is life lon g learning). If you are no dir ect ion s. If
life lon g e to be giv en
to succeed. The key to ask yourself how you lik told
learning. are an aud ito ry lea rner, you prefer to be
you
this path , strive always If you are a vis ual lea rne r,
1

1
embark on one’s path
вступать на путь

2 As you embark on
to be a student. Be
information, and be
ope n to new ideas and
able to adapt. These
are
how to get somewhere.
you prefer to be shown
learne r, you pre fer to
. If you
dri
are a kin est het
ve yourself there first.
ic

world of wo rk.
essential skills for the new
Module 1:  Learning to learn

t like
things every day.” Jus
gain wisdom, remove orm ation
h what you feed your a computer needs to del
ete files and inf
Also, be selective wit
4 brain. Remember the
garbage out.” The same
saying “garbage in,
holds true for the progra
ms that are no longer use
programs and informati
ful, you hav
on tha t no
e
lon
to dis
ger
car
ser
nec
ve
d old
you.
ess ary
itiv e, hea lth y and tant and what is
your brain uses. Only
put in pos Knowing what is impor nty of spa ce left
have ple
educat ion al pro gra ms .
t: to do will ensure that you
se proverb says it bes for learning the next new
thi ng .

5 An ancient Chine
“To gain knowledge, add
thing s eve ry day . To

Read the text again and answer the questions:

 What are the key skills in the world of work?


 What is the main purpose of lifelong learning? Michelle L. Casto

 What advice does the author give to students? Ph. D. is known as


the Soul Coach,
 What are the main learning styles mentioned in the article? Speaker, and
Author of the Get
 Why is it necessary to be selective while learning?
Smart! Learning
Book Series

Look back in the text and find words that have a similar meaning to:

12   fast (paragraph 1)  is valid (paragraph 4)


  to be successful (paragraph 1)  to get knowledge (paragraph 5)
  very important (paragraph 2)  remove (paragraph 5)
  do your best (paragraph 2)  a lot of (paragraph 5)
What way of learning do you prefer? How do you know?

Get real Carry out some self exploratory work. Choose one of the sites to read about learning styles.
Take the test on Learning Styles and find out your style and learning preferences. Report
back to class.
Useful sites to search:  www.ldpride.net/learningstyles.MI.htm
www.metamath.com/lsweb/fourls.htm

Speaking
Divide into groups according to your learning styles. Work out the strategies that will
help you to achieve good results in the English language learning. Discuss your strategies
in class.
Examples:
GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3
Visual learners Kinesthetic learners Auditory learners
When trying to remember Be directly engaged; move When studying by yourself,
things, close your eyes to get and act things out. talk out and read your notes
a “picture” or image of the and textbook out loud.
information to help recall.

Writing Copy thes mind map and complete it for yourself. Use this information to write a story
of your English language learning.
UNIT 1: The way we learn

3. Where..?
3. When..?
3. Why..? Study help
3. ..?
3. ..? 3. ..? Mind map (1)
2. Background 3. How long..?
Mind mapping is a good way to
2. Weak points organize ideas before writing.
• Write down the most important
1. My Language word or short phrase in the centre.
3. Strategies Learning Story • Post other important concepts and
3. ..? their words in the circles.
4. ..? 2. Future plans • Add other key words and ideas.
2. Strong points • As you expand your map, tend to
become more specific or detai­led.
3. Purpose … 3. ..? J
3. Strategies 3. I’m an auditory type
of learner so …

In the realm of language

While learning a language you come across some linguistic terms.


Vocabulary—all the words that a person Syllable—any of the units into which a word
knows or uses is divided, containing a vowel sound and
Dictionary—a book that gives words, their usually one or more consonants 13
meanings, or their equivalents in a foreign Sentence—a set of words expressing a
language statement, a question or an order, usually
Grammar—the rules in a language for containing a subject and a verb
changing the form of words and joining them Clause—a group of words that includes a
into sentences subject and a verb, and forms a part of a
Pronunciation—the way in which a sentence
particular word or sound is pronounced Prefix—a letter or group of letters added to
Stress—an extra force used when the beginning of a word to change its meaning
pronouncing a word or syllable Suffix—a letter or group of letters added to
Transcription—a written or printed copy of the end of a word to make another word
words that have been spoken Root—the part of a word that has the main
Spelling—the way that a particular word is meaning and that its other forms are based on
written Ending—the last part of a word, that is added
Intonation—the rise and fall of the voice in to a main part to make up a new grammar
speaking form

NB! Spelling, pronunciation and stress are extremely important in the English language, e. g.,
night — knight [naıt] — [naıt] ночь — рыцарь
to lead — lead [li:d] — [led] вести — свинец
sheep — ship [∫i:p] — [∫ıp] овца — корабль
to increase — increase [ıŋk´ris] — [´inkri:s] повышать — повышение

It is interesting to know
Parts of speech.
Tense is a form of a verb that shows
when something happens
Time is a category that is measured in
minutes, hours, days, etc.
Module 1:  Learning to learn

noun n a book, places books


verb v go, goes, is going, has gone, etc.
adjective adj interesting, helpful, etc.
adverb ad often, never, etc.
pronoun pron I, we, its, them, etc.
numeral num one, the first, etc.
infinitive inf to go (go), etc.
gerund g going, etc.
participle part going—gone, etc.
article art a (an), the
preposition prep to, on, in, with, without, etc.
conjunction conj and, but, or, etc.

Here are common symbols teachers use to correct students’ work.

sp spelling word missing art article


14 T tenses st style prep preposition
ww wrong word Sg Singular Gr grammar form
wo word order Pl Plural L layout

Progress monitoring
In this unit you have worked on the following vocabulary related to the topic “Ways of
learning”:
classroom discussion................................  to do a course in............................................................ 
to take/to make notes on.......................  to improve knowledge/skills..................................... 
to take exam in..........................................  to help with/to do an assignment............................ 
to keep a notebook...................................  to focus on...................................................................... 
learning style.............................................  self exploratory work................................................... 
to organize ideas.......................................  to take classes in (subject)/on (time)..................... 
to develop one’s strengths......................  to overcome one’s weaknesses................................... 
to cope with problems.............................  to achieve results.......................................................... 
to gain knowledge....................................  lifelong learning............................................................ 

Tick () the points you are confident about and cross () the ones you need to revise.
Lead-in  Are you satisfied with the results you achieved in different subjects at school?
 Do you think studying at a university is different from that at school? Why?/Why not?
 Work in groups of three or four and make a list of the factors that contribute to
effective learning (e. g., motivation, …).

Reading
How many English words that correspond to the Russian word цель do
you remember? Give as many equivalents as you can.

Read the text and write down the other equivalents for the word цель. 15

Think of a proper title for the text. Explain your choice. Paul Shearstone
International
Goals equal success—says Paul Shearstone in process that will help you to Keynote Speaker,
Author and
his article on goal setting. Studies have shown achieve your aims: Chronic Fatigue
that “only three percent of the population are • Express your goals Survivor, is one of
engaged in some form of goal setting and only positively. The more positive North America’s
one percent, on average, write them down. … instructions you give experts on Stress-
Reduction and
No wonder that one percent that writes goals yourself, the more positive Peak Performance
down are the richest people around the world.” results you will get.
Goal setting is a powerful technique that can • Avoid setting general or
improve all areas of your life. By deciding on unclear goals—put in dates, times and
your goals and targets you will know what you amounts.
want to achieve, what to concentrate on. In • Break big goals down into a number of small
your studies it will help you to organize your tasks.
resources. • Do not set goals too low or too high. It is
It’s good to have big goals—a vision of what important that you can achieve your goal
you want to achieve—and smaller objectives without losing motivation.
with exact time frames. By measuring their • When you have several goals, set priorities.
achievement, you will be able to see what • And most important of all: WRITE YOUR
you have done and what you are capable of. GOALS DOWN.
It will help you to move step-by-step towards “The difference between a goal and a dream is
your goal, at the same time improving your the written word.”—Gene Donohue.
self-confidence. But this is only possible if you
follow a few simple rules in your planning Adapted from:  list of internet sites used

Discuss  Are the rules described in the text easy to follow? Why/Why not?
 Which of them do you follow?
 According to Gene Donohue, what is the principal difference between a goal and
a dream?
Module 1:  Learning to learn

Focus on language Study help


Look through the text and write down all the verbs Mind map (2)
that go with the word goal to complete the word web. Mind maps may be a good solution
if you have a problem remembering
new items of vocabulary and word
collocations. They are usually called
set word webs. J

Draw a word web for the verb to improve. Use a dictionary if necessary.

Work in five teams. Each team completes word webs for the verbs achieve, set, organize,
get and lose using its own colour marker. The word webs are rotated every one minute,
and then the results are checked in class. The team that suggests more combinations than
the others is the winner.

16 Writing Rewrite the statement about learning English you made in Unit 1
Lead-in task, using the recommendations on goal setting.

Listening
Comment on the saying by an English writer William Hazlitt The more we William Hazlitt
do, the more we can do; the more busy we are, the more leisure we have. (1778–1830) was
an English writer,
Give the Russian equivalent to this saying. remembered for his
humanistic essays
and literary criticism,
Listen to Ann Cameron from the University of Minnesota Duluth talking and as a grammarian
about time management and write down basic time management and philosopher.
principles mentioned. Use the guide below:
Identify…
..........................................................................................................................................................
Use…
..........................................................................................................................................................
Study…
..........................................................................................................................................................
Make sure…
..........................................................................................................................................................
Make room for…
..........................................................................................................................................................
Have…
..........................................................................................................................................................
Try…
..........................................................................................................................................................

Discuss  Do you have enough time during a day to do all the assignments?
 What are your most productive time periods during a day?
 What are your top five time wasters?
 What are the strengths and weaknesses in your time management practices?
 Have you ever made daily, weekly or semester schedules?
UNIT 2:  Study smart, not hard

Get real Carry out some self exploratory work. Take the time management test to see where your
time goes and report results in class. Do the tasks on your own daily, weekly and semester
schedules. Choose the one you find the most significant and present it in class.
Useful sites to search:
www.studygs.net/timman.htm   www.ucc.vt.edu/stdysk/stdyhlp.html

Reading

Read the article


are effective
about effective
study habits
study habits.
Which of them No two people study the same way, and there is
little doubt that what works for one
person may not work for another. However, there are some general techniques
do you agree that seem to produce good results. Our reporter, Susan Keith, interviewed
with? Discuss some former students about their effective study habits.
them with
a partner. o v a, C ze c h R e p u blic
aH o ra `a k
E len I wish I had
is to approach
R o g e r B l ac k s to n e , U S A known ho easy it
w
a lot of time!
ed help. I wasted
a teacher if you ne out students who
need
Don’t be shy are willing to help 17
in class. Be an Professors usually lie ve yo u are
aggressive le f course if they be
it is your educ
ation and yo arner; some extra help—o t to learn.
doubt about
any directio ur money. If
you are in makin real effor
g a
professor. M ns, material
ost likely, yo or due dates
u are not the , ask your
class who d only student
oesn’t get it. in N a ta s h a Su rk o va , Ru ssia
I strongly
advise you to pl
failure. You mig an for a techno
ht be out of to logy
jam. Always ba ner, or the prin
ck up your wor ter might
paper the day k on another di
, It aly before, and ba sk. Print your
ni
e Testi ck up all your w
ork on
o ri n College a removable dr
C ive.
ty. You
is a matter of responsibili
you rse lf and you rself alone!
are responsible for , will
ne, such as your professor
Don’t expect that someo t tur ned in. Do n’t waste
haven’
ask about assignments you syll abi to
ping classes. Read your
your time or money skip to you r M a tt S c o ut, U K
of you. Talk
find out what’s expected
adviser. Avoid
studying just after your meals. Never
study within 30 minutes of going to sleep. If possible,
study no more than 30-40 minutes at a stretch. Many students achieve
better results by studying for short periods with breaks in between. Of
course it all depends on what you’re trying to study, but generally, take
a break after a period of study. I also recommend taking study
breaks away from your desk or wherever you are
S w e d en studying.
s t e n, I fo un d it very
rsh y and attend every
Ke l to study every da
e us efu time is the best
s ti n
’t we ll pr ep ared because class ng at. Even
i class even if I wa sn terial you’re worki
rif y and sort out the ma ss. Students
Kr

pr ac tis e, cla wh o is in cla


opportunity to ur pr of es sor will notice sor.
if attendance is no
t compuls or y, yo lp from the ofes pr
r cla ss are les s lik ely to get extra he ch an d
fo y tea
who don’t show up in the subjects the
sors are interested
Remember, profes nts that als o sh ow int er es t.
notice those stude Susan Keith
Reporter
are effective study habits?
Module 1:  Learning to learn

Focus on language Giving advice

Read the sentences, study the models in the box and To give advice we can use
make up sentences of your own. • imperative:
Express your goals positively.
Break big goals down into a number of small tasks. Do not set goals too low or too high.
You should be ready to modify your plans. Avoid setting general or unclear
goals.

Read Kathy Brown’s letter describing the problem • modals should or ought to:
she faces with her studies. In class discuss some You should be honest about how
recommendations you can give her. Use the models plans are going. (=You ought to be…)
from the Focus on Language. • had better—advice close to warning:
If you want other people really to
In high school I was able to get all or most of my
help you, you’d better inform them
work done without much of a problem. But here in in advance.
college, there’s so much material to read and absorb,
and papers and exams take longer to finish and study for • second conditionals:
that sometimes I feel like I can hardly keep my head If I were you, I would set priorities
above this pool of work. first.
—Kathy Brown
Speaking
18
Work in groups of three or four. Share your strategies in
foreign language learning. Report back to the class.
Example: Helen—when you are called on in class, say something,
even if it’s wrong: you’ll learn from it.

Writing Study help


Look at the mind map and discuss possible contents It is useful to keep a record of what you
for a learner diary. study. This might be a record for your
..? nobody work and a record for your feelings
..? ..? about the course. The latter will allow
Who sees it? ..? you to see whether you are making
your progress What to include? progress, what your difficulties are, as
my teacher well as formulate your objectives and
analyze your distractions. J
feelings about class activities
Learner diary
How often to write?
..? Why do it? ..?
..? every week

How would you like to organize your learner diary?

Think about what you have done in the last week in your English classes and write an
entry in your learner diary.

In the realm of science


Words of the Latin origin are widely used in many languages. English and Russian are not
the exceptions, e. g.: консенсус, кворум, P. S., quantum, etc.
 Think of some other Latin words used both in the Russian and English languages.
UNIT 2:  Study smart, not hard

 Here are some of the widely used Latin abbreviations and their Russian equivalents:
Abbreviation Latin Russian equivalent
A. C. Ante Christum до нашей эры
A. D. Anno Domini нашей эры
vs versus против
et al. et alii и другие
P. S. post scriptum постскриптум
etc. et cetera и так далее
i. e. id est то есть
p. m. post meridiem пополудни
NB nota bene обрати особое внимание
e. g. exempli gratia например
v. v vice versa наоборот
a. m. ante meridiem до полудня

 Many English words and word parts can be traced back to the Latin language. The
table below lists some common Latin roots. Add more words with the same root to
each group. 19
Latin root Basic meaning Example words
-dict- to say contradict, predict
-duc- to lead, bring, take deduce, reduce
-gress- to walk digress, transgress
-ject- to throw eject, project
-pel- to drive dispel, impel
-pend- to hang impend, pendulum
-port- to carry export, report
-scrib-, -script- to write subscribe, transcribe,
-tract- to pull, drag, draw contract, extract,
-vert- to turn divert, invert

Progress monitoring
In this unit you have worked on the following vocabulary related to the topic “Ways of
learning”:
to set/achieve/write down goals...............................  to set priorities......................................... 
to manage time...............................................................  study habits............................................... 
aim/target/objective....................................................  to plan for technology failure............... 
to be responsible for oneself........................................  to waste time............................................. 
to attend/miss/skip/show up for classes................  to keep a diary.......................................... 
to take study breaks......................................................  to keep records for................................... 
to ask for/give advice...................................................  to gain success in...................................... 
long-term goals..............................................................  to monitor progress................................. 

Tick () the points you are confident about and cross () the ones you need to revise.
Complete the paragraph with the appropriate Present tense form of the verbs in
brackets.
Discovering your learning style ......................... (be) an excellent way to learn about
yourself and the way you ......................... (absorb) information best. I ......................... (be)
glad I ......................... (complete) the Learning Style test because I ......................... (plan)
to use this knowledge of myself in the future.

Spot the odd word out. e.g. grammar learning


et cetera vocabulary self exploratory work
20 vs language teaching
that is pronunciation studies

Explain the similarity and difference between these pairs words:   mind—intelligence
  knowledge—skills
Read these sayings. Choose one or two that you agree or disagree with and discuss them
with a partner.

Think of your own learning experience and write down a list of recommendations how to
become a successful student.

Complete the sentences with the appropriate Latin abbreviation.


1)  We talked about learning styles, preferences, various leaning strategies,
......................... .  2) There are different types of language learners, ......................... , a teacher
depender, a risk taker, a child-like conscious learner, a translator, a reader and a systems
learner.  3) You can start with a multiple intelligence test and proceed to a  learning
style test or ......................... .  4)  If you want to succeed in your studies, you should
follow the key principles ......................... goal setting, time management and effective
study habits.  5) ......................... ! The course starting date is September 5.  6) Research
by Charles Babbage ......................... in the 19th century laid the cornerstone to the
development of modern computers.
UNIT 3:  Review

To increase your responsibility for the process of the


English language learning, complete and sign the
“Teacher-Student Contract”.

:: Teacher-Student Contract ::
A student ....................................................................................................... (name) on one part and an English
teacher ............................................................................................................... (name) on the other part agreed
to sign the following contract to show that we both understand and agree to the rules of the course.

:: The learner :: :: The teacher ::

I will: I will:
1. show other students in class as well as my teacher 1. show respect for my students;
the respect they deserve at all times; 2. be well prepared to teach class;
2. take personal responsibility for my own learning 3. try to make my lessons informative,
experience: stimulating, challenging and fun;
2.1. ................................................................................ 4. motivate my students in learning;
(attendance and classroom participation)
5. provide students with authentic materials,
................................................................................
handouts, etc.;
2.2. ................................................................................ 6. encourage my students talk in English;
(home assignments)
7. use a variety of modern language 21
2.3. ................................................................................ teaching methods;
(efficient revision)
8. evaluate students’ progress and let them
................................................................................ know the results;
2.4. ................................................................................ 9. be patient, understanding, encouraging,
(keeping portfolio/learner diary) sympathetic and kind;
2.5. ................................................................................ 10. begin and end the class on time;
(learning styles and learning strategies)
11. turn off my cell-phone or set it to vibrator
................................................................................ ring type during class time so as not to
3. keep a note-book and make notes in it during the distract my students or myself;
class; 12. . ...................................................................
(other)
4. always remember that computer problems,
. ...................................................................
including difficulties with my printer, lost or
unsaved documents, chronic absences and failure . ...................................................................
to participate in classroom activities will lower my
. ...................................................................
mark;
5. always have my textbook, other materials with me; . ...................................................................
6. turn off my cell-phone or set it to vibrator ring type . ...................................................................
during class time so as not to distract my classmates
or myself.

This contract is binding to both parties for the period of ....................................... to ........................................
This contract will be REVIEWED on the following date: ....................................................................................
Date signed: ................ / ................. / ...........................
Student Signature: ............................... Teacher Signature: ..............................

Each one teach one


Work in groups of two or three. Interview your fellow students about the ways a) they learn
new vocabulary, new grammar; b) they develop their speaking, writing, listening, reading
skills. Organise their ideas into a mind map. Report on the techniques most popular in
class.
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
Education is a companion which no misfortune can
depress, no crime can destroy, no enemy can alienate,
no despotism can enslave.
(Joseph Addison, 1672–1719)

What’s it like being


a student in sciences?

Learning objectives
In this module you will:
 learn how to deliver an oral presentation
 talk about universities, fields of study and
subject courses
 use key words for efficient reading
 organize and develop ideas into a paragraph
 learn how to fill in an application form
 revisit subject and verb agreement
Lead-in

Choosing the right place to study is a very personal decision that will have a lasting impact
on your life. To make your choice you have to answer a lot of questions. Think of a few
reasons that helped you to make up your mind.
university location
.................................................. ................................................... .................................................
fields of study
.................................................. ................................................... .................................................
.................................................. ................................................... .................................................

24
How did you get information about the university and faculty you study at: through
University Prospectus, University Open Days, from your friends, etc.?

Reading
Look through the
provides diverse
advertisement of opportunities for study and research within a
the University of broad subject range for students at all levels.
Birmingham. Take  Undergraduate courses allow students
notes under these to combine subjects of interest and will
headings. Internationally recognised among the train the skills necessary for future career.
world’s best universities, University of  Postgraduate programmes allow easy
a) Levels of study access to outstanding research facilities.
Birmingham enables and inspires
b) Fields of science It offers a wide range of postgraduate
individuals to develop their potential
research opportunities—research
c) Accommodation so that they grow intellectually and taught programmes, continuing
provided throughout life, are well equipped for professional development courses,
d) University structure work and can make an impact on distance learning programmes.
e) Number of students society. It increases knowledge and  It also offers different full and part time
and staff contributes to the advancement of its MBA programmes developed to meet the
application for the benefit of the world. needs of busy professionals.
f ) Facilities and services
g) Students life

выпускник
1
alumnus (pl. alumni) —
2 mentor — куратор, настав
ник

3 en suite facilities — здесь,
удобства
ьзо вания
индивидуального пол
UNIT 4:  Making choice can be hard work

Look through the text and write down all the words and phrases that correspond to the
following Russian words. Check the differences in their meanings in the dictionary. Make
up sentences of your own with these
words and phrases.

разный много несколько

Match words in A with the words in B to Look back in the text and find
make phrases used in the text. words and phrases that have
similar meaning.
1. develop A. collections
2. enhance B. skills influence advantage
3. support C. potential
4. train D. accommodation progress excellent
5. offer E. societies famous and important
6. reflect F. student life open to sb. of a higher level
7. increase G. interests 25
on campus
8.
9.
house
meet
H. needs
I. knowledge full curious

is proud of includes provides high


over 20,000 students from the UK and
 5 colleges—Arts and Law, Engineering and
 quality residential accommodation in student
4500 students from around the world Physical Sciences, Life and Environmental villages in single study-bedrooms with shared
Sciences, Medical and Dental Sciences, Social facilities, shared houses and three—to six—
6000 staff working in a range of academic,

Sciences—each of which is divided into several bedroom apartments with en suite facilities 3.
professional, technical roles
schools
a number of notable alumni 1 and
 an art gallery, geology museum and a beautiful

academic staff, including five Nobel Prize botanic garden, Barber Institute of Fine organizes and supports
winners Arts, Shakespeare Institute, Sculpture trail, more than 160 student groups and societies,

Ironbridge Gorge reflecting every taste and interest—from
libraries that house quite a few special
 hang gliding to rock music groups and
Adapted and abridged from the University of Birmingham website

collections of rare and contemporary books, symphony orchestra


journals, papers and musical references that are a packed calendar of various social events to

publicly accessible a variety of IT facilities that enhance student life
support learning
a variety of IT facilities that support learning

advanced support services network including

student mentors 2, advice and counselling,
What brings the
Birmingham
experience to life is a vibrant,
practical support if you have a disability
2 campuses with plenty of the small
 diverse learning community
town facilities—bars, shops, a hair salon, that is not just talented, but
launderette, concert hall, excellent sports constantly inquisitive
facilities and two banks. There is even a railway
station, just two stops from New Street.
Module 2:  What’s it like being a student in sciences?

Focus on language

Look at the entry for the word book from the English-Russian Dictionary. It will help you to
work with dictionaries more effectively.

Pronunciation in phonetic symbols Part of speech

Book [ buk ] n. 1. книга; 2. литературное произведение;


Translation
v. 1. записывать, регистрировать; 2. заносить в список; 3.
заказывать, бронировать места, продавать билеты (обыч-
но заранее); приглашать, договариваться
Information in brackets (…)
helps you to choose the adj. книжный, ~ learning — теоретические знания
right translation or shows
which country this word is
widely used in ~ means repeat the word

Identify what parts of speech the words in italics are.

 Pull down the blinds before you light the lamp.


 This bright light blinds my eyes.
26
The words below have more than one meaning. Use a dictionary to find out which part of
speech they are and what meanings they have. Write two sentences to illustrate different
meanings of every word.

Sentence 1 Sentence 2

book I’ve bought a new book. Have you already booked a room at a hotel?
train
might
last
course
honour
subject
degree
way

Get real Study the website and prospectus of your university. Then write your own advertisement
for university applicants. Use the University of Birmingham text as an example.

 University rank  University structure


 Levels of study  Location, facilities and services
 Fields of science  Number of students and staff
 Accommodation provided  Student's life activities
UNIT 4:  Making choice can be hard work

Listening

Before you listen, discuss the meaning of these words and phrases with a partner. Use a
dictionary if necessary.

compulsory — ....................................................................
subject area — ....................................................................
credit points — ....................................................................
module — ....................................................................
route of study — ....................................................................
optional — ....................................................................
unit of study — ....................................................................
subject — ....................................................................
end-of-module assessment — ....................................................................
elective — ....................................................................

Match the verbs in A 1. offer 1 0. develop A. a course


with the words and 2. suit 11. pass B. a qualification
phrases in B to make C. credit points
word combinations
3. transfer 12. broaden 27
related to education. 4. cover 13. monitor D. one’s interest
Translate them into 5. specify E. progress
your native language. 6. gain F. a route of study
Some words are used
7. design G. an opportunity
more than once.
8. take H. skills
9. provide I. modules/subjects

Listen to James Couzin, Education Consultant at “Universities UK” speaking on the new
modular schemes. Complete the notes.
Description
A modular course is made up of ________________________________________________________
Course organisation
1. A full-time programme will require _________________________________________ each year.
2. Students have to take a number of __________________________________________ or “core”
modules from a list of __________________________________________ within the specialist
area or in an associated field.
3. A number of _____________ modules are available. They focus on ________________________
Advantages
1. Flexibility: ____________________________________________________________________
2. Easier to monitor the progress through ______________________________________________
Disadvantages
1. _____________________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________________
Questions
1. What is CAT? __________________________________________________________________
2. Where can I study a modular course?_________________________________________________

Adapted from The HERO.ac.uk site


Module 2:  What’s it like being a student in sciences?

Reading Read the interview by Helen Joyce from Plus Magazine with Emily Dixon, a third-year
mathematics student at Oxford, and answer the questions below.

two weeks at A level in one lecture maybe, or even


less. Suddenly I had to come to terms with the concept
of lectures and structuring my own work schedule and
Emily, how did you choose to take doing my tutorial! The first time I was thinking: “I haven't
the course of maths? done everything right. I don't know what to do, the tutor's
When it came to choosing A Levels, going to kill me!”But they're there to help you through it.
Emily Dixon There are some people who can just look at a problem
I wasn’t quite sure which route I wanted to
take. I knew I definitely wanted to do maths, just because sheet and do it. I am not one of those people! But with
it was a subject I was good at, and it interested me enough work, it generally makes sense.
more than most subjects. My teacher was very good at How long are you going to study?
encouraging me to go beyond the scope of the syllabus For four years.
and we went to lectures in London and at the University of But you don’t have to do a fourth year. Three will give
Cambridge. So I knew I only got a very small glimpse of you a B.A.
what maths was about at school. It changes dramatically Right. However, the fourth year gives you M.Math.
when you get to university. For the three-year course you have to do a paper in
So, it was easy for you to choose a university, wasn’t something outside maths and for the four-year you really
it? just do maths.
Well, as I had high grades, I was advised to consider Well, have you decided on your future career yet?
Oxford or Cambridge. But I had lived in Cambridge I’m still undecided. There are so many things you can do
28 all my life, so I wanted a change and I didn’t want my with maths—but definitely not a research mathematician.
parents checking up on me every five seconds! That’s why I don’t think I’m good enough. I think a Masters degree
I considered various universities, but in the end I set my is as far as my maths is capable of taking me.
sights on Oxford, choosing to apply to St John’s College.
Adapted and abridged from
Did you have to do exams? http://plus.maths.org/issue28/interview/index.html
Yes, I needed to achieve three A grades out of four, two
of which had to be in maths and further maths. I also went
for an interview at the college.  What reasons did Emily have for choosing
Oxford University?
So you were offered place and started the college.
Yeap, I found my first term at university something of  Why did she decide on the course in
a shock to the system. mathematics?
What do you mean?  How long is the course?
A level maths was the sort of maths I could do; it didn't
take too much hard work. And some lecture courses  How do studies at college differ from studies
start where A level left off. But you do what took you at school?
 What qualification will she get?
Writing  What is Emily planning to do in future?

Application forms mostly ask for information rather than ask questions. Match a line in A
with a question in B.
1. First name A. Where are you living at the moment?
2. Surname B. Are you married or single?
3. Date of birth C. Where were you born?
4. Country of origin D. What’s your surname?
5. Present address E. Where do you live?
6. Permanent address F. What do you do?
7. Marital status G. When were you born?
8. Occupation H. How much do you earn?
9. Annual income I. What’s your first name?
UNIT 4:  Making choice can be hard work

Fill in the application form for admission. Write in block capitals. Put N/A if the information
is not applicable.

Application Form
for admission as an undegraduate student

1. Personal information
Title......................................................................................................................................................Mr/Mrs/Miss
Surname..................................................................................................................................................................
First Name(s)...........................................................................................................................................................
Date of birth (use figures only): date...................................../month/............................................................ /year/
Place of birth........................................................................ Citizenship..................................................................
Home address: street and house..............................................................................................................................
city........................................................country......................................................... postcode................................
Telephone (country, area code/phone number) /............/.......................................................................................
E-mail......................................................................................................................................................................
Mailing address (if different from home address).....................................................................................................
. ..............................................................................................................................................................................
29
2. Preferred field of study
First choice........................................................................................................................................................
Second choice...................................................................................................................................................

3. University entrance qualifications


Type (gymnasia, lyceum, comprehensive school, vocational school, technical school)..............................................
. ..............................................................................................................................................................................
Date of completion..................................................................................................................................................
Average grade (not necessary for foreign certificates)...............................................................................................

4. Professional training/practical training (please include references)


Professional qualification.........................................................................................................................................
Duration of training from....................................................... until............................................................................

5. Professional experience after training and/or other working experience (for more than 8 weeks, include references)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................

6. University/college previously attended (if you have previously been registered as a full-time student at a university/college,
please supply all information)
Institution................................................................................................................................................................
Qualifications completed/being studied...................................................................................................................
Field of study...........................................................................................................................................................
Dates.......................................................................................................................................................................

Date...........................................................    Signature....................................................
Module 2:  What’s it like being a student in sciences?

