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ASIAN THEATRE JOURNAL

VOLUME 1, NUMBER 1 SPRING 1984

ARTICLES
A Collision of Cultures: Some Western Interpretations of the
Indian Theatre Rustom Bharucha 1
Dealing With the Demonic: Strategies for Containment in Hindu
Iconography and Performance JohnEmigh 21
Feeling in Relation to Acting: An Outline of Zeami's Views
MarkJNearman 40
Of Dalang and Dukun—Spirits and Men: Curing and Performa
in the Wayang of West Java Kathy Foley 52

REPORTS
Theatre in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Colin Mackerras 76
Theatre in Post Cultural Revolution China: A Report Based on
Field Research in the Fall and Winter of 1981 Daniel S. P. Yang 90
Trends in the Japanese Theatrical World Terasaki Hironori,
translated by Goto Yukihiro 104
A Report on Contemporary Malaysian Theatre Krishenjit 109
The Rising Importance of Indigenous Theatre in India
Sunil Kothari and Goverdhan Panchal 112
REVIEWS
BOOK REVIEWS

A. C. Scott, Actors Are Madmen, reviewed by William Dolby 115


Kapila Vatsyayan, Traditional Indian Theatre: Multiple Streams,
reviewed by Phillip Zarrilli 118
Roger Long, Javanese Shadow Theatre: Movement and Characterization
in Ngayogyakarta Wayang Kulit, reviewed by A. C. Scott

120
Barbara Adachi, The Voices and Hands ofBunraku, reviewed by
Junko S. Berberich

122

AUDIO-VISUAL REVIEWS

C. L. Reed, Shadowmaster, reviewed by Kathy Foley

124

Publication of the Asian Theatre Journal is supported in part by grants from the University of Hawaii
Foundation and the Asian Cultural Council.

Edited twice yearly, in Spring and Fall, under the auspices of the Asian Theatre Program, Depart -
ment of Drama and Theatre, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822. Published by the Uni-
versity of Hawaii Press, 2840 Kolowalu Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822. ISSN: 0742-5457 Rate: to
institutions, $20 a year, $10 per issue; to individuals, $10 a year, $5 per issue.
ASIAN THEATRE JOURNAL
VOLUME 1, NUMBER 2 FALL 1984

ARTICLES
Toward an Islamic Theatre for Malaysia: Noordin Hassan and
Don't Kill the Butterflies Krishenjit 12 7
Drama and Politics in the China of the Twelfth Party Congress
Colin Mackerras 147
Shamanism in the Origins of the No Theatre Benito Ortolani 166

REPORTS
"Doing the Exercise": The In-body Transmission of Performance
Knowledge in a Traditional Martial Art Phillip B. Zarrilli 191
Some Observations on Movement in No Junko Sakaba Berberich 207
The Voice in Wayang and Kabuki Adeline Hirschfeld-Medalia 217
Major Achievements in Theatrical Scholarship, Research, and
Development in the People's Republic of China Hu Dongsheng,
Liu Yizhen, and Gu Mingzhu 223

REVIEWS
BOOK REVIEWS

Kinoshita Junji, Between God and Man: A Judgment on War Crimes;


A Play in Two Parts;]. Thomas Rimer trans, and intro., Mask and
Sword: Two Plays for the Contemporary Japanese Theatre by Yamazaki
Masakazu; Ted. T. Takaya ed. and trans., Modern Japanese Drama:
An Anthology; reviewed by David G. Goodman 228
Colin Mackerras, The Performing Arts in Contemporary China,
reviewed by Richard F. S.Yang 230
Arthur Stanley Riggs, The Filipino Drama, reviewed by Tomas C.
Hernandez 234
M. L. Varadpande, Traditions of Indian Theatre; M. L. Varad-
pande, Ancient Indian and Indo-Greek Theatre; M. L. Varadpande and
Sunil Subhedar eds., The Critique oj'Indian Theatre; M. L.
Varadpande, Krishna Theatre in India; reviewed by Phillip B. Zarrilli 236
Samuel L. Leiter, Kabuki Encyclopedia: An English-Language Adapta
tion ofKabukiJiten, reviewed by Bemto Ortolani

240
AUDIO-VISUAL REVIEWS

Frank Hoff and Bill Somerville, Hokushu; Ron Hess, Ajuba Dance
and Drama Company; reviewed by Llyn De Danaan 243
FOR UM FOR READERS AND A UTHORS
A Reply to Rustom Bharucha Richard Schechner 245
A Reply to Richard Schechner Rustom Bharucha 254

Publication of the Asian Theatre Journal is supported in part by grants from the University of Hawaii
Foundation and the Asian Cultural Council.

