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N-57 REV. G ENGLISH 04 / 2014

CONTEC
Comissão de Normalização
Técnica Mechanical Design
of Industrial Piping
SC-17
Piping
2nd Amendment

This is the 2nd Amendment to PETROBRAS N-57 REV. G, incorporated the 1st amendment and it is
used to alter the text of the Standard in the part(s) indicated below:

NOTE 1 The new(s) page(s) with the performed amendment(s) is (are) placed in its corresponding
position(s).
NOTE 2 The amended pages, indicated the date of the amendment, are placed at the end of this
standard, in chronological order, and shall not be used.

CONTENTS OF THE 2nd AMENDMENT - 04/2014

- Section 2

Replacing the API RP 520 by API STD 520 PT I.

- Subsection 9.2.5:

Replacing the API RP 520 by API STD 520 PT I.

PROPERTY OF PETROBRAS 1 page


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N-57 REV. G ENGLISH 10 / 2012

Mechanical Design
of Industrial Piping

Procedure

This Standard replaces and cancels its previous revision.


The CONTEC - Authoring Subcommittee provides guidance on the
interpretation of this Standard when questions arise regarding its contents. The
Department of PETROBRAS that uses this Standard is responsible for adopting
and applying the sections, subsections and enumerates thereof.

Technical Requirement: A provision established as the most adequate and


CONTEC which shall be used strictly in accordance with this Standard. If a decision is
taken not to follow the requirement (“non-conformity” to this Standard) it shall be
Comissão de Normalização based on well-founded economic and management reasons, and be approved
Técnica and registered by the Department of PETROBRAS that uses this Standard. It is
characterized by imperative nature.
Recommended Practice: A provision that may be adopted under the conditions
of this Standard, but which admits (and draws attention to) the possibility of
there being a more adequate alternative (not written in this Standard) to the
particular application. The alternative adopted shall be approved and registered
by the Department of PETROBRAS that uses this Standard. It is characterized
by verbs of a nonmandatory nature. It is indicated by the expression:
[Recommended Practice].
Copies of the registered “non-conformities” to this Standard that may contribute
to the improvement thereof shall be submitted to the CONTEC - Authoring
SC - 17 Subcommittee.

Piping Proposed revisions to this Standard shall be submitted to the CONTEC -


Authoring Subcommittee, indicating the alphanumeric identification and revision
of the Standard, the section, subsection and enumerate to be revised, the
proposed text, and technical/economic justification for revision. The proposals
are evaluated during the work for alteration of this Standard.

“This Standard is exclusive property of Petróleo Brasileiro S. A. -


PETROBRAS, internal application and PETROBRAS Subsidiaries and
shall be used by its suppliers of goods and services under contracts or
similar under the conditions established in Bidding, Contract, Agreement
or similar.
The use of this Standard by other companies / organizations / government
agencies and individuals is the sole responsibility of the users..”

Introduction
PETROBRAS Technical Standards are prepared by Working Groups - WG
(consisting specialized of Technical Collaborators from Company and its Subsidiaries), are
commented by Company Units and its Subsidiaries, are approved by the Authoring Subcommittees -
SCs (consisting of technicians from the same specialty, representing the various Company Units and
its Subsidiaries), and ratified by the Executive Nucleus (consisting of representatives of the Company
Units and its Subsidiaries). A PETROBRAS Technical Standard is subject to revision at any time by its
Authoring Subcommittee and shall be reviewed every 5 years to be revalidated, revised or cancelled.
PETROBRAS Technical Standards are prepared in accordance with PETROBRAS Technical
Standard N-1. For complete information about PETROBRAS Technical Standards see PETROBRAS
Technical Standards Catalog.

PROPERTY OF PETROBRAS 72 pages, Index of Revisions and WG


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N-57 REV. G ENGLISH 10 / 2012

Summary

Foreword.................................................................................................................................................. 5 

1 Scope................................................................................................................................................... 5 

2 Normative References ......................................................................................................................... 5 

3 Terms and Definitions.......................................................................................................................... 8 

4 General Conditions ............................................................................................................................ 10 

4.1 Designer’s Responsibility ..................................................................................................... 10 

4.2 Design Presentation ............................................................................................................. 11 

4.3 Application Fields ................................................................................................................. 11 

4.4 Materials ............................................................................................................................... 12 

4.5 Calculation Criteria ............................................................................................................... 13 

4.6 Piping Identification .............................................................................................................. 13 

4.7 Coordinates and Elevations ................................................................................................. 13 

4.8 Thermal Insulation ................................................................................................................ 13 

4.9 Steam Tracing ...................................................................................................................... 13 

4.10 Fabrication and Assembly .................................................................................................. 14 

5 Piping Mechanical Calculation Criteria .............................................................................................. 14 

5.1 Calculations Included in this Standard ................................................................................. 14 

5.2 Calculation of Wall Thickness .............................................................................................. 14 

5.3 Calculation of Spans Between Supports .............................................................................. 15 

5.4 Flexibility Analysis - (Static Stress Analysis) ........................................................................ 17 

5.5 Flexibility analysis - Dynamic Analysis ................................................................................. 20 

5.6 Calculation of Forces on Supports ....................................................................................... 21 

6 General Piping Arrangement ............................................................................................................. 22 

7 Layout of Piping Connected to Equipment ........................................................................................ 25 

7.1 General Conditions............................................................................................................... 25 

7.2 Piping Connected to Pumps................................................................................................. 25 

7.3 Piping Connected to Turbines .............................................................................................. 26 

7.4 Piping Connected to Vessels ............................................................................................... 27 

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7.5 Piping Connected to Heat Exchangers ................................................................................ 27 

7.6 Piping Connected to Compressors ...................................................................................... 28 

8 Requirements For SDP in Critical or Hazardous Services ................................................................ 29 

8.1 Requirements for SDP Piping .............................................................................................. 29 

8.2 Requirements for SDP of Auxiliary Product Pump Systems ................................................ 30 

8.3 Requirements for SDP of Instrumentation and Control Systems ......................................... 33 

8.3.1 Requirements for Instrument Impulse Lines ................................................................ 33 

8.3.2 PSV Piping ................................................................................................................... 34 

9 Valves ................................................................................................................................................ 35 

9.1 General Considerations ....................................................................................................... 35 

9.2 Safety and Relief Valves ...................................................................................................... 36 

