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IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS, VOL. 22, NO.

2, SECOND QUARTER 2020

Software-defined Allocation and Virtualization for


Broadband Multi - Beam Satellite Communication
Networks based on High Throughput Satellites
Noureldin Mohamed , Student Member, IEEE , Charles E. Leiserson, Fellow Member, IEEE

I. INTRODUCTION

A
Abstract— The increase in the number of satellite
lthough the Internet has changed people's daily lives,
communication system users requires more spectrum and
bandwidth resources. In the future, multi-beam broadband
almost two-thirds of people do not use wired or wireless
satellite systems should have greater flexibility and be able to internet. The satellite network, which has global coverage and
dynamically adjust to changes in business volume. A method for is not constrained by geographical conditions, has attracted
effectively sharing spectrum can effectively use spectrum widespread attention from the research and industry community.
resources. Cognitive radio spectrum sharing technology is an They prefer to use low-altitude satellites to reduce propagation
effective method for improving spectrum efficiency and realizing delay and achieve real-time communication. Additionally,
effective utilization of spectrum resources. on the other hand, the through the use of addressing, routing and other technologies,
next-generation of high-throughput satellite (HTS) used for you can provide transportation services with Quality of Service
broadband user access is closely related to the use of the Ka band
(QoS) regulations in next-generation satellite networks.
and more frequencies. This is related to accessing so-called
"terabit connections" to support increased bit rate requirements.
However, the existing satellite networks do not upgrade
Therefore, there are many challenges, such as updating hardware/software flexibly and depend on closed and planned
configuration, introducing new communication technologies and infrastructures. It brought great challenges for the rapid
networks, providing truly excellent services, interoperability of introduction of new communication technologies and networks,
satellite network equipment, integration of Satellite, and hampered the provision of truly differentiated services for a
terrestrial networks. Software-Defined Network (SDN) has wide variety of growing satellite network applications, and
flexibility, Programmability, and logic centralization increase the provided satellite communication equipment provided by
use of network resources and simplify the network Management Microsoft The interoperability between them brings significant
reduces operating costs and promotes development and
obstacles. Different operators (or based on different
innovation. This paper studies the spectrum broadband satellite
network system dedicated to cognitive radio sharing software. The
communication technologies) impede the smooth integration of
technology enables effective management of satellite resources, heterogeneous satellites and terrestrial networks. On the other
improves the use of satellite resources, and improves the hand, terrestrial network architectures adopt new paradigms,
performance of multi-beam satellite communication systems such as Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network
along with high-throughput satellite. The principle of multiple Function Virtualization (NFV). The SDN focuses on the
knowledge packages sharing software-defined packages discusses ambitious vision of the centralized network logic, which makes
the system of satellite broadband networks. Analyze spectrum the network nodes programmable, thereby providing a certain
efficiency and productivity. level of abstraction that is accessed through the control interface
Manuscript received October 22, 2019; revised December 2, 2019; accepted (API). The SDN template provides the opportunity to manage
January 18, 2020. Date of publication February 06, 2020; date of current network services by summarizing the main functions. This can
version May 28, 2020. The work of N. Mohamed was supported by The
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Project under
be done by separating the network control plane from the data
Grant 2016CBN9149. (Corresponding author: Noureldin Mohamed) . level, and by network simulation. The goal of NFV is to
N.Mohamed with the School of computer science and technology, Beijing implement some network functionality in software packages so
Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
(e-mail:1820181066@bit.edu.cn, noureldinmohamedabdelaal@gmail.com ).
that services can be served using these software packages
C.E.Leiserson is with the school of Engineering and, Massachusetts Institute simultaneously. In this case, network functions such as
of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States (e-mail: switching, routing, and security services are no longer applied
cei@mit.edu).
through dedicated hardware, but through software running on
commercial-purpose x-86 devices. There are some major
Index Terms— HTS system, Ka band, QN-band, Software players in the SDN / NFV field (i.e. CISCO, VMware, Alcatel-
Defined Networking, Network Functions Virtualization, Lucent, HP, IBM, etc.). Has or will be able to integrate (all or
Extremely High Frequencies, Smart Gateways, Extremely
part of it) And communicate with the de facto open framework
high frequencies, Propagation impairment mitigation
techniques, Site diversity, Smart gateway, Cognitive Radio; SDN / NFV Standard to date: OpenStack. The SDN / NFV
Full frequency reuse, Radio resource management. model permits taking advantage of the high flexibility,
measurability and speedy preparation options inherent during a
IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS, VOL. 22, NO. 2, SECOND QUARTER 2020