Edited twice yearly, in Spring and Fall, under the auspices of the Asian Theatre Program, Depart -
ment of Drama and Theatre, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822. Published by the Uni-
versity of Hawaii Press, 2840 Kolowalu Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822. ISSN: 0742-5457 Rate: to
institutions, $20 a year, $10 per issue; to individuals, $10 a year, $5 per issue.
Feeling in Relation to Acting:
An Outline of Zeami's Views
MarkJNearman

The Secret Tradition theatre treatises of the fourteenth-century


master actor, playwright, and teacher Zeami Motokiyo have long been
considered definitive in presenting the theoretical foundations for the
practical acting skills used in the Japanese no theatre.1 Despite their focus
on the particulars of no performing, their analysis of the nature of feeling
in relation to the actor's art has significant implications for the broader
topic of the phenomenology of acting. To appreciate their contribution to
this important subject of emotions in a theatrical art, it will be useful to
begin with a review of some familiar and often asserted Western ideas on
what an actor feels or should feel.
From the time of the classic Greeks the notion has been widely
voiced that an actor can only successfully portray what he himself has pre -
viously felt. That is, the heroic or ignoble qualities of a character are to be
directly attributed to the actor playing a given role. Hence, only an
actress who has lost a child of her own is thought capable of truly cap-
turing on stage a mother's grief. Only an actor of noble heart can portray
a noble-hearted character. And, by extension, only a wicked-minded
actor can convincingly play a villain.
This commonsensical theory which derived from a spectator's per-
spective was openly challenged by the eighteenth-century French philoso-
pher Denis Diderot in his Paradoxe sur le comedien (1957).2 This essay
expounded two important ideas concerning feeling. To move an audi -
ence, the actor must himself remain unmoved. And, while it is proper for
spectators to experience emotions, paradoxically such feelings are totally
out of place for an actor.