Role play Study help


Work in pairs. One of you is a Russian school-leaver, the Make use of every opportunity you
get to practice speaking in class.
other represents a European University. You both meet
Role-plays help you to prepare for a
at the Forum of Education Opportunities held in the real-world experience. J
school-leaver’s hometown.
Student A
You are a school-leaver. You would like to apply • Ask about the length of study and
for the course in … at one of the European Universities. qualifications that are awarded.
Talk to the university representative. • Ask about the tuition fee and university facilities.
• Introduce yourself and start a conversation. • Ask for the application form to fill in.
• Say what field of study you are interested in. • Thank the representative for his/her help.
Students B
You represent one of the European Universities. • Ask if he/she is interested in a single or
Talk to a school-leaver who wants to apply for one of joint degree course. Answer all the questions and
the courses at your university. offer the University Prospectus.
• Offer your help. • Give some advice on how to fill in an application
• Tell about the courses available in the chosen field form correctly. Say when the admission deadline is.
and give a detailed information on the courses. • Express hope that you meet the school-leaver at
the university next year.
30
In the realm of science
In education, as well as in many other spheres of our life, there are a great number
of abbreviations. Read and remember the abbreviations to do with the degree titles, e. g.
BS stands for Bachelor of Science. Do all of them have Russian equivalents?
Abbreviations and degree titles Russian equivalents

A.S. Associate of Science (USA)


A.A. Associate of Arts (USA)
A.A.S. Associate of Applied Science (USA)
BS Bachelor of Science
BA Bachelor of Arts
MS Master of Science
MA Master of Arts
M.Math 1
Master of Mathematics
M.Eng. 1
Master of Engineering
MPhil 2 Master of Philosophy (UK)
1
professional
(taught) degree MBA Master of Business Administration
2 research degree PhD Doctor of Philosophy

3
a university Hons 3
Honours
course that is of
a higher level HND Higher National Diploma (UK)
than a basic HNС Higher National Certificate (UK)
course
FdA Foundations degree in Arts
FdSc Foundations degree in Sciences

What degrees are awarded in Russian universities?


UNIT 4:  Making choice can be hard work

Read and remember some of the terms describing academic positions.


a teacher—someone who teaches, especially Faculty—(NAmE) all the teachers of
someome whose job is teaching, usually in a a particular university or college
school a visiting professor—someone who has
a tutor—(BrE) someone who gives lessons to a job at one school but works at another for
an individual student or a very small group; a period of time
(NAmE) an assistant lecturer in a college an adjunct professor—someone who is on
a lecturer—(especially in Britain) someone a part-time position to do research or teach
who teaches at a university or college classes
a professor—(especially BrE) a university Professor Emeritus—someone with a title
teacher of the highest rank showing that the person, usually a university
a full professor—(NAmE) a rank of teacher, keeps the title as an honour, although
university teacher, and not a title he or she has stopped working
an associate professor—(in the US and an instructor—someone who teaches sb
Canada) a teacher at a college or university a practical skill or sport; (NAmE) a teacher
who has a rank just below the rank of a below the rank of assistant professor at a
professor college or university
a coach—someone who trains a person or
an assistant professor—(in the US and
team in sport, and helps them to improve
Canada) a teacher at a college or university
their skills
who has a rank just below the rank of an
associate professor a trainer—someone who trains people in the
skills they need to do a job 31
Staff—(BrE) all the workers employed in an
organization considered as a group an educator—someone who teaches in
a school, college, or university and who is
teaching staff;
an expert in the theories and methods of
(NAmE) the people who work at a school,
education
college or university, but who do not teach
students (Longman Language Activator)

Progress monitoring

In this unit you have worked on the vocabulary related to the topic “Higher education”:
undergraduate/postgraduate programme................  to choose a field of study...................... 
to provide accommodation..........................................  to combine subjects............................... 
to be well equipped for/with.......................................  to do a course/a paper/exams............. 
to support societies/groups/learning.......................  to apply to a college............................... 
different/various/a variery of/a wide range of.......  to monitor one’s progress..................... 
to design a programme of study..................................  a modular course.................................... 
to receive marks/credit points....................................  compulsory/optional subjects............ 
to pass “core”/“elective” modules..............................  to take a course/a route of study....... 

Tick () the points you are confident about and cross () the ones you need to revise.
Lead-in

Look at the diagram of the natural sciences and their terms. Work in teams and add four
more terms of your own that go with the particular science.

number integral family cell

Mathematics Biology

32

software algorithm atom matter

Computer Natural Sciences Physics


science

acid substance volcano rocks

Chemistry Geology

Functional language
Look at the definition of biochemistry below. Work
Giving definitions
with a partner. Give a definition of your field of study
using the verbs from the Functional language box. …is a science / study of…
Example: Biochemistry examines the structure …studies / examines / investigates/etc. …
and function of living organisms at the …describes / deals with / determines /etc. …
molecular level. …uses / analyses / focuses on / etc. …

Reading Look through the definitions of some natural sciences dealing with environmental issues.
Match the definitions with the right titles of sciences below. Mark the key words in each
definition that helped you to make the right guesses. A is done as an example.
UNIT 5:  There is so much to study in science

Pollution Science
A.  ______________________ is concerned with the health of our Study help
environment and the significance of pollution. It focuses around our
ability to improve our understanding of the effects of pollution on Choosing techniques appropriate for
plants and animals and to develop early warning markers of organisms, your reading goals can save you time.
population, or environmental health.
Here are some reading techniques
B.  ______________________ uses a high level of mathematical you may find helpful for reading
technique for the description and analysis of complex environmental efficiently—quickly and with good
systems. It needs complicated statistical methods in the design of understanding.
experiments and interpretation of measurements in the monitoring • Guessing the new words
of the environment… • Using a dictionary for new words
C.  ______________________ uses scientific background to the • Highlighting repeated or
processes which affect the environment and its management as well as paraphrased key words. J
considering the social, legal and policy implications of environmental
issues.
D.  ______________________ is the scientific study of chemical and
A
Pollution Science.................................
biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. It deals with Ecology.....................................................
the behaviour of both natural and man-made substances in relation
to atmospheric, aquatic and terrestrial environment. Environmental Management........
E.  ______________________ is the science of the relationship Environmental Chemistry...............
between organisms and their environments. It is the study of harmful Environmental Mathematics.........
effects of modern civilization on the environment, with a view toward
prevention or reversal through conservation. Adapted from:  Lancaster University Undergraduate 33
Prospectus Entry 2005

Writing Write the definition of your field of study. Pay attention to the key words you use.

Listening
Work with a partner. Choose the correct explanation of the words and phrases below. Use
a dictionary if necessary.

1. If something is hands-on it is 6. If you hesitate you feel


a) theoretical a) brave
b) practical b) unhappy
c) both c) uncertain
2. If something is promising it 7. If you have a doubt about something
a) is bad and useless you
b) is unknown a) feel scared
c) shows potential b) hesitate
3. If something captivated you it was c) feel angry
a) dead boring 8. If you decide to broaden your knowledge
b) fascinating and attractive of a subject you
c) absolutely new to you a) forget about it
4. If something is familiar to you it is b) think about it a lot
a) well-known c) learn more about it
b) strange 9. If you are inquisitive you
c) clear a) are talented
5. If it is a procedure of something it is b) are imaginative
a) a process or method c) want to know more about people
b) a rule or things
c) an explanation
Module 2:  What’s it like being a student in sciences?

Listen to John, Paul and July telling how they


got interested in science.
Tick () the correct piece of information
about them.

Who…? Paul John July

• got interested by educational TV programmes


• loved reading science fiction books
• was encouraged by their parents
• is fond of experimenting
• is going to become a research scientist
• has a particular career in mind
• hasn’t decided yet what to do in the future

Listen again and answer the questions.


 Are they all happy with their choice of specialization?
34  Why can interest in science mean a future full of choices?
 What are the possible disadvantages of being a research scientist?

Speaking
Work with a partner, ask each other the questions below.
 Are you happy with the choice of your subject area? Why?/Why not?
 How did you get interested in it?
 What are your plans for the future? Do you have any particular career in mind?
 Would you like to become a research scientist? Why?/Why not?
 What else except for an inquisitive mind one should have to be a research scientist?
 Do you agree that successful scientists are born rather than made? Why?/Why not?

Writing Write a paragraph about your partner’s Study help


choice of the subject area using his/her
A paragraph is a group of related sentences that
answers to the questions above and the
develop an idea.
information in the Study help box as
In a paragraph there is usually one idea that is more
the guidelines to help you to organise important than all the others and it is commonly found
your ideas and develop a good piece of at the beginning.
writing. The main idea is supported by major details that grow
out of it. And there are also minor details that grow
Reading out of the major ones, i.  e. examples, explanations,
additional information, etc.

You are going to read the text about the When you write, try to join your ideas with the linking
words and phrases, e.  g. first of all, moreover, besides,
Combined Science (Natural Sciences) finally, actually, in any case. When you have finished,
course. Work with a partner and make re-read and check your work. J
a list of subjects that you think are
included into the curriculum.
UNIT 5:  There is so much to study in science

Read the description of the Combined Science degree course offered


in Lancaster University in the UK and check the predictions you have
made. Guess the meaning of the highlighted words. Check as a class.

T he Combined Science degree, which includes Natural


Sciences, is founded on Lancaster̓s tradition of
wide choice provided by this degree well suited to their
needs.
flexibility and forward thinking. Following current
interest in a broader, less specialized education we have
brought together 25 departments offering 56 different
T he programme of study is broad, but care has
been taken not to sacrifice academic excellence.
Depending on the degree course students study up
courses from which you can take a degree adapted to to three subjects in the first year and then major in
your personal requirements. The scheme cuts through an acceptable combination of these subjects. In the
the conventional barriers between subjects, allowing second and third years students take course units in
combinations not only between the sciences, but also each chosen subject. One of these may be a non-science
between the sciences and the humanities or social subject. In each subject there is a Combined Science
sciences. tutor who advises students on their course choice.

M ost science degrees require a specialized study


of a single subject even though the majority of
science graduates eventually follow careers which
T he Natural Sciences option is available to those
who wish to take at least two natural sciences.
They are biological sciences, chemistry, environmental
would be better served by a broader, less specialized science, mathematics and physics.
education providing relevant experience in, for example,
management, languages or social sciences. T he University is planning to offer schemes called
Technology, People and Business for those wishing

O ur Combined Science degree is intended for those


who have a particular career in mind (for example,
scientific journalism/information technology and
to specialize in the applied science area.

A bout one-third of the first year and of the


final degree (second and third years) is based on
35
medical or research management). It provides a means coursework, including essay, tutorial, laboratory and
of choosing those skills and disciplines which will project work. A number of our graduates have taken
assist such ambitions. In particular, mature students up PhD studies, teaching diplomas, and MS’s courses in
who wish to advance an established career will find the addition to employment in a wide range of areas.

:: F i r s t y e a r ::

Biological Sciences   Computer Science  Engineering  Environmental Science  Geography


Mathematics   Chemistry  Physics  Information and Communications Technology

:: S e c o n d a n d t h i r d y e a r s ::

:: Science subjects :: :: Non-science subjects :: :: Introductory courses ::

Biological Sciences: cell biology,


microbiology, ecology, biomedicine,
Linguistics
genetics, physiology, environmental
biology, biochemistry Management: operations
Adapted from Lancaster University Undergraduate Prospectus Entry 2005

management, operational research


Computing
Marketing biology, a selection of topics
Engineering: electronic
engineering, mechanical engineering Philosophy Basic German
Environmental Science: Sociology Basic Italian
environmental chemistry, Media, Film and Cultural Studies Basic Spanish
environmental science, Earth and Modern Languages: French Studies, History of science
environmental science German Studies, Italian Studies,
Philosophy sociology
Physics: properties of matter, Spanish Studies
particles and the cosmos Physics, basic
Politics: international politics
Mathematics: discrete mathematics, and security, political analysis, Environmental science
statistical mathematics international politics, third world a selection of topics
Geography: physical geography, issues
human geography, environmental Education: education & society,
geography teaching and learning
Information and Communications History of Science
Technology
Module 2:  What’s it like being a student in sciences?

Read the text again and answer the questions.


 How many departments are involved in training students in the Combined Science
course?
 Who may find this course most attractive?
 Does the combined course provide any particular career opportunities? What are
they?
 How many natural science subjects can a student take?
 Who can help students to make the right choice of the subjects?

Match each item on the left with an item on the right


Study help
to make a phrase commonly used in English. Use
We remember new words much more
prepositions where necessary. easily if we think about them in
relation to our own experience and if
specialized / current / wide / personal / barriers / they have some personal meaning for
a wide range / programme / provide / academic / us. J
forward / mature

of
36 study / requirements / subjects / excellence /
betwee choice / education / student / thinking /
n
interest / a means of / areas

Focus on language
Subject and verb agreement
Read the sentences 1. Singular expression (a lot of) + plural noun/pronoun + plural verb
below and study the One of
models in the box. 2. Each of + plural noun + singular verb
Translate them into Every one of
your native language. 3. some of + singular noun + singular verb
4. some of + plural noun + plural verb
1) About one-third of
the first year is based names of quantities
5. Plural expressions: plural names of countries/sciences + singular verb
on course work.
more than one + singular noun
2)  A number of our
6. a number of + plural noun + plural verb
graduates have taken
up PhD studies. 7. the number of + plural noun + singular verb

Choose the correct verb in brackets.

1) Surveys show that the majority of school-leavers (consider/considers) a university degree


a good starting point for their future career. 2) Each of the students (has/have) a notebook.
3) Of our recent graduates about half (is/are) continuing their studies for a higher degree.
4) Why (was/were) some of the students absent from classes? 5) My teenage brother thinks
there (is/are) a number of good reasons for staying up late and having a good time. 6) More
than one computer in this lab (has/have) broken down. 7)  Statistics (is/are) a  branch of
mathematics.
UNIT 5:  There is so much to study in science

Speaking
Work in groups. Use the scheme of the degree course in Combined Science offered in
Lancaster University as a model. Discuss it and design a modular degree course that suits
your particular needs and interests.

Get real Visit a website of any European or American Study help


university to learn more about modular courses Preparing
and giving a short talk
in your subject area. How would you structure
a degree course in Combined Science? Prepare • Find some information on the topic you
a short talk. are going to talk about.
• Check that the information is all correct.

Writing • Make notes on the subject of your talk


and organize the information.
• Have a strong opening and close.
Write two or three paragraphs of about 150
• Make it interesting.
words to describe a Modular Course in Combined
• Keep your sentences short and simple.
Science you would like to take. Use the guidelines
to organize your ideas. • Make sure you pause in the right places.
• Speak for your audience, not for yourself.
 describe the course you would like to take • Do not read! It’s really boring.
 give reasons for your choice • Point to the relevant parts of the visual as 37
 specify the advantages of the course for you speak.
your future career • Say Thank you and welcome questions
from your audience.
In pairs exchange and check the paragraphs you • Handle questions positively.  J
have written. Which science is most popular with
your academic group?
It is interesting to know

In the realm of science


The figure “0” has several different
names.
Read the expressions for fractions, decimals and “o” [əυ] is used to talk about bank
percentages. accounts, telephone numbers, etc.
one half, a half nought point seven Nought is used in British English to
1
/2 0.75 talk about a number, age, etc.
five
1
/3 one third twenty-five point Nil is used to talk about the score in a
25.34 three four team game or to mean “nothing at all”.
2
/3 two thirds
one percent Zero is used in precise scientific,
four sevenths 1%
4
/7 economic, etc. contexts and to talk
seventy eight about temperature.
3 1/4 three and a quarter 78% percent NB! In American English “zero” is
nought point two ninety percent
0.2 (zero) point two 90% used in all contexts.

Read aloud the following numbers: 13 30 307 69 145 90 850 615 1,520 5,000
100,000 5,000,000 When do we say and ?
Practise the following dates:
1995 nineteen ninety-five 2007 (BrE) two thousand and seven (twenty hundred and seven)
2000 (the year) two thousand (NAmE) two thousand seven
2025 twenty twenty-five
Module 2:  What’s it like being a student in sciences?

Use ordinal numbers for dates


15th December 2012 (BrE) the fifteenth of December 2012 or 15/12/12
December 15th, 2012 (NAmE) December the fifteenth 2012 or 12/15/12

How do you say these dates?

There are different ways of saying the time.


Words past (or in American English 7:05 — five past seven 7:15 — quarter past seven
after) and to (or in American English 7:30 — half past seven 7:45 — quarter to eight
of) are used in spoken English: 7:55 — five to eight 8:00 — eight o’clock

Sometimes you can use the figures 7:05 — seven oh five 7:15 — seven fifteen
in order you see them: 7:30 — seven thirty 7:45 — seven forty-five
7:55 — seven fifty-five 8:00 — eight a.m./p.m.

38 To talk about travel timetables the 19:15 — nineteen fifteen


24-hour clock is used: 22:35 — twenty-two thirty-five

How do you say the time?

Progress monitoring

In this unit you have worked on the vocabulary related to the topic “Higher education”:
to make a career in science...........  to specialize in natural/social sciences............................. 
current interest in something......  to have a particular career in mind.................................... 
research scientist............................  to study/understand/examine natural phenomena...... 
a combined science course...........  barriers/combinations between sciences......................... 
a hands-on science.........................  a coursework/laboratory work/project work................. 
an applied science area..................  to provide relevant experience........................................... 
to decide on something.................  to have an inquisitive mind................................................. 
to suit somebody’s needs..............  lab procedures/equipment.................................................. 

Tick () the points you are confident about and cross () the ones you need to revise.
Complete the sentences with your own words. Use only present tenses. Pay attention to
the subject-verb agreement.
A great number of first-year students…
One of my teachers…
A lot of universities… The number of books on this subject…
Each of the students…
The United Arabic Emirates… Some of the information… Mathematics…

Explain the similarity and difference compulsory subject — optional subject


between these expressions. undergraduate course — graduate course 39
sciences — humanities

Spot the odd word out. lecture compulsory essay


tutorial elective assessment
laboratory work undergraduate coursework
subject optional examination

Complete the definitions of sciences below with the key words from the box.

displacement / mass / structure / quantity / physical features / energy /


properties / applying / living organisms / systems / condition / machines /
inhabitants / force / implement / utilizing / behaviour / earth / function /
structure / evolution / effect / pattern / dynamics / matter / origin /
liquid / realize / space / axioms / react / history

1) Physics is the natural science which examines basic concepts such as ......................... ,
charge, ......................... and its motion and all that derives from these, such as
......................... , ......................... , and space-time.  2) Chemistry is the science concerned
with the composition, ......................... , and ......................... of matter and substances,
how they ......................... when combined or in contact with one another, and how
they behave under different ......................... .  3) Biology is the science that studies
......................... , their structure, ......................... , growth, ......................... , ......................... ,
distribution and classification. 4) Geography is the study of the ......................... and its
lands, ......................... , divisions and phenomena, ......................... and products. 5) Geology
deals with the solid and ......................... matter that constitutes the Earth. It studies
composition, ......................... , physical properties, ......................... , and ......................... of
Earth materials, and the processes by which they are formed, moved and changed.
Module 2:  What’s it like being a student in sciences?

6) Mathematics is the study of ......................... , structure, ......................... , change,


and related topics of ......................... and form. It formulates new assumptions and
establishes their truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen .........................
and definitions. 7) Mechanics is concerned with the ......................... of physical bodies
when subjected to forces or .........................  , and the subsequent ......................... of the
bodies on their environment. 8) Engineering is an activity of ......................... scientific
knowledge and ......................... natural laws and physical resources in order to design
and ......................... materials, structures, .........................  , devices, .........................  , and
processes, that safely ......................... a desired objective.

Read these sayings. Choose one or two that you agree or disagree with and discuss them
with a partner.
Genius without education is like silver in the mine. (Benjamin Franklin)
The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet.
Education is what remains when we have (Aristotle)
forgotten all that we have been taught.
(George Savile, Marquis of Halifax)
40
Match the numbers on the left with the correct description on the right.

0.25 1 205 886 4539 89% a telephone number / a fraction / a date /


23/4/2006 £ 95.99 1/4 a percentage / a decimal / a price

Role play Student A


Your friend in the UK has just finished school. You • if he/she is interested in a single or joint
talk to your friend about his/her choice of a college/ degree course
university. Comment on your friend’s news and find out: • what career he/she has got in mind
• what college/university your friend is going to • how long the course of study is and what degrees
study at are awarded
• why he/she decided to choose this college/ • how much the tuition fee is and what facilities the
university university offers.
• how he/she got enrolled in the college/university
Student B
You have recently finished secondary school. Your • if you are interested in a single or joint degree
friend from Russia asks you about your choice of a course
college/university. Talk to your friend and tell him/her • if you have a particular career in mind
• about a college/university you are going to study at • about the length of study and degrees that are
• why you decided to choose this college/university awarded at your university
• how you got enrolled in the college/university • about the tuition fee and the university facilities.

Each one teach one

Write down a short vocabulary list (ten items) on the topic “Higher education”. Work with
a partner and compare your lists. Cross out the items you both have on your lists. Explain
the meaning of the rest of the words and phrases.
Information cannot replace education.
(Earl Kiole)

How to survive
in the information age?

Learning objectives
In this module you will:
 practise information search skills
 talk about various sources of information
and ways of information hunting
 read to identify main points
 make use of sequence words
 learn how to give instructions
 revisit Passive structures
Lead-in

Do you know what the word literacy means? Look up this word in a dictionary if
necessary.

Complete the definition below with the words from the box.
develop,
Literacy is an individual’s ability to ......................... , ......................... , and write,
......................... in a native language, and ......................... and ......................... achieve,
problems at the levels necessary to effectively ......................... on the job function,
and in society to ......................... one’s goals, and ......................... one’s read, solv
42 e,
knowledge and potential. speak,
compute
Reading

Work in groups of two or three. Within one minute make a list of verbs describing what
you can do with information, e. g. extract information. Compare your lists as a class.

With a partner check the difference between the words browse, navigate and search. Use
a dictionary if necessary.

Read the text and take notes of the main points. Make use of the Study help box. Guess
the meaning of the highlighted words. Check them as a class.

As society changes, the skills


necessary to solve life problems
also change.

In the early 1900s, a person who had simple reading, writing,


and calculating skills was considered literate. To achieve success in the 21st
century, people also need a thorough understanding of information in all its
forms.
Accessing information has become increasingly important because
databases which previously only library specialists could have access to are
now available to students and other people directly. Browsing, searching and
navigating online have become essential skills for all students. They need to be
familiar with organizational systems, such as cataloging, abstracting, indexing,
Adapted from:
rating, because information is located in various sources across the globe.
www.ncrel.org/engauge/ Imagine a student who is asked to prepare a presentation based on
skills/basiclit.htm information from the Web. That student can access vast quantities of information
UNIT 7:  Information hunting

Study help
without a lot of understanding, because search engines make accessing
information very simple. To use this amount of information effectively To better understand the text you are
requires such skills as evaluating and synthesizing information from reading take notes from it.
a variety of sources. Furthermore, as students access electronic resources, • Read the text and focus on general
it is critical that they recognize the importance of the intellectual property understanding.
of others by adhering1 to copyright laws. • Review the text and locate/num-
So, by information literacy is meant the ability to evaluate information ber the main ideas in the margins.
across a range of media; recognize when information is needed; locate, • Underline the important sub-
synthesize, and use information effectively; accomplish these functions points and examples of the main
using technology, communication networks, and electronic resources. ideas.
Educators all over the world are concerned with the amount of • Highlight unfamiliar definitions
information today’s learners have access to and need to cope with. To and vocabulary.
make this process less complicated they suggested an algorithm for solving • Now take notes from the text but
information problems. It allows the learners to make effective search and don’t copy directly.
accurate evaluation of sources.  • Try to write or speak in your own
words. At the same time don’t
астные базы данных
1 proprietary databases—ч forget to use new words you have
adhere—здесь: придер
живаться чего-либо learnt. J

Discuss  Do you think you are information literate?


 Why do educators today address the issue of information literacy? 43
 Why do you think the 21st century is called the Information age?
 What other types of literacy do you think an educated person should have
nowadays?

Writing Refer back to the definition of information literacy in the text and with a partner write
down the steps of the algorithm for solving an information problems. Check as a class.

a)  determine what you know and what is needed for problem solving
..........................................................................................................................................................
b)
..........................................................................................................................................................
c)
..........................................................................................................................................................
d)  identify and retrieve relevant information from sources
..........................................................................................................................................................
e)
..........................................................................................................................................................
f)  prioritize the sources of information to select
..........................................................................................................................................................
g)  evaluate
..........................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................

Speaking
Choose one of the tasks below. Describe how to apply the algorithm you have worked out
above to cope with the task. Make use of the sequence words in the Functional language
box.
 Advise a secondary school student what computer program is the best to create
a presentation.
 Present the faculty courses at the University Open Days.
Module 3:  How to survive in the information age?

Functional language
 Speak about the latest achievements in your field
of study at a seminar. Listing (2)

 Make a conference presentation on negative First, …  Second, …  Third, …


effects of computer technologies on Another/Next, …  Then, …
environment. Last, …/Finally, …  The next step is…
As soon as you… , move on to… .

Listening
Listen to the introductory lecture on information search on the internet and complete the
notes.

1. .............................................. (WWW, or the Web) is a part of the internet; is ......................... on the


internet that enables .............................................. of linked information, e. g.:
a) ......................... documents,  b)  .............................................. , animation and video,
c) ....................... to sound files,  d)  ........................ and hear voice,  e)  view programmes.
2. Got its name from .............................................. .
3. The WWW consists of .............................................. known as webpages which can be viewed
44 using a programme called .............................................. , e. g.: leading ones—Firefox and ............
.................................. and the other—......................... , Safari, .............................................. .
4. Finding the Web documents can be done by using .............................................. . They help to
find the information you are looking for if you don’t know .............................................. .
5. ......................................... is a special web site that provides a facility to ......................................... .
6. Uses special programmes .............................................. about websites on the WWW and stores
the information in .............................................. .
7. The user can search the database to obtain .............................................. to relevant websites.
8. Requires ........................................ . Once a keyword is typed into a ........................................ , the
search engine ........................................... a list of website links that are ........................................... to
the given keywords.
9. Use
(a) keywords to form search phrases by putting .............................................. around the key
words;
(b) special logical operators, such as ......................... , ......................... , ......................... which
can be grouped by enclosing them in brackets;
(c) symbols, such as ........... or ........... can be used to represent the operators;
(d) special symbols known as ......................... can also be used with keywords to represent
certain characters or combination of characters, e. g.: asterisk.
10. As well as keyword searches, search engines can be used for ......................... , e. g.: the title
field, or the web address.
11. Different search engines use various strategies to easify the search, e.  g.: Google—the
.............................................. button.
UNIT 7:  Information hunting

Discuss  Have you learnt any new recommendations on how


to perform information search on the internet?
 Do you know any other strategies?

Focus on language

Read the sentences and explain how simple instructions are given.

1)  Think carefully about the key words you can use to define the concept you are
interested in.
2)  To search using a search engine, type words into a search box.

Simple and complex instructions

To make simple instructions we use imperative.


e. g.: If you’re looking for the Moscow University homepage, just enter Moscow University and
click “I’m Feeling Lucky”.
Don’t rely on a date given on the search engine’s View Page.
To add explanation use to-infinitive or by + -ing 45
e. g.: To search using a search engine, type words into a search box.
Use keywords to form search phrases by putting quotation mark around the key words.
To link instructions and stress their order use until + Present Simple, having + Participle II, after +
Present Perfect, once + Present Perfect
e. g.: After you have entered your search terms, try the “I’m Feeling Lucky” button.
Continue this process until you reach the first single slash (/).
To put instructions in order, use sequence words: first, then, …, finally.

Complete the instructions with the correct form of the word in brackets.
1) ......................... (focus) on a particular meaning of a keyword, put a minus sign “—“ in
front of words related to the meaning you want to avoid, e. g.: intelligence—computing.
2) You can restrict your search to only one specific website by ......................... (do) site:
search. ......................... , type the word “site” and a colon. ......................... , add the domain
name and ......................... , press the search button. (sequence words)  3) ......................... (set,
having + participle II) ranges for everything from dates (von Neumann 1933…1945) to
weights (5.000...10.000 kg truck), you can easily search for specific information within
the range of numbers.  4) Attach a “+” sign to a word or digit ......................... (narrow)
your search, e. g.: World War +П.  5) Keep truncating back the URL until .........................
(find) the page’s publisher.  6) Once ......................... (link) to a retrieved site, check to see
if any information about the page’s creator is provided.

Get real Visit various search engines and learn how they recommend looking for the information
you want. Report back to the class on different search strategies you have learnt about.
Useful sites to search:
www.brainboost.com/   www.searchenginecolossus.com   http://search.ask.com
www.altavista.com/   http://search.yahoo.com/
Module 3:  How to survive in the information age?

Speaking

Work in pairs. Talk to your partner and find out Example:


 how to use Brainboost;
 how to conduct field search;
 how to find sites that have phrase information
literacy in the title;
 how to find information on recent developments
in your field of science published within the last
two months;
 how to find a definition of a word.
Be sure you use various types of instructions.

Reading

Before you read the text, answer the questions.


 Is WWW a good source of information?
 Is the information on the Web regulated or monitored in any way?
46
With a partner discuss if it is necessary to evaluate the information you find on the internet.
Give your reasons.

Read the text and check your guesses.

B
y now everyone has heard the terms
“internet”, “World Wide Web”. It
seems you can’t pick up a magazine or
watch news without them being mentioned Nowadays many students prefer using the
somewhere. There is so much information Web instead of travelling to a library to find
across the internet and the Web can link this information.
together information from anywhere in the But there is one thing—you have to
world and make it available to anyone. evaluate carefully whatever you find on the
The internet has brought so much to Web. Documents can easily be copied and
society. It helps a great number of people falsified or copied with omissions and errors.
to express themselves, find one another, In the general World Wide Web there are
exchange ideas, suggest a lot of other things no editors (unlike most print publications) to
to anyone who comes and clicks. And that’s proofread and “send it back” or “reject it”
great treasure. until it meets the standards of a publishing
Having access to huge amounts of house’s reputation. Anyone can put articles
information is a part of the internet’s on the Web. How do you know whether the
charm, but perhaps only a small part; more information is reliable and free of error?
significant is the ability to find, view and Moreover most pages are designed
make use of the information. with some purpose in mind. Businesses
The World Wide Web is a great place to advertise and sell products and services;
do research on various topics, you can find mass media’s primary purpose is to
research documents, encyclopedia entry or provide extremely current information.
any other information almost on any subject. Their URL addresses frequently end in .com
UNIT 7:  Information hunting

Thinking about what we have found!

(commercial). Political parties and non- be affiliated  1 with a large institution. This
profit organizations try to influence public doesn’t mean they are necessarily ‘bad’
opinion. Their URL extensions will frequently but it takes time to double-check the quality
be .org. Education and government of the information in the web site. Though
institutions design web pages to present the URL addresses may have a variety of
factual information such as statistical data, endings: a personal name (baker) following
directories, transport schedules, annual a tilde (~), a percent sign (%), or the words
reports, etc. Their addresses often end in “users”, “members” or “peoples”.
.edu, .gov or even country codes. The two Using the Web as a Research Tool
letters at the end of any internet address has become nowadays a real challenge.
indicate the country of origin (except for the Remember that you are looking for quality
United States), e. g., .ru stands for Russia, not quantity!
.ua—for Ukraine. Adapted from internet sites
A great number of web pages are
– здесь:
published by individuals who may or may not 1
may be affiliated with
ош ени е, при надлежать
иметь отн
к организации
Answer the questions.
 What types of web pages are described in the text?
47
 What goals do the web page owners have in mind?
 What kind of information can you learn from an internet address?

Fill in the sentences with the prepositions if necessary. The text you have read may be of
help.
1) The main idea behind the WWW is to make as much information as possible
available ............... anyone.  2) Nowadays more people have easy access ............... the
internet resources.  3) The abbreviation HTML stands ............... HyperText Markup
Language.  4) You can use this form to look ............... the pages of Popular Science
magazine.  5) News Web pages provide ............... the most up-to-date information.  6) His
letter ended ............... P. S.  7) This small interest group will be very difficult to influence
............... public opinion.  8) Anyone can put anything ............... the Web for pennies in
just a few minutes.

Look back in the text and find   connect   assess


words and phrases that have similar   to invest time   to create a web page
meaning.   check twice   to read and correct
Example:  point and press—click   trustworthy   point to

Within one minute complete the reliable


word web for the noun information
with as many adjectives as possible.
Module 3:  How to survive in the information age?