9.3 Control Valves ...................................................................................................................... 36 

10 Expansion Joints ............................................................................................................................. 37 

11 Steam Trap Systems in Piping and Equipment ............................................................................... 37 

12 Piping Supports, Shoes and Restraints........................................................................................... 38 

13 Miscellaneous .................................................................................................................................. 39 

Annex A - Figures .................................................................................................................................. 41 

Annex B - Tables of Maximum Spans between Supports ..................................................................... 60 

Figures
 

Figure 1 - Scope of Application of ASME Codes................................................................................... 11 

Figure 2 - Diagram for Instrument Impulse Lines .................................................................................. 34 

Figure A.1 - Pipe Rack .......................................................................................................................... 41 

Figure A.2 - Piping on Pipeways ........................................................................................................... 42 

Figure A.3 - Schematic Arrangement of a Unit...................................................................................... 43 

Figure A.4 - Positioning of Flange Holes ............................................................................................... 47 

Figure A.5 - Typical Arrangements of Pump Suction Lines .................................................................. 48 

Figure A.6 - Typical Pump Piping Layout .............................................................................................. 50 

Figure A.7 - Heating of Standby Pump.................................................................................................. 51 

Figure A.8 - Typical Arrangement of Steam Turbine Lines ................................................................... 52 

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Figure A.9 - Spacing between Tubes .................................................................................................... 53 

Figure A.10 - Spacing between Tubes and Vessels ............................................................................. 55 

Figure A.11 - Typical Array of Compressor Tubing ............................................................................... 56 

Figure A.12 - Minimum Distances for Air Compressor Suction Lines ................................................... 57 

Figure A.13 - Typical Control Valve Layouts ......................................................................................... 58 

Figure A.14 - Isometric Steam Trap Installation in Equipment .............................................................. 59 

 
Tables
 

Table 1 - Application Fields for Piping Standards and Codes ............................................................... 11 

Table 2 - Temperature Limit of Material ................................................................................................ 12 

Table 3 - Minimum Structural Piping Wall Thicknesses ........................................................................ 16

Table 4 - Systems that Shall Have the Flexibility Analysis Performed Using Computational Methods 18 

Table 5 -   Metal Temperatures for Mechanical Design of Pipes Subjected to Steam Out ............... 18 

Table 1 - Simultaneity Factor in Relation to Number of Pipes .............................................................. 22

Table 7 - Valve Sizing............................................................................................................................ 26 

Table B.1 - Maximum Spans between Piping Supports (On Site) - Deflection: 6 mm, Corrosion
Thickness: 1,6 mm ........................................................................................................... 61 

Table B.2 - Maximum Spans between Piping Supports (On Site) - Deflection: 6 mm, Corrosion
Thickness: 3,2 mm ........................................................................................................... 64 

Table B.3 - Maximum Spans between Piping Supports (Off Site) - Deflection: 25 mm, Corrosion
Thickness: 1,6 mm ........................................................................................................... 67 

Table B.4 - Maximum Spans between Piping Supports (Off Site) - Deflection: 25 mm, Corrosion
Thickness: 3,2 mm ........................................................................................................... 70 

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Foreword

This Standard is the English version (issued in 11/2013) of PETROBRAS N-57 REV. G 10/2012
including its Amendment - 04/2013. In case of doubt, the Portuguese version, which is the valid
document for all intents and purposes, shall be used.

1 Scope

1.1 This Standard specifies the minimum condition required for the execution of the mechanical
design of industrial piping in process plants, including the basic criteria applicable to several
mechanical design calculationsof piping, and comprising exploration and production facilities in
onshore facilities, utilities and process areas, tank farms, storage bases and terminals (including
pumping, compression, and metering stations, and effluent treatment stations) in areas outside
refineries, using as reference ASME Codes B31.3, B31.4 and B31.8, besides ISO 15649, where
applicable and in accordance with Table 1.

1.2 This Standard does not apply to piping belonging to instrumentation and control systems, sanitary
waste systems, industrial drainage systems, and steam boiler systems. Neither does it apply to
offshore facilities, oil and gas pipelines, piping belonging to equipment supplied through the package
systems (compact equipment), unless otherwise specified by PETROBRAS. For facilities on offshore
production platforms, besides the recommendations set out in ASME Code B31, those contained in
API RP 14E shall be followed.

1.3 This Standard only applies to carbon steel, steel alloy or stainless steel piping.

1.4 This Standard applies to designs for PETROBRAS started as of its date of issuance.

1.5 This Standard contains Technical Requirements and Recommended Practices.

2 Normative References
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document applies.

PETROBRAS N-42 - Design of Steam Tracing System for Piping, Equipment and
Instrumentation (Projeto de Sistema de Aquecimento Externo de Tubulação, Equipamento e
Instrumentação, com Vapor);

PETROBRAS N-58 - Graphic Symbols for Process and Engineering Flowsheets (Símbolos
Gráficos para Fluxogramas de Processo e de Engenharia);

PETROBRAS N-59 - Graphic Symbols for Piping Drawings (Símbolos Gráficos para
Desenhos de Tubulação);

PETROBRAS N-76 - Piping Materials for Refining and Transportation Plants (Materiais de
Tubulação para Instalações de Refino e Transporte);

PETROBRAS N-108 - Vents and Drains for Piping and Equipment (Suspiros e Drenos para
Tubulações e Equipamentos);

PETROBRAS N-115 - Fabrication and Erection of Metallic Piping (Fabricação e Montagem


de Tubulações Metálicas);

PETROBRAS N-116 - Steam Trap Systems in Piping and Equipment (Sistemas de Purga de
Vapor em Tubulações e Equipamentos);

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PETROBRAS N-118 - Temporary Strainer and Tee Strainer for Piping (Filtro Temporário e
Filtro Gaveta para Tubulação);

PETROBRAS N-120 - Intersection Parts between Flanges (Peças de Inserção entre


Flanges);

PETROBRAS N-250 - Installation of High Temperature Thermal Insulation (Montagem de


Isolamento Térmico a Alta Temperatura);

PETROBRAS N-464 - Construction, Installation and Commissioning of Pipelines on Land


(Construção, Montagem e Condicionamento de Duto Terrestre);

PETROBRAS N-550 - Design of Thermal Insulation to High Temperature (Projeto de


Isolamento Térmico a Alta Temperatura);