Mark J Nearman is Research Director of Theatre Arts Research, Inc., Seattle, Washington. He is
currently preparing a translation with commentary of the treatises of the no actor-playwright Kom-
paru Zenchiku under a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. Asian Theatre
Journal 1, no. 1 (Spring 1984). © by the University of Hawaii Press. All rights reserved.
Despite endorsement by the great French actor Coquelin and a
later expression of appreciation by Constantin Stanislavski, Diderot's
theories were not generally received with sympathy. Among the more
prominent opponents of the idea that the actor should not feel emotions
was the turn-of-the-century English critic William Archer. His study
"Masks or Faces?" (1957), first published in 1888, presented the results
of his survey of the reactions of contemporary English performers to
Diderot's views. Archer concluded that the vast majority in his sample
supported the notion that to achieve a successful portrayal the actor did
and must feel the emotions of the character.
Perhaps because these various historical views appear polarized,
the question of whether or how these opposing theories can be reconciled
has customarily been set aside in favor of championing a particular view.
Yet a close examination of these documents of Western theatre theory
reveals that the disagreements have arisen in part from a rather loose
application of the terms 'feeling' and 'emotions.' The various writers and
actors involved in the discussion often appear to apply these terms to a
variety of phenomena without mutual agreement as to their meaning. To
clarify the issue, a more concise description of acting phenomena seems
necessary.
The theatre treatises of Zeami, written independent of Western
influences or interests, are particularly concerned with distinguishing
among the various views of acting phenomena that arise from the dif -
fering perspectives of actors and spectators. His writings help clarify
many difficult aspects of this problem of feeling in relation to acting. His
observations also provide a useful explanation of the processes whereby
the complex nature of theatre can give rise to such divergent interpreta -
tions as those found in Western discussions. While none of his twenty-odd
treatises deals exclusively with this question of the relation of emotions to
acting, his views can readily be synthesized from an overall consideration
of his works.
Throughout these treatises, kan", the standard Japanese term for
"emotion" or "emotional feeling," is often encountered, and signals Zea-
mi's direct concern with the issue. 3 However, his use of this particular
term as an independent word is limited in reference almost exclusively to
the spectator's response to the stage effects created by the actor. The feel-
ings that an actor experiences while performing as well as the emotions
attributed by the viewer to the stage character are denoted by terms ety-
mologically unrelated to /can. To understand Zeami's various distinctions,
it will be helpful to consider some of the characteristics of the professional
acting that he was promulgating.
For Zeami, genuinely effective theatre is dependent on the actor-
audience relationship. The professional actor's most immediate perfor -
mance goal is to impel and maintain the interest of his audience. Or, as
Zeami describes it, the actor must be able to create a performance at
which the spectators, "those with a discerning eye, it goes without saying,
but even those who do not know that much about acting, unanimously
feel, 'How interesting!' " (Nearman 1982-83, 51) Only an actor capable
of this feat is to be judged as genuinely "skillful." (Nearman 1982-83,
473)
Yet, success in arousing this feeling (kan) of interest in the spectator
does not derive simply from momentarily attracting the viewer's attention
but arises from the actor's ability and skill at arousing a rather specific set
of feelings—anticipation, wonder, surprise, and delight. These specific
emotional responses are considered symptomatic of audience involve-
ment with what the actor is creating on stage. And they constitute what
Zeami describes as mezurashP, those moments in a performance that ap-
pear to the viewer as "unexpected" yet artistically and aesthetically right
for the moment. 4 This primary feeling of interest on the part of the audi-
ence must first be present if the viewers are to be led into experiencing
more profoundly moving emotions, kannif—literally, "sympathetic emo-
tional responses." (Nearman 1980, 178)
Although this feeling of interest may derive to some extent from an
aesthetic pleasure at a competent performance, for Zeami, the actor's aes-
thetic grace and rhythmic beauty in performing, although important, are
secondary to maintaining integrity of characterization. Zeami requires
that the performer "do his dances and mimes as well as recite from within
the form characteristic" of the personage that he is portraying. (Nearman
1982-83, 356) While such an approach is a trait of representational the -
atre, Zeami also advocates that the actor transcend surface-bound mimet-
ics to achieve what he calls rnonoman^, literally, "the true imitation of
things." (Zeami 1974b, 42-43) Or, to borrow from the language of the
Stanislavski school, acting is to be concerned with the Big Truth which
touches the human heart as distinct from the little truth of superficial veri -
similitude. (Stanislavski [1936] 1948, 120-122)
When an actor achieves this vital expression of the character he is
portraying, Zeami notes that its impact on the audience goes beyond an
initial feeling of interest to deeper and subtler realms of response. He
often speaks of a realm of experience where the transformation on stage of
actor into character appears so complete that the spectator feels that any