Project work
Web:
The World Wide Web
the battle for your mind
at your fingertips
To achieve good results in studies it is
important to have the ability to search and
find relevant information and evaluate its
quality.
You are members of a team which is formed to
work out the guidelines for evaluating Web pages.
The aim of the team is to help your fellow students to
use the internet resources for information retrieval.
 Work in teams of five or six. Within your teams Study help
divide into pairs and do research on the types
of Web pages and their purposes; criteria for
When you present your oral reports,
evaluation; recommendations and search follow this procedure:
strategies/techni­ques. a) one student introduces the group
 When your team meets again, share and and gives an introduction to the
summarize the information you have collected. work conducted by the group;
48 Write the guidelines for effective information b) the next few students present one
hunting. Use simple and complex instructions. or two of the points and some
interesting comments;
 Prepare an oral presentation of your work. Make c) the last student concludes the
use of the Study help box. presentation by summarizing and
interpreting the information, e. g.:
It surprised us to learn that… . J
In the realm of science

In the internet and the WWW, as well + plus ; semicolon


as in many other spheres of our life,
— minus (math symbol) * asterisk
there are a great number of symbols.
Read and remember them. ~ tilde ( ) bracket
dash/hyphen # lattice
-
It is interesting to know (linguistic symbols) _ underscore

Google is the name of search engine % per cent @ at


on the internet. “” quotation marks & and
Googol is the number 1 followed by
‘ apostrophe / slash
100 zeros.
: colon . dot

Here are some of the widely used URL extensions. Check if you know them.
.com commercial .org non-profit organization
.info informative/general use .tv entertainment or media industry
.edu education and research .name individuals
.biz business .net network
.gov government .mil military
.web web-related .mobi easy viewing on mobile devices
UNIT 7:  Information hunting

Look through some of the country codes used in website addresses. With a partner add
some more to this list.
Country code/ Country code/
Country Country
extension extension
the United States .us Germany .de
Japan .jp the United Kingdom .uk
Italy .it Soviet Union (USSR former) .su
France .fr the European Union .eu
Russia .ru China .cn

http://www.idcwebs.com/Understanding_Web_Extensions.htm

Here are some of the abbreviations used in the Internet.

URL Uniform Resource Locator ISP Internet Service Provider


FTP File Transfer Protocol GPS Global Positioning System
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol USB Universal Serial Bus
IP Internet Protocol MB Megabyte
49

Progress monitoring
In this unit you have worked on the vocabulary related to the topic “Information search”:
to look for/hunt for information...........................................  search engine................................ 
to access/extract/retrieve information...............................  source of information................. 
to evaluate/double-check a source of information...........  to proofread the material........... 
to have access/to access...........................................................  information literacy.................... 
search strategy/technique/tips.............................................  to browse/a browser................... 
available/relevant/up-to-date information........................  to search/conduct search.......... 
to perform information search...............................................  to stand for.................................... 

Tick () the points you are confident about and cross () the ones you need to revise.
Lead-in  What is a library?
 When did you first start using a library? Did you
have any problems finding necessary books or
information?
 Are you a confident library user these days? Why?/
Why not?
 How often do you need to work in the university
library? What kind of information can you find
there? Kansas City Public Library
Missouri, United States
50 KC Downtown Public Library Book Bindings
Reading

Before you read the text, answer the questions.


 What information sources do you know? Which of them have you worked with?
 What is the difference between a newspaper and a magazine, a journal and
a magazine?

Read the text. How many sources of information are mentioned? Pick out key words and
phrases that go with each source.

S ta r t i n g yo u r tr ea su r e h u n t
S t a r t i n g y o u r t r e a s u r e h u n t

T h e word library is derived from Latin liber, which means book. A primary
function of a library is to store information published throughout
time. Here you can find very current information, as well as books
that are no longer published and older issues of magazines.
L ibraries have large collections of information on a variety of carefully selected
and organized topics from the sources considered reliable, historically
relevant, and valuable. The key idea when using the library is that you
are getting quality over quantity. Print or electronic library resources
are the best sources to use when starting your research. The type of
information you need will change depending on the question you are
trying to answer.
M aga z ines publish articles on topics of popular interest and current events. The
articles are written by journalists and are for the general public.
UNIT 8:  Treasure house

J ournal articles and papers are written by scholars in an academic or


professional field. They cover very specific topics or narrow fields of
research.
N ewspapers provide articles each day about current events and are a good source of
local information. Newspapers, like journals and magazines, are called
periodicals because they are published regularly, or periodically.
B ooks cover virtually any topic, fact or fiction. For research purposes, you
will probably be looking for books that synthesize all the information
on one topic.
E nc y clopedias contain factual articles on many subjects. There are two types of
encyclopedias—general and subject. General encyclopedias provide
overviews on a wide variety of topics. Subject encyclopedias contain
entries focusing on one field of study.
T h e W eb allows you to access information on the internet through a browser.
One of the main features of the Web is
the ability to link quickly to other related
information. Every day more and more
electronic books, encyclopedias and 51
periodicals are available on the Web.
Adapted from:  http://ulibnet.mtsu.edu.html

Match the sources of information with the appropriate tips.


Discuss which key words helped you to do the task
Sources:

a magazine a journal
a book D a newspaper
an encyclopedia the Web
Petrie and British Library
a catalogue an article index London
Tips:
A about
B C
t information cal events arch
to find curren to find information or opinions abou
t popular culture scholarly rese
nd lo when doing
l, national a hat has been
studied
internationa taries, expert to find up-to-date information abou
t current events
to find out w
ials, commen
to find editor to find general articles written for peop
le who are not on your topi
c
inions t point
or popular op c area graphies tha
necessarily spec ialis ts in the topi to find biblio h
vant researc
D to other rele
E
when looking for a lot of information on a topic
to find current information
to put your topic in context with other important issues library over the internet
to link to information provided by the
to find historical information
to find information about companies
to find summaries of research to support an argument government—federal to local
to find information from all levels of
ions
to find both expert and popular opin
F G
ound
g for backgr H
when lookin when you want to
on a topic find articles on
to find sources of information the libra
ry owns on
information eas,
your topic in maga
zines, journals
to find key id or newspapers your topic
when trying pt s
ates or conce to find where a specific item is located
in the library
important d
Module 3:  How to survive in the information age?

Writing Fill in the spaces in the subscription and registration form.

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Submit Reset

Get real Find in the internet and subscribe to any free magazine or journal. Report back the
results of the subscription. Give reasons for your choice of the periodical.

Listening

You are going to listen to a librarian explaining to students the difference between various
types of periodicals. Listen to the lecture and complete the chart.
UNIT 8:  Treasure house

Type of Source Popular Magazines Scholarly Journals

......................................................... , ........................................................ ,
New York Times, ............................ .........................................................
Examples ......................................... , Discover Journal of American
......................................................... , Mathematical Society, ..................
.......................................................... ....................................................... ,

Audience
for ................................. and broad for ................................................... ,
audience scholars, ...........................................
understood by ................................ .........................................................
Language
.......................................................... .........................................................

research as ..................................... , ................................... , experimen-


feature stories, ............................... , tation, ...................................... and
Content .......................................................... in-depth ........................................ ,
.......................................................... ...................................... , references,
......................................................... 53
................................................. , in a ............................................ , charts,
............................................ format, a few ............................................... ,
Appearance
highly visual, a lot of ..................... .........................................................
......................................................... ,
colour, ............................................. ,
................................. and drawings

a member of the editorial staff .........................................................


Authors ......................................................... , .........................................................
freelance ..........................................
published by .................................. sponsored by
Publishers enterprises, ................................... , .........................................................
and
sponsors sometimes .........................................................
..........................................................

Discuss  What new information have you learnt from the lecture on periodicals?
 How can you apply this new information to your studies and life in general?
 Do you think you need any additional information about library sources?

Focus on language

Read these sentences. Do they have active or passive verbs?


Module 3:  How to survive in the information age?

1) Magazines and journals are


called periodicals because they Passive structures
are published on a regular or Passive verbs are common when we are thinking about
“periodic” basis. what is done to the person or thing that we are interested
2) Libraries are able to purchase in, not about what he/she/it does.
one copy which can be shared by Passives are best in formal style. Actives are more
many people. informal.
e. g.: English is widely spoken all over the world.
3) The articles in this type of He speaks English pretty well.
periodicals may be written by
The Passive structures are formed with the verb to be, in
a member of the editorial staff,
the correct tense, and the past participle of the main verb.
a  scholar or a freelance writer,
e. g.: Students are given syllabi on different subjects at
not a subject expert. the beginning of semester.
Students have already been informed on the
changes in the timetable.
Rewrite the sentences in the Passive.
Use by… only if it is necessary to say who does/did the
1) The library collects sources con­ action.
sidered reliable, historically relevant, e. g.: A number of decisions can be made by the Student
and valuable. 2)  This magazine has Union.
published a lot of articles on topics
of popular interest and current events. 3) You can find a lot of useful information about
54 our university and the degree courses in this prospectus. 4) My tutor recommended me
to read this book from cover to cover. 5) These days our research centre is developing
artificial skin for the next generation of robots. 6) He will write a new sci-fi story in
the nearest future. 7) A data table, which one should discuss in words, represents the
results of an experiment. 8) Scientists have studied a great number of harmful effects of
modern civilization on the environment.

Reading

Answer the questions.


 What are the biggest and most famous libraries in the world?
 Have you ever heard of the ancient library of Alexandria?
 When and where was it built?
 Who of the ancient scholars is it associated with?
 Who and why destroyed it?
 When was the new Bibliotheca Alexandrina opened? Bibliotheca Alexandrina
The modern replacement
of the Great Library of
Read the text to learn more about the ancient library of Alexandria Alexandria (Egypt)
and the modern Bibliotheca Alexandrina. When you read, pay
attention to the pronunciation of the following proper names:

Bibliotheca Alexandrina  [ bibliə´θi:kə ælig´zændrınə] Ptolemy  [´ta:ləmi] I


´ ´
Archimedes  [ a:kə´mi:diz] Eratosthenes  [ erə´tɔsθə ni:z]
´ ´ ´
Hipparchus  [hi´pa:kəs] Almagest  [´ælmə ʤest]
´
Euclid  [´ju:klid] Copernicus  [kəu´pə:nikəs]
Julius Caesar  [´ʤuli:əs ´si:zə] Aswan  [æ´swa:n]
Egyptian  [i´ʤip∫(ə)n] Norwegian  [nɔ:´wi:ʤ(ə)n]
UNIT 8:  Treasure house

cradle — колыбель
A t the meeting point of the three continents, Asia, Africa and Europe, Egypt
1

corpus — здесь: собрание


2
has been the cradle1 of civilizations since ancient times. The ancient city of
scholar — ученый
3 Alexandria was the birthplace of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina which was one of
the wonders of the ancient world.
Founded by Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC, built and
enlarged by Ptolemy I, Alexander’s successor, the city’s library comprised
perhaps as many as 700,000 manuscripts (the equivalent of more than 100,000
modern printed books)—the whole corpus2 of knowledge accumulated by
ancient philosophers, scientists and poets that laid the foundations of Western
philosophy, mathematics, science, medicine, history and literature.
It was at the library that Archimedes invented the screw-shaped
water pump that is still in use today. At Alexandria Eratosthenes
measured the diameter of the Earth, and Euclid discovered the rules
of geometry; Ptolemy wrote the Almagest at Alexandria that was
the most influential scientific book about the nature of the Universe
for 1500 years. Hipparchus established the first atlas of the stars
and calculated the length of the solar year accurately to within
6,5 minutes. Aristarchus was the first person to state that the earth
55
revolves around the sun, a full 1800 years before Copernicus.
The library was later destroyed in 48 BC, possibly by Julius
Caesar who burned it as part of his campaign to conquer the city,
and completely disappeared over sixteen hundred years ago. But the
memory of the ancient Library of Alexandria lived on. It continued
to inspire scholars3 and humanists everywhere.
In 2002, the Egyptian government supported the
building of the modern Bibliotheca Alexandrina near the
site of the first library. Designed by a Norwegian architect,
the New Bibliotheca Alexandrina takes the shape of
a  circular diaphragm wall—160 meters in diameter and
33  meters high—representing the sun. It consists of
11  floors with a total area of 85,405 square meters. The
walls are of grey Aswan granite, carved with characters
from 120 different human scripts.
The whole complex comprises a main reading room
with seating for 2,000 readers, six specialist libraries
(including Library for the Blind and Young Peoples’
Library), four museums (science, calligraphy, manuscripts
and archaeological), a public plaza, a planetarium as well
as research center and exhibition areas.
The library contains 8 million books, 4,000
periodicals, 50,000 manuscripts and rare
books, 50,000 maps as well as audio-visual and
multimedia materials and computer databases.
Today it is an important educational,
scientific and cultural centre for the
transmission and sharing of knowledge.

Adapted from: www.arabworldbooks.com/bibliothecaAlexandrina.htm


www.akdn.org/agency/akaa/ninthcycle/page_01txt.htm
Module 3:  How to survive in the information age?

Match each verb on the left with the 1. to comprise A. knowledge


noun/noun phrase on the right. Refer 2. to lay B. the first atlas of stars
back to the text if necessary. 3. to measure C. manuscripts
4. to establish D. the city
5. to discover E. the length of solar year
6. to calculate F. the rules of geometry
Discuss  How many libraries are there
in your city? Are they well 7. to share G. scholars and humanists
equipped? 8. to inspire H. the foundations
 What is the most popular library 9. to conquer I. the diameter
in your city? Why?
 Will new technologies change
the libraries and the way we learn? Study help
 What is an E-book?
 What advantages do E-books have over print Conducting a survey
books? Surveys are extremely powerful tools
that reflect the opinions/preferences,
etc of the general public, a particular
Speaking group of people, etc. J
56
 Conduct a survey. Work in groups of three or four
Functional language
and write a questionnaire. Make up five yes/no
questions about the future of libraries and books. Presenting somebody’s opinion
 Decide which group you will interview a)  your It surprised us to learn that most
fellow students, b)  your faculty teachers and students/professors, etc. …
professors, c)  other people (e. g. friends/family). The majority of students/people think
that …
 Count the “yes” and “no” responses. Take notes on
the interesting comments that people make. The A few students/of my friends have got
mixed feelings about …
chart below can be used to write your questions,
A number of students/people are in
count responses, and record comments.
favour of...
 When your group meets again, summarise the What we find really astonishing (about)
information you have collected and prepare an …is… , etc.
oral report to present to the class.

Questions Yes No Comments

Will people in the future use Yes I’m sure, by 2050 print books will disappear
only computers or E-Books just like dinosaurs or will be exhibited in
when going to the library? museums.
Are E-Books commonplace No Most people still have no idea how to deal
these days? with, manipulate or manage a digital file.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
UNIT 8:  Treasure house

Writing Write two or three paragraphs of about 150 words to summarise


the discussion on the future of libraries and books. Give
reasons to back up your own opinion.

In the realm of science


Read and remember some of the library terms.
Article—a piece of writing about a particular Edition—the whole number of copies of
subject in a newspaper or magazine a work issued from one setting of type
Autobiography—a written account of Glossary—an alphabetical list of terms within
a person’s life written by that person a subject field together with definitions
Archive—a special collection or collections Paper—an academic article about a particular
that house the records of organizations, subject that is written by and for specialists
governments, universities, etc. considered Plagiarism—an act of copying the writings
worthy to be kept permanently, and as nearly of another person and publishing the same as
as possible in their original form original work
Bibliography—a list of books and/or other Record—the complete collection of related
materials written by one author, or on one data found in an electronic catalogue or index
subject and having something in common which describes a single book or article in
with each other that database
Biography—a written account of a person’s
57
References—a list of publications referred to
life by the author of a paper or book. Also called
Catalogue­— a complete list of literary works “Works Cited” or “Bibliography”
in a library Subject—the word or phrase which describes
Call Number—the unique numbers and a theme of a literary work
letters given to each item in a library used to Truncation—using the root word in an online
identify and locate the item search to find all items containing that root
Citation—an identifying reference to a text. and different endings
Usually includes the title, author, and
publishing information Adapted from the site http://library.mtsu.edu/help/terms.php

Some letters of the Greek alphabet are widely used in many natural sciences especially
in mathematics. Learn how to read some of them.

Capital and small Name English equivalent Russian


Aα a [´ælfə] a альфа
Bβ beta [´bi:tə]/[´beitə] b бета
Γγ gamma [´gæmə] g гамма
Δδ delta [´deltə] d дельта
Λλ lambda [´læmbdə] l лямбда
Mμ mu [´mju] m ми/мю
Ξξ xi [´ksai] n кси
Ππ pi [´pai] p пи
∑σ sigma [´sigmə] s сигма
'Ω ω omega [´əumıgə] o омега

What other letters from the Greek alphabet are used in your subject area?
Module 3:  How to survive in the information age?

Many English words and word parts can be traced back to the Greek language. The table
below lists some common Greek roots. Add more words with the same root to each
group.
Greek root Basic meaning Example words
-anthrop- human misanthrope, philanthropy
-chron- time anachronism, chronic
-dem- people democracy, demagogue
-morph- form metamorphic, morphology
-path- feeling, suffering sympathy, apathetic
-pedo-, -ped- child, children pediatrician, pedagogue
-philo-, -phil- having a strong affinity or love for philanthropy, philharmonic
-phon- sound cacophony, phonetics

Progress monitoring
In this unit you have worked on the following vocabulary related to the topic “Information
Search”:
58
an issue of a magazine/journal........................ to cite a source....................................................
popular periodicals............................................. to provide overviews on sth.............................
scholarly sources................................................. a wide variety of topics.....................................
to collect reliable/historically relevant/ the contents of a book/magazine...................
valuable sources.................................................. graphics/drawings/charts................................
print or electronic magazines/books............. materials/computer databases........................
to be available for the public........................... to update resources............................................
a large collection of periodicals....................... to share knowledge............................................
to subscribe to a magazine/journal................ to contain audio-visual/multimedia.............

Tick () the points you are confident about and cross () the ones you need to revise.
Put these instructions for truncating a URL in the correct sequence.
 Stop when you reach the first single slash (/) which is preceded by the domain name
portion.
 This is the page’s server or “publisher.”
 In the top Location Box, delete the end characters of the URL stopping just before
each slash (/).
 Press enter to see if you can see more about the author or the origins or nature of the
site providing the page.
 Continue this process, one slash (/) at a time.
59
Rewrite the sentences in Passive.
MIT’s laboratories carry out a great deal of research.
Wilhelm Schickard made the first known adding machine.
The fact that biological sciences are more popular with school leavers than
computer science surprised me. You should carefully read all the
instructions before you start an experiment.
The NASA specialists will launch a space platform to Jupiter next year.
The BBC Company has released a new documentary series about space esearch.

Spot the odd word out. A)  library  internet  www  database
B)  journal  magazine  periodicals  newspaper
C)  bibliography  citation  glossary  references
D)  call number  catalogue  record  subject

Explain the similarity and difference between these words

  journal—magazine   author—publisher   plagiarism—citation


  biography—autobiography   paper—article

Divide into five teams. Each team completes word webs for the words information
(adjectives), information (verbs), book (adjectives), knowledge (adjectives), knowledge
(verbs) using its own colour marker. The word webs are rotated every one minute, then the
results are checked in class. The team that suggests more combinations than the others
is the winner.
Module 3:  How to survive in the information age?

Read the sayings. Choose one or two you agree or disagree with and discuss them with
a partner.
Know where to find the information and how to use it—that’s the
secret of success. (Albert Einstein)
Knowing a great deal is not the same as being smart; intelligence is
not information alone but also judgement, the manner in which information
is collected and used. (Dr. Carl Sagan quotes)

A university is just a group of buildings gathered


around a library. (Shelby Foote)

Take turns to dictate and note down the following e-mail and website addresses.

60

Complete this questionnaire for yourself. Then divide into groups and take turns to explain
how to perform each of these actions.

Do you know… Yes No


…what can save your time when you are searching for necessary sources?
…where to look for information on popular science topics?
…how to quickly check the authority of the site?
…how to check the reliability/accuracy of the page?
…what kind of information you need to find a particular book in a library
catalogue?

Each one teach one


Work with a partner. Hold a competition and brainstorm about ten terms to do with
a library search. Compare the lists. Cross out the terms that are on the both lists. Explain
the meaning of the rest of the terms.

.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
The most remarkable discovery ever made
by scientists was science itself.
(Jacob Bronowsky, 1908–1974)

Evolution
of natural sciences

Learning objectives

In this module you will:


 learn how to make a poster presentation
 talk about scientific discoveries and
inventions
 learn how to express opinions in arguments
and discussions
 describe fact and opinion in writing
 distinguish international words from “false
friends” words
 revisit Past Tenses
Lead-in
Think of the difference between the words discovery and Discovery—...
...........................................................
invention. Work with a partner and write down a definition ...........................................................
for each of these words.
...........................................................
Sort out the inventions and discoveries into two columns. Invention—...
...........................................................
Compare and discuss your lists with a partner. ...........................................................
...........................................................
62 X-rays telescope
..................................................... ................................................. metric system
..................................................... ................................................. magnetic compass
..................................................... .................................................  gunpowder heredity
 periodic table of elements
..................................................... .................................................
seismograph gravity
..................................................... .................................................
barometer the slide rule
..................................................... .................................................
 geological time scale
..................................................... .................................................  natural selection
..................................................... ................................................. cartogram radiation
..................................................... .................................................  moving pictures atom
..................................................... ................................................. the South Pole
..................................................... ................................................. steam engine radio
..................................................... ................................................. telephone photography
microscope penicillin
Which areas of scientific study or technology do they Richter scale
belong to? Which of them are used in more than one
 Przewalski’s horse
natural science?
electricity
Reading It is interesting to know

Work with a partner. Name any accidental discoveries A fortunate accident in which a person
or inventions you have ever heard about. finds something valuable or pleasing
when he or she was not looking for it
 How did people benefit from them? is called serendipity.
 Did they cause any problems?
The words in column A are in the text you are going to read. Match them with the words
in column B which are similar in meaning.
UNIT 10:  Necessity is the mother of invention

1. wire A. mix
2. spark B. to move suddenly
3. to jerk C. to vaccinate
4. to inoculate D. flash
5. compound E. covered
6. coated F. cable

Read the text about four unexpected scientific discoveries. How did they change the
world?
Adapted from “Unexpected scientific
discoveries are often the most important”
by Larry Gedney.
Archimedes

Alaska Science Forum, 1985

A s Archimedes settled into his evening


bath and noticed that the water level
the principle of vaccination for disease
prevention.
rose, he accidentally realized that water
displacement relates to volume. He
proclaimed “Eureka!”. Since that day and
W ilhelm Roentgen was experimenting with
electrical discharges one evening at the
University of Wurzburg in 1895. There was a
more regularly in modern times, some of screen coated with a barium compound lying 63
the most impactful scientific discoveries to one side, and Roentgen noticed that it would
Luigi Galvani

have occurred by accident. fluoresce when an electrical discharge would

L et’s review just a few of the important


discoveries of the past couple of
centuries that were made entirely by
occur in the tube he was watching. On reaching
for the screen, Roentgen got his hand between
the discharge tube3 and the screen and saw the
chance. bones of his own hand through the shadow of

I n 1791, Luigi Galvani was an anatomist


at the University of Bologna. Galvani
his skin. In 1901, Roentgen received the Nobel
Prize for his accidental discovery of X-rays.
was investigating the nerves in frog legs,
A lexander Fleming was a young bacterio­
Louis Pasteur

and had threaded1 some legs on copper logist at St. Mary’s Hospital in London
wire hanging from a balcony. Once a in 1928. One day in his cluttered laboratory,
puff of wind caused the legs to touch he noticed that a culture dish of bacteria had
the iron railing. A spark snapped2 and been invaded by a mould4 whose spore must
the legs jerked violently (even today, we have drifted in through an open window.
speak of being “galvanized” into action). Under the microscope, he saw that, all around
In one unintentional step, Galvani had the mould, the individual bacteria that he had
observed a closed electrical circuit, and been growing had burst. He saved the mould,
Wilhelm Roentgen

related electricity to nerve impulses. So and from it produced the first penicillin.
he is typically credited with the discovery
of bioelectricity. A lthough the mad scientists or eccentric
inventors so often portrayed in old

I n 1879, Louis Pasteur inoculated some


chickens with cholera bacteria. It was
supposed to kill them, but Pasteur or
movies are still good for laughs, that’s not
what we’re talking about here. Surely the need
still exists for the imaginative and inventive
one of his assistants had accidentally experimenter.
used a culture from an old jar and the
chickens merely got sick and recovered.
Alexander Fleming

ead —— зде сь:нан


здесь ватьь
изыват
нанизы
Later, Pasteur inoculated them again
1
1 thread
to thr
to
здесь
— зде скочил
проско
сь:про искра
чилааиск ра
with a fresh culture that he knew to be 2 a
2
spark
a spa pped
snappe
rk sna d—
дна я тру бка
3 a charge
discha — зде
tubee —
rge tub газора
сь:газ
здесь зрядная трубка
оразря
dangerous, and the chickens didn't even 3
a dis
get sick. Chance had led him to discover uld —
mould
4 mo
4
— зде сь пле
здесь: сеньь
плесен
Module 4:  Evolution of natural sciences

Explain what the highlighted words and expressions mean. Use a dictionary or consult
your teacher if necessary.

Here are some answers. What are the questions?


Example: Q—When and where was Luigi Galvani doing his investigations?
A—In 1791 at the University of Bologna.
1) Q.......................................................................................................................................................?
A  A puff of wind.
2) Q.......................................................................................................................................................?
A  To nerve impulses.
3) Q.......................................................................................................................................................?
A  Louis Pasteur.
4) Q.......................................................................................................................................................?
A  With electrical discharges.
5) Q.......................................................................................................................................................?
A  Barium compound.
6) Q.......................................................................................................................................................?
A  The bones of his own hand.
7) Q.......................................................................................................................................................?
64 A  The Nobel Prize.
8) Q.......................................................................................................................................................?
A  Bacteriologist.
9) Q.......................................................................................................................................................?
A  The first penicillin.

Sum up in your own words how these   bioelectricity   vaccination


discoveries were made.   X-rays   penicillin

Discuss  Do you think these discoveries were absolutely It is interesting to know

unexpected? Why?/Why not?


A discovery or invention made by two
 Why are scientists often portrayed as mad or scientists without any cooperation is
eccentric experimenters? called an independent discovery or
invention.
 How many joint discoveries or inventions can you
A discovery or invention made by two
name? or more scientists is called a joint or
 Who made them? Did they find any application? shared discovery and a co-invention
respectively.
 Which would you prefer: working in collaboration
with other scientists and making a joint discovery,
or competing with others and working on your own? Why? Give reasons.
 Comment on the saying by Louis Pasteur Chance favors the prepa
red mind.

Focus on language
Read the sentences. Which grammar tenses are used?
1) We were tired because we had been experimenting all day long.
2) After I had worked in the lab for a few weeks, I felt I knew the equipment very well.
UNIT 10:  Necessity is the mother of invention

3) They were making observations of Past Tenses


the night sky for several years hoping
to discover the planet they had • We use the Past Simple to talk about an activity
calculated. or situation that began and ended at a particular
time in the past.
4) First students had a short talk with a • We use the Past Progressive to say that something
lab instructor about safety in the lab was going on around a particular time in the past
and then they were allowed to work or a longer background action or situation which
with some chemicals. was interrupted by a shorter action.
5) The lecture had already finished before • We use the Past Perfect to speak about an action
which happened before another past action.
we got there.
• We use the Past Perfect Progressive to talk about
an action or event continuing up to a specific time
List time expressions under the correct in the past. We put the emphasis on “how long”.
tense heading. Some expressions can be
used more than once.
for before already first
since after ago until
when while as soon as during

Past Past Past Past


Simple Progressive Perfect Perfect Progressive
.............................................. .............................................. .............................................. .............................................. 65
.............................................. .............................................. .............................................. ..............................................
.............................................. .............................................. .............................................. ..............................................

Complete the sentences with the correct Past tenses.


1) Class (begin, already) ..................... by the time  I (get) ......................... there, so
I (take, quietly) ......................... a seat in the back.  2) My group mate (discuss)
......................... something with professor when I (walk) ......................... into the room.
3) It was midnight. I (study) ......................... for five straight hours. No wonder I (get
tired).  4) Millions of years ago, dinosaurs (roam) ......................... the Earth, but they
(become) ......................... extinct by the time humankind first (appear) ..........................
5) I (call) Kate at nine last night, but she (be, not) ......................... at home. She (study)
......................... at the library. 6) Kevin suddenly realized that the teacher (ask) him a
question. He couldn’t answer because he (daydream) ......................... for the last ten
minutes.  7) I (see, never) ......................... any of Picasso’s paintings before I (visit)
......................... the art museum.  8) The anthropologists (leave) ......................... the village
when they (collect) ......................... enough data.   9) While Roger (write) .........................
an essay his roommate (clean) ......................... the room, so Roger (cannot) .........................
concentrate and (get) ......................... angry.  10) As I (pass) ......................... the hardest
exam and (get) ......................... an excellent mark, I (feel) ......................... a  know-it-all.

Listening
Before you listen, answer the questions.
 How many discoveries or inventions of  Do people still use them?
the ancient world do you know?  Have any modern inventions or
 How did they influence the discoveries replaced them?
development of science at that time?
Module 4:  Evolution of natural sciences

Label the parts of the abacus in the picture and complete the definition:
  a frame     rods     beads
The abacus is a device, usually of wood a)
(plastic, in recent times), having ......................... b)
that holds ......................... with freely sliding
......................... mounted on them. c)

The words in A are in the story you are going to hear. Match words in A with
their definitions in B.
1. to quantify a. to name or list (the units of a group or collection) one by one in
order to determine a total; number
2. addition b. a printed or written sign used to represent an operation, element,
quantity, quality, or relation, as in mathematics or music
3. positional c. an arithmetic operation in which the difference between two
notation numbers is calculated.
d. an arithmetic operation of summing; calculating the sum of two
4. to count or more numbers
e. to perform a mathematical process using mathematical or
66 5. symbol logical methods
f. to determine an amount or number by mathematics, especially
6. subtraction by numerical methods and the use of computer.
g. to determine or express the quantity of sth
7. to calculate h. a numeration system in which a real number is represented
by an ordered set of characters where the value of a character
8. to compute depends on its position

Listen to the Abacus story and answer the questions.

 According to the speaker, what led  When was the Chinese abacus
to the development of a modern invented? What was it like?
computer?  Is abacus still in use these days?
 What did the early people use to  Is it capable of computing?
make their calculations?
 What is the process of calculation
 What important concept in counting called nowadays?
and calculation was developed?

Speaking
Look at the pictures of the inventions and label them.
  microscope     metric system     telescope     thermometer
C D

A B
UNIT 10:  Necessity is the mother of invention

These words are used to describe the inventions above. Check if you know their meaning.
How are they related to these inventions?
to contain / concave / direction / to measure / angle /
component / mercury / to determine / magnification / liquid / constellations /
decimal / to expand / to focus / image / to observe / to multiply / volume / unit

Work with a partner. Take turns to describe the purpose of each invention. Follow the
model below.
Exsample:  Metric system (decimal, system, to measure, meters, hours, kilograms, etc.)

A The Metric system


is the International
decimal system of weights
B The Metric system
is the International
decimal system of
C The Metric system
is the International
decimal system of weights
and measures which/that weights and measures for and measures based on the
is used to measure time, measuring time, distance meter and the kilogram,
distance (length) and and mass. It uses meters; and the second. Its main
mass. It is based on meters; seconds, kilograms, etc. function is to measure time,
seconds, kilograms, etc. distance and mass.