PETROBRAS N-553 - Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Service;

PETROBRAS N-894 - Design of Thermal Insulation to Low Temperature;

PETROBRAS N-896 - Installation of Low Temperature Thermal Insulation (Montagem de


Isolamento Térmico a Baixa Temperatura);

PETROBRAS N-1522 - Identification of Industrial Piping (Identificação de Tubulações


Industriais);

PETROBRAS N-1645 - Safety Criteria to Project of Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Fixed
Facilities (Critérios de Segurança para Projeto de Instalações Fixas de Armazenamento de
Gás Liquefeito de Petróleo);

PETROBRAS N-1674 - Design of Arrangement of On-Land Industrial Facilities of Petroleum,


Petroleum Products, Natural Gas and Alcohol (Projeto de Arranjo de Instalações Industriais
Terrestres de Petróleo, Derivados, Gás Natural e Álcool);

PETROBRAS N-1692 - Presentation of Piping Engineering Detailing Designs (Apresentação


de Projetos de Detalhamento de Tubulação);

PETROBRAS N-1693 - Criteria for Standardization of Piping Material (Critérios para


Padronização de Material de Tubulação);

PETROBRAS N-1758 - Support, Shoe and Restraint for Piping (Suporte, Apoio e Restrição
para Tubulação);

PETROBRAS N-1882 - Criteria for Preparing Instrumentation Design (Critérios para


Elaboração de Projetos de Instrumentação);

PETROBRAS N-1931 - Instrumentation Piping Materials (Material de Tubulação para


Instrumentação);

PETROBRAS N-2163 - Welding and Hot Tapping on In-Service Equipment, Industrial Piping
and Pipelines (Soldagem e Trepanação em Equipamentos, Tubulações Industriais e Dutos
Em Operação);

PETROBRAS N-2546 - Criteria for Use of Fire Tested Type Ball Valves (Critérios para
Utilização de Válvulas Esfera Testada a Fogo);

PETROBRAS N-2791 - Installation Details of Instruments to Process (Detalhes de


Instalação de Instrumentos ao Processo);

ISO 13703 - Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries - Design and Installation of Piping
Systems on Offshore Production Platforms;

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ISO 15649 - Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries - Piping;

ABNT NBR 5580 - Carbon Steel Tubes for Common Use in Fluid Conduction – Specification
(Tubos de Aço-carbono para Usos Comuns na Condução de Fluidos – Especificação);

ABNT NBR 5590 - Carbon Steel Pipes with or without Longitudinal Weld, Black or
Galvanized - Specification (Tubos de Aço-carbono com ou sem Solda Longitudinal, Pretos
ou Galvanizados - Especificação);

ABNT NBR 12712 - Design of Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems for Fuel Gas
(Projeto de Sistemas de Transmissão e Distribuição de Gás Combustível);

ABNT NBR 15280-1 - Onshore Pipeline, Part 1: Design (Dutos terrestres, Parte 1: Projeto);

API RP 14E - Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Offshore Production
Platform Piping Systems;

API RP 551 - Process Measurement Instrumentation;

API RP 553 - Refinery Control Valves;

API STD 520 PT I - Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in


Refineries; Part I - Sizing and Selection Seventh Edition;

API STD 610 - Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum, Petrochemical and Natural Gas Industries;

API STD 611 - General-Purpose Steam Turbines for Refinery Services;

API STD 612 - Special-Purpose Steam Turbines for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry
Services;

API STD 614 - Lubrication, Shaft-Sealing, and Control-Oil Systems and Auxiliaries for
Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services;

API STD 617 - Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Expander-Compressors for
Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas e Industry Services;

API STD 682 - Pumps - Shaft Sealing Systems for Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps;

ASME BPVC Section VIII Division 2 - Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code - Section VIII - Rules
for Construction of Pressure Vessels - Division 2: Alternative Rules;

ASME B31.3 - Process Piping;

ASME B31.4 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids;

ASME B31.8 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems;

ASME B36.10 - Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe;

ASME B36.19 - Stainless Steel Pipe;

ASTM A 36 - Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel;

ASTM A 106 - Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature
Service;

NEMA SM 23 - Steam Turbines for Mechanical Drive Service.

NOTE For documents referred in this Standard and for which only the Portuguese version is
available, the PETROBRAS department that uses this Standard should be consulted for any
information required for the specific application.

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3 Terms and Definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions are applicable.

3.1
ABNT
Brazilian National Standards Organization (Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas)

3.2
API
American Petroleum Institute

3.3
ASME
American Society of Mechanical Engineers

3.4
ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials

3.5
CCT
Connections with pressure for pipe (“tubing”)

3.6
piping class
Degree of importance of piping systems, in classes, so as to classify them based on the effects on the
safety of people, facilities and the environment, as a result of a possible leak caused by failure of the
system

3.7
Small Diameter Fitting (SDF)
Small diameter fittings are considered to be those having a nominal diameter equal to or smaller than
NPS 1 1/2. See 3.24

3.8
SW
Socket Weld

3.9
LPG
Liquefied Petroleum Gas

3.10
HRC ("Hardness Rockwell C")
Hardness scale Rockwell C

3.11
ISO
International Organization for Standardization

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3.12
Safe Location
Region in which flammable or toxic gases may be discharged. For vents, according to PETROBRAS
N-1674. For drains, according to PETROBRAS N-1645

3.13
NEMA
National Electrical Manufacturers Association

3.14
NPS
Nominal Pipe Size

3.15
Plant Layout
For the purposes of this Standard, all terms relating to arrangement plans set out in
PETROBRAS N-1674 are also applicable

3.16
Hot Products
Fluids with temperature above 60 °C

3.17
Cold Products
Fluids with temperature of 60 °C or below

3.18
Mechanical Design
A series of engineering activities and their product intended to present necessary and sufficient
information for the acquisition, construction, operation and maintenance of piping systems belonging
to petroleum facilities. The set of information provided by the design is comprised of the documents
listed in PETROBRAS N-1692

NOTE For the purposes of this Standard, mechanical design and detailed piping design shall be
considered synonyms.