critical judgments cease to have meaning or relevance. This advanced
state of "feeling" Zeami calls mushin no kan% "feelings beyond the con-
scious mind [to discriminate]," or more literally, "[the word for] feeling
[written] without [the Sino-Japanese character for] mind," where mind
is understood to mean the whole range of intellectual and conditioned
thoughts as well as personal, ego-centered feelings. (Nearman 1982-83,
475-476)
He also refers to this state as mukan no kan{, "feelings beyond [per-
sonalized] feelings," which the master actor evokes in his audience.
(Zeami 1974h, 166) 5 The character used to write kans with this transcen-
dent meaning is the same as the name for Hexagram 31 in the Chinese
classic Book of Changes, which Zeami often cites. In The Book of Changes this
second kan refers to what is "universal" as well as to what "influences or
stimulates" the arousal of a feeling of universality. (Wilhelm 1950, 1:131)
This more subtle feeling in the audience created through an advanced
actor's art appears to affect the spectator so intensely that he "loses him -
self in the experience. That is, he momentarily lets go of his conditioned
idea of self which customarily functions to prejudge his experiences.
This higher goal of the actor makes clear that, for Zeami, acting is
not restricted to diverting the audience as a form of entertainment, nor is
it primarily intended to communicate some social, philosophical, or reli-
gious message. Rather, it has the capacity to create a situation by which
the spectator can transcend his own egocentric view to discover a clearer,
more direct perception of the reality within the nature of things. Hence,
these more subtle "feelings" are aroused in the audience not to fulfill
some sybaritic desire for an emotional high but to effect a catharsis which
frees the spectator, if only for the while, from the world of personal, emo -
tional entanglements.
Paradoxically, this spiritually therapeutic goal bears a resemblance
to Bertolt Brecht's Verfremdungseffekt wherein the performance is viewed
and experienced as fully as possible by the spectator for his evaluation.
That is, the spectator enters into a heightened state of consciousness
rather than remaining caught up in an emotionally blinding feeling of
sympathy for a fictitious hero whose innate, absolute goodness and right-
ness are never called into question. Similar to Brecht, Zeami seems to call
for a transcendence of societal values that will allow the viewer to see the
essential nature of a character beyond a level of sentimental heroism.
In the few instances where Zeami uses the independent word kan
in direct reference to the actor, context implies that this word does not
refer to the actor's personal emotions. Rather, it denotes the actor's "intu -
itive sensitivity," which he consciously cultivates and brings into play. 6
The actor uses this developed perceptiveness for sensing what Zeami calls
"the opportune moment that corresponds to the feeling of the audience."
(Nearman 1982-83, 461-462)
The overall purpose of this consciously stimulated "perception" in
the actor is to sense the mood that exists at a given performance, a mood
created not only on stage but also in the audience prior to the actor's
entrance, a mood that is also affected by the hour of the day and the sea-
son of the year. On the basis of his "feel" for this mood, the actor can then
shape his performance to make it all the more effective. 7 Such a sensitivity
also aids the actor in establishing a strong and immediate rapport with his
audience, whereby he can lead them more directly into experiencing the
revelation of the nature of the character that he is portraying.
The actor's sensitivity to mood is not confined by Zeami only to
the actor-audience relationship but extends to the actor's general ap-
proach to performing a play. Each piece will have its own particular qual -
ity which Zeami calls its kan'onh, "[overall] feeling tone." (Zeami 1974d,
200-204)8 While on' as an independent word literally means "tone" as a
physical sound, in Zeami's later treatises this word denotes the dominant
mood of a given no play, such as celebration, exultation, longing, or a
sense of loss. (Zeami 1974d, 198-199) Once the actor has determined the
mood appropriate to a particular play, he can then create it on stage as
part of the ambience within which the character he portrays will exist. By
a skillful programming of plays according to their particular feeling tone,
the audience can then be led through a wide range of emotional experi -
ences.
The emotions that the portrayed character appears to experience
and that are attributed by some spectators to the actor's personal feelings
are seen by Zeami to be the product of the trained actor's use of his voice,
particularly through his manipulation of the tonal properties of speech.
Hence, the appearance of these emotional effects is directly dependent on
the actor's understanding of the dynamics of vocal production. 9
Zeami customarily refers to these effects asjuzet', literally, "appar-
ent emotions." Fuzei specifically denotes "emotions" or "gut reactions"
as they appear in someone else, or the "look" that they give to that per -
son's behavior. Zeami's use of this word in reference to a character's
apparent emotions or "look" from the spectator's perspective contrasts
with his previously discussed application of Ran to designate "feelings" or
responses to a performance as directly experienced by the spectator.
However real these "emotions" of the character may appear to a
spectator, they are not truly identical with the personal feelings of the
actor. The actor's focus is upon creating these effects. Thus, he cannot
permit himself to respond emotionally to his own performance in the
same way as the spectator would respond. (Zeami 1974f, 117-118, and
Tsunoda 1968, 302)