programmable setting. The processing power is given by B. NETWORK VIRTUALIZATION


multiple virtual machines (VMs) on the physical server (or Virtual network simulations can create and isolate multiple
"node"). If there's a necessity to boost the process capabilities independent virtual networks on shared network infrastructure
of the device (i.e. router / virtual adapter and GW), the virtual and coexistence. A virtual network is a logical network that
setting permits (very) to instantly add VMs to specific physical contains certain virtual elements (network devices (or nodes)
nodes or portion additional resources (such as computer and links). Virtual nodes are summaries of network devices that
hardware cores/chains and memory Random access and storage) are usually hosted on one physical node. It performs network
to the VM of that node. The construct of SDN additionally functions, such as forwarding and forwarding, by occupying
applies to the rear finish layer (storage): a superior SAN some managed node resources. Resources for virtual network
(storage space network) topology may be simulated by the equipment are diverse, such as CPU, variable memory, network
package, i.e. associate degree SDN controller that manages one interface, storage, switching, etc. A virtual link is an abstraction
or a gaggle of DAS (Direct connected Storage) teams. Disks in from a network link created on one or more physical links or
goods devices will produce a computer storage space network physical paths. It consumes transmission resources (i.e.
with low value and simplified management functions. This, at bandwidth for physical links) and exchanges resources for
the side of the implementation of the SDN within the CDN physical nodes that are traversed.
(Content Delivery Network), opens new horizons for the
implementation of affordable integrated Earth services. The C. NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALIZATION
introduction of SDN and NFV models within the direction of
The telecom industry has always preferred to use dedicated
the present development of HTS will bring huge advantages to
equipment to provide network functionality. However, this
service suppliers and users, therefore making associate degree
model inevitably leads to long market delays and higher costs.
innovative “demand-driven network” which will support
The NFV concept challenges this model. In fact, NFV
correct new services and optimize the optimum use of resources.
advocates the virtualization of network functionality in
Moreover, the network virtualization provided by these new
software modules running on standard IT infrastructure (such
models will effectively notice the chance of integration between
as turnkey commercial servers), which can be grouped and/or
satellites and terrestrial resources and will promote the
linked to create services. Since virtual network functions can be
expansion of satellite applications. this text can discuss the
implemented on one or more virtual machines, this method
implementation of the SDN model in future HTS systems and
takes advantage of the server virtualization experience learned
determine the foremost fascinating use cases and views. half
from the cloud computing industry. The main benefits of NFV
two introduces the integrated practicality of the terrestrial SDN
are reduced CAPEX and OPEX and improved network agility.
satellite networks and also the expected advantages for the
whole SatCom community (stakeholders, consumers, etc.). In
D. SATELLITE NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
Section Three, the satellite network reference set up was
analyzed, and in Section foursome, specific applications for
SDN / NFV networks were known. half 5 concludes. This work is a typical broadband satellite network (BSN),
which provides multi-beam coverage with front and backlinks.
II. BACKGROUND The BSN ground segment combines multiple hubs,
interconnected with some contact points (presence points) or
A. INTRODUCTION TO
gateways to external networks (usually the Internet) through a
SOFTWARE-DEFINED NETWORKS
dedicated backbone network (Figure 2).
Recently, the SDN has become a new way to network
Usually, the hub supports two-way traffic on one or more
programming and management, as the logic of the central
packets. It combines the forward link transmission unit (FL-TU)
control level is separated from the level of data forwarding. The
and the reverse link reception unit (RL-RU), as well as the
SDN architecture defines a new entity (called a controller) that
gateway (GW) to the terrestrial network and network control
integrates the control intelligence of one or more network
center (NCC) and network management center (NMC). FL-TU
elements (adapters), as shown in Figure 1. Various open
performs basic domain functions through adaptive coding and
interfaces are established for communication between the
modulation (ACM), such as DVB-S2 coding and modulation.
control level and the data level (southern interface), and
Gates are usually full-featured IP routers with powerful
OpenFlow is the standard the actual. On the console's northern
functions and protocol groups (for example, support for
interface, you can use the network-level data path view to
different routing protocols, network address translation, access
deploy the application. SDN opens new opportunities. Most
control list (ACL), firewall services, SNMP, QoS, etc.). NCC
importantly, it simplifies network management and allows
provides control functions; usually access control and resource
automatic on-demand networking and optimal use of network
control/allocation of satellite terminals (ST) in the forward
resources.
direction and return links. The NMC performs all management
functions, namely network component configuration (ST, hub),
error, performance, billing management, and security. A
performance improvement factor (PEP) designed to improve
IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS, VOL. 22, NO. 2, SECOND QUARTER 2020