3.19
PSV
Pressure relief valve

3.20
Repair
Any intervention aimed at restoring operability after failure or correcting non-compliances with respect
to the original design

3.21
Piping System
An assembly of pipes used to convey fluids, interconnected to each other and/or to static or dynamic
equipment, and subject to the same design conditions (temperature and pressure)

3.22
Corrosion Rate
Number that indicates the thickness loss in piping occurring within a given time period at a point or
group of control points and expressed in mm/year

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3.23
Piping
An assembly of pipes and accessories (valves, flanges, bends, fittings, etc.) intended for transporting
process or utility fluids

3.24
Small Diameter Piping (SDP)
Piping belonging to industrial facilities having a nominal diameter of NPS 1 1/2 or smaller; comprising
process piping, auxiliary machinery piping and instrumentation piping.

3.25
Process Piping (On-Site Piping)
Piping interconnecting piping systems or equipment in the physical space defined by the process
units, usually delimited by battery limits

3.26
Transfer Piping (Off-Site Piping)
Piping interconnecting piping systems or equipment in the physical space outside the process units

3.27
Utility Piping
Piping carrying auxiliary fluids required for processing and storage

3.28
Critical or Hazardous Services
For the purposes of this Standard, by critical or hazardous services it is meant those in which there is
danger of explosion, self-ignition, fire and/or environmental toxicity in cases involving leaks. Examples of
piping systems under these conditions include, but are not limited to, the following items:

a) piping conveying fluids with a H2S concentration higher than 3 % by weight;


b) piping with fluids with a partial H2 pressure higher than 441 kPa (4,5 kgf/cm2);
c) DEA, MEA or caustic soda solution piping, whether contaminated or not;
d) piping with flammable liquid fluids at an operating temperature equal to or higher than the
flash or self-ignition temperature;
e) flammable gas piping: tail gas, LPG, fuel gas, natural gas, and flare gas;
f) piping with “category M” toxic product of ASME B31.3;
g) piping of hydrocarbons and chemicals connected to reciprocating machines;
h) piping of hydrocarbons and chemicals with a high vibration level;
i) piping of hydrocarbons and chemicals at a working temperature above 260 ºC or a
working pressure above 2 000 kPa (20 kgf/cm2);
j) piping of hydrocarbons and chemicals with a corrosion or erosion allowance greater than 3,2 mm;
k) piping of hydrocarbons and chemicals subject to stress corrosion cracking;
l) piping of hydrocarbons and chemicals reaching temperatures below 0 ºC, in case of
leaks, due to sudden depressurization to atmospheric pressure.

4 General Conditions

4.1 Designer’s Responsibility

4.1.1 The designer shall in all cases assume full responsibility for the design and prepare detailed
drawings, calculations and all other documents comprising the design. The designer is solely
responsible for strictly complying with all the applicable provisions of this Standard, as well as all legal
conditions that may affect the mechanical design of industrial piping. The designer shall also follow all
requirements of the specific standards of each of the industrial units mentioned in 1.1.

4.1.2 For LPG tank farms, the provisions of PETROBRAS N-1645 shall also be considered.

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4.1.3 Total or partial release or acceptance of the design by PETROBRAS does not reduce the
responsibility of the designer for the design.

4.2 Design Presentation

The design shall be presented as specified in PETROBRAS N-1692.

4.3 Application Fields

The application fields of the design standards, calculation, material specification and assembly of
industrial piping shall comply with Figure 1 and Table 1.

Refineries and Other Process Bases,


Product terminals, and
Units
Installations stations
Area of Pig Oil and gas Oil and gas
Launchers and pipelines Area of Pig Launchers and pipelines
Receivers Receivers

ASME B31.4 ASME B31.4 ASME B31.4 ASME B31.4


ASME B31.8 ASME B31.4 ASME B31.8
ASME B31.8 ASME B31.8 ASME B31.8
Reserved ranges
(See Note)
Pipeway
ASME B31.3
ASME B31.3

Power House Process Unit Tank Farm

ASME B31.1 ASME B31.3 ASME B31.3

NOTE Reserved range - exclusive use area for passage of (air or buried) pipelines defined in master plan of the facility.

Figure 1 - Scope of Application of ASME Codes

Table 2 - Application Fields for Piping Standards and Codes

Facility Reserved areas in


Bases, terminals
Refineries and refineries or
and stations,
Land process process plants for Pipeline trunk line
except for loading
units installation of
arms
Object pipelines
ABNT NBR 15280-1 ABNT NBR 15280-1
Design and PETROBRAS (oil pipeline) PETROBRAS (oil pipeline)
Calculation N-57 ABNT NBR 12712 N-57 ABNT NBR 12712
(gas pipeline) (gas pipeline)
ABNT NBR 15280-1 ABNT NBR 15280-1
PETROBRAS (oil pipeline) PETROBRAS (oil pipeline)
Material
N-76 ABNT NBR 12712 N-76 ABNT NBR 12712
(gas pipeline) (gas pipeline)
PETROBRAS PETROBRAS PETROBRAS PETROBRAS
Assembly
N-115 N-464 N-115 N-464
B31.4 (oil pipeline)
B31.4 (oil pipeline) B31.4 (oil pipeline)
ASME Code B31.3 B31.8 (gas
B31.8 (gas pipeline) B31.8 (gas pipeline)
pipeline)

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4.4 Materials

4.4.1 The piping material pipe specsheets of PETROBRAS N-76 shall be adopted in the design, the
scope of which shall be defined in PETROBRAS N-1693. The designer is responsible for selecting the
piping material standardizations.

4.4.2 For services not covered by any piping material pipe specsheet mentioned in 4.1, the designer
shall prepare material pipe specsheets using the form standardized by PETROBRAS N-1693 and all
applicable spaces shall be filled in. For preparation of these standardizations, the recommendations of
PETROBRAS N-1693 shall be followed.

4.4.3 The materials of the pipe specsheets prepared by the designer shall be those included in ISO,
ABNT, ASTM, ASME and API standards. Materials according to other standards may only be used if
authorized by PETROBRAS.

4.4.4 For operating temperatures above 15 °C, the recommendations contained in Table 2 shall be
considered. In corrosive services, the temperature limits shall be established case by case.