Microscope (device, to magnify, small objects, to examine, lenses, scientifically)


Compass (tool/device, to find, magnetic north, suspended needle, to point to, 67
direction)
Thermometer (device, to measure, to rise, to fall, graduated glass cylinder, line, water,
temperature, air, mercury, people’s body, to move up or down, coloured alcohol, to
contain)
Telescope (instrument, cylindrical, to enlarge, to observe, stars, planets, lenses, mirrors)

Focus on language International words vs “False friends”


The words mostly of Greek and Latin origin that are used
Translate these sentences into your native language. in many other languages especially in different areas of
Do you need a dictionary to translate them correctly? science and technology are called international words, e. g.
1) I’m sure she will make a good physician. geometry, atom, mathematics, radio, integral, theorem,
structure, etc.
2) The climate model developed by the Knowledge of such words helps a lot in reading and
climatologists forecasts dramatic changes in translation. However, there are so called “false friends”.
Europe, as well as the US. These are words that look like international but have
different meanings in English and in Russian, e. g. to
Sort out the words below into categories. Use a reclaim (to take back something that was yours), actual
dictionary if necessary. (real, existing in fact), spectacles (a pair of eyeglasses), etc.

lecture / form / accurate / technology / magazine / fact / logic / mixture /


repetition / intelligent / prospect / problem / actual / technique / example /
original / paragraph / lamp / transparent / focus / list / test / category /
activity / priority / sodium / application / fabric / metal / guarantee / industry /
type / vibration / physician / data / encyclopedia / menu / clay / system /
probe / familiar / unique / lava

International words “False Friends”

lecture accurate
Module 4:  Evolution of natural sciences

Can you name the English words we use in our daily life? What words in your native
language have become international?
Study help
Writing Work in groups. Choose one of the most important It is important when reading or
inventions you have discussed in this unit. Write writing to recognize and understand
a  paragraph about it. Give at least three reasons to the relationship in which sentences
prove its significance. Make use of these expressions: and groups of sentences combine to
present information.
It made it possible to…   It became easy to… Here are the signal words that can
It was a breakthrough in… be used to show the order in which
things are to be said.
It made an important contribution to sth
firstly  in the first place  secondly also
It laid the foundation for… thirdly  in addition to  what is more
It gave rise to… / It gave birth to… above all  etc. J
It helped to… / It allowed scientists to…
It made a revolution in…   It enabled people to do…
It found a widespread application in…
I think the invention of a spectroscope was a real breakthrough. It helped
Isaac Newton to discover that the white light could be dispersed into a series
68 of rainbow colors. It also made possible to study what extra-terrestrial
objects are made of, for example, the sun’s atmosphere. Moreover, it helped to
reveal new elements such as helium.
Finally, spectroscopy of atoms and molecules gave birth to quantum
mechanics that is the basis of modern physics and chemistry. Today, laser
spectroscopy is one of the most important experimental tools of condensed
matter physics and it made a revolution in developing new materials with
improved properties.

Get real Search websites or popular science Study help


magazines to find information Making
about two significant discoveries or a Poster Presentation

inventions in your field of science Step 1: Brainstorm the ideas on what points to highlight
made before the 20th century. Make in your poster.
notes on what you have found. Step 2: Go online to find the information to include in
Be sure to include: a)  description, your poster.
Develop the information you have found into
b)  inventor/discoverer, c)  scientific
separate paragraphs.
significance. Write each paragraph on a separate piece of paper.
Make a poster presentation. Use the Step 3: Structure your text. Think of the order and place
guidelines in the box. of each paragraph on your poster.
Step 4: Proofread the material checking the spelling,
Reading punctuation, grammar, and vocabulary.
Step 5: Add necessary photos, diagrams, timelines, etc.
You are going to read about famous to make your poster more comprehensible and
attractive.
scientists Ivan Pavlov, Leonardo
Step 6: Pin the poster on the wall of the classroom and
Fibonacci, Edmond Halley and their make your presentation. J
research work. With a partner check
if you know:
 What fields did they work in?   What did they discover or invent?
UNIT 10:  Necessity is the mother of invention

As you read complete the chart.


Name Country Field of science Accomplishments

Pavlov
Fibonacci
Halley

P
avlov was a Russian scientist various stages of digestion to transform be conditioned to affect behavioral
most famous for describing the food into simpler components absorbed change.
psychological phenomenon by the organism. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov can be
referred to as a “conditioned response”1. In 1897, Pavlov published his results thanked for maintaining the purity of
Pavlov made a number of other very and generalizations in a book called observational science and striving to
important discoveries in the realm Work of the Digestive Glands3. For this keep the standards for experimental
of physiology, particularly related to work, he was the first Russian and methodology at its highest level.
Ivan Petrovich
Pavlov digestion2. Indeed, it was while studying physiologist to receive the Nobel Prize, Although he is most remembered for
1849–1936 the secretion of digestive enzymes that which was awarded in 1904. his groundbreaking work in behavioral
he became interested in the integration The final 35 years of Pavlov’s research psychology, the inspiring research that
of the body and the brain. were devoted to the investigation of led Pavlov to these observations cannot
Pavlov’s first independent work the conditioned reflex and the study of be forgotten. He was a truly great
focused on the physiology of the the brain. In the late 1920’s, he began scientist and researcher. 69
circulation of the blood. He studied the working with clinical patients, trying to
influence of variations in blood volume understand the qualitative differences
on blood pressure. He also investigated between the higher nervous processes
the nervous control of the heart. of animals and of people. 1
conditioned response — условный
For about 20 years starting from The ‘conditioning’ model presented рефлекс
1879 he studied how digestion works, by Pavlov had an enormous influence 2
digestion — пищеварение,
revolutionizing our understanding of on western behavioural psychology. переваривание пищи; усвоение пищи
the process and the role of nervous For Pavlov, the assumption was that 3
gland — железа
system in nutrition. He discovered how the unconscious4 processes that existed 4
unconscious — бессознательный,
different ferments and acids act on were simple reflexes which could неосознанный

F
ibonacci was an Italian number all elementary school children) and mathematics and science. The series is
theorist often referred to as it eventually persuaded European an example of a recursive (characterized
Leonardo of Pisa. Fibonacci was mathematicians to drop the old way in by recurrence or repetition) sequence.
born in Italy but received education in favor of the new one. The Fibonacci Series defines the
North Africa. Through his experiences in Fibonacci is considered to be one of curvature2 of naturally occurring spirals,
North Africa, which no doubt included the most talented mathematicians for such as snail shells and even the pattern
meeting merchants and learning their the Middle Ages. He made many original of seeds in flowering plants.
Leonardo
Fibonacci systems of applied arithmetic, he contributions to complex calculations,
1170–1250 was introduced to the “Hindu-Arabic” algebra, and geometry, and pioneered
system of numerals, the same one we number theory and indeterminate1
all use today. analysis, discovering the Fibonacci
So when he returned to Pisa, he series or Fibonacci sequence.
wrote a book about it that he finished The series is 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21,
in 1202. Titled Liber abbaci, meaning 34, 55... This sequence shows that each 1
indeterminate — неизвестный,
Book of Calculating, the work dealt number is the sum of the two preceding неопределенный
with the methods of arithmetic in numbers. It is a sequence that is seen 2
curvature — выгиб, изгиб,
the decimal system (now taught to and used in many different areas of искривление, кривизна
Module 4:  Evolution of natural sciences

H
alley was a bold and restless field in 1700. So with that voyage he 1531, 1607 and 1682 had all been the
prodigy, born to a wealthy established not just new science, but same comet, returning to pass Earth on
family, who published three a new way of doing science. a cycle of about 76 years. He was proven
papers on astronomical subjects while His interest in planetary motions correct when the comet returned on
still a college undergraduate. At the led him to Isaac Newton whose new Christmas Day of 1758 (though Halley
age of 20 he spent a year on the remote mathematics of the calculus, laws of himself had died in 1742), and the
South Atlantic island of St. Helena, physics, and theory of gravitation were comet has since been known as Halley’s
Edmond
Halley observing the skies of the southern being widely scorned and disputed. Comet.
1656–1742 hemisphere1. He returned to England Halley was so convinced that he Halley became a professor at Oxford
and published the first catalogue of the financed the publication of Newton's in 1704. Multitalented and exceedingly
southern stars. That achievement had book Principia Mathematica in 1687 brainy, Halley also contributed to other
earned him membership in the Royal which put physics, astronomy, and scientific fields during his long career;
Society by the age of 22. science itself on a foundation that he is especially known for inventing the
In 1699, he sailed HMS2 Paramour lasted until Einstein's modifications diving bell 4.
around the South Atlantic Ocean, taking more than 200 years later.
readings of magnetic north wherever Edmond Halley was the first man to
1
hemisphere — полушарие
he went. That cruise was the first recognize the recurring3 astronomical 2
HMS — сокр. от His (Her) Majesty´s Ship
voyage ever made for a purely scientific visitor now known as Halley’s Comet. — английский военный корабль
purpose. From the data he collected, In 1705 he published Synopsis on Co­ 3
recurring — периодический,
Halley produced the first map showing metary Astronomy, in which he argued повторяющийся, частый
the variation of the Earth’s magnetic that prominent comets observed in 4
diving bell — водолазный колокол
70
Adapted from the Internet sites
Focus on language
Look back in the text to find noun phrases connected with research. Write them down in
the appropriate group. Translate them into your native language.
Example: the secretion of digestive enzymes
Noun + of + Noun
(секреция пищеварительных ферментов)
Noun + Noun Example: the Fibonacci Series (последовательность Фибоначчи)

Adjective + Noun Example: nervous system (нервная система)

Read the sentence from the text. What other adjectives can go with the noun
contribution? Fibonacci made many original contributions to complex calculations, algebra, and geometry.

The adjectives in the lists below often go with the words Collocation
invention and discovery. See how many collocations
you can make with these words. Collocation is the way words combine
in a language to produce natural-
sounding speech and writing. E. g., in
English you say strong wind and heavy
rain. It would be not normal to say
Great *heavy wind or *strong rain.
Brilliant Latest
Scientific Collocation runs through the whole
Amazing New of the English language. No piece of
Archaeo- Recent natural spoken or written English
World- logical
shaking Accidental is totally free of collocation. For the
Medical student, choosing the right collocation
Significant Chance
will make his speech and writing more
Unexpected natural, more native-speaker-like.
UNIT 10:  Necessity is the mother of invention

Work with a partner. Match the words 1. to make a. results


in A with the nouns in B. Some words 2. to revolutionize and generalizations
in A may go with more than one b. methodology
noun in B. 3. to publish
с. a discovery or invention
4. observational
d. a theory
Use an English-English dictionary 5. experimental E. instrument
and write out the collocations with 6. to pioneer F. understanding
the words: investigation, contribution
and observation. Compare your 7. area of G. science
results as a class. 8. to invent H. papers

Speaking Functional language

Work in teams. Hold a balloon debate. Each team Agreeing and disagreeing
chooses the name of the inventor or discoverer
Opinions I think (that)… In my opinion…
they have learnt about. Explain why his/her
As for me…
invention/discovery is so important that the
Agreeing Absolutely; Right / That’s right;
inventor/discoverer should be the last one left in I agree / You’re right
the falling balloon, while the others jump out to Disagreeing I know, but… I take/see your
save him/her. point, but… I’m not sure… That’s
not true… 71
In the realm of science
Words like volt and watt have become part of our
language, e. g. a volt is the unit of electrical potential
and a watt is a unit of electrical power. However, we
sometimes forget that these are the names of famous
scientists. A volt is named after Alessandro Volta (1745–
1827), the Italian physicist. A watt is named after James
Watt (1736–1819), the English inventor of a steam
engine.
Alessandro Volta James Watt
Do you know what these terms mean and who they
are named after?

ampere [´æmpεə] kelvin [´kelvin] Fahrenheit [´færənhait]


bel [bel] curie [´kju(ə)ri] pascal [pæ´skæl]
coulomb [´ku:lɔm] Celsius [´selsiəs] hertz [hə:ts]
roentgen [´rʌntjən; ´rʌntgən] farad [´færəd] ohm [əum]
weber [´webər; ´veibər] newton [´nju:tən] darwin [´dɑwın]

Remember how to say the names of some well-known scientists:

Babbage [´bæbiʤ] Avogadro [ ævə´ga:drəu] Isaac Newton [´aızək ´nju:t(ə)n]


´
Curie [´kju(ə)ri] Descartes [dei´ka:t] Pythagoras [pə´θægərəs; pai–]
Bohr [bɔ:r] Aristotle [´æri stɔt(ə)l] Hippocrates [hi´pa:krə ti:z]
´ ´
Plato [´pleitəu] Archimedes [ a:kə´mi:diz] Aristarchus [ æri´sta:rkəs]
´ ´
Euclid [´ju:klid] Einstein [´ainstain] Roentgen [´rʌntjən; ´rʌntgən]
Module 4:  Evolution of natural sciences

Arithmetic operation is a mathematical expression involving numbers.


Division : 21:3=7 twenty one divided by three is/equals seven
Multiplication – the multiplication of four by three gives twelve
× 4×3=12
or times – four times three equals twelve
Subtraction – the subtraction of three from four leaves one
– 4–3=1
or minus – four minus three equals one
Summation, – the summation of four and three gives even
+ 4+3=7
addition/plus – four plus three equals seven
– twenty five divided by five is/equals five
Equality = 25:5=5
– twenty five divided by five is equal to five

Read and remember some mathematical symbols.

≠ is not equal to ⊂ or ⊂
_ is a subset of || is parallel to
< is less than ⊄ or ⊄
_ is not a subset ∞ infinity
> is greater than ∪ the set of π pi, 3.14159
≤ is less than or equal to ∩ the intersection of ≅ is congruent to
72 ≥ is greater than or equal to ∠ angle ∴ therefore
Parentheses ↔ line AB √ square root
( ) AB
(grouping symbol)
⎯ right angle
Brackets AB segment AB
[ ] factorial
(grouping symbol) !
→ ray AB
AB
Braces ∑ the sum of
{ } ⎯
(grouping symbol) AB the length of AB
numeric constant
e
| | Absolute Value Bars ∆ triangle 2.71828
∈ is an element of ≈ is approximately equal to ⊥ perpendicular
∉ is not an element of ~ is similar to ° degree(s)

Progress monitoring
In this unit you have worked on the following vocabulary related to the topic “Evolution
of Natural Sciences”:
to make a discovery/invention...................  to develop an idea/theory/principle.................. 
to measure time/distance/mass..................  scientific accomplishments................................... 
to examine/study/investigate sth.............  theoretical/experimental science........................ 
to determine/observe sth.............................  to make a contribution to science....................... 
to count/calculate/compute sth................  to lead to a discovery of sth.................................. 
addition/summation/plus...........................  accidental/unexpected discovery....................... 
subtraction/minus.........................................  joint/shared/independent invention................. 
multiplication/division................................  to revolutionize understanding of sth................ 
to equal sth/to be equal to sth....................  to conduct/make experiments............................. 
to make observations.....................................  to be awarded a Nobel Prize................................. 

Tick () the points you are confident about and cross () the ones you need to revise.
UNIT 11:  A giant leap

Lead-in
It is interesting to know
The most revolutionary and important discoveries
On July 20, 1969, the astronauts of
in science are often called breakthroughs. Work with Apollo 11 made the first landing on the
a partner. Make a list of breakthroughs and inventions Moon. Commander Neil Armstrong
made in the 20th century. was the first person to walk on the
Moon. As he took his first step out
Discuss your lists as a class and agree on five of the lunar module, he radioed these
words to the earth: “That’s one small
breakthroughs and inventions that you think have step for a man; one giant leap for the
changed the world we live in. mankind”.
73
Reading

Read the text about the breakthroughs of the 20th century. Find out what changes they
have brought about. Complete the chart.
Breakthrough Implication

Computers, • new ways of gathering information, communicating, etc;


World Wide Web • the spread of programmable electronic devices
.................................................. …………………………..............................................……………………………........…

.................................................. …………………………..............................................……………………………........…

of the 20th
century
A n unprecedented explosion of creativity,
insight, and breakthrough occurred in
every field of science in the last century.
However, choosing the most important
breakthroughs and inventions of the
last 100 years is like choosing the most
It started without airplanes, television, beautiful flower in a garden of roses. When
computers and ended with spacecraft one invention leads to the next, which is
on Mars and a walk on the Moon along the more important, the chicken or the egg?
way, the structure of DNA and a model of Some breakthroughs, like Einstein’s theory
the atom, advances in particle physics and of relativity, redefined our understanding
cosmology, as well as wireless internet. of the universe, while others had more
These discoveries profoundly changed the impact on everyday life.
way we understand the world and our place Since the 1940s, computers have provided
in it. a way to solve complex problems and
Module 4:  Evolution of natural sciences

penetrated nearly every aspect of our lives. time TV has transformed how much and how

century
The rise in the 1990s of the internet, the quickly we see the world, and—more than
World Wide Web and e-mail are changing the radio or motion pictures—how we spend our
way we gather information, communicate leisure time.
th
BREAKTHROUGHS of the 20
and shop. Programmable electronic devices Albert Einstein’s general theory of
of all sorts have come to influence modern relativity was another great 20th century
society to such a degree that future breakthrough. It provides deep insights
generations may well characterize the 20th into the nature of gravity, as well as the
century as the Computer Age. world’s understanding of itself. For the
Francis Crick and James Watson won first time, his work proved that space can
a Nobel Prize after solving mystery of be curved and that time could differ from
the human genetic coding called DNA in point to point. His theory also led to the
1953. They discovered how the genes for conclusion that all the galaxies, and the
recreating life were arranged in a double whole universe had originated in a Big
helix (spiral). Existing in every cell, Bang, thousands of millions of years in
DNA controls what we look like and our the past. And so the modern science of
susceptibility and resistance to disease, cosmology was born. By describing how
and tells our cells how to act to keep our light moves, Einstein created principles
bodies functioning. that led us to lasers and transistors. And
The first entirely synthetic plastic, his suggestions, via his special theory
Bakelite, was invented—by accident, as of relativity, that a little mass of matter
74 it happened—by American chemist Leo could create tremendous energy led to the
Baekeland in 1909. Early uses included atomic bomb and the Nuclear Age. It is often
radios, light sockets, jewelry, telephones, claimed that no breakthrough has shown
washing machines, fishing reels and guns. more negative and positive potential.
Later synthetics, like cellophane, nylon and Three American physicists received the
Teflon, brought revolution of their own. 1956 Physics Nobel Prize for their joint
From the launching of the first satellite invention of a transistor. Transistors played
in 1957—Sputnik—to man’s walk on the moon a key role in the advancement of electronics.
12 years later to today’s sophisticated Today’s computer microchips are tens or
telescopes, shuttles and trips to Mars, even hundreds of millions of transistors
space exploration has opened a new and derivative devices on a  single wafer1
frontier. Lessons learned in space also have of silicon. Without transistors we wouldn’t
had implications for some very earthbound have personal computers, cell phones, fax
problems. machines, modems, or most other modern
Technology that allowed images to be electronic devices.
transmitted over wires was being developed Adapted from the Internet sites
in the 1920s. In 1932, the heart of the TV,
the electron scanning tube was patented ь: тех. кремниевая
1
a wafer of silicon—здес
under the name of an iconoscope. Since that плата, подложка

Explain what the highlighted words and expressions mean. Use a dictionary or consult
your teacher if necessary.

Discuss  Do you agree with the choice of the most significant discoveries and inventions given
in the text? Why?/Why not?
 Have these scientific and technological achievements made the world a better place
to live? Give reasons for your opinion.
 Which of them would you ban? Why?
UNIT 11:  A giant leap

Focus on language Like v [laık] 1. to enjoy or approve of (sth/smb) I like it


when a book is so good that you can’t put it down.
Read the sentences and study the 2. to want (sth) I’d like to go to Greece for my holidays.
dictionary entry for the word like. 3. prep, conjunction similar to, in the same way or manner
as He looks like his brother.
What part of speech is this word in
the following sentences? 4. adj [not gradable] people who are described as like-
minded share the same opinions, ideas or interests.
1) …choosing the most important 5. pl. n Your likes are the things that you enjoy.
breakthroughs and inventions of
the last 100 years is like choosing the most beautiful flower in a garden of roses.
2) Some breakthroughs, like Einstein’s theory of relativity, redefined our understanding
of the universe…
3) …DNA controls what we look like and our susceptibility and resistance to disease…

Read and translate the sentences into your native language. What is the function of the
word like?
1) They look like they have failed the exam.  2) He likes helping in the lab.  3) We have
a lot in common with my sister, the same likes and dislikes.  4) Which of the books do
you like best?  5) Like I said, I don’t mind helping you with this task.  6) Have you met
your new tutor? What’s he like?  7) I would like to take up a text and speech processing 75
course next year.  8) There’s nothing like a nice cup of coffee in the morning to wake
you up.

Make up five sentences of your own with different functions of the word like.

Read the sentence from the text and decide what parts of speech the words in bold are.
The first entirely synthetic plastic, Bakelite,
was invented
by American chemist Leo Baekeland in 1909.

-ity means condition or quality of sth; e. g. capability


-sion, -tion means act of sth; state of sth; e. g. position
-er, -or means one who; that/which; e. g. programmer
-ist means one who; that/which; e. g. biologist
-ance, -ence means act of sth; state of sth; quality of sth; e. g. assistance
-ness means state of sth; e. g. toughness
-ment means act of sth; state of sth; result of sth; e. g. placement
means: —state or condition; domain, position, rank;
-dom
a group with position, rank; e. g. wisdom

means characteristic of sth; means full of; having;


-ic -ous
like sth e. g. heroic e. g. gaseous
means relating to sth; means full of; having;
-al -ful
e. g. manual e. g. careful
means able; or giving; -less means without; e. g. useless
-able
e. g. portable
-en means made of; e. g. wooden
Module 4:  Evolution of natural sciences

means characteristic of sth; at the end of a word almost always makes


-ic
like sth e. g. heroic -ly an adverb; occasionally it will make
an adjective; e. g. quickly
means relating to sth;
-al
e. g. manual
means able; or giving;
-able
e. g. portable
means full of; having; -en means to make; e. g. soften
-ous
e. g. gaseous
-ize means to make; e. g. categorize
means full of; having;
-ful means to have or
e. g. careful -ate
be characterized by; e. g. activate
-less means without; e. g. useless
means to cause to become or
-ify or -fy
-en means made of; e. g. wooden to make; e. g. simplify

Using the suffixes from the table above make different wide / act / develop / conclude
parts of speech with the words from the box. Make up / mystery / observe / create /
five sentences of your own with the derived words. theory / compute / identify /
sharp / relativity
76
Prefix, stem and suffix are three parts of the word. It is possible to guess the meaning of
the word if you know the meaning of the prefix or suffix. Refer the prefixes below to the
categories:

Size Location Time and Order Number Other

trans- / multy- / peri- / mega- / semi- / bi- / dec- / micro- / auto- / pre- / mini- /
mono- / super- / post- / inter- / tri- / oct- / tele- / sub- / extra- / hydro- /
photo- / aero- / co- / fore-

Match each word in column A with the meaning of its prefix in column B. Translate the
words into your native language. Use a dictionary if necessary.

1. semiconductor a. under
2. extraordinary B. two
3. monologue C. before
4. transmission D. very small
5. submarine E. half, partly
6. bilingual F. beyond
7. microchip G. across
8 . prefix H. one
Speaking
Every discovery or invention has its downside. Work in teams. Choose one of the discoveries/
inventions and write down two or more negative effects you can think of. Back up your
opinion with real life examples. Share your ideas with the class.
UNIT 11:  A giant leap

most important
I believe that invention of TV was one of the
breakthroughs of the last cent ury. Howe ver, I often
TV, not want ing to do anything
find myself just glued to
ite realit y show s or come dies.
else but watching my favor
… I wish I woul d spen d more
It’s such a waste of time
or going out with my frien ds, or… ,
time reading books
Writing

Work in pairs. Think of the arguments in favour of or against the statement: Scientific and
technological achievements have made the world a better place to live. Make brief notes
under for and against headings.
Example: For Against

…has made our life more comfortable …is used to kill people
…improves communication, etc. … …spoils nature, etc. …

Write a composition of 200–250 words discussing the statement above. Make use of the
Study Help and the Functional language boxes.
Study help
Functional language
Outline 77
It is often said that…  Firstly / Another point is that…
Introduction
However, in my opinion, …  Also / besides / what is more, …
Paragraph 1—Introduce the subject
While it is true that… , on the other hand, …  As a result… of the composition. State why it is an
At the same time… Finally, it is important to remember that… important issue at the present time.
For example, for instance, …  To sum up / All in all, … Main body
Paragraph 2—Give the argument in
.................................................................................................. favour of the statement.
Paragraph 3—Give the argument
.................................................................................................. against the statement.
.................................................................................................. Conclusion
Paragraph 4—Conclude by giving a
..................................................................................................
well-balanced opinion. J
..................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................

Reading
philosopher
Work with a partner. Give definitions to the words. explorer
Example: A scientist is a person who has expert knowledge of one or more discoverer
sciences, especially a natural or physical science. A scientist scientist
uses observation, experimentation and theory to learn about inventor
a subject (biologists, physicists, chemists, geologists, and
astronomers are all scientists.)
Module 4:  Evolution of natural sciences

Match the names of the scientists and researchers with their achievements. Discuss as
a class.

1. Alfred Nobel A. structure of dna


2. Andrey Kolmogorov B. digital compact disk
3. Norbert Wiener C. dynamite
4. Watson & Crick D. ms disk operating system
5. Edwin Hubble E. 1st personal computer
6. Tim Berners-Lee F. underwater exploration
7. Bill Gates G. proof of expanding universe
8. Albert Einstein H. Linux operating system
9. Ed Roberts I. theory of relativity
10. Alfred Wagener J. cybernetics
11. Reynold Johnson K. algorithmic complexity theory
12. Linus Torvalds L. magnetic disk drive

78 13. James Russell M. continental drift


14. Jacques-Yves Cousteau N. the World Wide Web

Read the text to learn more about Alfred Nobel’s life and work.

Double-edged sword
T he double-edged sword of discovery is exemplified
by the life of Swedish chemist and inventor Alfred
Nobel, who left instructions in his will to recognize people
He died in Italy on December 10, 1896. In his will, he
directed that his estate—about $4 million, the equivalent
to about $173 million today—be used for prizes in
whose work was of the greatest benefit to mankind. chemistry, physics, physiology or medicine, literature
Nobel made a fortune by inventing dynamite, which and peacekeeping.
greatly improved the safety of explosives. He initially With the exception of the Peace Prize, all Nobel
hoped that his invention would put an end to war, by Prizes are awarded at the Stockholm Concert Hall in
making it so horrible that no one would want to engage Stockholm, Sweden.
Adapted form:  www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001/nobel.100/overview.html
in it. He was wrong—fundamentally wrong—but the Nobel specified that prizes in science and literature
wealth generated from his invention did create the were to be awarded by a Swedish committee, while the
Nobel Peace Prize. peace prize was to be given out by a Norwegian panel.
A meeting with Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero, So it has been more than a century since Nobel issued
inventor of nitroglycerine, led to Nobel's invention of his orders.
dynamite. Because nitroglycerine and its production Each year, thousands of international experts and
were difficult to control—an explosion killed Nobel's research institutes are invited to nominate candidates,
brother Emil in 1864—Nobel tried adding different and previous Nobel Prize winners also may submit
substances to make it safer. He eventually mixed it with nominations. The nominations are carefully investigated.
silica, making a paste that could be shaped into rods Then, the committees present a selection of possible
and inserted into drilling holes. In 1867, he patented this candidates to the prize-awarding institutions, and a
material, calling it dynamite. vote is taken. The year's laureates are announced
His invention was a boon1 during the era of rapidly immediately after the vote.
1
а boon — благо,
growing industries and cities, because dynamite The Nobel Prizes have tremendous prestige and
благодеяние
reduced the cost of blasting rock and drilling tunnels. offer significant financial rewards. The annual Nobel
It was a profitable one, too, and Nobel became a very Prize ceremonies last for a week in December in
wealthy man. In fact, Nobel held the patent for some Stockholm and Oslo, culminating on December 10—the
600 inventions, including dynamite. anniversary of Nobel's death.
UNIT 11:  A giant leap

Answer the questions.


 How many inventions did Nobel register?
 Who inspired Nobel to invent dynamite?
 How did the world benefit from Nobel’s invention
of dynamite?
 What problems did this invention bring about?
 Who awards Nobel Prizes in science and literature?
 What time of year does the ceremony take place?
Why?

Discuss  Why do you think the text is entitled “Double-edged sword”? What idea is emphasized
with such a title?
 Name the most outstanding discoveries/inventions in your subject area. What are
their strong and weak points?
 Name the most outstanding scientists of the 20th century in your subject area. What
was their contribution to scientific research?
 What Nobel Prize winners from Russia do you know? In what fields of science did they
get their awards? 79

Get real Search the internet or popular science magazines. Find information about national and
international awards in natural sciences. Report back your findings to the class. Make use
of the guidelines:
 science it is awarded in  when and how often it is awarded
 type of reward  criteria for recognition
 a brief history of the award  2–3 winners and their outstanding
 prize-awarding committee\institution achievements

Listening

Look at the words below and say which field(s) of science they refer to.

polythene compound ethylene molecule benzaldehyd


explosive plastic atom waxy solid pressure

What do you know about polythene and its uses in our everyday life?

You are going to listen to Anthony Willbourn talking about the discovery of polythene.
As you listen, mark the statements below T for “true” or F for “false”. Correct the false ones.
1) Anthony Willbourn is a journalist. ...............................................................................[.....]
2) He was lucky to meet and talk to people that discovered polythene. ..................[.....]
3) A team of researchers discovered polythene in 1939. . .............................................[.....]
4) The researchers were investigating the phenomena at high pressures. ...............[.....]
Module 4:  Evolution of natural sciences

5) Their discovery was made by accident. . ......................................................................[.....]


6) The experiments were carried out in a well-equipped laboratory. ........................[.....]
7) Scientists failed to find practical applications of polythene at that time. ...........[.....]
8) The substance was launched into mass production the month after the
war broke out. . ...................................................................................................................[.....]
9) Radars helped the British Aircraft, RAF, to contain Luftwaffe attacks. . ............[.....]

Speaking
Work in small groups. Think of any discovery or invention made in your field of science in
the 20th century. Which do you think has been of major importance for the advance of
science and technological development? Give reasons for your choice of the discovery or
invention. Tell the class about them.

In the realm of science


Learn how to say the singular and plural nouns.

phenomenon [fi´nɔminən] phenomena [fə´nɔmınə]


80 medium [´mi:diəm] media [´mi:diə]
radius [´reidjəs] radii [´reıdiaı]
analysis [ə´næləsıs] analyses [ə´næləsi:z]
crisis [´kraısıs] crises [´kraısi:z]
formula [´fɔ:mjulə] formulae [´fɔ:mjuli:]
nucleus [´nju:kliəs] nuclei [´nju:kliaı]
axis [´æksıs] axes [´æksi:z]
index [´ındeks] indices [´ındısi:z]

Read and remember some of the words that are frequently used in science or common to
two or more sciences.

active, age, alternative, component, compound, continuous, cross, decrease, direct,


General
discharge, disturbance, environment, equation, explanation, generation, impurity,
Science
interpretation, layer, link, nucleus, origin, proof, reference, relative, section,
Words
sensitivity, similarity, solution, specimen, stimulus, surface, transmission, tube
absorption, buoyancy, charge, circuit, collision, density, dissipation, explosion,
Physics—Chemis-
insulator, lens, medium, oxidation, particle, pendulum, radiation, reagent, receiver,
try
solvent, stream, valency
amplitude, approximation, arbitrary, circumference, constant, denominator,
Mathematics diameter, fraction, infinity, intersection, lever, magnitude, momentum,
and Mechanics multiplication, numerator, prime, product, quantity, ratio, rectangle, total, triangle,
unknown, variable, velocity, volume
abdomen, cavity, claw, degenerate ferment, fertilizing, fiber, gland, host, inheritance,
Biology
metabolism, parent, secretion, skull, soil, stain, tissue, vascular, wild
cave, clay, desert, drift, erosion, eruption, flood, fracture glacier, ground, inclusion,
Geology
limestone, ore, plain, sedimentary, shore, texture, valley
UNIT 11:  A giant leap

Read and remember the prefixes that show various sizes. Add more words to each group.