TCP performance can also be found on satellite links in the hub a certain distance (usually tens of kilometers for EHF), ensuring
(or carried over to PoP or near the end-user). Successfully an area between precipitation is minimal. Therefore, if heavy
providing satellite communication services for end-users rain occurs in one GW region, there may not be rain (or very
includes one or more real business participants, each of whom small) in another area; the site is used in the best spread
plays one or more roles (they bear a series of responsibilities). conditions to create the link.

Figure 2. Satellite communication architecture.

There are two possible configurations of site diversity:


balanced and unbalanced. Balanced Variation is a site
Figure 1. Network vision with the software-defined network diversification scheme consisting of two or more ground
(SDN) approach. stations with the same performance. In unbalanced diversity,
the performance of the earth station varies over diversity. In
particular, it made the performance of an earth station (main
station) high enough to significantly reduce the performance
Three main roles are involved: requirements of another earth station (substation). The
Satellite operator (SO): owns the satellite and starts operating. performance gain obtained through site diversity can be very
It leases satellite capacity at the transmitter and receiver level high, but it is worth noting that in the commercial HTS case,
(physical layer) to one or more SNOs. the application of this technique requires a complete iteration of
Satellite network operator (SNO): Use one or more satellite the GW, so the ground segment cost is not affordable. The
transmitters and receivers and one or more satellite hubs to Smart GW relies on the synchronous GW aggregate connected
operate the broadband satellite network. Divide the bandwidth to the terrestrial fiber network and is used for the location
at the transmitter and receiver level to provide satellite guidance diversity diagram of the feed link so that the feed link data can
and return links for Layer 2 operators. NCC controls this be routed in a way to compensate for the deep fading of one (or
bandwidth sharing. Through NMC, SNO provides a more) gateway. GWs in the pond are found in various nutrient
management interface for purchased resources. beams. It is the spatial reuse of the feed link bandwidth that is
Satellite Virtual Network Operator (SVNO): Based on the fully reusable by GW.
satellite links signed with one or more SNOs, it builds and Various configurations for Smart GW can be used:
provides high-end end-to-end value-added services that can be • The first configuration is designed to ensure continuous
obtained through satellite access. service without repetition. In this structure, each GW is
transmitted through a carrier linked to different user packets.
III. GATEWAYS DIVERSITY OPTIONS FOR HTS Therefore, when a GW fails, only a portion of the user's
bandwidth will be lost, and the GW can service another GW
Spatial diversity technology relies on the spatial redirection of intermittent user terminal (above the usual DVB-S2 TDMA,
radio paths around fading sources; the reason for this is that using shared FDMA resources with other terminals in the same
precipitation is intermittent and uneven in space and time. Two user pack). This SG architecture differs from the HTS currently
major GW diversity systems can be used within the HTS system: running, for, in the current HTS, each user packet is connected
single site diversity and smart portal. The first is a well thought to one GW unit. It is worth noting that this solution can
out topic, based on the simultaneous use of two simultaneous maximize service continuity, but it will reduce the total system
ground stations located within the same feed point beam and at capacity during a power outage.
IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS, VOL. 22, NO. 2, SECOND QUARTER 2020