Table 3 - Temperature Limit of Material

Temperature limit (°C)


Mechanical
Material Surface oxidation
resistance
(See Note 2)
(See Note 1)

Carbon Steels of Structural Quality (ASTM A 36) 150 530

Unkilled Carbon Steels (Qualified Materials) (ABNT NBR


400 530
5580, ABNT NBR 5590, API 5L) (see Note 4)

Killed Carbon Steels, with Si (ASTM A 106) (see Note 4) 450 530

Alloy-Steels 1/2 Mo 500 530


Alloy Steels 1 1/4 Cr - 1/2 Mo 530 550
Alloy Steels 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo 530 570
Alloy Steels 5 Cr - 1/2 Mo 530 600
Stainless Steels 405, 410 480 700
Stainless Steels 304, 316 (see Note 3) 600 800
Stainless Steels 304L, 316L 400 800
Stainless Steels 310 600 1100

NOTE 1 Mechanical resistance limits occur at the maximum temperatures where the material still
presents an acceptable resistance for the application.
NOTE 2 Surface oxidation limits occur at temperatures above those in which the material starts
undergoing a very intense surface oxidation; in no case shall these limits be exceeded for
continuous operation.
NOTE 3 For design temperatures above 550 ºC, use of type “H” stainless steels is recommended.
[Recommended Practice]
NOTE 4 Prolonged exposure above 427 ºC may cause graphitization in the carbon steel.

4.4.5 For operating temperatures below 15 °C, PETROBRAS N-1693 shall be consulted.

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4.4.6 For any process piping, the smallest nominal diameter is NPS 1.

NOTE Piping with a minimum nominal diameter of NPS 1/2 is permitted for connections of orifice
flanges, utilities and for auxiliary machine (pump) lines. [Recommended Practice]

4.4.7 Use of piping with the following nominal diameters shall be avoided: NPS 1 1/4, NPS 3 1/2 and
NPS 5. Small sections of pipes or accessories are permitted for direct connection to the equipment. The
nominal diameter of NPS 2 1/2 shall be used only for fire water systems.

4.4.8 The wall thicknesses of steel pipes shall be the values standardized in ASME B36.10 and
ASME B36.19, contained in PETROBRAS N-76 and N-1693.

4.4.9 In order to avoid difficulties when purchasing valves or fittings, the use of piping with NPS 22
shall be avoided. [Recommended Practice]

4.5 Calculation Criteria

Mechanical calculations for the piping design shall comply with the criteria of Section 5 of this
Standard.

4.6 Piping Identification

All piping shall be assigned an identification code in accordance with PETROBRAS N-1522, unless
otherwise indicated by PETROBRAS. The identification for each piping shall be conspicuously shown
on all drawings (such as: flow diagrams, plans, and isometrics), lists, data sheets, and other design
documents where the referenced piping appears or is mentioned.

4.7 Coordinates and Elevations

4.7.1 The location of all buildings, equipment, and piping, as well as roadways, land boundaries, area
limits, and any other relevant information pertaining to locations shall be included on the drawings by
means of coordinates referring to a system comprised of 2 orthogonal axes referred to as “Design
North-South” and “Design East-West”. In expansion designs for existing units, the same coordinates
system of the initial design shall be used. For floating facilities, such as: platforms and tankers, the
coordinates may refer to the bow, stern, port side, and starboard.

4.7.2 Unless otherwise indicated, the basic elevations of floors, equipment bases, and structures shall
be in accordance with PETROBRAS N-1674.

4.8 Thermal Insulation

4.8.1 The design and installation of the thermal insulation for piping shall be in accordance with
PETROBRAS N-250, N-550, N-894 and N-896.

4.8.2 Piping with thermal insulation shall be indicated according to PETROBRAS N-58 and N-59, on
the piping Data Sheet and in the required design documents.

4.9 Steam Tracing

The external steam tracing design shall be in accordance with PETROBRAS N-42.

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4.10 Fabrication and Assembly

Fabrication and assembly of piping shall be in accordance with PETROBRAS N-115.

5 Piping Mechanical Calculation Criteria

5.1 Calculations Included in this Standard

5.1.1 The following piping mechanical calculations are covered in this Standard:

a) calculation of wall thickness;


b) calculation of spans between supports;
c) piping stress analysis (flexibility analysis), expansion joints, and non-rigid supports
calculations;
d) calculation of forces on supports.

5.1.2 For piping designs which need other mechanical calculations not covered in this Standard, such
as, for example dynamic effects (such as: impact, wind, earthquake, vibration, discharge reactions and
hydraulic shocks), the designer`s practice shall be used and calculation report submitted to
PETROBRAS` approval.

5.1.3 Piping connected to reciprocating pumps or compressors shall undergo a dynamic analysis,
performed by computational methods, using software previously approved by PETROBRAS.

5.1.4 The calculation of piping in offshore production platforms shall be in accordance with ISO
13703.

5.2 Calculation of Wall Thickness

5.2.1 The thicknesses of piping not covered or not defined by piping material standardizations of
PETROBRAS N-76 shall be calculated. The connection thicknesses shall also be in accordance with
the corresponding pipe diameter.

5.2.2 The calculation of piping wall thickness due to internal ou external pressure shall be performed
as required by ASME Codes B31.3, B31.4 and B31.8, according to the application field of each
standard.

5.2.3 Specific Considerations

5.2.3.1 The design pressure and design temperature values used for calculation of wall thickness
shall be as set out by ASME Codes mentioned in 5.2.2, due to the piping operating conditions.

5.2.3.2 The design shall define the convenience of establishing the maximum operating temperature
as a value above that reached by the fluid in normal operating conditions.

5.2.3.3 For piping subjected to dynamic effects, the provisions of 5.1.2 of this Standard shall be
observed.

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5.2.3.4 Large diameter (NPS > 48) and thin wall piping (ratio D/t > 100) shall be analyzed regarding
the collapse resistance to atmospheric pressure, in case there is occasional formation of vacuum in
the piping.

5.2.3.5 All piping with operating pressure below the atmospheric pressure shall be calculated for total
vacuum.

5.2.4 It shall be considered a minimum overpressure of 1,6 mm applicable to all carbon steel and low
steel alloy pipes, except in services for which the corrosion and erosion are null or negligible, or when
there is proper internal coating. Values above 1,6 mm shall be adopted when more severe operating
conditions of the piping justify this procedure, technically and economically. In case of threaded
connections, an extra thickness shall be added to this value so as to compensate the thread notch.
This value shall be equal to the external radius of pipe minus the minimum radius of thread at pipe
end. The extra thicknesses shall be based in the minimum life time of 20 years for carbon steel, steel
alloy and stainless steel, except when a different time is specified. For production facilities, a minimum
life time of 25 years shall be considered.