Number Prefix Symbol Example Number Prefix Symbol Example

10 1
deka- [´dekə-] da decade 10 -1
deci- [´desı-] d decilitre
10 2 hecto- [´hektəυ-] h hectometer 10 -2 centi- [´sentı-] c centigram
10 3 kilo- [´kıləυ-] k kilofoot 10 -3 milli- [´mıli-] m millibar
10 6
mega- [´megə-] M megabyte 10 -6
micro- [´maıkrəυ-] u (Greek µ) microinch
10 9
giga- [´gıgə-] G gigaflop 10 -9
nano- [´nænəυ-] n nanoampere
10 12 tera- [´terə-] T teraohm 10 -12 pico- [´pi:kəυ-] p piconewton
10 15 peta- [´petə-] P petajoule 10 -15 femto- [´femtəυ-] f femtosecond
10 18
exa- [´eksə-] E exavolt 10 -18
atto- [´ætəυ-] a attohertz
10 21
zetta- [´zətə-] Z zettakelvin 10 -21
zepto- [´zeptəυ-] z zeptomole
10 24 yotta- [´jɔtə-] Y yottawatt 10 -24 yocto- [´jɔktəυ-] y yoctocalorie

Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, 8th edition

Progress monitoring
In this unit you have worked on the vocabulary related to the topic “Evolution of the 81
Natural Sciences”:
to make a breakthrough.................................... to solve complex problems...............................
the advancement of electronics...................... dramatically/essentially/profoundly............
to have tremendous/great/practical technological achievements.............................
effect on sth.......................................................... double-edged sword discovery
scientist/philosopher/explorer/ or invention.........................................................
inventor/discoverer........................................... to be of the greatest benefit to mankind.......
programmable electronic devices................... to experiment with different techniques......
to find practical applications........................... to solve the mystery of human genetic
to open a new frontier....................................... code........................................................................
to launch a satellite............................................ to redefine sth/sb’s understanding................
to transmit images over wires......................... deep insights into the nature of sth...............
to show positive or negative potential.......... to nominate candidates for a prize.................
Tick () the points you are confident about and cross () the ones you need to revise.
Science students often have to work in a laboratory. A lot of funny and ridiculous things
happen there. Make up a chain story to describe one of them.
Example: Peter got into a lot of trouble a couple of days ago. The trouble began at his
chemistry lab class.
Cue: While .........................
Student A: While the teacher was explaining the procedure of the experiment he
was looking out of the window and daydreaming.
Cue: When .........................
Student B: When students started heating the substances he by mistake took the
wrong test tube. He was nearly frightened to death to see the substance going out
82 of the tube and splitting on the desk and his clothes. The desk got stains on it and
his jeans got holes in them.
Cue: ......................... before .........................
Student C: The teacher was very angry with him, though he was glad Peter had
remembered to wear goggles before starting the experiment. Anyway, Peter’s lab
work was a complete failure and now he has to…
Cue: .........................
when / after / before / as soon as / already /
Student D: .........................
while / by the time / never / then / next /
for / since / because / after that / later

Use the word in block capitals to form one word that fits in the gap in the sentence.
1) Any ......................... data should be confirmed experimentally. theory

2) I’ve always wanted to be a ......................... . science

3) What ......................... reaction is going on now? chemistry

4) Hubble’s brilliant ......................... was that the red shift of galaxies observe
was directly proportional to the distance of the galaxy from
Earth.
5) Nicolai Lobachevsky was a great Russian ......................... . mathematics

6) Livingstone was the first European to make an ......................... of explore


the Zambezi river.
7) I’m afraid this device isn’t accurate enough to do all necessary
......................... . measure

8) The ......................... of America forms the beginning of a new period, discover


both in modern history and in modern geography.
9) I’m sure this new digital device will find widespread ......................... . apply

10) The product of two numbers is called ......................... . multiply

11) He was awarded the Nobel Prize for ......................... Black Holes. investigate
UNIT 12:  Review

Divide into five teams. Each team completes word webs for the words experiment,
accomplishment, development, laboratory and technology using its own colour marker. The
word webs are rotated every one minute, then the results are checked in class. The team
that suggests more combinations than the others is the winner.

Explain the similarity and difference between these words and phrases.

  to invent—to patent   experiment—observation   technology—technique


  award—reward   to be nominated for a prize—to be awarded a prize

Read these sayings. Choose one or two you agree or disagree with and discuss them with
a partner.

83

Work in pairs. Think of three words with each prefix from the list below.
Example: telecommunication, teleportation, telescope, etc.

  tele-   micro-   bi-   hydro-   dec-


  aero-   auto-   super-   semi-   trans-
  photo-   mono-   extra-   multi-

See how quickly you can find the answer to this rather
long sum.

Take turns to dictate and note down the following measurements.

Student A Student B
160 zC 205 GB 15 μm 50 yJ 650 ns 1 zmol 100 pC
10 fs 500 EJ 35 dB 2 dal 1024 kHz 40 hg 6 ml
Module 4:  Evolution of natural sciences

Each one teach one


Work on your own. Make a list of ten international and ‘false friends’ words. Ask your
fellow student to sort them out.

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There are no passengers on Spaceship
Earth. We are all crew.
(Marshall McLuhan, 1911–1980)

Burning issues

Learning objectives
In this module you will:
 use diagrams and flowcharts to describe
processes, steps, and stages
 talk about various environmental problems
 write a formal letter and e-mail
 learn how to persuade others to your point
of view
 revisit structures to express purpose
 revisit relative clauses
Lead-in

Work in small groups. Which of the environmental problems listed below are the most
serious? Put them in order, 1–7 (1 = the most serious, 7 = the least serious). Give reasons
for your choice.

  global warming/climate change


  air/water/soil pollution
86   shrinking habitats and loss of bio-diversity
  acid rain
  ozone layer depletion
  deforestation
  natural disasters
• floods
• heavy rainfalls
• violent storms
• droughts

Match the environmental problems with the factors that cause them. Some factors may
go with more than one problem. Choose to write about three problems and the factors
that cause them.
Example: climate change — greenhouse effect — the burning of fossil fuels
The burning of fossil fuels leads to the greenhouse effect which results in climate
change.
Functional language
 industrial toxic waste
Cause and effect
 spread of intensive farming
methods …is a result of… …results/ed in… …is/are due to…
 the burning of fossil fuels (gas, …is the consequence of... …leads to… …is responsible for…
oil, coal) …is the main reason for… …affects… …is affected by…
 nuclear waste The cause of … is … …causes/ed …is caused by…
 destruction of rain forests
 use of CFC gases (chlorofluorocarbons) in industry
 poaching
UNIT 13:  Our home—Planet Earth

Reading Gases Gaseous products Particles formed Water droplets


in atmosphere
Look at the definition. Which
environmental problem does it refer
to?
of
.................................is a result
inat ion wh en
atmospheric contam
als mix
industrial gases and chemic
with water in the air.

Look at the picture. With a partner


brainstorm your ideas about acid
rain. What causes acid rain? How can
it harm the environment?
© Hubbard Brook Foundation
Look through the text about the
acid rain problem and check your
predictions.
Study help

Acid rain is rain that absorbs


microscopic particles of nitric
acid or sulfuric acid as it falls towards the
Needless to
say, the fish
also decline in
The meaning of a word or expression
can often be worked out from the
rest of the context of the sentence,
87

ground. But why do we have acid rain? The number and e.  g. “sulfur and nitrogen oxides
reason lies in atmospheric pollution. As human even die out. are released into the atmosphere.”
From the context, to release must
beings developed their economic behaviour, Then, as the
mean something like to throw out or
they began to use huge amounts of fossil acidity level of emit.  J
fuels, such as coal and oil. When fossil fuel soil increases,
is burned, sulfur and nitrogen oxides are aluminum
released into the atmosphere. These pollutants and other harmful metals contained in the soil
are affected by ultraviolet rays and combine begin to dissolve, which also contributes to
with atmospheric water vapour to form tiny the death of aquatic life. Eventually the lakes
particles of nitric acid and sulfuric acid that cannot support life at all.
float in the atmosphere. When these particles Acid rain makes soil highly acidic, which
dissolve into rain, it falls to the ground as acid leads to the drying and death of forests. Soil
rain. This process is called “wet deposition”. At naturally contains many metallic ions, such
other times these pollutants are absorbed into as calcium and magnesium, and these help
fog or mist in a gas or particle form, deposited to neutralize acid to a certain extent, even
on forests, and eventually return to the soil; in the case of acid rain. However, when this
this is called “dry deposition.” neutralization power is exhausted, the acidity
Chemical substances released from of the soil increases, killing microorganisms
chemical plant chimneys are a major factor in and worms as well as damaging trees.
the contamination of the atmosphere and lead The damage created by acid rain in
to the formation of acid rain. Europe and North America is truly grave. It
Many of us have our own “private is reported that in many European countries
factories” for producing modern acid rain— about one half of the total area of forests has
cars. Vehicle exhausts contain NOx (nitrogen been damaged.
oxides), hydrocarbons, and other chemicals. Countries like Sweden, Norway, and other
The damage caused by acid rain first Scandinavian countries do not contribute
appears in rivers and lakes. When the water much to atmospheric pollution, but they are
of a lake declines to pH5 or so, at first the suffering extensive damage from atmospheric
plankton and aquatic vegetation disappear. pollutants carried there from other countries.
Module 5:  Burning issue

For example, it has been reported that fish between marble and sulfuric acid changes the
have disappeared from one-third of the lakes marble into plaster. Copper items also break
of Norway. down in contact with acid rain. For example,
In Asia acid rain is having truly serious the copper plates of the United States’ Statue
consequences in China, which is the second of Liberty were eaten away to a dangerous
largest producer of coal in the world. degree by acid rain, and needed large-scale
Furthermore, with the expansion of industry reconstruction. Historical structures and
and the spread of the automobile, acid rain is buildings, which have been handed down as
becoming a serious issue even in developing cultural heritage for centuries, have been
countries. in danger of being lost in the past several
Historical sites and buildings are also decades simply because of acid rain.
damaged by acid rain, especially in Europe Acid rain is no longer someone else’s
with its many historical buildings made of problem: it’s happening here.
marble and copper. The chemical reaction Adapted from:  www.virtualglobe.org/en/info/env/

Read the text again and complete the cause and effect chart for
acid rain.
ACID RAIN
What causes it? What are the consequences?

88 increase the amount of dangerous gases


exhaust gases from cars in the atmosphere
................................................................... kill(s) fish
................................................................... pollute(s) the soil
................................................................... ...................................................................

................................................................... ...................................................................

................................................................... ...................................................................

Look back in the text and find words that have similar meaning to

  enormous (adj)   harm (n)   serious (adj)


  influenced (past participle)   leads to (v)   whole (adj)
  very small (adj)   deactivate (v)   widespread (adj)
  melt (v)   degree (n)   results (n)
  main (adj)   completely finished   problem (n)
  pollution (n) (past participle)   fall into pieces (v)

In the text find and translate into your native language the words that:

refer to a means of transport can be used to describe the movement up and down
are the names of chemical elements and compounds

Focus on language
Complete the table. Turn the words given in the table into verbs, nouns and adjectives.
Use a dictionary if necessary.
UNIT 13:  Our home—Planet Earth

Verb Noun Adjective

damage
exhaust
increase
emission
absorb
industrial
extinction
developing/develope
contaminate
contribute
pollutant
decline
harm
89
en anger
expansive
reaction

Fill in the gaps with the right form of the words in capitals.
1) Floods and droughts are serious issues in ......................... countries. develop

2) We are worried by the ......................... amount of carbon dioxide in increase


the atmosphere.
3) There should be laws to protect ......................... species from danger
poaching.
4) By the year 2030, 25% of all animals, birds, fish and insects may be
......................... . extinction

5) Vehicle exhausts are the major ......................... of the air. contaminate

6) The ......................... effect of deforestation on wildlife is growing harm


bigger every year.
7) The ......................... number of whales in the oceans is one of the decline
major concerns for marine biologists.
8) I have never worked with such highly ......................... substances! reaction

9) It is very costly to restore historical structures and buildings


......................... by acid rain. damage

Read these sentences. What grammar rule do they follow?


1) Acid rain is strongly acidic rain which/that absorbs microscopic particles of nitric
acid or sulfuric acid as it falls towards the ground.
Module 5:  Burning issue

2) In Asia, acid rain is having truly


serious consequences in China, Relative clauses with which, that, who, whose, where
which is the second largest If relative clauses give essential information they do not
producer of coal in the world. have commas.
3) As the acidity level of soil e. g.: A good lab assistant is one whose equipment works
increases, aluminum and other well.
harmful metals contained in If relative clauses give extra information, and can be left
the soil begin to dissolve, which out, they have a comma before the clause and a comma or a
full stop after it.
also contributes to the death of
e. g.: My junior brother wants to study in Boston
aquatic life. university, where I did my postgraduate course.
Which/that can be omitted if they are the object in a
Put in which, what or that. Put a relative clause.
comma if necessary. e. g.: The book (that/which) he is reading now is about
great maritime explorations.
1) She cycles to work every day, which Which can be used in a relative clause to refer to the whole
makes her healthy. 2)  Everything sentence.
......................... he told us about water e. g.: Acid rain makes soil highly acidic, which leads to
pollution made me upset.  3) Graffiti the drying and death of forests.
is vandalism. This is ......................... What is used in relative clauses to mean the thing that.
we need to understand.  4) The e. g.: What the lecturer said about the consequences of
acid rain was shocking.
90 world’s population is growing
very fast ......................... makes the
world critically short for food and water. 5)  Even
with just an A-level in Biology I  could understand
......................... they were doing.  6)  Planting trees is
a great thing ......................... also makes us feel better
and encourage less littering.  7)  I did everything
......................... I could to save an entangled
seal.  8) She joined a Girl Scout team .........................
surprised us all.  9) Our modern lifestyle is destroying
the fragile environment ......................... leads to the Acid rain
Influence of acid rains on architecture
environmental catastrophe. monuments

Get real Search the environmental websites or specialised magazines to get information about the
ways to solve the acid rain problem. Make notes on what you have found and report back
to the class.

Listening

Work with a partner. Brainstorm as many environmental problems as you can typical of
big cities. Compare your ideas as a class.

sew
age wa reatment litter
in the streets
dump
sites/landfill
s
ter t
UNIT 13:  Our home—Planet Earth

You are going to listen to an environmentalist talking to students about pollution of the
environment. The words below are all to do with waste. Match each word in A with its
definition in B.
1. debris a. materials that are no longer needed and are thrown away
(especially left over after the completion of a process)
2. trash B. small pieces of rubbish/garbage such as paper, cans and bottles,
that people have left lying in a public place
3. waste C. pieces of wood, metal, brick, etc. that are left after sth has been
destroyed
4. litter D. things that you throw away because you no longer want or need
them

Listen to the talk and answer the questions.

 What kind of pollution is the main  Why is plastic litter so harmful?


focus of the talk?  Why are entanglement and
 Why aquatic pollution is such a serious indigestion the two major problems
environmental problem? for the wildlife in waterways?
 What types of pollution does the  How does debris contaminate water?
environmentalist mention?  What is the purpose of the talk? 91
 What are the main sources of water
pollution?

Discuss  Litter is ugly, dangerous and expensive. Moreover


it multiplies and travels. Why is it so?
 Who do you think is responsible for solving the
problem of litter in cities?
 Have you ever participated in a cleaning up activity
or any other civic improvement programmes in
your city? Do you think such programmes can Piccadilly Gardens (Manchester, England)
help to improve your community? How would Just part of the aftermath of the UEFA Cup
Final between Rangers and Zenit St Petersburg
you feel walking along a street after you helped to on 14 May 2008
clean it of litter?

Speaking Functional language

Interview ten (or more) of your fellow students Presenting another point of view
about the most serious environmental Some of the people think that…
problems in your hometown.
Each of the interviewees believes that…
How different are their opinions? Discuss
Most of the people agree / disagree that…
your findings as a class. Use the phrases in the
Hardly anybody / Nobody feels that…
Functional language box.
According to the majority of people…
Two of the ten respondents say…
50% of the people point out that …
Writing Analyse your findings and make a bar chart
Very few people / All the people claim that… , etc.
like the one on page 92 reflecting your survey
results. Write a report on the results of your
survey. Make use of the Survey Report Form.
Module 5:  Burning issue

Study help
A survey report
To write a survey report, follow these steps:
1. Outline the purpose of performing your
survey—detail why this survey was developed,
who developed it and what outcome you
expected.
2. Define how the survey was performed—fully
describe how you chose your survey takers,
questions asked and any other relevant
information.
3. Gather your statistical information and
organize this into a table, bar chart or graph
that can be visually understood by the reader.
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................
A survey:............................ 4. Write a conclusion that sums up your
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findings.  J
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Introduction & Objective
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Survey
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Questions & Findings
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Conclus
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....
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.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Visual representation
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
of the statistical data
(a table/bar chart/graph)
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Name........................................ Date..........
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UNIT 13:  Our home—Planet Earth

Reading Read the texts on various green initiatives that are introduced worldwide and make a
table summarizing the information they contain. Think carefully about the structure of
the table.

Eight years ago, officials in Chicago,

O
fficials in the city of Thane, Illinois, decided to
replace the black tar roof on the city government building with a
India, decided to save energy by planted garden. The aim was to reduce energy costs, improve air
putting water heaters powered quality and control the amount of rainwater entering the city’s
by the sun on top of the city's main waste system. Green roofs also help reduce a problem called urban
hospital. The hospital saved thousands heat islands. During hot weather, the building's tar roof could
of dollars in energy costs each year. reach temperatures of up to seventy-six degrees Celsius. With the
Officials then began building solar garden, the temperature of the roof area was reduced by at least
powered water heaters around the thirty degrees Celsius. Workers planted over one hundred fifty
city. Thane later started requiring solar kinds of plants that could survive severe weather. Now, the area
water heaters for all new buildings. And is cooler, the building requires less energy to keep cool, and the
the city offers a reduced property tax roof looks nice. Chicago also offers money to help people pay for
rate for people who place these water building their own green roof systems.
heaters in their homes.

93

Office Practices – ‘Greening Edward Ford’


Towards the end of 2006, Professor Simon Chapman, Acting Head of the
School of Public Health, called a meeting to discuss initiatives the School might
take to become more environmentally responsible. This meeting was attended
by staff from the Environmental Strategies Team and since then, the School
has been progressively changing its office practices to reduce its impact on the
environment under the broad heading ‘Greening Edward Ford’ (the School is
located in the Edward Ford building).
In all offices, staff have control over the air
conditioning in their offices, but prefer not to use
them when possible. Some staff prefer natural
daylight, so the overhead lights are often off.
Even a heritage building, such as Edward Ford,
could further reduce its reliance on air
conditioning by having window shutters or shades
installed on walls facing internal courtyards,
although this is not planned at present.

The United Arab Emirates and will be made using only recycled
the environmental group World Wide materials. Masdar City is expected to
The mayor of London, England, has Fund for Nature have started the Masdar be finished by two thousand sixteen.
made environmental planning an City project. Its aim is to be the greenest The United Arab Emirates has given
important part of his work. The city in the world. The city will meet the company Masdar Initiative fifteen
city has created a Climate Change environmental rules set by the WWF billion dollars to develop future energy
Action Plan to help cut pollution One Living Planet. The city is expected to sources. The country aims to become
levels. London has also started a produce no waste, no carbon pollution a world leader in renewable energy
Green Grid program in the eastern and contain no cars. The city will create technologies. Experts say developments
part of the city. Its aim is to
renewable energy from the wind, sun like this may lead to a greener future for
create and protect planted areas
in which people can enjoy the
and other technologies. And buildings all cities in the world.
outdoors.
Module 5:  Burning issue

Get real Search the internet, specialised magazines or talk to experts who work in your university
to get comprehensive and reliable information about one of the environmental problems
in your country or the region you live in. Summarize the information you have collected
and report back to the class. Follow the guidelines:
 state the problem briefly but clearly
 describe the problem in detail (the causes and effects)
 give examples of green initiatives aimed at solving the problem

Speaking
A big petroleum company has announced that it wishes to build a plant to refine petroleum
products in the countryside area near your city. The plans have divided the community
into three groups:
What can be done… Functional language

 to control the cutting down of forests? Making suggestions


 to clean up the beaches? Well, one thing to do is…
 to reduce air pollution? Another thing to be done is…
 to save rare animals and plants? Another way to help is…
94  to slow down global warming? If we don’t do... , we will (won’t)…
It would be great to…
 to stop the spread of droughts?
We should…
 to reduce floods? We’d better (do sth)…

Writing A big petroleum company has announced that it wishes to build a plant for refining
petroleum products in an area of countryside near your city. The plans have divided the
community into three groups:

Greens Enthusiasts Regulators


You regard the chosen site as You welcome the economic benefits that You would like to strengthen the
an area of outstanding natural the new plant will bring and aim to provide rules on pollution and increase
beauty which should not be technological and financial support, which the fines on companies that
harmed in any way. You oppose will help the refinery to reduce its impact release pollutants.
any construction on the site. on the environment.

Which group do you associate yourself with?

Write a letter to the local authorities of your own city giving your opinion on this problem
and saying which suggestions you agree or disagree with. Follow the model on page 95.

Work in pairs. Exchange your letters and read them. Is the language used by your fellow
student appropriate for a formal letter? Are his/her ideas and viewpoints clear? Make any
suggestions for improvement.
UNIT 13:  Our home—Planet Earth

6345 Willow Avenue


Your address and the date Baltimore, Mariland 21220
4 November 2010
Mr. Charles H.C. Wright
City Hall
Name, address of the company/ Special Projects Officer
person you are writing to 19 Harbor Place
Baltimore, Mariland 21220

Salutation Dear Mr. Wright,


If you know the name of the person, put
it:  Dear Mr. Wright / Dear Mrs. Wright
If not, put:  Dear Sir(s) / Madam
I am writing to express my concern about… /to support the idea____
of…______________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
The body of the letter _________________________________________________________________
Paragraph 1. The introduction _________________________________________________________________
• Say who you are
• Say why you are writing I strongly disagree with… (I see the importance of…)_____________
_________________________________________________________________
Paragraph 2. The message _________________________________________________________________
• Say which suggestions you agree or _________________________________________________________________
disagree with
• Give your reasons In my opinion…___________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Paragraph 3. The conclusion
• Make any different suggestions of I hope you…______________________________________________________
your own _________________________________________________________________
Thank you for your attention to this matter._____________________ 95
If you start:  Dear Sir
Finish: Yours faithfully Yours sincerely,
If you start:  Dear Mr. Wright Janette Grayston
Finish:  Yours sincerely

Functional language
Project work
Debating
All of you are at the meeting which is held to discuss
In my opinion…
the most urgent environmental problems in your city.
If you want my opinion…
Each student plays one of the roles described below.
Read the situation and the role descriptions and decide Agreeing
who will play each role. Divide into 5 groups: I agree (with…)
A—environmentalists I think… is right.
B—bank representatives That’s exactly what I feel.
C—city residents Disagreeing
D—city council members I’m afraid I don’t agree (with…)
E—project managers I don’t think you are right.
Prepare for ten minutes before you begin the meeting. Yes, but listen…
Make use of the functional language in the Functional That’s nonsense!
language box.
Interrupting to make a point
The situation Forgive me for interrupting but…
The World Bank has decided to fund the ”Eco-friendly Can I say something?
city” programme. As the representatives of different Can I make a point?
local organizations and the community you have to Summarizing
discuss the most urgent environmental problems in Can we agree then that…
your city, the ways to solve them, and to decide on Shall we say then that…
projects that will allow coping with the most urgent Well, it seems that the best solution is to…
problems in your neighbourhood. As a result, the
World Bank will choose the most attractive project.
Module 5:  Burning issue

project manager
You live in this city and work in the local branch of the World Bank.
The Board of Trustees appointed you to be the person in charge of the
successful realization of the eco-programme in your city. You introduce
the programme of the World Bank, briefly describe the situation and
conduct the meeting.
environmentalists
You are a member of the local Green Peace organization. You are
concerned with the high level of industrial waste, soil and water
contamination in your city. Present your project and suggest the ways
for its realization.
city residents
You are worried about the shrinking of green spaces and increasing air
pollution in your city. Present your project and suggest the ways and
terms of its realization.
the city counsil member
The City Council is concerned with the poor quality treatment of
sewage waters. Present your project and suggest the ways and terms
of its realization.
96
the world bank representative
You are a member of the World Bank Board of Trustees who is
responsible for choosing the most attractive project and the an
appropriate use of the money donated.

In the realm of science


Practice reading these compounds and chemical reactions.

H2O [´eıt∫ ´tu: ´ǝυ]


HNO3 [´et∫ ´en ´ǝυ ´θri]
NOx [´en ´ǝυ ´eks]
SO2 [´es ´ǝυ ´tu:]
C + O2 → CO2 [si: plʌs ǝυ tu: give si: ǝυ tu:] • C plus O two give CO two
• 1 atom of carbon reacts with 1 two-
atom molecule of oxygen and produces
1 molecule of carbon dioxide

Now take turns to read and note down the following compounds and chemical
reactions.
Student A
H2CO3  P2O5  CaCO3  H2SO4  Na2O  HgO  K3PO3 2Mg + O2 → 2MgO
Student B CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2
2CO + O2 → 2CO2
H 2SO 4  H 3PO 4  MgO  ZnSO 4  NaCl  CuO  NaNO 2
NaCl + AgNO3 → NaNO3 + AgCl
UNIT 13:  Our home—Planet Earth

Learn the pronunciation and the meaning of the chemical elements.

Ag [α:´ʤentәm] argentum Mo [mə´lıbdənәm] molybdenum


Al [ ælju´minjәm] aluminium Mn [mæŋgә´ni:z] manganese
´
Br [´broʋmi:n] bromine N [´naıtrəʤәn] nitrogen
C [´kα:bәn] carbon Na [´səʋdjәm] sodium
Ca [´kælsiәm] calsium Ni [´nıkl] nickel
Cl [´klɔ:ri:n] chlorine O [´ɔksıʤәn] oxygen
Co [kәʋ´bɔ:lt] cobalt P [´fɔsfәrәs] phosphorous
Cs [´si:zjәm] caesium Pb [led] lead
Cu [´kɔpә(r)] copper Pu [plu:´toʋnjәm] plutonium
H [´haıdrəʤәn] hydrogen Ra [´reıdiәm] radium
Hg [haı´drα:ʤirәm] hydrargyrum S [´sʌlfә(r)] sulfur
[´mә:kjəri] mercury Si [´silikәn] silicon
I [´aıәdi:n] iodine Ti [tı´teıniәm] titanium
K [pə'tæsɪəm] potassium U [ju´reıniәn] uranium
Li [´liθiәm] lithium Xe [´zenɔn] xenon 97
Mg [mæg´ni:zjәm] magnesium Zn [ziŋk] zinc

Progress monitoring

In this unit you have worked on the following vocabulary related to the topic
“Environment”:
deforestation................................................  to do harm to sth / to damage sth........................... 
ozone layer depletion................................  to result in sth / to be affected by sth..................... 
pollution/contamination..........................  to be caused by sth / to affect sth............................ 
to save energy costs...................................  green initiative............................................................. 
aquatic wildlife............................................  sewage water treatment............................................. 
a serious issue/grave consequences.......  natural disasters (flood/drought/hurricane)....... 
litter/debris.................................................  extinction of animals or plant species..................... 
the burning of fossil fuels.........................  to save rare animals and plants................................. 
vehicle exhausts..........................................  eco-friendly solutions................................................. 

Tick () the points you are confident about and cross () the ones you need to revise.
Lead-in

What kind of environmental problems has the computer era brought about? Make a list
of problems and discuss them with the rest of the class.

Look at the picture and make suggestions on what the manufacture of one PC requires.
Comment on the environmental hazards of this process.

98

Reading

Read the text. Check if your predictions of the possible environmental hazards correspond
to the information from the text.
Study help
Environmental hazards
of the computer revolution
Some prefixes carry meaning chang-
ing the meaning of the word, e. g.:
un-, in- and dis- indicate a negative

M
1 illions of high technology word processors, meaning;
home computers, telephones and other electronic pre- before a verb means to do sth in
equipment are creeping into every office and advance;
re- means to do again;
children’s bedrooms, transforming work and improving
sub- has the meaning under;
5 entertainment.
over- too much, beyond;
Increasingly, however, scientists are discovering the up- higher; towards the top of sth;
downside. Researchers have found that they are becoming en- indicates a verb formed from an
one of the western world’s biggest environmental hazards. adjective or a noun  J
As e-devices closely blend metals, glass and several
10 types of plastic, they have been described as a “recycler’s
UNIT 14:  The Downside of the computer era

nightmare”. It is cheaper and easier to dump The council’s director admits that the
them in landfill sites compromising air and industry does not do enough to encourage
land quality and let future generations worry recycling and favours incineration for energy
about the problem. What makes computers and production and insists that landfill remains 45
15 other electronic equipment hazardous? There valid in some cases. “We are looking for
are numerous hazardous materials in computer solutions that are environmentally sound and
equipment, in particular with monitors and commercially realistic.” The Council is trying
terminals. The glass tubes in monitors and to encourage manu­factures to redesign their
televisions, called Cathode Ray Tubes, contain products so that they use less energy, cause 50
20 between two-to-five pounds of lead. Computers less pollution and can be more easily recycled.
also contain cadmium and lithium, usually in On the other hand, the companies are urged
the batteries of computers. There are also trace to cut down on the chemicals used in the
elements of mercury. Laptops have fluorescent manufacturing processes.
lamps that create backlight to see image. The Environmentalists are convinced that 55
25 lamps contain mercury. developing more efficient manufacturing
They also waste energy. Most PCs are only processes and standardizing the types of plastic
used for a fraction of the time they are switched and metal used would all help. They urge
on and up to 40 per cent are left on overnight manufacturers to refurbish and reuse rather
or at weekends. than dismantle and recycle old computers. 60
30 The manufacturing process uses up valuable “A lot of companies throw out computers when
resources such as water, and involve highly they are still working in order to get a more
toxic chemicals, such as hydrochloric acid and efficient or faster model. Why can’t they be
99
phosphine, which are used for etching silicon adapted for use in schools and colleges, which
chips in some of Scotland’s microelectronic are short of computer equipment?” asked 65
35 companies. Madeline Cobbing from the environmental
Hopefully, all the waste will have to end. group Greenpeace. She criticized the industry
The European Industry Council for Electronic for suggesting incineration as an alternative.
Equipment Recycling, which includes the large Because of the lethal combination of different
computing companies like Hewlett-Packard, metals and plastics, burning computers could 70
40 has been formed to draw up a set of principles release poisonous dioxins into the atmosphere.
for the disposal of computers.
“Scotland on Sunday” Essential Articles 3, Carel Press, Carlisle

Read the text again and answer the questions.


 What environmental dangers has computer revolution brought about?
 Why should old electronic equipment be carefully recycled?
 What practical steps do the environmentalists take to reduce electronic wastes?
 What is the European Industrial Council for Electronic Equipment Recycling responsible
for?
 What is the other side of incinerating old computers?
 What possible ways to cope with the e-waste problem do environmentalists
suggest?