overall performance of the satellite link by utilizing the limited


size and range of dense rain cells. These brain cells can extend
only a few kilometers in both the horizontal and vertical
directions and tend to get smaller as the rain intensifies. With
sufficient physical isolation between ground terminals, the
probability of both sites exceeding a certain level of attenuation
due to precipitation is much less than the probability of
exceeding the attenuation level at one location. Site diversity is
one of the most powerful PIMTs, but achieving performance
improvements requires significantly higher system costs.
Within this framework, we will focus on the balanced diversity
of the site because it is the most common configuration used to
implement the SG concept.

Figure 3. Single site diversity.

• The second configuration is a system designed to not fully


utilize one GW capacity in clear sky conditions; therefore,
when one GW encounters deep atmospheric fading (or even
complete outages), its flow can be allocated to other GWs in the
network (conditions encountered Good channel spread). This
implementation requires a complex airborne key matrix to
achieve a reconfigurable (or almost complete) channel
communication between GW and user point. Since the system
capacity is very large compared to "clear sky" operating
conditions, the second SG solution appears to be ineffective,
but in actual commercial applications, the service provider
needs to spend several years selling the entire system capacity,
so Smart GWs can be implemented using parts that do not sell Figure 4. Geometry of LEO satellite links.
to clients. In the long run, when the service provider sells all the
system capacity, other solutions must be identified to maintain
guaranteed service availability using pre-provided SGs V. USES CASES
technology (for example, GW iteration can be entered using a USE CASE 1: INTER-HUB HANDOVER WITH SITE
single site diversity configuration). All GWs in the cluster are DIVERSITY
connected by a network control center that manages and
monitors traffic. Description and current practice - In satellite communications,
the use of higher frequency bands such as Ka or Q / V makes
Compared to a single site diversity diagram, the use of system the adaptive coding and modulation (ACM) mechanisms
resources in the smart GW is more efficient; in fact, all gates mandatory, which can offset the signal attenuation caused by
can work simultaneously, and the system capacity is used in an meteorological events such as clouds or rain. In the case of very
ideal way without the need for a full iteration of the GW. On high attenuation, the throughput attenuation due to ACM and
the other hand, defining efficient flow control / switching the resulting network congestion may be inconsistent with the
algorithms and GW network synchronization can be very QoS restrictions for some streams (VoIP, video conferencing).
complicated. Besides, in the second structure, the switch matrix If weather degradation is caused by weather interference on
on the board should be used. GPS positioning, a strong encryption mechanism is inevitable.
If downgrading includes hub localization, you should consider
IV. WIDE AREA DIVERSITY using another remote location. The concept of a single ST
Site diversity is a generic term used to describe the use of two connection (successful or unsuccessful) is called multiple axes
(or more) terrestrial terminals geographically separated in a called site diversity.
space communication link to overcome the downlink path Site diversity deployment can follow two different methods as
attenuation effects during heavy rainfall. Location diversity, described above. The N + P method relies on repeated P axes,
also known as path diversity or space diversity, can improve the which can replace the failed location to achieve complete user
IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS, VOL. 22, NO. 2, SECOND QUARTER 2020

switching (HO). The N + 0 frequency multiplexing method is •Traffic control: Determination of active services, performance,
used to serve the carriers from different axes to the terminal, and resources received (satellites and backbone).
and the wrong location results in the loss of the corresponding • Satellite and ground-based network performance indicators.
frequency band segment. If the continuity of network services •SNO / SVNO Strategy: Urgent or superuser requirements.
must be guaranteed and performance compromised, both Once specific flows or ST handover are defined, the application
situations will present challenges. Indeed, axis modulation will automatically:
(case N + P) or carrier modulation (N + 0) must be sent to ST • Notify the relevant ST and FL / RL-TU to change its
and implemented. At the same time, the routing table in the frequency if necessary.
Earth Network must be updated. Moreover, the delivery • Update the forwarding rules in the GWs and backbone
decision issue is complex, as it may involve hundreds of STs, network. Two options can be considered:
considering multiple criteria, such as traffic control, network • Direct route guidance: The flow is directed directly from its
knowledge, and channel quality changes. The current satellite new center to the closest PoP,
network follows the N + P method and delivers the entire This is often achieved due to SDN related programmable
package at once. functionalities that are added to the packet-processing pipe. as
an example, OpenFlow can dynamically deploy forwarding
rules matching packets based on:

• Incoming network interface.