5.2.5 Tolerances inherent to fabrication processes shall be considered when selecting the commercial
thickness of the pipe.

5.2.6 For carbon steel, steel alloy and stainless steel pipes, the minimum structural thicknesses
described in Table 3 shall be considered. Complementary criteria shall be considered for definition of
wall thickness, such as corrosion and small diameter piping in critical service.

Table 4 - Minimum Structural Piping Wall Thicknesses

Carbon Steel and


NPS Stainless Steel
Steel Alloy
1/2 to 1 1/12 Utility Pipes Sch 80 Sch 40S
1 to 1 1/12 Process Pipes Sch 160 Sch 80S
2 to 6 Sch 40 Sch 40S
8 to 10 0.250” Sch 40S
12 or above 0.250” 0.250”

5.2.7 The wall thicknesses of pipes used in pipelines heated by steam jackets shall be calculated
observing the required conditions of internal and external pressures, regardless of each other, and the
extra thicknesses of external and internal corrosion.

5.2.8 The calculation of non-standardized piping elements shall be performed in accordance with
ASME codes B31.3, B31.4 and B31.8, according to 4.3 of this Standard.

5.3 Calculation of Spans Between Supports

Applicable to piping within the scope of ASME codes B31.1 and B31.3. The maximum spans are
presented in Tables of Annex B. This annex is valid for any kind of carbon steel piping, with the
minimum structural resistance of API 5L Gr. B. For piping that does not fit in the Tables of Annex B,
the maximum span between supports in straight piping portions shall be calculated as described in
5.3.1 to 5.3.7.

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5.3.1 This calculation shall consider the loads below:

a) uniform load (q); sum of the following loads:


— dead load of piping with all its accessories;
— contained fluid weight or water weight (whichever is higher) (see Note);
— weight of thermal insulation, other internal or external coating, or heating system;
— weight of other parallel small diameter piping, occasionally supported by the pipe;

NOTE For large diameter piping (NPS 20 or more), aimed to gas transportation, the contained
water weight may not be considered, provided the piping does not undergo a hydrostatic test
or additional supports for the hydrostatic test are provided. However, the possibility of
condensate during the start-up step of unit shall be analyzed.

b) concentrated loads; sum of the following loads:


— additional overload (W);
— added weight of valves, other piping accessories, unsupported derivations, or other
supported pipes in the considered portion (Q).

NOTE The additional overload of W = 2,000 N, applied in the middle of the span, shall be
mandatorily considered in all steel piping.

5.3.2 For piping submitted only to uniform loads, the maximum span between supports may be
calculated using the following formula, presented in consistent units:

10  Z σ a
L 
q

Where:
L maximum span between supports;
Z moment of resistance of pipe cross-section;
a bending allowable stress;
q sum of distributed loads.

NOTE The allowable stress  shall be the allowable stress of the material in the considered
temperature, tabled by the proper ASME code.

5.3.3 For the general case of piping with distributed and concentrated loads, the maximum span
between supports may be calculated using the following formula, presented in consistent units:

L
σf  q  L  2 Q  W 
10  Z

Where:
f bending stress calculated for the maximum span;
L maximum span between supports;
Z moment of resistance of pipe cross-section;
q sum of distributed loads;
Q concentrated load;
W overload in the middle of the span.

NOTE For the maximum span: f = a.

5.3.4 In any case, it shall be checked if the maximum deflection is below the following limits:

a) 25 mm, for piping outside process units;


b) 6 mm, for piping inside process units;

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NOTE If the deflection exceeds the limits above, the span shall be reduced so as to meet these
conditions. The maximum deflection may be roughly calculated using the expression below,
presented in consistent units:

24  L3  Q  W qL  (1)
δ   
10  EI  3 4 

Where:
 maximum deflection;
L span between supports;
E modulus of elasticity;
I moment of inertia;
Q concentrated load;
W overload in the middle of the span;
q sum of distributed loads.

5.3.5 The calculation of maximum span between supports, given in 5.3.2 and 5.3.3, does not apply to
very large diameter (NPS > 48) or thin wall piping (ratio D/t > 100), for which the possible collapse
effect in the area of contact with the supports shall be checked.

5.3.6 The collapse effect in the area of contact with the supports shall also be checked for piping
working under vacuum.

5.3.7 For long pipe runs supported by frame structures, the calculation of the span between supports
shall consider an economic study between the increase of pipe wall thickness and the decrease of
number of supports.

5.4 Flexibility Analysis - (Static Stress Analysis)

5.4.1 The flexibility analysis due to thermal expansions (or contractions), to movements of piping
ends, or to the combination of these effects, shall be performed as required by ASME Codes B31.1,
B31.3, B31.4, B31.5 and B31.8, according to the field of application of each standard.

5.4.2 This calculation is mandatory for all piping, except for the following cases:

a) dismissals provided in ASME Codes B31.1, B31.3, B31.4 and B31.8;


b) piping with maximum operating temperature between 5 °C and 40 °C, without sun
exposure, and not subjected to steam out cleaning.

5.4.3 The flexibility analysis shall be made using the following methods:

a) general analytical method;


b) recognized graphical methods, provided the said piping fits exactly within the strict
application field of the graphic.

NOTE 1 Software previously approved by PETROBRAS shall be adopted.


NOTE 2 Other methods may be admitted since previously approved by PETROBRAS.

5.4.4 The systems listed in Table 4 shall be subjected to the flexibility analysis using computational
methods.

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Table 5 - Systems that Shall Have the Flexibility Analysis Performed Using
Computational Methods

System Temperature

Storage Tanks Any

Air Coolers Any


Rotodynamics Any
Mandatory Computational Flexibility Analysis

General

Non-Mandatory Computational Flexibility Analysis

5.4.5 The analysis shall cover all possible and applicable loading conditions, such as: design, normal
operation, hydrostatic test, steam out cleaning, PSV discharge, steam tracing, wind, among others.

5.4.6 For calculation of flexibility for lines with temperature above 40 °C, the worst temperature
conditions among those listed below shall be used, associated to the simultaneously acting pressure
value:

a) piping design temperature;


b) occasional temperatures, such as: operating abnormalities, emergency, steam out, steam
air decoking; in the most critical cases, it is recommended to calculate with higher
precision the temperature distribution along the piping under analysis;
c) heating steam temperature, in case of piping with steam tracing;
d) 60 °C: for all non-isolated piping with sun exposure.