l
Zeami's term for this vocally created feeling is onkanv, "tonal [or
vibratory] feeling." (Zeami 1974c, 153-154) This vocal feeling in relation
to a professional actor's performing, however, does not refer in Zeami to
some stereotypic rhetorical use of inflection as found in nineteenth-cen-
tury Western elocution or to an actor's personal feelings as advocated by
some followers of the Stanislavski school. Rather, it derives from a highly
developed practical sense of the properties and effects of tonal vibration as
an inherent part of a given language. How a line is inflected not only
involves a mechanical skill in voice manipulation but also requires that
the actor be able to derive and shape this inflectional pattern from a pro -
found understanding of the dynamics of the character to be portrayed.
This understanding is not simply an intellectual comprehension of the
psycho-sociology of the character but refers to the awareness an actor
must have of the nature of creative energy which he uses for fashioning all
stage manifestations.
Actors who do not consciously understand how or have not been
trained to use their voices to create moods on stage often substitute a dis-
play of personal emotionalism. This type of overzealous performer who
would tear a passion to shreds Zeami characterizes with a Zen-derived
metaphor, "The tiger cub three days after birth is all eager to eat an ox." 10
Such an actor finds his Western counterpart in Shakespeare's Bottom the
Tailor who would roar his audience such a lion.
While in no way denying the necessity for stage energy to perform
effectively, Zeami observes that such unrestrained emotional displays are
ultimately counterproductive in their lack of subtlety and often embar -
rassing crudity.11 Further, audiences are apt not to be moved by such fire-
works but rather to observe them at best with a detached fascination,
much as English audiences of an earlier century once thronged to see a
certain actress because of her capacity to weep on stage. The spectators
were apparently not emotionally stirred by her performances but rather
were intrigued by her physical capacity to supply a seemingly endless flow
of tears.
For acting to be both effective and affecting, Zeami notes that such
a discharge of energy must be "cooled down" (hietaru). (Nearman 1978,
310-312) This point of view, therefore, appears superficially similar to
that of Diderot in that emotion on a personal, experiential level is to be
left primarily to the audience, since the actor's task is not to express his
own emotions directly but to create a series of audience-involving moods.
But this cooling down is not achieved solely through the actor's applying a
cold, intellectual objectivity as Diderot seemed to advocate. Even so,
Zeami does indicate that an actor who relies on his perspicacity will
appear less crude than his fellow performer, the tiger cub, and sometimes
may even achieve genuinely moving moments. 12
On the other hand, Zeami's analysis of acting transcends the
either-or perspective implied by Archer's question of "masks or faces."
Indeed, Zeami places among the typical perspectives of the untrained
both that of the emotional actor who would present on stage his personal
emotions as well as the intellectual actor who would intelligently but dis -
passionately present a carefully constructed surface imitation intended to
represent the character portrayed. In contrast to both Archer's and
Diderot's perspectives, Zeami's view of acting resembles more closely that
of artists in other fields who create an expressive form—be it poem, paint-
ing, or sculpture—that is considered to have an existence to some degree
independent of its creator.
How an actor is to achieve acting that relies neither on emotional-
ism nor on technical tricks becomes the primary subject of the majority of
Zeami's treatises. An outline of his teaching approach, based on these
documents, will be helpful for understanding his more advanced ideas on
the relation of feeling to the kind of acting that develops from his more
sophisticated approach. In addition to the core idea of the primacy of the
actor-audience relationship, Zeami's training is predicated on three ideas
implied by his analysis of acting phenomena.
First, what an audience "sees" is an effect created by an actor, but
what that audience cannot see is the way in which that effect is achieved.
This is because it cannot directly discern the mental processes than an
actor must apply to produce his performance. The relationship between
the actor's mind and the stage effects he creates is likened by Zeami to a
puppeteer with his marionette. (Nearman 1982-83, 489-491) It is the
actor's manipulation of certain mental processes that function like invisi -
ble strings with a marionette to make the stage character appear to be a
living being. For an actor to learn how to use his mind to achieve effects
that will move an audience, special training is therefore a necessity.
Second, although the process for achieving effective acting is the
same for all successful actors—namely, by deploying creative energy
through a trained voice and body in accordance with a prior intent—nev -
ertheless, each actor's mastery of this process will be a highly personal
experience. While such an actor's description of this experience may be
quite accurate from his own point of view, it may be inadequate for or
even contradictory to the description of another actor's experience. Con-