• IP/MAC addresses.
• Classes of services or protocols used.
• Rate of identified flow or group.
• Deep packet inspection (DPI) using legacy functions.
lastly, SDN doubtless contributes to present and future satellite
networks by easing the management of inter-hub handover
enabled by site diversity, and by extending its capabilities.

USE CASE 2: MIDDLEBOXES VIRTUALIZATION


Central boxes are very common in Internet architecture,
especially in certain networks (such as satellite communication
Figure 5. SDN architecture of terrestrial network in site
networks). These smart entities are used for various purposes,
diversity context.
such as improving performance, security, and address
translation. This section analyzes how NFV improves classic
SDN Opportunities for Site Diversity —
PEP functionality in satellite networks.
Implementing SDN principles in the context of site diversity
TCP Performance Optimization —
can help design effective delivery decision algorithms and
On some WANs, especially in restricted environments (such as
simplify the delivery process. This can be achieved through the
satellite networks), the TCP / IP model is not optimal in
following improvements shown in Figure 5:
performance. Various versions of the TCP are proposed for
satellite networks with the aim of improving the performance
• Switches that support SDN can replace GWs in Hubs.
• The SDN (OpenFlow) main monitor located on the hub site
running network applications is responsible for switching
management between hubs. For illustration, the SDN controller
is described in Figure 5. However, for purposes of scalability
and reliability, multiple control entities should be considered.
• NCC and NMC interfaces exposed to switch applications,
which collect monitoring information and enable the operation
of certain ST configurations.
•Optional: Basic network supports SDN technology. The
Switch Manager app determines when a handover is required
(and the stream or ST included in the switch) based on the
following conditions:
•Traffic limit: QoS requirements, specific service level
agreement for a specific user. of the TCP. However, they face publishing problems on user
stations. The solution that was found and used was to introduce
IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS, VOL. 22, NO. 2, SECOND QUARTER 2020