NOTE 1 In case of steam out, consider the conditions established in Table 5.


NOTE 2 Temperature incursions for a short period shall be analyzed according to criteria from
appendix V of ASME Code B31.3.

Table 5 - Metal Temperatures for Mechanical Design of Pipes Subjected to Steam Out

Low steam Medium steam


P P
T (°C) T (°C)
(kgf/cm2) (kgf/cm2)
Non-isolated pipe 80 0,5 170 2,5
Isolated pipe 130 0,5 200 2,5
Valve Internal 130 ____ 200 ____
Non-isolated equipment 70 ____ 160 ____
Isolated equipment 130 ____ 200 ____
NOTE 1 Data valid for flexibility analysis.
NOTE 2 To determine metal temperatures, the following conditions were
considered:

low pressure steam T = 130 to 150 degrees Celsius and P = 2 to 3 kgf/cm2;


medium pressure steam T = 200 to 250 degrees Celsius and P = 10 to 12,5
kgf/cm2;

NOTE 3 For different steam conditions, the metal temperature shall be evaluated.

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5.4.7 For cold pipes (< 5 °C), in addition to verification from 5.4.6, the minimum operating temperature
shall also be calculated, and the actual assembly temperature or maximum room temperature for the
pipe out of operation shall be considered, in order to calculate the maximum range of stresses.

5.4.8 The calculation of flexibility for steam out condition shall be performed considering the piping as
fully connected to equipment.

5.4.9 The piping flexibility shall be obtained through proper non-straight run of pipe, and the use of
expansion joints (or other equivalent devices), as well as cold springs, shall be avoided. Any of these
resources may only be used when there is no other acceptable technical solution, and, for each case,
the designer shall provide justification for its use for approval of PETROBRAS.

5.4.10 When the ratio between the piping diameter and thickness (D/t) is above 100, or when piping
elements which stress intensification factor not covered in appendix D from ASME Code B 31.3 are
used, a suplementary stress analysis shall be performed, according to ASME Code Section VIII div. 2,
using finite element method. The routing conditions (forces or displacements) for this analysis shall be
obtained from the global flexibility model, and it shall be ensured that they do not induce simulation
errors of the finite element model. The calculation notes shall be submitted to approval of PETROBRAS.

5.4.11 The flexibility analysis shall mandatorily include the determination of all forces exerted by the
piping on fixed points (anchors and piping ends), as well as on all existing movement restraining
devices (such as: stops, longitudinal, transversal or guides). The actual condition of contact shall be
considered for non-linear restrictions (acting only in one direction, or with clearance), so as not to
mask the results.

5.4.12 For the flexibility analysis, the movement imposed to piping shall be mandatorily taken into
account (examples: tower and vessel nozzles), considering the various alternatives relating to these
movements, including start-up, shutdown and operation conditions, such as, for instance, closing
valves, creating different alternative conditions of temperature among piping sections.

5.4.13 When the use of expansion joints is required, they shall be calculated in accordance with
EJMA STD. The designer shall mandatorily consider the forces due to internal pressure reaction in
permanent and transient regime, to stiffness of bellows, to changes of direction, and to friction in
supports on adjacent restraints (such as: anchors and nozzles). Expansion joints with pressure limits
lesser than the pressure class of other piping accessories shall be avoided.

5.4.14 Spring supports or other mobile supports shall be used when the installation of rigid shoes is
not possible due to movements provided in bearing points.

5.4.14.1 The calculation of loads and movements for selection or dimensioning of these supports
shall be based in general analytical method or computational method so as to ensure higher accuracy.

5.4.14.2 When the design solutions require special assembly or test procedures, such procedures
shall be informed by the designer in a note in piping isometrics or specific document (descriptive
memorandum). These procedures often occur in cases where the test, start-up or steam out
conditions (transitory regime) are very different from normal operating conditions (permanent regime).

5.4.14.3 Constant load supports shall be used when:

a) the load variation of the supports results in forces beyond the equipment allowable;
b) the variable load spring supports do not meet the requirements of load and displacement;
c) very complex piping systems, with many conditions and operation cycles.

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5.4.14.4 Counterweight-type support shall only be used upon previous approval of PETROBRAS.

5.4.15 For the maximum allowable values of forces on nozzles of equipment connected to piping, the
following criterion shall be adopted:

a) for pumps, steam turbines and compressors which design and construction fully comply
with the requirements of API STD 610, 611, 612, 617 and NEMA SM 23, respectively:
maximum values or criteria allowed by the aforementioned standards;
b) pumps, steam turbines, compressors, and others not included in a), the maximum
allowable forces on nozzles should be obtained from the machine supplier, being this
provision essential for all types of compressors and for large-sized pumps and turbines;
when it is not possible to obtain reliable data, the values provided by the API standards
mentioned in a) may be adopted; [Recommended Practice]
c) for boiling equipment and special valves in large diameter piping, the stresses on nozzles
or ends and the valve body shall be checked through recognized analytical methods or
finite element method, approved by PETROBRAS and in compliance with the equipment
design standards.

NOTE In special cases, the maximum allowable forces shall be required from the equipment
supplier.

5.4.16 For piping in critical service operating in high temperature and/or high number of operation
cycles, or whenever required by service specifications of PETROBRAS, the forces on flanged
connections shall be checked according to ASME BPVC Section VIII. Examples of pipes that complies
to this condition: furnace-tower transfer piping in units of atmospheric and vacuum distillation; top and
bottom piping of coke drums; combustion gas piping and top piping of segregation vessels of cracking
units.

5.4.17 Small diameter piping (NPS 2 and less) connected to equipment and piping subject to large
displacements in the connection point shall be checked and designed to absorb such displacements,
complying with the limits of corresponding B31 codes.

5.5 Flexibility analysis - Dynamic Analysis

5.5.1 For piping subjected to computational analysis listed on Table 4, or whenever requested by
PETROBRAS, a Modal Dynamic Analysis shall be performed to determine the natural vibration
frequencies of piping system.

5.5.2 Piping systems shall have natural frequencies above 2 Hz, or 5 Hz for piping systems
connected to reciprocating machines. In addition, it shall be evaluated if the systems are susceptible
to flow-induced vibration or to other external actions. In this case, additional dynamic analyses shall be
performed, according to 5.5.3, and reasonable precautionary measures shall be incorporated.