Using the line references given, refer back to the text and find words or phrases that have
a similar meaning to:
  making better (lines 1–5)   producers (lines 45–50)
  concern about (lines 10–15)   reduce (lines 50–55)
  use more than necessary (lines 25–30)   recommend (lines 55–60)
Module 5:  Burning issue

Read the sentences and match the discard / dangers / throw out / burning /
words in italics with their meanings supports / lack / persuade
from the box.
1) It is cheaper and easier to dump them in landfill sites to compromise the air and land
quality.  2)  Researchers have found that computers are becoming one of the world’s
biggest environmental hazards.  3) He is trying to convince producers that they should
be responsible for reducing their waste without the need for legislation.  4)  Why
can’t they be adapted for use in schools and colleges, which are desperately short of
computer equipment?  5) She criticized the industry for suggesting incineration as an
alternative.  6) The Council favours incineration for energy production and insists that
landfills remain valid in some cases.  7) The Industry Council for Electronic Equipment
Recycling has been formed to draw up a set of principles for the disposal of computers.

Focus on language
Verb Noun
Complete the table. Make nouns from the
verbs given in the table by adding suffixes to recycle recycling
-tion, -ment or -ing. Use a dictionary if to generate
necessary.
100 to pollute
to encourage
Work in teams of three. Make as many
words as possible using the prefixes re-, to combine
dis-, over-, sub-, en-, up-. Compare as a to introduce
class. to develop
-cover / -load / -connect / -assemblies / to require
-large / -source / -grade / -play / -cycle / to produce
-able / -courage / -furbish / -night /
-mantle / -scribe / -come to equip

Study the sentences below and check the Expressing purpose


rules that they follow. with to, in order (not) to, so that, for

To express purpose
1) Highly toxic chemicals are used
for etching silicon chips in some We use to and in order (not) to plus an infinitive
microelectronic companies. when the subject of the main clause and the clause
of purpose are the same.
2) Why can’t they be adapted for use in
In order (not) to is more formal than to.
schools and colleges?
We can use so that both when the subject of the
3) Manufacturers redesign their products main clause and the clause of purpose are the same
so that they can be more easily and they are different.
recycled. We often use so that with can, could or other modal
4) The ICEER has been formed to draw verbs and the main verb.
up a set of principles for the disposal of We use for with a noun or a gerund.
computers.
5) A lot of companies throw out computers when they are still working in order to get
a more efficient or faster model.
UNIT 14:  The Downside of the computer era

Match two halves to make sentences.


1) Many electronics recyclers simply collect a) so that they won’t explode
equipment and do initial disassembly, then scattering shards of glass and
contract with others other materials.
2) Most recyclers charge fees b) to protect our environment.
3) About 50% or more of the United States’ c) in order to determine the mea-
used computers, cellphones and TVs sent to sures aimed at a 6% reduction in
recyclers are shipped overseas greenhouse gas emissions.
4) A reasonably new computer should be
d) to build a new incinerator in an
refurbished
area of countryside near our city.
5) Cathode ray tube monitors should be
disposed properly e) to process equipment.
6) We must create ways to recycle f) for materials recovery.
7) Make sure the reuse organization is accepting g) for recycling.
donations h) so that its owner could sell at
8) The Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement nearly give-away prices.
Plan was established i) for local reuse, and not sending
9) I am strongly against the government’s plans them overseas.
101
Speaking Functional language
Expressing opinion
Work in groups of four-five. Discuss what you or your
friends usually do with your old electronic devices. In our opinion…
First of all, … / Then, … / Next, …
Suggest and discuss any other means that can reduce Moreover, …   Furthermore, …
hazardous effect of the computer revolution. Share The greatest advantage of…
your ideas with the rest of the class. Explain pros and The disadvantage of this way is that…
cons of the suggested solutions. To sum up, …   In conclusion…

Listening
The verbs in A are in the text you are going to listen to. Match each verb in A with its
definition in B.
1. demanufacture A. to restore sth to good condition that is broken, damaged or torn
B. to bring sth back to a former condition
2. break down
C. to repair and clean a device in order to make it more attractive, like
3. donate new
D. to treat substances or devices with chemicals in order to separate
4. refurbish raw materials
5. repair E. to destroy or divide sth into parts in order to analyze it or make it
easier to do
6. restore F. to take goods to pieces in large quantities using machinery
7. reuse G. to treat things that have already been used so that they can be used
again
8. recycle H. to use sth again
9. process I. to give money, food, clothes, etc. to sb/sth, especially a charity
Module 5:  Burning issue

Listen to a recycling supervisor at Environmental Study help


Protection Agency describing the work of electronic
waste recycling centre. As you listen, complete the The process diagrams or flowcharts
allow you to visually represent
diagram of the recycling process.
methods, processes, steps, or stages
that describe how events occur.  J

Repairable
products
Refurbishers

Businesses
Study help
Demanufacturers
Diagrams have the potential to cap-
ture a lot of information on a single
page. They help to show the concep-
tual links between ideas and allow
adding material without the need to
Lead crowd the page.
smelting While drawing diagrams
102 Reading • use lines, colours, branches, arrows,
or some other ways of showing
Read the text and summarize the information in the connections between ideas;
form of a diagram. • leave lots of space to highlight
things, add information or add
questions and words;
• write down key ideas in capitals
as they are easier to read in a
diagram and explanatory notes in
lower case.  J
difficulties before green design can become
commonplace.

S
ome fundamental changes are beginning Manufacturers will have to spend time and
to take place in the computer industry. money to retrain designers, engineers, and
These changes are not about MIPS or assembly workers to perform environmentally
megabytes. They are about manufacturers friendly computer design and manufacturing.
beginning to look for the ways to make their However, the influence can be made less serious
products more recyclable. This process is known because computer companies generally provide
as “green” computer design. employees with regular retraining anyway to
One reason driving green design is the fact that keep up with other new design and manufacturing
computer manufacturing and consumption are practices.
growing rapidly and are becoming a significant One of the most promising “green”
cause for environmental concern. techniques, demanufacturing, currently faces a
Green computer design addresses a number of variety of problems that make it impractical on
primary issues: reducing the resources consumed a large scale in many cases. For example, the
and the waste generated when producing cost of labor required to disassemble, sort, and
computers or components; developing cleaner transport recovered components can be much
manufacturing processes; minimizing the energy higher than the price of simply purchasing new
and other resources that computers consume and components. Researchers are looking for ways to
enabling computers and components to be used overcome this problem.
(and thereby stay out of the waste stream) longer. Abridged and adapted from:
The computer industry must overcome a   Business Xpansion Journal, “Recycling old computers?”,
variety of economic, technical, and organizational Rachel Duran
UNIT 14:  The Downside of the computer era

Get real Search home pages of the leading computer companies and environment websites to get
more information on possible solutions to e-waste problem. Report back to the class and
discuss what you have found.

Writing You are planning to buy a new computer but do not know what to do with the old one.
Write an e-mail message to one of the electronic equipment manufacturers asking for
information on the company’s takeback policies.

Dear Sir/Madam,

I am mailing this via the “Contact Us” link on your website to (1) . ...............................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................... 103
I bought my old PC (2) .................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
Could you give me more information about (3).............................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
I hope you will (4) .........................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................

I look forward to hearing from you soon.


Yours faithfully,
(5)..................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................

(1) explain the purpose of your e-mail (3) ask for information on the items the
(2) provide basic information on your PC company takes back, delivery, package, and
and its components, when and where you prices
bought it, decide whether they are still (4) express your gratitude for the help
working or not (5) sign the letter

In the realm of science

Check the pronunciation and the meaning of the words below. Which of them are chemical
elements? Which are compounds?
nitric acid cadmium sulphur
nitrogen oxide calcium phosphine
hydrochloric acid mercury carbon dioxide
Module 5:  Burning issue

Work in pairs. Take turns to read and note down these elements and compounds:
Student A Student B
Si  SO2  N  P  C  Cd  NO2  Al S  H  O2  CO2  Na  Li  PH5  Zn

Progress monitoring

In this unit you have worked on the following vocabulary related to the topic “Negative
influence of electronic equipment on the environment”:
environmental hazards..............................  to consume energy...................................................... 
landfill sites..................................................  to release poisonous gases......................................... 
incineration..................................................  to encourage/to urge e-recycling............................ 
disposal of electronic equipment............  to donate/to reuse electronic equipment.............. 
to reduce/to limit computer dumping................... 
to produce/to generate e-waste.............. 
to refurbish/to restore/to repair e-devices........... 
liquid............................................................. 
to recycle e-waste/industrial waste........................ 
environmentally friendly/safe................ 
to increase/to decrease the amount
104 to use up natural resources......................  of harmful chemical substances............................... 
a compound..................................................  to be short of sth.......................................................... 

Tick () the points you are confident about and cross () the ones you need to revise.
Join the sentences in two ways, with or without which/that.
1) A lot of rubbish is floating in the sea. It is a real danger to health.
2) The problem of soil erosion is discussed in this chapter. It has occurred ever since
the man began destroy forests.
3) Nuclear energy comes from the energy stored within the nuclei of atoms. They are
the basic building blocks of all matter.
4) The best things in life, such as water and air are free. We often take them for
granted.
5) The manufacture of one PC requires 28 kg of liquid chemicals. All liquid chemicals
have to be neutralized by a further 11 kg of sodium hydroxide.
6) An average PC consumes 100 watts of electricity when switched on but not in use. 105
100 watts of electricity is equivalent to a bright light bulb.
7) New machines use no more than 30 watts. They are given the Energy Star Logo.
8) In 1993, the USA introduced the Energy Star Logo. The ESL eliminated the need
to build 10 extra power stations.
9) In the USA, computers use 5% of commercial power. By 2010, the use of commercial
power by computers could rise to 15%, or 100 billion kilowatt-hours per year.
10) Some factories had developed new manufacturing processes. These processes
considerably cut the amount of wastes produced.

Join the sentences with to, in order (not) to, so that or


for.
1) European countries formed a work group. The
purpose of the work group is to work out the
measures that will limit computer dumping.
2) Old computers can be used in schools and
colleges. They must be dismantled and adapted.
Somewhere in Europe
3) Manufacturers are encouraged to make a lot of
Cemetery of computers
changes to their products. New products need to
be more easily recycled.
4) Hewlett-Packard takes back old computers, faxes, printers, etc. It disassembles the
office equipment, reconditions its components.
5) Hewlett-Packard disassembles old computing equipment, reconditions its
subassemblies. They are used as spare parts for customer’s existing equipment.
6) Manufacturers spend a lot of time and money on various retraining programmes.
They need to retrain designers, engineers and assembly workers to perform
environmentally friendly computer design and manufacturing.
Module 5:  Burning issue

Explain the similarity and difference between these words and word combinations:

  litter—waste   recycle—process
  break down—dismantle   effect—affect
  refurbish—repair   chemical element—chemical compound
Do the crossword to write the word in bold.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

106 1. The reduction of the layer of natural gases that 7. A general increase in the temperature of the
protects the Earth from dangerous ultraviolet world caused by harmful chemicals and gases
radiation. from cars and factories.
2. The reduction of the territory that a plant or 8. The process of compromising soil quality.
animal lives and grows best in. 9. Gases from factories, machines, traffic fumes,
3. A process when different kinds of animals and etc. that form a layer around the Earth and
plants disappear. keep the heat it.
4. Floods, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, etc. 10. Devices and/or their components that are no
5. A result of atmospheric contamination when longer useful.
industrial gases and chemicals mix with water 11. A process when too many trees are cut down in
in the air. an area, which badly damages the environment.
6. The process of making air dirty.

Read these sayings. Choose one or two you agree or disagree with and discuss them with
a partner.

The nation that destroys its soil destroys itself. (Franklin D. Roosevelt)
Modern technology owes ecology an apology. (Alan M. Eddison)
We never know the worth of water till the well is dry. (Thomas Fuller, Gnomologia, 1732)

We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors, we borrow


it from our children. (Native American Proverb)

Each one teach one

Write down a short vocabulary ........................................... ..........................................


list (ten items) on the topic ........................................... ..........................................
“Environment”. Compare your lists. ........................................... ..........................................
Cross out the items you have on
both lists and explain the meaning ........................................... ..........................................
of the rest of the words and phrases. ........................................... ..........................................
UNIT 15:  Review

Writing Look at the pictures and with a partner discuss the environmental problems they illustrate.
Write two or three paragraphs of about 150 words to describe the picture you have
chosen.

1 4

107
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Given so much time, the “impossible” becomes possible,
the possible probable and the probable virtually certain.
One has only to wait: time itself performs miracles.
(George Wald, 1906–1997)

The 20th century


and beyond

Learning objectives
In this module you will:
 organize information in a timeline
 talk about the latest and possible future
achievements in science
 use time and sequence expressions for
narrating and reporting
 write summaries of articles and reports
 learn how to show relationships between
ideas
 revisit Future Tenses
Lead-in  What have been some of the most  Have any of these innovations affected
important innovations in science or you personally?
technology for the last 50 years?  Which of them could you hardly live
without?

Reading  What do you think the most pressing


challenges of the modern day are?
Read the five opening paragraphs of the report at the UNESCO/ICSU World Conference on
Science (WCS) and answer the questions.
 What kind of discoveries do the authors focus on?
110  What have been the unforeseen consequences of advances in science?
 How do the authors prove that “science finds itself in a challenging situation”?
 According to the report, what was the greatest achievement in the 20th century?
 Are the authors optimistic about science in future?

By Paul Hoyningen-Huene, Marcel Weber, Eric Oberheim / “Science for the Twenty-First Century: A New Commitment”

The second half of the 20th century factor that has contributed to the damage to towards a world-wide network of research
has witnessed a great number of scientific the Earth's natural environments and it has activities.
discoveries and technological innovations been used to construct weapons of mass Apart from large-scale research
which have had, and continue to have, destruction—reminding us that with power programmes which require international
the greatest impact on humanity and are comes the responsibility to use it wisely. co-operation, scientific research which
frequently closely interconnected. The At the dawn of the 21st century, science provides little or no short-term economic
origins of the universe, the evolution of finds itself in a challenging situation. Today, profit may be called into question.
life on Earth, the structure and function there are more professionally trained The twentieth century saw more
of biomolecules and many natural scientists than in all previous generations momentous change than any previous
phenomena, ranging from the subatomic to combined together. At the same time century: change for better, change for
the cosmic scale, are far better understood humankind's most pressing challenges worse; change that either brought enormous
today than they were 50 years ago. such as food supply, public health, global benefits to human beings or threatens the
At the same time, the progress that climate change, or the protection of very existence of the human species. Many
scientists have made has provided biodiversity seem to escalate. So, there is factors contributed to this change but the
unforeseen power, which enables us to a need in combined scientists’ efforts. The key factor was the progress in science.
change our lives, our world, as well as our globalization of markets, production, and Nevertheless, in the next 50 years
future. On the other hand, this power can finances may lead to a shift from national science will continue to surprise us both
also have negative consequences. It is a research and development priorities with what it discovers and creates.

Work in groups of three. Each student Field of science


reads one of the texts (A, B or C) and Achievements
completes the table.
Practical application
(comments)
UNIT 16:  Gaining on previous success

Text A
Over the last 50 years our knowledge about elementary such as detectors for air pollution, high-speed photography,
particles and their interactions has advanced tremendously. new mass storage devices for computers (CD-ROMs), surgical
Actually, a whole “zoo“ of new particles has been detected, instruments of various kinds, as well as methods to trap and cool
some of which are extremely short-lived. The development of atoms.
new particle accelerators operating at much higher energies Perhaps the most significant scientific innovation in the last
was a crucial factor in the rapid advances in particle physics. 50 years was research on semiconductors. Microprocessors
Theoretical physicists have made substantial progress in had an enormous impact on electrical engineering. Both their
uncovering the principles governing their interaction. Another astounding efficiency and small size gave rise to a number of
breakthrough was the experimental demonstration of the applications in the most diverse fields. Although computer design
existence of antimatter. had started earlier this century, the extremely rapid development
Moreover the 20th century physics has had a tremendous of ever faster computers with vastly expanded memory became
technological impact. The development of the atomic bomb and possible due to transistors integrated in microprocessors. Virtually
as a consequence the increased knowledge of nuclear physics all of today’s computing and communication devices are based
led to developing reactors to produce electric energy. on this technology.
Giant steps in research in electron optics led to the development Among the other considerable developments is the invention
of instruments such as high resolution electron microscope, the of photo-voltaic cells which can convert light into electric energy.
scanning tunneling microscope, etc. that allow single atoms to be They bring the promise that some day much of our energy needs
studied and manipulated. A new area of technology was born. will be supplied directly by the sun without producing serious
Lasers have proved to have innumerable technological pollution.
applications. These include various measuring instruments
Text B
The Earth sciences deal with the history of our planet. This kind from naturally occurring processes in the global climate 111
of knowledge becomes essential for improving our understanding system.
of the factors that control the global environment. In addition, it Another important development in the Earth sciences took
helps to develop more effective ways of finding and assessing place in the 1950s, when the theory of plate tectonics was
natural resources, energy, and water. Methods for the prediction empirically confirmed. Although an earlier version of this theory
of natural events such as Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, had already been formulated at the beginning of the 20th
landslides, floods or El Niño have been greatly improved. century, it was largely ignored because no one could imagine
Furthermore, important insights into the history of the Earth’s the kind of forces necessary for pushing continents.
climate have been obtained through the analysis of sedimentary Earth science will continue to play the central role in diagnosing
records or ice cores from Greenland. Such knowledge will be and addressing some of the most pressing challenges, such as
critical to differentiate global change caused by human activities climate change and sustainable resource allocation that the
global community faces.
Text C
Biologists had already speculated that the key to body functions and how diseases originate. However, the
understanding how genes can transmit biological information Human Genome Project has also raised strong ethical issues.
from generation to generation must be sought in their molecular For example, the possible misuse of such knowledge, the
structure. protection of individual privacy, intellectual property rights and
Once the structure of DNA was established, the next question the protection of universal access to public information. For this
was how the cell “reads“ the genetic information stored in its reason, the Human Genome Project is accompanied by studies
DNA. In a remarkably short time, a small group of molecular of the potentially far-reaching social consequences the new
biologists cracked the so-called “genetic code“. genetics may have.
Since this so-called “molecular revolution“ in biology, much The possible applications of genetic engineering in
progress has been made towards understanding the mechanisms biotechnology and medicine are only beginning to emerge.
by which a cell’s genome directs the biochemical processes. This Genetically engineered crop plants have been bred which
kind of knowledge plays an increasingly important role in the harbour genes resistant to various plant pathogens. There
development of new therapies. In addition, molecular biology is also an increasing number of therapeutic and diagnostic
has originated areas such as cell biology and neurobiology. pharmaceutical products which are made by genetically
Genetic engineering techniques rapidly became an engineered bacteria.
indispensable tool for biological and biomedical research.
The human genomic DNA sequence will be extremely useful Adapted from:  “Science for the Twenty-First Century: A New Commitment”,
to bio-medical scientists for understanding how the human by Paul Hoyningen-Huene, Marcel Weber and Eric Oberheim

Now exchange information with other students in your group to list all the achievements
mentioned in the texts A, B and C.
Module 6:  The 20th century and beyond

Look back in the texts and find 9 adjectives that are similar in meaning to the word
important. Check in a dictionary the difference in their meanings.

Focus on language
Another, other(s) and the other(s)
Read the sentence from the text Another + singular countable noun
paying attention to the words: • to mean “one more”
another and other(s). Which words e. g.: Could I have another book on this subject?
do they refer to? • to mean “alternative/besides this”
e. g.: The scientists have started another experiment.
One platoon takes continuous
The other + singular noun
readings of blood pressure in different
• to mean “part of the set”
parts of your body; another monitors e. g.: Hold the beaker in one hand and the pipette in the
cholesterol; still others measure other.
blood sugar, hormone levels and
The other + plural noun
immune system activity…
• to mean “the rest of the set”
e. g.: She promised to bring the other books on AI
development next week.
Fill in the gaps in the sentences Other + singular noun
with another, other or others. Put the
112 • to mean “different from the item/person already
where necessary. mentioned”
e. g.: Ask me some other time, when I’m not so busy.
1) What makes some animals
Other + plural noun
cold-blooded and ........................
• to mean “more of the set / additional / some more”
warm-blooded? 2) This book has
e. g.: What are his other inventions?
a page missing. Please give me
• When other is used without a noun, it has -s in the plural
........................  .  3) Some metals are e. g.: His favourite subjects were Maths, Physics,
magnetic and ........................ aren’t. Computer Science and others. (other subjects)
4) I’m not surprised he’s got a sore Other + one or ones
throat—he was eating one ice-cream • another way of substituting for the noun is to use
after ........................  . 5) There’s no other+one or ones
e. g.: This chemical is poisonous. Other ones are
........................ work available at the poisonous too.
moment. 6) I’ve got ........................
three problems to solve.  7) Are
you planning to take ........................ trip to the Himalayas?  8) ........................ internet
sites on the subject of project work were not reliable enough. 9) You shouldn’t expect
........................ to do your work for you.

Read the sentences and determine the relationships between the ideas expressed in each
sentence.

In addition, molecular biology has originated areas such as cell biology and
neurobiology.
The scientists have made the progress that has provided unforeseen power, which enables us
to change our lives, our world, as well as our future.
However, the Human Genome Project has also raised strong ethical issues.
UNIT 16:  Gaining on previous success

Showing relationships between ideas

To connect words and phrases that have the same grammatical function in a sentence we use
conjunctions, prepositions and adverbs.
• conjunctions *
e. g.: The twentieth century saw much momentous change that either brought enormous benefits to
human beings, or threatens the very existence of the human species.

Both… and… when connects two subjects require plural verb


Not only… but also… when connects two subjects, the latter determines
Either… or… whether the verb is singular or plural
Neither… nor…
*  The same grammatical form should follow each word of the pair.
Neither… nor… is already negative in meaning so doesn’t require negative form of a verb
• prepositions
e. g.: Apart from large-scale research programmes, scientific research with little short-term
economic profit may be called into question.
Because of… show cause and effect
Due to…
Apart from… are followed by an object noun show contrast
Except for… continue the same idea
In addition to…
113
Due to… in formal writing is followed by a noun clause introduced by the fact that
• adverbs
e. g.: The chemical sciences developed new analytical tools for the study of living matter, as well as
the environment.
As well as is usually followed by an object noun indicates addition

Change the following sentences using an appropriate conjunction, preposition or adverb.


Translate the sentences into your native language.

Big cities suffer from air pollution. They also suffer from the shortage of fresh
drinking water.
Nowadays biochemistry doesn’t provide an answer to the fundamental
question of the generation of life on earth. Modern biology doesn’t answer this
question either.
The research project will be funded from one of the sources:
local or national.
The research project took a lot of time and much money.
The cost and size of computing power has been reduced. The design and
implementation of the internet allows access to information from all over the globe at an
unprecedented level and speed.
Discovery and study of quasars, black holes
and pulsars were made possible by new observation instruments.
The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is increasing
because the vast amount of fossil fuels is burnt every day.
Listening

Listen about some achievements made in other fields of science during the 20th century.
Complete the table. Check as a class.
Module 6:  The 20th century and beyond

Field of science .............................................. Astronomy ..............................................

Achievements ............................................  . .............................................. ..............................................


............................................  ; and rings around the ............................................  ;
the use of diffusion- planets, nature of comets; Developing tailor-made
reaction equations to ............................................  ; polymers,
understand biological .............................................. ..............................................
pattern formation; ............................................  ; and ceramics;
.............................................. Earth resource satellites ..............................................
............................................  ; of protein hormone;
.............................................. ..............................................
and scientific computing ..............................................
of haemoglobin
Practical Weather forecasting; .............................................. Synthesis and production
application ............................................  ;
.............................................. of ..........................................
.............................................. Tracking hurricanes and .................................... , and
114 storms, ................................. ............................................  ;
............................................ , .......................................... of
.............................................. insulin;
and access to Earth’s Developing compounds
resources; with specific
.............................................. ..............................................
.............................................. ..............................................
and crop diseases

Writing Summarize into a paragraph the information that you have learnt in the unit on the
greatest scientific advances in the 20th century. Follow the guidelines.
 Identify the key points of the
report and the supporting Study help
details the authors use to Summary writing
illustrate them.
A summary is restating someone else’s words—the main
 Summarise the key points and information or argument of another writer in your words.
the supporting details in your • Read the original passage or text very carefully.
own words. • Use a marker pen to highlight or underline what you
 Arrange your information in a take to be the main point of the original text, or make
notes in the margins or on another sheet of paper.
logical order. Make use of the
appropriate linking words you • Form sentences with the help of your keywords. These
sentences should reflect the main content of the text.
have learnt in the unit.
• Connect the sentences using suitable conjunctions.
 Make sure you stated the The first sentence should describe the main content of
authors’ names, the title of the the text. J
report and the source it comes
from in the very first sentences
of your summary.
UNIT 16:  Gaining on previous success

Functional language
 Express your opinion on the
information presen­ted in the The text
report. The report was presented at…
The article
reports on…
Get real Search internet sites and popular The text
deals with…
The article
science magazines to find The author
describes…
information on the latest advances informs on/about…
made in your field of science in the great
first decade of the 21st century. particular interest
I find the
general value because…
Report your findings to the class. information of
little significance
no
Reading

Look at the pictures to see how the microscope has changed over time. Explain what the
words microscope, microscopy and microscopic mean.

115

The first compound Early Biological Atomic force


microscope microscope microslope microscope

Match the words in A with the definitions in B. Translate the words into your native
language.

1. curvature A. allowing you to see through it


B. the fineness of detail that can be distinguished in an image, as
2. refraction on a video display terminal
C. a measurement in space, for example the height, width or length
3. to blur of sth
D. make or become unclear or less distinct
4. resolution E. the fact of being curved or the degree to which something is
curved
5. wavelength F. the turning or bending of any wave, such as a light or sound
wave, when it passes from one medium into another of different
6. transparent optical density
G. the distance between one peak or crest of a wave of light, heat,
7. dimension or other energy and the next corresponding peak or crest

Study the timeline describing the evolution of the microscope. Use time and sequence
expressions in the Functional language box to speak about the history of microscopy.
Module 6:  The 20th century and beyond

Study help
Timelines
The timeline provides a study tool that allows you to
organize information that is presented chronologically.
Timelines would be effective to use in classes in which
you present historical, biological, and other developments.
To make the order clear and to show the sequence of
events, we mention dates and time, and we also use various
links and connectives. J

D
uring the historic period known as the through it, and discovered that it made things
Renaissance, after the “dark” Middle Ages, look larger. Someone also found that such a crystal
there occurred the inventions of printing, would focus the sun̓s rays and set fire to a piece
gunpowder and the mariner’s compass, followed of parchment or cloth. Magnifiers and “burning
by the discovery of America. Equally remarkable glasses” or “magnifying glasses” are mentioned
was the invention of the light microscope: an in the writings of Seneca and Pliny the Elder,
instrument that enables the human eye, by means Roman philosophers during the first century A.D.,
of a lens or combinations of lenses, to observe but apparently they were not used much until the
enlarged images of tiny objects. It made visible invention of spectacles, toward the end of the 13th
the fascinating details of worlds within worlds. century. They were named lenses because they
Long before, in the hazy unrecorded past, are shaped like the seeds of a lentil.
someone picked up a piece of transparent crystal This is a timeline covering the history of
116 thicker in the middle than at the edges, looked microscopes.

Circa1 1000 AD The first vision me­thods for grinding5 and


aid was invented (inventor polishing microscope lenses that
unknown) called a reading allowed for curvatures providing
stone. It was a glass sphere that magnifications of up to 270
magnified when laid on top of diameters, the best available
reading materials. lenses at that time.
Circa 1284 Italian Salvino 18th century Technical innova­
D̓Armate is credited with tions improved microscopes,
inventing the first wearable leading to microscopy becoming
eye glasses. popular among scien­tists. Lenses
1590 Two Dutch eye glass combining two types of glass
makers, Zaccharias Janssen and reduced the “chromatic effect”
son Hans Janssen experimented the disturbing halos6 resulting
with multiple lenses placed in a from differences in refraction
tube. The Janssens observed that of light.
viewed objects in front of the 1830 Joseph Lister reduces
tube appeared greatly enlarged, spherical aberration7 or the
creating both the forerunner2 of “chromatic effect” by showing
the compound microscope and that several weak len­ses used
the telescope. together at certain distances
1665 English physicist Ro­bert gave good magnification without
Hooke looked at a sliver of cork3 blurring the image. This was
through a microscope lens and the prototype for the compound
noticed some “pores” or “cells” microscope.
in it.
1872 Ernst Abbe, then research
1674 Anton van Leeuwenhoek director of the Zeiss Optical
built a simple microscope with Works, wrote a mathematical
only one lens to examine blood, formula called the “Abbe Sine
yeast4, insects and many other Condition”. His formula provided
tiny objects. Leeuwenhoek was calculations that allowed for
the first person to describe the maximum resolution in
bacteria, and he invented new microscopes possible.
UNIT 16:  Gaining on previous success

Functional language
1903 Richard Zsigmondy developed the
Time and sequence
ultramicroscope that could study objects below
the wavelength of light. He won the Nobel Prize in Time
Chemistry in 1925.
In 1942, ...   In the year…
1932 Frits Zernike invented the phase-contrast During the 20th century, ...
microscope that allowed for the study of colourless
and transparent biological materials for which he A decade ago...
won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1953.
Sequence
1933 Ernst Ruska co-invented the electron Before… / Before this, …
microscope for which he won the Nobel Prize in
Physics in 1986. An electron microscope depends For the previous… years, …
on electrons rather than light to view an object, Prior to this, …   Previously, …
electrons are speeded up in a vacuum until …years previously, …    Later on…
their wavelength is extremely short, only one
When / As soon as / After…
hundred-thousandth that of white light. Electron
microscopes make it possible to view objects as During this period, …
small as the diameter of an atom. Throughout this period, …
1981 Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer inven­ted For the following… years, …
the scanning tunneling microscope that gives three …years later, …
dimensional images of objects down to the atomic
Soon / Shortly / Immediately
level. Binnig and Rohrer won the Nobel Prize in
afterwards, …
Physics in 1986. The powerful scanning tunneling
…after which…
microscope is the strongest microscope to date. 117
Adapted and abridged from:
http://inventors.about.com/od/
1
circa — приблизительно, примерно
5
grinding — помол, измельчение
mstartinventions/a/microscope.htm
2
forerunner — предвестник, предтеча
6
halos — ореол, сияние
3
cork — пробка
7
aberration — заблуждение,
4
yeast — дрожжи отклонение

Discuss  What are the applications of  Have they changed over the
microscopes in various sciences? centuries?
 What phenomena can a microscope  What do you think these changes
help to study in your field of science? were caused by?
 What other devices and tools are used  What improvements did they lead to?
in your field?