equipment at the boundaries of the satellite network to convert The demand for VNO services is clear, not new. VNO service
the operation of TCP into a compatible version with satellites. allows SNO to effectively divide satellite resources among
These devices, called performance improvement factors (PEPs), multiple SVNOs by providing dedicated satellite capacity with
are distributed in the satellite network and provide advanced different QoS levels. Usually, SVNO will reassemble these
services such as web caching. services, in turn, to provide comprehensive value-added
The protocol optimization provided by PEP is incompatible services to its customers. However, SVNO has limited control
with many solutions, especially in military or space over the services (and basic resources) they purchase, mainly
deployments where security and mobility restrictions exist. For due to the closed nature of satellite equipment and the
example, implementing mobile phone architectures such as management interface between SNO and SVNO.
mobile IP provides a solution to the complex problems of PEP. Figure 7 shows the network management system (NMS) used
The most problematic situation occurs during mixed delivery, by SVNO on the one hand, and SNO NMC running NCC, GW,
that is, from a satellite network requiring improvement of the and all STs on the other hand. Even if some management
PEP to a network that is no longer needed (which may be functions (for example, routing, etc.) can be completed directly
counter-productive). In this case, the managed and accelerated from NMS for SVNO to ST, most functions must also pass
TCP connection by PEP should still exist after the PEP is through NMC (for example, to obtain status and statistical
deactivated (or the PEP changed generally). However, PEP is information for ST). To this end, SNO provides a management
physically confined to the infrastructure and cannot follow the interface (I.SNO-SVNO) as part of the VNO service to enable
end-user. For the proposed mixed satellite / terrestrial solutions NMS to manage SVNO satellite terminals. This interface is
to solve this problem, it requires the exchange of context usually SNMP dependent and complementary to some vendor-
between potential people. Other medium boxes that provide specific solutions.
advanced services in satellite networks (NAT, firewalls,
security, etc.) suffer from the same problems. The VNO service offered to SVNO depends on the level of
visibility and control function offered by the I.SNO-SVNO
PEPs and Network Function Virtualization — management interface, which is far from universal. Besides,
The network function virtualization model aims to perform data some control functions require manual intervention by SNO to
level processing or control level functions in large capacity data verify or implement the required configuration. From SVNO
centers or network elements. This opens up a new era for perspective, this requires the development of new services and
thinking about middleboxes because middleboxes can be easily the complexity of the process of creating your services.
deployed on-demand and provide advanced services under Virtualization of VNO Network Services and Network
operator control. Moreover, these mid boxes may be mobile Programming Opportunities —
because they only depend on programs that can be migrated SVNO requires more control over its resources by reducing (or
from one standard server to another. Given the use case 1 (field not using) SNO intervention. The problem is:
diversity) presented above, PEP is usually implemented in a 1. The process of supplying an automated service faster.
satellite center. When the satellite station is delivered to the 2 enrich their service catalog.
new hub, the TCP connection will be disconnected via PEP 3 Enable satellite communication as a service consumption
because the new PEP will not know the connection context. model.
With the NFV model, PEP will not be executed as a dedicated
medium box, but as a program that can be run on different
devices. Besides, the PEP functionality can be customized to
the connection context (for example, ST), and can be modified
according to application requirements (security, mobility,
performance, etc.). If the ST switches from one satellite hub to
another, its "dedicated virtual PEP" will be carried over to the
new hub and will continue to implement appropriate TCP
improvements. Some cloud computing systems support NFV
and have already provided solutions for deploying virtual
network functions (VNF). Some vendors have suggested
default functionality to improve and accelerate the TCP
protocol for web application servers. From a technical point of
view, PEP virtualization will become a reality.
Figure 6. SDN-enabled satellite/ADSL hybrid architecture.

USE CASE 3: ENHANCING VNO SERVICES

Description and State of the Art —


IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS, VOL. 22, NO. 2, SECOND QUARTER 2020

Opening exposed satellite equipment to Layer 2 operators CONCLUSION


through the program interface (a rich instruction set that By describing four practical use cases, this article
bypasses SNMP), as well as network virtualization, is the way illustrates some of the opportunities that these emerging
to achieve these goals. By applying a virtualization device (i.e. models of satellite broadband networks provide and their
server virtualization on network devices and applicable to impact on typical satellite system constructs. SDN and
network devices) on the SNO satellite hubs, a virtual hub can NFV are complementary solutions. SDN provides
be distributed based on SVNO (Figure 8). Insulation resulting flexibility, automation, and network customization. NFV
from isolation is a major function of virtual network simulation, brings agility in providing services and shortens the time
it is suitable for data and control, management plans, to market new services. There is no doubt that they will
performance and safety, and SNO can delegate complete occupy a central place in future satellite communication
control and management of the virtual axis to the customer systems.
SVNO. Therefore, SVNO can independently execute its
strategy on its virtual satellite network. By controlling the
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virtualization by using software-defined networking controller based
IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS, VOL. 22, NO. 2, SECOND QUARTER 2020