sequently, a student's genuine mastery of this process cannot be positively
determined solely on the basis of what he says he understands. At all
levels of development he must demonstrate his mastery through perfor -
mance. An actor's personal feelings about acting are consequently of little
direct value in determining his level of skill or in his teaching others the
process of acting. Indeed, Zeami specifically admonishes the master actor
when he is training others "not to instruct according to his own personal
way of performing at that particular juncture [in his career]" but to mod ify
his mode of acting in certain ways that will be more helpful for the student to
see the principle being demonstrated. (Nearman 1982-83, 468) M
Third, even though a spectator may feel that the cause of what
moves him derives from the behavior of the character created by the actor,
this "character" does not exist in a vacuum. It arises from the relation of
the actor's use of his voice and body to the ambience in which the charac -
ter appears to exist. This ambience derives from the stage environment
created for a given play, the feeling tone of that play, and the actor's rela -
tionship with his fellow performers. 13 The actor's task includes the cre-
ation not only of an individualized character but also of the environment,
physical and emotional, in which that character is manifest.
To realize such a complex stage effect, the actor is expected to rely
primarily on the use of his inner faculties to create effects through his own
physical equipment. Thus, Zeami's training approach begins with the
development of the actor's mind along with his voice and body. 14 This is
achieved by the student working on short segments from plays in the
repertory presented to him through his teacher's performing of them. The
purpose of this imitative approach, however, is not to produce a clone of
the teacher, but to develop the student's ability to observe patterns of
movement or speech and then effectively reproduce them on the basis of
the visual and auditory "image" he has retained in his mind. Only when
the student has demonstrated through performance his mastery of repro-
ducing a carefully observed and remembered image of his model is he
ready to apply such powers of observation and expression to the difficult
task of creating a stage character.15
The psychology of characterization, however, is not treated as the
term would apply in Western theatre practice. Zeami's approach is based
on the manner in which human energy manifests itself in behavior, since
that is the energy an actor must use to fashion the character he portrays.
Through understanding on a practical level the dynamics of this energy
which the actor's intent directs for creating manifestations, all modes of
expressing human behavior can be achieved. 16
The master teacher's ever-deepening exploration with the student
into the nature of human expression is ultimately aimed not only at
achieving technical mastery and versatility but more significantly at at-
taining a creative breakthrough in the student. 17 This breakthrough is
marked by an integration of the actor's intellective and intuitive functions
with both the inner image of the student actor's intent created by his
imagination, and his mastery of the processes for physicalizing that im-
aged intent. While such a creative breakthrough has also been described
and striven for by some Western teachers of acting, its appearance is often
taken to signal the end of training. For Zeami, this breakthrough only
indicates the first blossoming of an actor's creative ability, his discovery of
how to consciously hold his audience's interest. To lead audiences into
deeper experiences requires more advanced training.
This more advanced work centers primarily on the inner develop -
ment of the actor as artist, again expressed by Zeami in terms of practical
operation.18 The development toward higher levels of expression begins
with the actor's elimination of personal, ego-centered concerns, as these
call attention to the actor as person and therefore distract the audience
from its focus on the created effects. Only when the actor has succeeded in
freeing himself from the egotism of personal exhibitionism can he risk a
more direct and individual expression of his creativity. Such an "egoless"
expression becomes paradoxically a more direct and profound manifesta-
tion of the actor's unique creativity than one limited by an actor's concern
with "what / feel, what / think." When the actor has learned how to
evince this more universal expression of creativity, he can then move on to
the ultimate level of art wherein the integration of artist and art is so com -
plete that there is only the expression; the rapport between what occurs on
stage and what the audience experiences becomes indissolubly linked.
The question of what an actor feels on these higher levels of cre-
ative art becomes irrelevant. To achieve these levels requires the actor to
sacrifice focus on his immediate, personal experience, as such a focus
would inhibit the direct expression of his creativity. Only when the actor is
free from an egocentric separation of himself from or a personalized iden-
tification with the character he portrays, can he allow the 'feelings' of the
character to be made manifest in a way that permits the audience not
merely to observe the character's nature but ultimately to be profoundly
moved by the actor's creative expression.