Get real Search the internet and/or any popular science magazines to find information on
the transformations of any device or tool in your field of science. Create a timeline to
demonstrate its evolution.
Study help
Narrating and reporting
Writing Write a story describing the evolution of
the tool/device you have chosen. Make use When we are writing about past events the
of the timeline and Functional language usage of Past tenses and chronological order are
common. The order in which things happened
box. should be clear and easy to understand.  J

In the realm of science

Read the abbreviations. What do they stand for? Think AI VR IT GM GPS


of their equivalents in your native language. Use a HDTV HTML DNA R&D
dictionary if necessary.
Module 6:  The 20th century and beyond

Here are some of the widely used terms in science that you should know.
Bot—a computer program that performs Gizmo—a general word for a small piece of
a particular task again and again many times; equipment, often one that does sth in a new
shortened from robot and clever way
Breed—to make animals or plants produce Hi-definition—a system which provides
young ones in a controlled way, in order to very high quality images in more detail than
develop new and better types ordinary images
Cellular—connected with or consisting of the Nanotech—short for nanotechnology—an
cells (often used in reference to a telephone area of science that deals with creating
system that works by radio instead of wires) extremely small tools and machines
Cyber—a prefix for things related to Side effect—an extra, usually bad, occurrence
computers, especially the internet (e. g. caused by taking a drug. It is also used in
cybercafe—a place where you can buy drinks non-medical English in a more neutral way
and use computers at the same time) Sci-fi—science-fiction
Gene therapy—a type of medical treatment Teleconferencing—a way of having meeting
that changes someone’s genes to help them between people who are in different places,
get rid of a disease or cure a medical condition using video cameras and computer systems
Genetic engineering—when scientists change that are connected to each other
the genes of a person, plant or animal in order Wi-Fi—short for ‘wireless fidelity’—a system
to make it stronger, healthier, bigger, more for sending data over computer networks
118 attractive, etc. using radio waves instead of wires
Genome—the complete set of genes in a cell Wireless—a system of sending and receiving
or living thing signals (not using wires)

Progress monitoring
In this unit, you have worked on the following vocabulary related to the topic “Latest
Achievements and Future Developments in Science and Technology”:
challenging situation.......................  tremendous/enormous/significant impact..................... 
the most pressing challenges.........  innumerable technological applications.......................... 
to witness sth.....................................  a key/critical/crucial/central factor/role...................... 
origins of sth......................................  considerable developments/innovations........................ 
evolution of sth.................................  scientific/technological innovations................................ 
to make progress...............................  to be an indispensible tool for............................................ 
momentous change..........................  to have far-reaching consequences................................... 
to provide the basis for....................  advances in (chemistry, etc.).............................................. 

Tick () the points you are confident about and cross () the ones you need to revise.
Lead-in Take turns to read the statements about the future.
Do you agree with them? If not, what do you think will
happen? People will have developed
Within fifty years their skills of telepathy and
By the middle of the century many people will be living won’t need any other means
scientists will have discovered a on the Moon and Mars. of communication.
way to stop ageing and terminal
diseases such as cancer, AIDS, etc.
Breakthroughs will also
We’ll live longer, 120
be made in research on
years or more.
Mankind may contact other living beings cultivating human organs.
beyond our solar system sometime at the 119
end of the 21th century. We won’t need doctors as
we’ll have micro machines We won’t depend on the
circulating in our blood and weather because we’ll
Doctors will be able to replace repairing our organs. learn to create favourable
damaged DNA with healthy genes. weather conditions.

Reading Read the excerpts from the popular science articles and match them with the headlines
below.

H
ow would you like to have your very sheets or, nanoparticles. But these have proved
own shape-shifter1? Perhaps a liquid metal difficult to control and have other limitations, so
T-1000 Terminator to help around the researchers have begun taking a different and less
house. Or a universal tool kit that could reshape exotic approach.
itself into any implement at the press of a button. Their approach is known as self-reconfigurable
For an astronaut in orbit, an army mechanic in robotics, and it takes advantage of recent advances
remote terrain2 or even a homeowner trying to fix in robot hardware, communications, etc.
a furnace3 on a cold winter night, it could be just 1
shape-shifter — фантастическое существо,
the thing. способное принимать любой облик
Well, one day maybe. The traditional approach 2
terrain — местность, территория, район
to building shape-shifting devices has been to use 3
furnace — очаг; печь
materials based on shape memory alloys4, polymer 4
alloys — сплав

S
oon teams of up to 40 of an intruder, or the source the right algorithms, swarms of
robots could be employed of plume of smoke from an hardware can have autonomous
as border security guards explosion, something no single control.
and outside airports. The robot could do. 1
triangulate — дать трехмерное
patrolling robots will use Wi-Fi The ideal is swarms2 of robots изображение
to share what they see, sniff and that need no central control. And 2
swarm — здесь: стая, толпа
hear. They may even be able to McLurkins’s robots have proved
triangulate1 the exact position the principle that, equipped with
Module 6:  The 20th century and beyond

B
atallions of super-soldiers could be Genetic testing might also enable recruitment
selected for specific duties on the basis of officers to determine which soldiers are best for
their genetic make-up and then constantly specialist jobs.
monitored for signs of weakness. If a soldier is However, wars are becoming more like a
struggling, a digital “buddy”1 might step in and computer game, which means that in the future
warn them about nearby threats. having the genes that make you a good physical
Neuroscience offers huge scope2 for improving fighter might not be so important as having
soldiers̓ performance on the battlefield. Within five excellent hand-eye coordination.
years, biomarkers might be used to assess how well 1
buddy — дружище, приятель
a soldier's brain is functioning. 2
scope — возможности

P
eople with enhanced1 senses, superhuman humans to reach a happy, healthy 150th birthday
bodies and sharpened minds are already may already have been born. And that̓s just the
walking among us. Are you ready for your start of it.
upgrade? The industrial and information age has passed
They're here and walking among us: people into history, overtaken by a revolution in bioscience.
with technologically enhanced senses, superhuman
bodies and artificially sharpened minds. The first 1
enhanced — улучшенный, усиленный

Adapted from:  www.newscientist.com


120
A perfect hybrid? Shape-shifting robots take form
The ultimate warrior Robot army will think for itself

Discuss  Which technology you have read about sounds most interesting? Why?
 What technologies available nowadays are likely to become much more sophisticated
in the nearest future?
 What other innovations do you expect to see in your daily life in the future?

Focus on language

Check if you know the meaning of the phrases below. Give their equivalents in your native
language.
Example: shape-shifting devices—devices that are able to change their shape
трансформирующиеся устройства

liquid metal — ..........................................................................................


shape memory alloys — ..........................................................................................
robot hardware — ..........................................................................................
self-reconfigurable robotics — ..........................................................................................
autonomous control — ..........................................................................................
patrolling robots — ..........................................................................................
genetic testing — ..........................................................................................
hand-eye coordination — ..........................................................................................
a replacement team — ..........................................................................................
technologically enhanced senses — ..........................................................................................
UNIT 17:  Visions of the future

The sentences below are all about the future. With a Future Tenses
partner decide which rule goes with which sentence.
We use the Present Progressive
1) I definitely don’t believe people will ever live in to speak about future personal
giant space stations in order to solve the problem arrangements and fixed plans or firm
intentions; we usually give the time,
of overpopulation.
date and place.
2) People will be living in giant space stations in
We use the Future Progressive to say
order to solve the problem of overpopulation. that something will be going on at a
3) By the year 2050, people will have built several certain time in the future.
giant space stations in order to solve the problem We use the Future Simple to make
of overpopulation. predictions when you don’t have
“present evidence”, to describe a
4) We are about to start building a giant space station decision made at the moment of
in order to solve the problem of overpopulation. speaking or to talk about hopes, beliefs,
5) In 2020, we are going to start building a giant promises, guesses, etc.
space station in order to solve the problem of We use the Future Perfect to say that
overpopulation. something will have been completed
by a certain time in the future.
We use the Present Simple to talk
Choose the correct form of the verb in brackets to about the future but mostly when we
talk about timetables, routines and
complete the sentences.
schedules.
1) Peter (will / is going to be) at a conference in Geneva 121
next Friday.  2) Oh no! I̓ve broken the container
with poisonous substance. What (am I going to say / will I say) to the lab instructor?
3) Jack (is having / will have) a dinner party next Saturday.  4) Ann (will be helping /
will help) us to label the containers in the lab tomorrow afternoon.  5) By the time you
arrive, I’ll (have checked / be checking) the equipment for the experiment.  6) (I’ll be
studying / I’ll have studied) at 9 tomorrow evening.  7) Look at the level of pressure
on the monitor! It (is going to be / will be) well above the normal.  8) Save the data! It
looks like the computer (is going to shut down / will shut down).  9) I (will be using / will
have been used) the microscope at the same time tomorrow.  10) By the time I’m 50 I
(will have patented / will patent) a number of remarkable inventions!

Listening

You are going to listen to students expressing their opinions about the role of computers
and related technologies in the future. Check if you know the meaning of some terms
commonly used in IT. Give their equivalents in your native language. Use a dictionary
if necessary.
Example: voice recognition system—system that can respond to the words spoken
by a human being—cистема распознавания голоса

  tactile response systems   fuzzy query input systems


  tactile gloves   neural-stimulus
  consciousness   cyberspace navigation
  neural network   eye-tracking movement headgear

Listen and fill in the chart.


Module 6:  The 20th century and beyond

Speaker 1 Speaker 2 Speaker 3

What will Computers will They will become ................................


computers
be like?
.................................. ; ..................................  , ................................
They will have as piece of furniture, ................................
................................ or ................................. ................................
fuzzy query input ................................ ................................
systems; ..................................  , ................................
................................ ................................ ................................
................................ ................................ ................................

How will we ............................... ................................ ................................


communicate
................................ ................................ ................................
with computers?
bigger role of VR ................................ Common interface
................................ will support for all
................................ languages

122 Are we going .................................. ; People will use the ................................


to spend our
................................ net more; ................................
whole time
in Cyberspace? ................................ will watch TV less ................................
..................................  , ................................
and make it operate
there
Will computers They won’t resemble ................................ Computers will
be intelligent?
human intelligence ................................ become Thinkers by
................................ ................................
................................ ................................
................................ ................................
................................ ................................

Discuss  Which of the opinions do you most agree/disagree with? Why?


 How could the humans benefit from merging with computers?
 What challenges do you think innovations in science and technology will bring
about?
 Do benefits always outweigh the damage that technology causes?
Why?/Why not?

Writing Write a questionnaire to find out what your fellow


students think about the life style, education, transport,
travel or scientific achievements in the nearest or
distant future. Be sure to use the various forms for
expressing future.
UNIT 17:  Visions of the future

Speaking
Do you
e
Interview three of your fellow students. thin that in thwill
k
Yes, I do.
rs
Ask for their predictions and comment future compute
on them like this: replace te ers?
a ch
So do I. /
Do you? I don’t
Sum up their opinions. Are your fellow students think they will.
optimistic or pessimistic about the future?

Get real Search the internet or popular science magazines to find information on the future
developments in your field of science. Choose to speak about three most probable
innovations and present your findings to the class.

Reading Study help


You are going to read a plot synopsis of the sci-fi A plot synopsis is a brief description
episode entitled “The New Breed”. of the contents of a book or film.  J

 What does the word breed mean?


 What scientific advances and their consequences do you think this episode might be
about? Discuss as a class. 123

Read and check your predictions. Adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/


The_New_Breed_%28episode%29

Dr. Stephen Ledbetter makes Stephen̓s lab, Andy puts his hand over a Bunsen burner1 causing
a technological and medical a severe burn, but the nanobots repair the damaged skin in
breakthrough when he creates a type seconds.
of tiny machines, known as nanobots, Stephen starts a series of tests to find out exactly what the
capable of curing any disease or nanobots are capable of. Andy is placed under water where he is
imperfections in the human body. unable to breathe, but the nanobots keep him alive. Things begin
Stephen̓s best friend Dr. Andy Groenig tells him that he wants to go wrong when Andy wakes up the following day to find that the
to marry Stephen̓s sister, Judy. Overjoyed at the news, Stephen nanobots have responded to the tests by giving him gills2, allowing
shows Andy the nanobots and explains what a remarkable him to breathe underwater in the future. When Stephen learns
breakthrough they are. this news, they both agree that the nanobots must be deactivated
Later on Andy discovers that he has an inoperable cancer, and immediately. Stephen takes measure after measure to stop them,
has approximately one year to live. In desperation he sneaks into but he is never able to get rid of them.
Stephen̓s lab and injects himself with the nanobots. They quickly The nanobots continue making “improvements” to Andy,
eliminate his disease. including giving him eyes in the back of his head, keen hearing and
Andy tells Stephen about the success of his machines. Stephen bones above his stomach.
becomes concerned about the impact the nanobots may have Stephen is ultimately unable to deactivate the nanobots. In
on Andy's health—and about the possibility that he may go to despair Andy kills himself to keep his fiancée from seeing the
prison for using an untested drug on another person. Stephen monster he has become. Stephen burns his laboratory, destroying
wants to deactivate the nanobots, but Andy tells him not to worry any remaining nanobots and his research. The episode ends
because he injected himself—so Stephen is not responsible. Andy with Andy's grieving fiancée having cut her finger on a shattered
convinces him to leave the nanobots alone. photograph of him. The wound heals immediately…
The nanobots not only cure Andy̓s cancer, they improve his
health in other ways, including: removing a scar, improving 1
Bunsen burner — горелка Бунзена
his eyesight, and making him stronger and more energetic. In 2
gills — жабры
Module 6:  The 20th century and beyond

Discuss  Would you like to read the original story? Why?/Why not?
 Could such a situation happen in real life?
 What future do you think nanobots will have in medicine?

Writing In groups write a paragraph to continue the story. Be sure to use the various forms for
expressing future. Compare as a class.

Get real Search the internet or popular science magazines to find and read a short sci-fi story. Write
a reading report. Make use of the Reading Report Form.

..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
READING REPORT
..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
General information
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Title of text
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Author (if known)
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Where did you find it?
124
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Information from the text
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Main idea(s):
What is text about? (Give a brief summary in the Present tense)
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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New phrases and words:
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Your opinion of the book/article:
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
(Was it easy/difficult for you?)
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................
..................
..................
...............................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Did you find the subject interesting? Why?/Why not?
..................
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..................
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Would you recommend this book/article?
.............. ....
...............................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.......................................... .......................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
....... .............. ............................................................
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UNIT 17:  Visions of the future

In the realm of science

Here are some idiomatic phrases frequently used in science. Give their equivalents in your
native language.
Trial and error—a process of attaining a goal To hit the airways—to go on radio and tv
by trying different methods until a successful to promote something or to tell their side of
one is found a story
The rule of thumb—a practical and Light years ahead—you are a long way in
approximate way of doing or measuring front of others in terms of development,
something success, etc.
To blind someone with science —to confuse On the same wavelength—to have the same
people by using technical language that they ideas and opinions about something
are not likely to understand Sputnik moment—it is a point where people
It's not rocket science—it is easy to realise that they are threatened of challenged
understand, obvious and have to redouble their efforts to catch up
To recharge your batteries—to rest or relax It’s not an exact science—sth involves a lot
in order to get back your energy of guessing and there is not just one right way
(At) the cutting edge—(at) the forefront of to do it
progress in a particular area To get one’s wires crossed—to
Don’t push my buttons!—Is said to someone misunderstand each other, especially when
who is starting to annoy you making arrangements 125
Cambridge International Dictionary of Idioms
© Cambridge University Press 1998
Complete the sentences with the words from the box.
1) They couldn’t understand what was happening around: it was as if they
were from a different ......................... .  2) You were so cheerful a moment
atom
ago and now you’re out of mood again. You are so .........................  .
mercurial
3) There’s no set ......................... for being successful at public speaking—
guinea pig
some people are and some aren’t.  4) There isn’t an ......................... of truth
planet
in your excuse for missing the class, Antony.  5) The project was a success
nucleus
as it was done by a small ......................... of people working intensively and
formula
enthusiastically together.  6) Don’t even ask me to be a ......................... in
your research into the common cold. The exams are coming!

Progress monitoring

In this unit you have worked on the vocabulary related to the topic “Latest Achievements
and Future Developments in Science and Technology”:

to stop ageing............................................... self-reconfigurable robotics..................................... 


to cure terminal diseases........................... to have autonomous control.................................... 
robot hardware............................................ to enhance senses/sharpen minds.......................... 
to develop the skills of telepathy............. shape-shifting devices............................................... 
to contact living beings beyond to grow more powerful and intelligent
the solar system........................................... neural networks.......................................................... 
to colonize other planets........................... cyberspace navigation............................................... 
an army/swarm of tiny robots................. artificial intelligence.................................................. 
to cultivate/repair human organs........... to merge with computers.......................................... 

Tick () the points you are confident about and cross () the ones you need to revise.
Think about the year 2030. What do you think you:
a)  will be able to do?  b)  will be doing?  c)  will have done by that time?
Write several sentences. Be sure to use the various ways of expressing future. Read out
your predictions. Discuss them as a class.

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126
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Fill in the gaps with another, other, others. Put the where necessary.
1)  This pencil is broken. Do you have any ......................... pencils?  2)  I have four
dictionaries. Two of them are electronic, but ......................... are books.  3)  We had to
drive ......................... ten miles to get to the seashore.  4) ......................... day we went to the
exhibition of gemstones and samples of meteorites at the university museum.  5) Kate
has three rulers. One of them is white ......................... are black.  6) Don’t worry, I’ll finish
writing the essay and submit it before the deadline one way or ......................... .  7) Where
are ......................... samples of minerals? Has anybody seen them?  8) I’m still hungry, can
I have ......................... hamburger?

Spot the odd word out. advances developments progress benefit



foundations origins evolution basis
gizmos tools devices instruments
consequences impacts results effect

Say if these pairs of words have similar or different meanings. Explain what they mean.

  mechanism—device   benefits—consequences
  innovation—development   robot—nanobot
UNIT 18:  Review

Complete the sentences with the appropriate idiom from page 124.
1) We developed the new software through .................................................. .  2) I think he
decided .................................................. because he didn’t want us to ask any questions.
3)  We’re talking basic common sense here—.................................................. . I would like
to do a postgraduate course and get involved in a .................................................. research.
4) I’m really glad Professor Jenkins is my scientific adviser. We’re on ...............................
.................. .

Work in teams. Hold a competition. Brainstorm as many changes that will have occurred
in our life by 2050 as possible.

Read these sayings. Choose one or two that you agree or disagree with and discuss them
with a partner.

127

Each one teach one

In pairs make up five gapped sentences and test your fellow students on the usage of
another and other.
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Pleasure in the job puts perfection in the work.
(Aristotle, 384 BC — 322 BC)

On the job

Learning objectives
In this module you will:
 deal with job advertisements
 talk about jobs and internship programmes
 learn how to make arrangements on the
phone
 write a CV and personal letter about a job
 learn how to exchange information at a job
interview
 revisit multiword verbs
 revisit reported speech
Lead-in

Nowadays a lot of students combine studies at university with work. For some it is a good
way to earn pocket money, for others it is an opportunity to gain some valuable work
experience. What about you? Discuss as a class.

Fill in the questionnaire below. In pairs discuss what jobs are suitable for you.

a. Which of these areas would you like to work in?


130  Business  Service industries  Retail jobs
 Industry  Entertainment  Science and research
b. Tick the statements which are true of you:
 I don’t mind working long hours  I hate working at weekends  I don’t like doing repetitive work
 I am not prepared to wear a uniform  I am prepared to meet deadlines  I like doing paper work
 I enjoy manual work  I can’t stand taking orders from others  I am prepared to get up early
c. Tick the skills you think you have:
 I easily get on with other people  I am computer literate  I am good at organizing things
 I am good at making decisions  I find it easy to work in a team  I have working knowledge of English
 I have good problem solving skills  I am able to work on my own  I have good word processing skills
 I am good with figures
d. What do you expect from the job? Choose five options from the list:
 A chance to travel  Meeting new people  Opportunity to express your personality
 Gaining work experience  Free food and other perks  Developing your creativity
 Prospects of promotion  Developing knowledge
 A good salary of your particular area of expertise
e. Which do you prefer doing—a summer or a part-time job? Why?

Reading

There are different types of jobs students may want to do. Match the definitions with the
right type of job.
1. part-time job A. a nonspecialised, unskilled, manual or domestic job
2. odd job B. a job that you do for a part of a usual working day
3. summer/holiday job C. a job that you do for all the working hours of a week
4. full-time job D. a job that is done when on vacation

Work in groups. Make a list of the Read the text. Compare the
advantages of holiday and part-time information in the text with your
jobs for students. notes.
UNIT 19:  Jobs for students

Part-time Jobs vs. Holiday Jobs

Y ou’re working your way through university or college,


and you need some money… The last thing you want
to do is to get a job that requires lots of time and will
than having to work on a Friday night when all your mates
are ready to go out and have some fun.
OK, so there are problems with part-time jobs—but what
affect your studies. are your other options? Holiday jobs could be the answer.
Although part-time jobs are popular and fairly easy to With some full-time work over a few weeks you could save
come by, there is the possibility that it will affect both enough money to last you a few extra months when you
your studies and your socialising. There is nothing worse go back to your college or university. What are the other
benefits of holiday jobs?

Holiday Job Benefits


a)  Opportunity to get some work experience—if you what you are most interested in and what career most
are with a big company that has permanent vacancies suits you.
available, they may well ask you to come back after your
d)  Frequently a full-time holiday job will pay a weekly
studies.
or monthly wage. This could easily work out better than
b)  Opportunity to build up your CV—holiday jobs allow
you to show a potential employer that you have had
an hourly part-time job rate, so with any job this is worth 131
experience, and have gained an understanding of that checking out!
industry, or have gained some knowledge that may be e)  Ok, you may be doing more hours, but full-time holiday
relevant for your new position. jobs will always pay more than part-time jobs! Most of us
c)  An opportunity for you to try a few different jobs to see will agree that a bigger pay cheque is a good thing.

Part-time Job Benefits


a)  One of the greatest things about a part-time job is that against you for only working a few hours a week. Check in
it doesn’t have to take over your life. A couple of evening the job description for entitlements such as holiday pay,
shifts here or there leaves you plenty of time to do the sick pay, bonuses and other perks.
things you want to do. d)  Working over the holidays means you have less time
b)  Part-time jobs frequently involve work where you can for holidays—part-time jobs may take a few hours during
earn more than your basic hourly wage. Take into account your term, but at least you’ll have the whole holidays to do
tips and bonuses (and maybe food and drink) and all of a what you want to do.
sudden the pay becomes pretty good! This is something With proper research and a bit of luck anyone can get
you want to look into before taking any job. a  job that they will both enjoy and earn reasonable
c)  Part-timers have the same legal rights as full-timers money from.
nowadays. This means that no employer can discriminate Abridged from:  www.e4s.co.uk/docs/part-time-jobs.htm

The sentences below summarize the information about jobs for students. Correct the
details that are wrong.
1)  Jobs for students should not involve working long hours as it can result in low
performance at university.  2)  Part-time jobs are more suitable for students than
holiday jobs.  3) Holiday jobs are beneficial to students in terms of money rather than
future career choice.  4) Working on holidays you should forget about having leisure
time.  5) A part-time job often holds promise for getting extra money.  6) Part-timers
should not expect to get holiday pay or sick pay.  7) It is a good idea to find out as much
as possible about any type of job if you not only want to earn a living but also enjoy
your work.
Module 7:  On the job

Discuss  Are you planning to have any part-time or summer job? Is it going to be related to
your specialisation? Why?/Why not?
 What is the most important thing to keep in mind when choosing a job: your interests
and ambitions, your skills and abilities, your preferences, or something else?

Focus on language
Match the words in column A with their definitions in column B. Refer back to the text or
check in a dictionary if necessary.
1. benefit A. privileges granted to an employee by a company or corporation
2. tip B. pay given to an employee who is away from work because of
illness
3. perks
C. pay given to an employee who is on a holiday or vacation
4. bonus
D. an amount of money paid at regular intervals
5. holiday pay E. a small present of money for a service given or expected
6. wage F. a way of referring to the amount of money that you earn
7. pay cheque G. a kind of award to employees beyond their normal pay
8. sick pay H. advantage
132
Match the verbs in A with the nouns in B. Some verbs can go with more than one noun.
1. to get  2. to affect  3. to save  4. to have  5. to gain  6. to take  7. to do  8. to earn
A. cash  B. job  C. studies  D. knowledge  E. experience  F. shifts  G. money

Read the sentence from the text. Multiword verbs


(verbs with prepositions and particles)
What does the highlighted verb
phrase mean? Many English verbs can be followed by prepositions or
adverb particles. These combinations are rather like multi-
ings about
One of the greatest th word verbs. They are often called “phrasal verbs”. Some
at it doesn’t
a part-time job is th phrasal verbs are idiomatic, i. e. the meaning of the verb and
yo ur life.
have to take over
particle together is sometimes different from the separate
literal meanings of the verb and the particle.
e. g.: You’d better look up this word in a dictionary.
(a  literal meaning = to look for information in
Match the highlighted phrasal verbs a dictionary)
in the text with their meanings. e. g.: Everyone looks up to Robert because he always
makes time to help others. (idiomatic meaning =
 to find out if sth is correct to admire or respect)
e. g.: I’m looking forward to summer vacation.
 to become bigger or more (idiomatic meaning = to be thinking with
important than sth else or to pleasure about sth that is going to happen
replace sth because you expect to enjoy it)

 to create or develop sth


 to find out by reasoning or
calculation  to return
 to do sth from beginning to end,  to examine sth
especially when it takes a lot of  to leave your house to go to a social event
time or effort  to manage to get sth
UNIT 19:  Jobs for students

Replace the verbs in italics by the suitable phrasal verbs from the box below. Make
all necessary changes. Put letters L if the meaning is literal, or I if it is idiomatic. Use a
dictionary if necessary.
1) My roommate answered the phone as I was having a shower. ...............................[.....]
break down
2) Have you examined all the equipment necessary for the experiment yet? .........[.....]
come across 3) I’m so tired of your being always late for classes. I’m not going to tolerate
pick up it any longer. .......................................................................................................................[.....]
4) I’ve recently discovered that I’m pretty good at memorizing complex
work out
formulae. ..............................................................................................................................[.....]
check out 5) She was very much surprised when she found this rare insect in the park. ........[.....]
find out 6) Don’t worry. I’m sure we’ll find a solution to this problem. . ...................................[.....]
drop out of 7) He is so upset because if he fails the reexamination he will definitely
be excluded from the college. ..........................................................................................[.....]
catch up with mb 8) If this device stops working again, I won’t finish making my observations
be fed up with today. . ...................................................................................................................................[.....]
9) I’ve missed so many lectures on this subject through my illness, now I have
put up with
to work really hard to keep pace with my fellow students. ......................................[.....]

Listening 133
You are going to hear four students telling about their part-time and summer jobs. Work
with your partner to figure out what the following phrases mean.
Use a dictionary if necessary.

working culture plenty of stamina flexible schedule


previous training
pressure periods mature student

vocational experience vital skills intense study

Listen to the students and tell what jobs they are


doing.

Listen again and complete the chart.


Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4

Job responsibilities
Special training or skills required
Personal qualities and abilities
Hours
Salary

Answer the questions.


 What is the cheesy part of the job of a flight attendant that passengers usually see?
 What benefits does a flight attendant have?
 Why are students advised to think twice before getting a part-time job?
 Why is it a good idea to try and find a job related to the subject you are studying?
Module 7:  On the job

Match the words in A with the words in B to make as many phrases as possible. Translate
them into your native language.

a source  to dress  to be good  student-run  to work/do/cover  to apply


of  for  at
shifts  a job  money  smartly  numbers  newspaper

Get real Search the internet for summer or part-time jobs for students. Find the job you would like
to do best of all. Tell the class about it and see how many people would also like to do it.
Follow the guidelines:
 name of the job  skills and qualifications required
 duties involved  advantages of the job
 personal qualities required  possible disadvantages of the job

Reading

Work in 4 groups. Choose to read one of the advertisements (A, B, C or D) for holiday and
part-time jobs. Take notes to answer the questions.
134  What does the job involve doing?
 What kind of personality are the employers looking for?
 Does the job require any special training or qualifications?
 What does the advertisement say about working hours and salary?
 What skills would you develop in this job?
 What should you do next if you are interested in the job?

Campaign to Save the Environment


Do you want to make a difference? Are you ready to roll up your
Are you fascinated by sleeves and work on the most pressing environmental issues of
whales and dolphins? our generation?
Then sign up for a fun short-term participant Environmental Campaign Staff work on behalf of the nation’s most
program in Hawaii! There is a great opportunity to research progressive environmental groups—like the Sierra Club, the State PIRGs
whales while living in Maui. and Environmental Action—to protect the Arctic Refuge, fight global
As a participant, you will assist with behavioral observations of warming, and defend the Clean Air Act.
the whales from our research vessel and shore station, attend Earn $4000–6000 over the summer, learn valuable skills and make this
a variety of educational lectures. The program activities also country a safer, healthier and more democratic place to live in.
include writing papers and presenting findings. It’s a unique and Responsibilities include raising money, educating the public about
exciting educational and hands-on experience! Researchers and pressing environmental issues, recruiting new members to increase the
participants live together in a house on Maui island near the study political power of these organizations, and collecting and sending petition
site. and postcard signatures to Congress and other political
It’s easy to sign up for the Surveying Maui’s Humpback leaders as well as organizing press conferences.
Adapted from the internet sites

Whales project! Applicants must be hard-working, have


Fill out the application form and mail to: excellent communication skills and be motivated
The Dolphin Institute, P. O. Box 700694, Kapolei, HI 96709. to make positive social change.
A $200 deposit is required to reserve a single space on a two- To apply mail to: obsthatmatter@ffpir.org
week team. or call Sylvia Ryan (061)2729563
UNIT 19:  Jobs for students

Discuss what you have read with your fellow students from the other groups.

Speaking
Talk to your partner. Express your opinion of each job by choosing information from
columns A, B and C.
Being a ski instructor seems fantastic
prestigious
Working as hotel staff would be a good start
very challenging
Working in the resort industry is definitely quite manageable
motivating
monotonous
Participating in the Environmental Campaign must be nerve-racking
demanding
Making behavioral observations of marine animals sounds pretty difficult
really rewarding
Teaching photography/surfing/rock climbing to children could be boring

Following the models below discuss what kind of people would be best suited for
the jobs described in the advertisements you have read. Use the words and phrases 135
from the box. Change adjectives into nouns if necessary.
To be a Being a
• well-organised
istant research assis
research ass tant
h in Institute at the Dolphi • sensitive
at the Dolp n Institute
have energy you have to be • hard-working
you should ce.
energetic
and patien and patient. • helpful
• outgoing personality
• enthusiastic about
new tasks

C. Ski Resort Jobs D. Summer Camp Jobs • energetic


• outgoing
Do you like meeting new people from all over the
world? Would you like to live, work and play in a state W orking at a summer camp is just fun!
Who wouldn't want to spend the day
swimming, shooting bows and arrows and
• active
• unemotional
that averages over 300 days of sunshine per year? Well, • creative
if you answered yes to any of these questions, then telling ghost stories around camp fires? All
camp employees need a genuine love of • friendly
welcome to Heavenly, Lake Tahoe's premier winter • responsible
working with kids.
playground! Amazing views of Lake Tahoe, combined • good at analysing
with enthusiastic and dependable employees, makes
Heavenly one of the greatest places to work in the C ottontail Ranch is a summer residence
camp and group retreat in Malibu Canyon,
California. Traditional camp activities like
situations/working
with other people/
world. Our guests rank Heavenly as having some kids, etc.
of the most helpful, friendly, knowledgeable, and horseback riding, rock climbing, fishing, hiking, • calm
tennis, photography, dance and drama combine
customer-oriented employees in the resort industry. • self-confident
with surfing, water-skiing, mountain biking
Please take time to explore our employment website • careful
and trips to Disney World and Magic Mountain
and see what Ski Heavenly has to offer! • concerned with detail
to make Cottontail a unique camp experience.
To apply mail to: • flexible
Heavenly Human Resources Pay: Varies, most $195 per week. • able to work without
P.O. Box 2180 Food and Lodging: Room and Board provided. supervision
Stateline, NV 89449 Applicants are required to have First Aid certification. • highly motivated
Feel free to attach a resume and cover letter to your application. E-mail: cottontail@earthlink.net
• decisive
Module 7:  On the job

Role play

You want one of the jobs advertised above. Make notes of the things you want to know
about the job. Write your questions here:
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................