Docker," 2016 IEEE Information Technology, Networking, Electronic science Professor Leiserson has won many academic awards. He
and Automation Control Conference, Chongqing, 2016, pp. 1112-1115, received the IEEE Computer Society 2014 Taylor L. Booth Education
doi: 10.1109/ITNEC.2016.7560537. Award “for worldwide computer science education impact through
[14] C. A. Ezefibe and Y. R. Shayan, "Towards virtualisation and secured writing a best-selling algorithms textbook, and developing courses on
software defined networking for wireless and cellular networks," 2016 algorithms and parallel programming.” He received the ACM 2013
IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering Paris Kanellakis Theory and Practice Award “for contributions to
(CCECE), Vancouver, BC, 2016, pp. 1-5, doi: efficient and robust parallel computation through both provably
10.1109/CCECE.2016.7726826. efficient randomized scheduling protocols and a set of parallel-language
[15] Z. Wang, D. Tao and Z. Lin, "Dynamic Virtualization Security Service primitives constituting the Cilk framework.” He has received several
Construction Strategy for Software Defined Networks," 2016 12th “best paper” awards and the ACM SIGPLAN ten-year retrospective
International Conference on Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Networks award for most influential 1998 PLDI paper. He received the ACM 1982
(MSN), Hefei, 2016, pp. 139-144, doi: 10.1109/MSN.2016.031. Doctoral Dissertation Award for his Ph.D. thesis, Area-Efficient VLSI
[16] F. Reynaud, F. Aguessy, O. Bettan, M. Bouet and V. Conan, "Attacks Computation. He is a Margaret MacVicar Faculty Fellow at MIT, the
against Network Functions Virtualization and Software-Defined highest recognition at MIT for undergraduate teaching. He is an ACM
Networking: State-of-the-art," 2016 IEEE NetSoft Conference and Fellow, an AAAS Fellow, and a senior member of IEEE and SIAM.
Workshops (NetSoft), Seoul, 2016, pp. 471-476, doi:
10.1109/NETSOFT.2016.7502487.
[17] P. Lin, Y. Lin, C. Wu, Y. Lai and Y. Kao, "Balanced Service Chaining
in Software-Defined Networks with Network Function Virtualization,"
in Computer, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 68-76, Nov. 2016, doi:
10.1109/MC.2016.349.
[18] T. Wood, K. K. Ramakrishnan, J. Hwang, G. Liu and W. Zhang,
"Toward a software-based network: integrating software defined
networking and network function virtualization," in IEEE Network, vol.
29, no. 3, pp. 36-41, May-June 2015, doi:
10.1109/MNET.2015.7113223.

Noureldin Mohamed is currently pursuing a B.Sc.


degree in computer science from the Beijing Institute
of Technology, Beijing, China. In 2017 He received
The Gates Cambridge Scholarship to pursue a full-time
postgraduate degree in Computer Science and
technology at the University of Cambridge. he was a
recipient of the Best scientist in Egypt and the Beat Arab youngest
innovator in the world Awards, His major research interests are
connected with Programming methodology, programming languages
and systems, wireless systems, network programmability, information
secutity and privacy, software-defined networking, network function
virtualization, He holds a patent, He participated several joint research
projects with top technology companies and collaborative projects (e.g.,
International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), Alphabet Inc.,
Microsoft Corporation).

Charles E. Leiserson received a B.S. from Yale


University in 1975 and a Ph.D. from Carnegie Mellon
University in 1981. He joined the MIT faculty in 1981,
where he is now Professor of Computer Science and
Engineering in the MIT Department of Electrical
Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) and head
of the Supertech research group in the MIT Computer
Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL). Professor
Leiserson’s research centers on the theory of parallel computing,
especially as it relates to engineering reality. He co-authored the first
paper on systolic architectures. He invented the retiming method of
digital-circuit optimization and developed the algorithmic theory behind
it. Retiming is now a foundational optimization method in all major
electronic-design systems. On leave from MIT at Thinking Machines
Corporation, he designed and led the implementation of the network
architecture for the Connection Machine Model CM-5 Supercomputer,
which in- corporated the “universal” fat-tree interconnection network he
developed at MIT. Fat-trees are now the preferred interconnect strategy
for InfiniBand technology. Professor Leiserson has made numerous
contributes to computer-science education. He is well known as co-
author of the textbook Introduction to Algorithms (The MIT Press),
which was named “Best 1990 Professional and Scholarly Book in
Computer Science and Data Processing” by the Association of
American Publishers. Currently, in its third edition, it is the leading
textbook on computer algorithms, He developed the MIT undergraduate
courses on algorithms and on dis-crete mathematics for computer