NOTES

1. The most complete edition of Zeami's treatises appears in Zeami, Zenchihit,


edited by Omote Akira"1 and Kato Shuichi" (1974).
2. This essay was not published until 1830, forty-six years after Diderot's
death.
3. The term appears some 150 times in the treatises either as an independent
word or as part of a compound word. Zeami's treatises were primarily addressed
to actors already trained in his school. Because of the highly technical nature of
his discussions, it is rarely possible to quote illustrative passages without intro
ducing many secondary terms and concepts that require extensive explication to
make the quotation comprehensible. Thus references have been given to specific
passages and, where possible, to available commentaries for those interested in
more technical discussions.
4. Zeami discusses these emotional responses in the final chapter of his treatise
"Fushikaden"0 (Zeami 1974b, 55-57). This treatise is also known as "Kaden-
sho"p (Writings on the tradition of [creative] flowering), for which several
English, French, and German translations exist, though none yet by a theatre-
trained scholar. Zeami's specific terms for these responses are analyzed in "Kya-
kuraika: Zeami's Final Legacy for the Master Actor" (Nearman 1980, 162). The
word kyakuraikaq means "the flower of returning."
5. Zeami's "Yugaku shudo fuken"r has been translated into French by Sieffert
(Zeami 1960c).
6. This third meaning for kan' is customarily written with a
Sino-Japanese
character that is etymologically unrelated to the two used to
denote audience-
related feelings.
7. A detailed discussion of methods for evaluating the "feel" of the
audience is
given by Zeami in answer to his first question on predicting the
success or failure
of a performance beforehand, by observing the atmosphere of the
theatre and the
audience of that day, in "Fushikaden" (Zeami 1974b, 27-30;
Zeami 1960a, 76-
78; Zeami [1968] 1969, 36-39).
8. Zeami's treatise "Go'ongyoku jojo'" (1974d) is as yet
untranslated.
9. Zeami has two treatises on vocal techniques, "Fushizuke
shidai"" (Zeami
1974c) and "Fugyoku shu" v (Zeami 1974a). In addition, he discusses
basic prin
ciples of vocal training and use to achieve these effects in "Kakyo" w
(A mirror of
the flower) (Nearman 1982-83, 343-349, 354-356, 360-366, 58-
65).
10. In his treatise "Kyui" x (The nine levels [of actor attainment])
(Nearman
1978, 303-304), Zeami groups these nine levels by threes. The lower
three levels
describe types of acting produced by untrained actors; the middle
three, acting
produced by students who have absorbed and grasped the various
technical prin
ciples of performing; and the upper three, acting achieved through
an integration
of creativity with technical mastery. The bombastic display of the
"tiger cub"
actor is placed on the middle of the lower three levels.
11. In Zeami, stage energy is a manifestation of the ch'i (Japanese,
kty), a Chi
nese technical term for the vital energy that any living being
possesses for effect
ing any physicalized action. Instructions on specific techniques
for avoiding
crudity by controlling and restraining this energy to produce a
variety of stage
effects are given in "Kakyo" (Nearman 1982-83, 350-353, 356-
359, 360-374).
12. Zeami places the less crude and sporadically effective
performing of the
"intellectual" actor on the highest of his lower three levels.
(Nearman 1978, 309-
313)
13. In his untranslated treatise "Shudosho" 2 (1974g, 237), Zeami
observes
that a production should achieve a "feeling of harmony" (chokar?*)
through the
cooperative interaction of the performers.
14. The procedures for mind development form a major theme
that runs
throughout the whole of "Kakyo" (Nearman 1982-83).
15. The mastery of recreating forms and its application to the
creation of char
acters constitute the lower and middle grades of Zeami's middle
three levels of
acting. (Nearman 1978, 313-317) Techniques needed for this
mastery are given
in the form of six principles which Zeami identifies and describes
in "Kakyo"
(Nearman 1982-83, 343-374).
16. Zeami's principal treatise on character differentiation is
"Hitokata" ab
(Zeami 1974e, 122-130). It has been translated into French by
Sieffert (Zeami
1960b). This treatise is also known as "Nikyoku santai ezu" ac (The
two media [of
recitation and movement] and the three principles [for creating
characteriza
tions] illustrated). To understand this difficult treatise, reference
should be made
to "Kakyo" (Nearman 1982-83, 356-359).
17. In "Kyui" (Nearman 1978, 328-329), Zeami correlates
this creative
breakthrough with the highest of his middle diree levels.
18. In "Kyui" (Nearman 1978, 318-325), this development is
correlated with
the uppermost three levels of 'creative' acting. The various
techniques and concerns associated with these advanced acting
levels constitute the bulk of the contents of the second part of
"Kakyo" (Nearman 1982-83, 461-496, 51-71).
a. b. c. k. u.
d. e. f. 1. V.

g-h. m. w.
n. X.

o. y-
P- z. aa.
q- ab. ac.
r. s. t.

REFERENCES

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