Functional language
Telephone the office for information. In pairs take turns
at being the student and the Personnel Officer. Ask On the phone
about the job and arrange to meet for the interview. You
Make use of the diagram and the phrases from the Hello. Could I speak to
box. Frank Dawson?
136
I’m calling about…
I saw your advertisement in…
Can you give me the address, please?
You Office staff Could you give me a few more details
about the job?
Answer the phone
Introduce yourself and I’ll be there.
say why you are calling
Find out the applicant’s full Office staff
name, age and other personal Speaking (= I am…)
information/details Who’s calling, please?
Give all necessary
information Can I help you?
Find out why the applicant
would like to do this job Can I have your name, please?
Explain why you are Are you still interested?
interested in the job
Invite the applicant to come Can you come in for an interview…
for an interview. (day, date, time)?
Agree
Are there any questions you would like
Agree. Confirm details Suggest the day and the time to ask about the job?
Say “thank you” and end End the call We will contact you next week.
the call

Writing Write a letter to a friend about the summer job or a part-time job you had. The questions
below may be of help.
 How did you find the job?
 How did you apply?
 What were your duties and responsibilities?
 Which of your personal qualities helped you to do the job?
 Did you need any special skills and qualifications for the job?
 What did you like most about the job?
 Were there any problems with it?
UNIT 19:  Jobs for students

In the realm of jobs

Many advertisers use abbreviations in their classified advertisements in newspapers for


one purpose—to save money. The less space they use, the cheaper the advertisement
will be. The following list of abbreviations can be found in the Positions Vacant columns of
most newspapers. Remember what they mean.
p.t. posn. part-time position
f. time flexible time/hours
pd. wkly paid weekly
cap. person reqd. capable person required
sal. neg. salary negotiable
approx 20hrs p.w. approximately 20 hours per week
stdnt student
prom. oppty promotion opportunity
trng. incl. training included
techncl. exp. nec. technical experience necessary
intvw interview
137
temp. reqd. temporary required
exper. essent. experience is essential
char. refs. nec. characteristics references necessary
excel. conds. excellent conditions
ph. for appt. telephone for appointment
Pers. dept. Personnel department
bus. hrs., B/H during business hours

Progress monitoring
In this Unit you have worked on the vocabulary related to the topic “Job and Career
Options”:
to earn/save money....................................... excellent source of money..................................... 
to work long/flexible hours/shifts............. to have experience/previous training................ 
to be prepared to meet deadlines................ to have good communication skills..................... 
to gain work experience................................ to apply for a job...................................................... 
to develop knowledge/creativity/skills...
job responsibilities/duties..................................... 
challenging/demanding/prestigious.........
well-organized/careful........................................... 
nerve-racking/monotonous/
rewarding/motivating.................................. self-confident/hard-working/active/
creative/responsible............................................... 
to require special training/skills/
qualifications/personal qualities................ wage/salary/tips/bonuses/perks/sick pay....... 
a “cheesy” part of a job.................................. to take orders from others..................................... 

Tick () the points you are confident about and cross () the ones you need to revise.
Lead-in Read the entry of the word intern from the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary and
discuss the questions below.
 What do you think a job of an intern Intern [´ıntə:n] n[C] esp. Am a) A
involves? student or new graduate who is getting
practical experience in a job, for example
 Do you think it is well or badly paid? during the summer holiday
 What valuable practical experience can
you get working as an intern?

Reading
138 Read the article and check your guesses about internship. Adapted from:  www.nature.com/naturejobs/2006/
060126/full/nj7075-504a.html

The Experience that is shaping the rest of my life By Hannah Hoag

E
very spring millions of university students Cambridge, Massachusetts. Students there may spend
look for summer work. Some work in retail, their summer analyzing data from X-ray satellites or
others in the service industry, but those curious looking for gas emissions from galactic clusters.
about science careers can find themselves redesigning At NASA, summer students can participate in
mirrors for the Hubble Space Telescope, developing lab work at different research centers across the
drugs or testing components of a particle accelerator. country. “One of NASA’s missions is to inspire the next
Internships exist in all sectors, from academic and generation of explorers,” says Dave Rosage, director of
research institutions to government laboratories to the NASA Academy and the NASA Robotics Academy
industry campuses. at Goddard Space Flight Center, near Washington DC.
A summer internship is a great way to get Undergraduates in the summer research program have
experience in a variety of settings. Students make a chance to conduct high-risk cutting-edge research.
valuable contacts, learn about lab culture or Interns work on research problems three days
alternative careers, and may even get published. a week, with Thursdays and Fridays set aside for
Moreover, undergraduates get a chance to try out lectures, group project work and field trips to other
academia or industry before taking the leap to NASA centers.
graduate school. Abbott Laboratories in Illinois also brings graduates
Undergraduates often use the chance to explore and undergraduates to its campus each summer to
research. Most research vacancies are found in identify talented individuals, with the intention of
academia or at centersб such as the Harvard Stem Cell hiring them as full-time employees. “Students leave
Institute or the Department of Energy’s Fermi lab in with meaningful and transferable work experience,”
Batavia, Illinois. These programs are mostly intended says Christi Lehner, director of college relations.
for undergraduates in their third and fourth years. In addition to research experience, summer
“It tells them whether or not they are interested in internships are full of perks, which students may want
doing research in astronomy or astrophysics, or to consider when choosing a program. Lunch-and-
whether they are interested in research at all,” says learn sessions offer students a chance to interact with
the director of the summer iaternship program at principle investigators, program directors or vice-
the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in presidents.
UNIT 20:  The skillful me!

Work with a partner. Look 1. make A. a window into research culture


back in the text. Find the 2. try out B. research problems
expressions highlighted in 3. sign C. students a chance
colour and work out their
4. analyse D. the fruits of their labours
meaning from the context.
Use a dictionary if necessary. 5. inspire E. valuable contacts
6. work on F. a presentation
7. offer G. the contract
Match the verbs in A with their
complements in B. Translate 8. provide H. data
the phrases into your native 9. present I. academia or industry
language. 10. give J. the next generation of explorers

Discuss  What are the benefits of internship?  Do you think they would be popular
 Do you agree that internship is equally with science students in this country?
important to all university students? Why?/Why not?
 Are there any internship programmes  Where would you like to work as an
available for students in your country? intern?

139
Focus on language Read the sentence from the text. Note how the structure of the
sentence changes when it is reported.
“Students leave with meaningful and transferable work experience,”
“You can navigate your way through the
says Christi Lehner, director of college relations.
organization once you have got through the
door as an intern,” says Lehner. “It opens up Christi Lehner, director of college relations, said/agreed that students
future positions throughout the company.” left with meaningful and transferable work experience.
Most internships provide a window into
research culture. At the end of the summer,
the majority of students must present the Reported Speech
fruits of their labours. It might be a poster for Reported speech is used to express what others have said. It is also used when you are
staff and parents or a presentation for board writing a paper at college level. In this case, it involves paraphrasing and summarizing
members. what different authors have said.
Students often find themselves as co- e. g.: Professor Jenkins said: “You have to submit your course work on Friday.”
authors on journal articles. Besides, choosing Professor Jenkins said (that) we had to submit our course work on Friday.
a supervisor for the final-year thesis is
Verbs of speaking + that Verbs of speaking + pronoun + that
significantly easier when they can go into
a meeting and talk about their summer say agree explain reply complain suggest tell
research, list the techniques that they know
e. g.: “You are absolutely right!”—He told me (that) I was absolutely right.
and give a presentation. “I saw Professor Jenkins yesterday.”—She said (that) she had seen Professor
An internship may provide a chance to Jenkins the day before yesterday.
try out an alternative career. At Jackson “The students have broken a lot of glassware today!”—The lab assistant
Laboratory, science students with an complained that the students had broken a lot of glassware that day.
interest in writing can join the lab’s public-
Verbs of speaking + to + verb Verbs of speaking + noun/pronoun
relations staff for the summer. “They enjoy
communicating and translating science to the offer refuse agree introduce greet accept refuse explain interrupt
general population,” says Geiger. All in all, the
e. g.: “Look, I can’t go to the party tonight.”—She refused to go to the party.
experience and relationships gained from an “Hello everybody, nice to see you.”—He greeted everybody.
internship can bring young scientists closer to “Now let’s see how we can solve this equation.”—He explained (how to solve)
achieving their dream jobs. the equation.
Module 7:  On the job

Complete the table to illustrate the basic rules for backshift when transforming direct
speech into reported speech.
Direct Speech Reported Speech

now
the day before
two days ago
the week before
next year
the next day / the following day
here
that
these

Report what the former interns said about their experience.

140 I am glad I chose this program because I gained


field and lab experience. My mentors, including
grad students, really helped me to understand what
was going on.
Research at VIMS was a wonderful
I have more confidence experience. It was especially helpful
because I’ve always felt as in learning about graduate school and
if my grades didn’t reflect helping me decide what I want in a
my abilities; this project graduate program.
allowed me to excel and
now I see that I enjoy VIMS is a great institution
this field and can do for pursuing a career in
well in it. marine science. The research
experience helped me to
Internships provide understand that this is what I
important information want to do with my life.
necessary for prospective
students to decide if they would want
to make a career in science.

Get real Search the internet to find information on the internship programmes in your field of
science abroad. Choose the internship programme you would like to do best of all. Take
notes about the programme under the following guidelines:
 name of the job
 opportunities for foreign students
 duties involved
 personal qualities required
 skills and qualifications to gain
Present and discuss the information on the internship programmes you have found. See
how many students would like to do it.
UNIT 20:  The skillful me!

Listening

Discuss as a class.
 What qualifications will you get after graduating from the university?
 What job are you planning to get in the future? Why?
 What skills and qualifications do you need for this job?
 Do many students choose the career of a research scientist? Why?/Why not?
 What is the most rewarding/challenging part of a researcher’s work?
 What personal qualities do you think a research scientist should have?

Listen to the interview with two young scientists describing their attitude to the jobs
they are doing. Complete the chart.
Working hours Job satisfaction Teamwork and competition
Speaker 1
Speaker 2

123 Ascot Lane


Discuss Agree or disagree with the following: Blacksburg, VA 24060
(540) 555-2556
 Being a scientist means to be WStevens@vt.edu 141
‘slaving’ in the lab 24 hours April 27, 2009
December 12, 2007
a day as it is the only way to be Mr. Robert Burns
a success. President, Template Division
MEGATEK Corporation
 Mega things happen once in 9845 Technical Way
Arlington, VA 22207
a lifetime, so a really ambitious burns@megatek.com
researcher won’t get any job
Dear Mr. Burns,
satisfaction discovering new
I learned of MEGATEK through online research using the
things in a small way. a) ......................... database through Career Services at Virginia Tech
 To make an outstanding where I am completing my Master’s b) ......................... in Mechanical
discovery or invention you Engineering. From my research on your web site, I believe there
should have the intellectual would be a good fit between my c) ......................... and interests and
your d)  .........................  . I am interested in a software engineering
freedom. e) ......................... upon completion of my degree in May, 2010.
 It’s not a good idea to As a graduate student, I am one of six members on a software
cooperate and share the results development f) ......................... where we are writing a computer
of your research with other aided aircraft design program for NASA. My g)  .........................
include designing, coding, and testing of a graphical portion of the
scientists if you want to be
program which requires the use of GIARO for graphics input and
the first person to make that output. I have a strong h) ......................... in computer aided design,
allimportant discovery. software development and engineering, and believe that these skills
would i) ......................... the designing and manufacturing aspects of
Reading Template software. Enclosed is my resume which further outlines
my j) ......................... .
My qualifications make me well k) ......................... to the project
Read the letter of application below areas in which your division of MEGATEK is expanding its efforts.
and complete it with the words from I would appreciate the opportunity to discuss a position with you,
the box. and will l) ......................... you in a week or ten days to answer any
questions you may have and to see if you need any other information
degree / skills / suited / team / from me such as a company m) ......................... form or transcripts.
Thank you for your consideration.
Career Search / needs / benefit /
Sincerely,
responsibilities / application / contact /
William Stevens
position / background / qualifications
Module 7:  On the job

Read the letter again and answer the questions.


 What is the purpose of this letter?
 What is the style of the letter?
 What grammar tenses and voice are used? Why?
 In what other ways can you begin and end formal letters?
 Where is William Stevens’ address written?
 Where is the company’s address written?
 What is the aim of each paragraph in the letter?
 What kind of information does William Stevens provide?
 Is any document enclosed in the letter? Which one?

Writing Write a letter applying for an internship programme abroad in your field of science. Follow
the guidelines:

 give reasons for writing


 give a short summary of your experience
 describe your personal qualities
142  inform what skills required for the job you have
 specify the skills you would like to develop in this job.

Role play
Work in pairs. Choose to be Student A or Student B. Roleplay the situation following the
guidelines. Make sure you use the phrases given in the Functional language box.

Study help
Functional language
At the interview How to Behave at a Job Interview

Good afternoon. Do sit down. During a job interview, you only get about 15 to 20
minutes to sell yourself as the perfect person for the
Now, you’ve applied for the job of a... position. Follow these tips on how to behave at a job
Do you have any experience in… ? interview.
How would you describe your personality? • Stay positive during the interview. Avoid complaining
You see, we are looking for someone who is… about previous employers or companies.
Actually, good… skills would be an advantage. • Be prepared to answer and ask questions. Don’t use
slang or colloquial phrases. Speak professionally.
Do you have any questions about the job?
• Show proper confidence, not too modest, not too
Thank you for coming. We’ll contact you next week.
boastful.
If I got the job what would my… (hours, duties, etc.) be?
• Be polite. When it is over, say:
Is/are there… available? I look forward to hearing from you.
What is/are… like? I appreciate your taking time to see me.
All right, put me down for four weeks. Thank you for seeing me.
How about… ? • Dress appropriately to make a good impression.  J
UNIT 20:  The skillful me!

Student A
Some days ago you sent your application form • Say why you got interested in this job
for the position of a laboratory technician on an • Give any necessary personal details
internship programme in a research institute. Today • Describe your qualifications and experience
you have come for the interview. • Tell about your skills and personal qualities
• Ask to give you more information about duties,
Talk to the Programme Manager and find out about
hours, salary
the job.
• Find out the starting date, the length of the
• Introduce yourself and say what programme
programme, possible perks
you would like to apply for
• Agree to do the job
Students B
You are a Programme Manager in a research • Tell about training and qualifications that are
institute. The institute offers some internship required
programmes for undergraduate students. Talk to • Specify the personal qualities necessary for the
one of the applicants. job
• Introduce yourself and offer him/her to take a • Tell about duties, hours, salary
seat • Inform the applicant about the starting date,
• Ask for some personal details length of the programme, perks, if any
• Say if the candidate gets the job

In the realm of jobs


143
We all have certain skills which will be useful to employers. Some of the words listed below
are ideal ”active words“ for you to use when describing yourself in your resume and in the
job application process. For each skill on these lists, state whether you:
 have that skill already (put a )
 don’t have it yet but have the potential to develop it (put a ?)
 will never have that skill (put a )

  guiding   processing   counting   driving


  listening to   classifying   calculating   operating
  negotiating with   copying   timing   installing
  instructing   typing   recording   making
  persuading   proof reading   compiling   repairing
  speaking to   editing   comparing   adjusting
  serving   composing   correcting   producing
  helping   communicating   analysing   adapting
  encouraging   writing   graphing   creating
  motivating   reading   problem solving   classifying
  organizing   comparing   planning   collecting
  coaching/teaching   growing

A Curriculum Vitae, commonly referred to as CV (AmE resume) is a written record of your


education and the jobs you have done, that you send when you are applying for a job.
It is a detailed summary not only of your academic backgrounds but also teaching and
research experience, publications, presentations, awards, honors and other details.
Look at the following page.
Module 7:  On the job

:: J o h n M i c h a e l A n d r e w s ::
Home Address: Tel.: (0161) 351 4039 Term Address: Date of Birth: 5. 11. 1986
33 Union Street, E-mail: jma5@kent.ac.uk 6 Farthings Court, Parkwood Nationality: British
Manchester, M6 3AE Canterbury, CT2 8NP

Education and qualifications


University of Kent BSc(Hons.) Computer Science 2005–2008
Subjects include:
Software Engineering, Compiling Techniques, Computer Networks and Communications, Digital
Systems, Operating Systems and Robotics.
I obtained 62% in my 2nd year exams equivalent to a 2:1
My project involved the development of a Linux-based network management system and required
independent research skills
Manchester Community College 2003–2006
A’ Levels: Mathematics B, Physics C, Chemistry D.
St John’s Boys School, Manchester. 1998–2003
8 GCSEs including Mathematics, English and French.

Work experience
Tourist Information Office, Canterbury, Summer 2006
Assisting customers from all over the world with a wide variety of enquiries, working in the Bureau
de Change, booking theatre and concert tickets.
Manchester City Council, Summer 2004
Temporary Accounts Clerk in City Treasurer’s office. Responding to customer enquiries, using
computerised accounts systems.
144
Simple Simon’s Public House, Canterbury. Sept. 2006—present
Part-time bar work throughout the year serving customers and cashing up.

Activities and interests


• Secretary of the Japanese Society involved booking speakers. • I enjoy running and play for the
• Helped to organise a charity fun run for Rag Week University football team.
• Have fundraised for the World Land Trust who buy and save • Other interests include current
endangered rainforests. affairs and reading sci-fi novels.

Additional information
• Computing Skills: Knowledge of Linux and Windows XP/ • Good level of spoken French.
Vista. Programming skills in Java, Haskell and Modula 3. • Full, clean driving licence.
Good knowledge of SQL and RDBMS.
Referees: I am happy to supply these on request.

Progress monitoring
In this Unit you have worked on the vocabulary related to the topic “Job and Career
Options”:
to choose a science career..................................  to work in research areas................................... 
a research vacancy...............................................  to gain high-level technical ability
lab or research culture/experience.................  or general skills.................................................... 
to try out an alternative career........................  to apply scientific knowledge to solve
to achieve a dream job........................................  practical problems............................................... 
the cutting-edge research..................................  to have a passion for research........................... 
to hire someone as a full/part-time to work in pure/applied science...................... 
employee................................................................  to share one’s research results with
to make valuable contacts.................................  colleagues.............................................................. 
to acquire skills/knowledge..............................  to get job satisfaction......................................... 
to use specialist science knowledge................  team work and competition.............................. 
Tick () the points you are confident about and cross () the ones you need to revise.
Rewrite the sentences in reported speech. Use various verbs of speaking.
1) I’m afraid I can’t take the job before January. (She explained…)  2) Paul Smith has
just come back from his yearlong expedition around the globe.  3) Now, if you look at
this graph, you will see the temperature changes in this region over 50 years.  4) I’m
sure, in 2050 thousands of people will be living in giant space stations.  5) Studying the
dolphins’ behaviour was the most exciting thing I’ve ever done.  6) No, you are wrong!
The course starting date is next week, not tomorrow!  7)  Peter is so absent-minded!
Last week he had an accident in our chemistry lab. He broke a test tube with some
toxic substance in it!  8) Hello, everybody! Let me introduce Mia Travis to you. She is a
new member of the “Whale Program” team.  9) Sorry, I can’t take your point.  10) Why
don’t we do a summer internship? 145

Fill in the gaps with the most suitable phrasal build up / go out / catch up with /
verb in the box. Be sure to use the correct drop out / come across /
form of the verb. face up to / check out / work out /
put up with
1) I’m a member of three university clubs so I
................................... every other day. 2) She started a degree but ................................... after
only a year.  3) I agree, this problem is difficult but I’ve ................................... a new way of
doing it!  4) In my job I often ................................... meeting deadlines.  5) I’m sure we need
................................... a society for dealing with environmental issues in you city.  6) Look,
Peter, I can’t ................................... your being so inaccurate in measurements. You should
................................... the numbers you’ve got.  7) This test tube is very fragile so .............
...................... very carefully or it’ll break down.  8) I’ve recently ................................... one
more explanation of this theorem.  9)  If you want ................................... your class you
need to practise a lot of programming.

Within one minute complete the word well-paid


web for the noun job.

Explain the similarity and difference between


these words.
  job—career
  industry—academia   job experience—job skills
  perks—bonuses   challenging—rewarding
  manual work—paper work   dream job—holiday job
Module 7:  On the job

Read these sayings. Choose one or two that you agree or disagree with and discuss them
with a partner.
Real success is finding your lifework in the work that you love.
(David McCullough)
The secret of greatness is simple: do better work
than any other man in your field—and keep on doing it.
No problem is (Wilfred A. Peterson)
insurmountable. With a little courage, teamwork
and determination a person can overcome
anything. (B. Dodge) Striving for success without hard work
is like trying to harvest where you haven't planted. (David Bly)

Game: “Guess the Job”


Work in teams. One of you should think about a job in your subject area, and the others
in the group must try to guess what the job is by asking “Yes” and “No” questions about it.
Make sure everyone asks the same number of questions.
Example:  In your job…

146
Do you work… Do you have to… Do you have to be… Do you…
• outside? • have special • ambitious? • work on your own?
• inside? qualifications? • imaginative? • use any kind of
• in a lab? etc. • work under • good with tool?
supervision? numbers? • instruct other
• wear a uniform? people?

Read the advertisement and rewrite it in full.

POSITION VACANT

Capable person reqd for perm posn in IT


dept. Prev exp in similar posn pref.
Good s'hand essent and some prog exp
reqd. We offer immed start in our lux
off with excel conds. Sal neg to $8500.
Ph 535 7669 ext 852 for appt during bus
hrs. Refs nec.

http://www.careersonline.com.au/easyway/find/class1.html
UNIT 21:  Review

Put the following in the right order, and then rewrite the letter in paragraphs adding
a salutation and your name.
Salutation Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Final paragraph Name
Reasons for writing qualifications, experience closing remarks

A 1. I am a graduate of the University of Birmingham and my degree is BS


Zoology.
B 2. I have enclosed my CV and would be glad to supply any further
information required.
C 3. I look forward to meeting you to discuss employment opportunities at
Institute for Animal Health.
D 4. I have previous work experience in Microbiology department. While
at university I worked part-time as a lab assistant in Microbiology
laboratory. I was in charge of lab equipment.
E 5. I am writing in response to your advertisement in the Career Search
database of the New Scientist magazine website. I would like to apply for
the position of laboratory technician.
F 6. My responsibilities included instructing students in lab safety rules,
collecting their lab reports and carrying out routine lab work including
cleaning glassware. 147
G 7. I believe that I have the proper qualifications and experience for the
position of laboratory technician at Institute for Animal Health.

Each one teach one

Write down a short vocabulary list (ten items) on the topic “Jobs and Career Options”.
Compare your lists. Cross out the items you have on both lists and explain the meaning of
the rest of the words and phrases.

.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
Scripts

Module 1.  Unit 1

The first speaker

A s languages have grammar rules,


I  need to learn grammatical terms
to understand the system of a language.
and someone corrects it, I just memorize
without really trying to analyze it. I also
enjoy listening to the radio or watching
I like studying grammar, working with TV. The more—the better. When I hear a
vocabulary. I think learning goes better new word, I am trying to remember it like
if you are systematic about how you go children do.
about it. So grammar and vocabulary
The fourth speaker
exercises are a major part of my learning
148 English.
The second speaker
W hen I learn a language I feel I need
the support of a person who I am
sure knows the subject better than I.

W ell, languages have grammar rules,


but native speakers don’t know
them, so you don’t need to bother about
Before I say something I feel I need the
approval whether I am using the language
correctly or not. It could be just a nod.
them very much. I try hard to communicate As for mistakes I want them corrected at
no matter how many mistakes I may be once.
making. Of course, the teacher can help,
but learning is your problem. The best The fifth speaker
way to learn a language is to pretend to
be a native speaker, and then act out a
situation. I personally enjoy real-world
W hen I hear a new word I prefer
looking it up in the dictionary
and writing it down. I need to translate
activities like ordering food in a real everything into my own language to
restaurant and so on. fully understand what it means or how it
works.
The third speaker

T he best way to learn a language for me The sixth speaker


is learning in the country where it is
spoken, because I easily absorb it, pick up
new words and phrases. If I make a mistake
B efore I really grasp any material such
as words, grammar rules or a story,
I need to read.

Module 1.  Unit 2

Tick, tick, tick ... It’s time moving on. College students
often report that their inability to
manage their time is the biggest problem they face in college. Time management is a
skill few people master, but it is one that most people need.
You have so many competing demands on your time: friends, movies, studying
lectures, home, relationships, and on and on. How can you come to grips with all of it?
Scripts

Most time management experts say that one of the first things people need to do to
manage their time is to determine how they spend their time now.
Did you catch that? Time really can’t be managed. You can’t slow it down or speed it
up, or manufacture it. It just IS. Time management is MANAGING YOURSELF when
following some basic time management principles.
TIME MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES
Everyone has high and low periods of attention and concentration. Are you a
“morning person” or a “night person”? Use your power times to study; use the down
times for routines such as laundry and household tasks.
Then, when you are fresh, you can process information more quickly and save time
as a result.
Another important thing is studying in shorter time blocks with short breaks between.
This keeps you from getting tired and “wasting time.” This type of studying is efficient
because while you are taking a break, the brain is still processing the information.
You will also need to reduce distractions which can “waste time.” If there are times in
the residence halls or your apartment when you know there will be noise and commotion,
use that time for mindless tasks.
Don’t forget college is more than studying. You need to have a social life, yet, you
need to have a balance in your life.
149
Sleep is often an activity (or lack of activity) that students use as their time
management “bank.” When they need a few extra hours for studying or socializing,
they withdraw a few hours of sleep. Doing this makes the time they spend studying less
effective because they will need a couple hours of clock time to get an hour of productive
time. This is not a good way to manage yourself in relation to time.
And one more helpful thing—if you are spending time at the laundromat, bring your
psychology notes to study. If you are waiting in line for tickets to the REM concert,
bring your biology flashcards to memorize.
These are some ideas to get you started. Most students think that success in studying
is to do with how brilliantly clever and original they are; you’ll be surprised to discover
that one of the central challenges of adult life is time management. Get a headstart and
learn how to manage yourself in respect to… time NOW.
www.d.umn.edu/kmc/student/loon/acad/strat/time_manage.html

Module 2.  Unit 4


Listen to James Couzin, Education Consultant at Universities UK, speaking on the changes
British system of higher education is experiencing.

Nowadays many institutions are whether it is a first degree, a postgraduate


changing the way in which their courses award or a Higher National Diploma. The
are structured. The new modular schemes final qualification is of the same value as
offer you the opportunity to design a one which has a traditional structure, but
programme of study which suits your the way in which the course is organized
interests. First of all, let me explain what and assessed is different. In a full-time
a modular scheme is. programme the students will study
Technically speaking a modular course between 9 and 12 modules each year. Some
is made up of a number of self-contained of them may run for more than one term
units of study. These units, or modules, or semester. The work will be assessed at
count towards your final qualification— the end of each module, and each module
Scripts

a student successfully passes will give You might ask where you can study
credit points which have a common value for a modular degree. In fact, modular
within the Credit Accumulation and courses are offered by all kinds of insti-
Transfer Scheme, or CATS for short. tutions: the “new” universities (formerly
The next important thing is how a polytechnics), colleges of higher educa-
student can choose a course. In most tion and, increasingly, the more tradi-
modular courses you still choose the main tional universities. Institutions vary a
field of study. This may take the form of a great deal in the way in which they are
single subject degree in business studies, developing their courses. Some have
for examples, or a joint degree in biology changed all their courses to the modular
and information technology. A student has structure, others offer modular options
to take a number of compulsory or “core” only within a combined degree.
modules from a list of optional subjects, To cap it all, I’d like to point out the
either within the specialist subject(s) or advantages of this system. The modular
in an associated field. A student may also scheme enables students to choose the
be able to choose modules from completely topics of professional or general interest
different subject areas. These are called and to take modules outside the normal
“elective” subjects and can provide you range of studies. Also the end-of-module
with additional employment skills, or an assessment makes it easier for a student
opportunity to broaden your academic to monitor the progress.
interests. Options range from language However, there are some difficulties in
to computer skills, from accounting to studying on a modular course. With a new
fine art courses. In some institutions, you choice of modules each term or semester a
150 start with a broader choice of subjects, student will have more decisions to make.
decide which modules to take as you move The assessment process means that
through the course, and the title of the tutors for different modules may require
degree is decided during the final year. In a lot of planning. Nevertheless, modular
order to gain professional qualifications, courses are very flexible. Through CATS
it is important to cover the necessary scheme, a student can transfer credit
modules. Most institutions specify in their points from one institution to another,
prospectuses the routes you should go. and study in more than one country.
Adapted from:  www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/

Module 2.  Unit 5


Speaker 1:  John Doa, Chemist Besides, my parents are both for Chemistry graduates

W ell, popular wisdom teachers and they were very is very promising, with
says too much helpful in explaining things opportunities in industry and
television isn’t good for to me and learning about government, both in Canada
children, but this is not the science. I chose to specialize and abroad. So I’m sure, my
case with me. My interest in in Chemistry because it’s a interest in science has led me
science was stimulated by the hands-on science and I love to a future full of choices.
educational TV shows I saw getting more and more
as a youngster. Stories about familiar with lab procedures Speaker 2:  Paul Fennels, Marine biologist
dinosaurs got me captivated.
I saw that everything ‘cool’
involved learning more, and
and equipment. I haven’t
yet decided what I plan
to do in the future. At the
I have always been
interested in nature,
generally— how the world
that science was all about moment I’m considering works. Also I remember
learning. Reading science two possibilities: becoming a enjoying the BBC
fiction books was also great research chemist or going to programme Wildlife on
fun and introduced me to medical school. But whatever One. I wrote a letter to one
a number of interesting I decide, there are plenty of of the featured scientists
concepts. Actually, Isaac opportunities to be involved when I was 12 asking how to
Asimov was one of my in science in Canada. As far become a scientist. Besides,
favourite sci-fi writers. as I know, the job market when I was a teenager my
Scripts

school had a work experience I’d like to do the same kind of workshop. I even made
programme. I’d written of things and learn more a little electronic piano
to the local aquarium and about the life in the ocean. when I was 14. By the time
they let me do a week there. So I’m trying to broaden my I entered my eighth form
This turned into a summer interests to include more of I knew a career in science was
job—which was great. So what I want to do. To tell you for me, though my parents
when it came to the choice of the truth, I’m dreaming of a were quite against the idea.
specialization at university job of a scientific journalist. At school I actually enjoyed
I didn’t hesitate too long and physics more than chemistry.
decided on Marine Biology. Speaker 3:  Julie McPherson, Physicist So physics for me represented
Now I’m doing my Master’s
degree.
Actually, PhD sounds
W hen I was really young
I didn’t really know
what I wanted to do. I think
the ideal choice, as I knew
it was something I found
easy to understand. Looking
interesting but not quite that up to the age of 10 I had back it was definitely the
what I’d like to do. I guess, visions of being a lawyer. best choice. So I went to
I have periods of doubt about I remember thinking this Warwick University to
whether being a research job sounded very important. study Physics. I’m planning
scientist is the right thing. And my parents wanted me to do my PhD here. I’d like
It’s not particularly well- to study law not science. to work in different labs
paid at the moment. What’s However, I’d always been around the world. Actually,
more, all this paperwork is really interested in finding I’m hoping to set up my own
not my cup of tea at all. On out things. We lived very research group. I think the
the other hand, I imagine close to a large park, and most important thing is being
that my career will always be I used to spend hours playing interested in the subject and
151
linked with science in some in the ponds and streams, having an inquisitive mind.
way. I mean, I’m absolutely collecting fishes and insects. Adapted from: 
fascinated by Jacques-Yves I was also fond of reading www.nrcan.gc.ca/elements/issues/04/
Cous