5.5.3 For transfer lines with natural frequency under 2 Hz and with routing limitations, the installation
of vibration amplitude control systems shall be provided, such as dampers. Examples of transfer lines:
furnace-tower transfer piping in units of atmospheric and vacuum distillation; top and bottom piping of
coke drums; flue gas piping and top piping of segregation vessels of catalytic cracking units.

5.5.4 Whenever cases in which piping is subjected to dynamic actions are identified, due to flow or
other external actions, or whenever required by PETROBRAS for specific systems, dynamic analyses
shall be performed in addition to modal dynamic analysis, properly considering the acting dynamic
loads. The type of additional dynamic analysis (harmonic, time history, spectral, or dynamic pulse)
shall be selected regarding the nature of dynamic load and piping system. The piping systems that
shall mandatorily be submitted to additional dynamic analysis are:

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a) piping system connected to reciprocating pumps or compressors;


b) piping system connected to PSV’s having nominal diameter of 8” or more, and pressure
range of 10 kg/cm2 or more;
c) piping system where there is or there may be two-phase flow;
d) vapor header, during the start-up process (subjected to water hammering).

5.5.5 Specific Conditions to be Considered in Piping Dynamic Analysis

If there are non-linear supports and restraints, such as simples shoes, friction, clearances in guides,
stops, among others, the designer shall consider, during the dynamic analysis, the status matching the
situation obtained through calculation of the aforementioned supports and restraints in the operating
condition. Supports or restraints which are not in contact in operating condition shall not be considered
in dynamic analysis of the piping system in any way.

5.6 Calculation of Forces on Supports

5.6.1 To calculate the weights, frictional and anchor forces acting on the piping supports, the loads
specified in 5.3.1 and 5.4.10 of this Standard shall be considered, relating to all piping in the given
support. In case of supports for many pipes, it is not necessary to consider the added weight of all
piping full of water (hydrostatic test situation), only having to consider, at the designer's discretion, the
water weight in some pipes which may be simultaneously tested, considering the other empty or the
weight of all pipes full of operating fluid, whichever is higher. This criterion shall be submitted to
approval of PETROBRAS. The overload of 2 000 N, mentioned in 5.3.1, shall be considered as one to
each support, and not to each piping in the same support.

5.6.2 For calculation of weights on supports, it may be assumed that half of the total weight of piping
and accessories existing in the span between two supports is acting on each support, except when the
setting is unfavorable for the hypothesis in 5.5.1. In case of supports for a large number of pipes, it
may be assumed that the weights are equally distributed along the support, provided the weights of
pipes are not very different among each other. This simplified calculation conditions may not be
adopted for the calculation of weights in spring and counterweight supports.

5.6.3 The friction forces shall be calculated in all supports in which there may be pipe (or pipes)
movement in relation to the support in piping with nominal diameter above NPS 3. For steel-on-steel
movement, a friction factor of 0,3 shall be considered. The use of steel-on-steel contact shall be avoided
in salty environments. When required, other materials may be used, such as PTFE or graphite, to reduce
the friction factor, according to manufacturer’s data, upon prior approval of PETROBRAS. For stainless
steel movement on PTFE, a friction factor of 0,1 shall be considered. In any case, the friction forces shall
be considered as acting in both directions. When the pipe has side displacement on the support, the
friction force resulting from this displacement shall also be considered.

5.6.4 For calculation of resulting horizontal force due to frictional force of many pipes standing on the
same support, consider a simultaneity factor in relation to the number of pipes, as indicated in Table 6.

Table 6 - Simultaneity Factor in Relation to Number of Pipes

Number of pipes 1 to 3 4 to 7 Above 7


Simultaneity factor 1,00 0,75 0,5

5.6.5 In piping restraint points (anchors, guides, and stops), there is the simultaneous action of
reactions due to thermal expansions and to friction reactions resulting from friction forces developed in
supports near the considered anchoring. The following procedure is recommended to calculate the
joint action of these reactions: [Recommended Practice]

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a) calculate the reaction due to expansions, in each restraint, without the friction effect on
supports;
b) calculate the reaction due to expansions, in each restraint, with the friction effect on
supports;
c) consider the most critical case among those above;
d) if b) results in the most critical condition, it may be considered that, at the designer’s
discretion, the friction is simultaneously acting on 70 % of the supports.

5.6.6 For dimensioning of supports, shoes and restraints, the forces resulting from the wind shall also
be considered.

5.6.7 In piping operating in temperatures above 250 °C, an analysis of stresses located in the support
moorings shall be performed, considering the thermal gradient along these supports.

5.6.8 For piping occasionally subjected to temperatures higher than those from normal operation,
resulting from operating or maintenance transients, such as: steam out, random exothermic reactions,
among others, the supporting solution shall consider the occasional nature of these transitional
conditions, operating safety, and costs. Preferably, the permanent regime solution shall be chosen,
indicating in the design by specific notes on plans, drawings and other documents if any
complementary procedure needs to be adopted (for example: provisional supporting) or if special
supporting shall be required. This procedure shall be submitted to approval of PETROBRAS.

6 General Piping Arrangement

6.1 The piping layout shall be the most economical as far as process, assembly, operation, safety,
and maintenance needs are concerned. The possibility of future expansion shall be considered in the
piping arrangements, with an area being set aside for that purpose.

6.2 As a general rule, piping shall be installed above ground.

6.2.1 In terminals, tank farms, and supply bases, buried piping is permitted. The designer shall
assess the benefits of this solution, considering safety requirements as well.

6.2.2 In refineries, general processing units and petrochemical industries, buried piping is only
allowed for drainage and for fire piping within processing units.

6.2.3 Piping with thermal insulation or steam tracing shall not, in principle, be buried. When this is
strictly necessary, care shall be taken with respect to heat preservation, thereby ensuring insulation
integrity and allowing thermal expansion.

6.3 The minimum height above the ground or floor for any piping that is not located underground,
within or outside processing areas, shall be at least 300 mm, measured from the outside bottom of the
pipe. This height shall always be increased, when necessary, for the installation of accessories on the
bottom part of the pipes such as, for example, legs for collecting condensate and drains with valves.

6.4 Piping inside ditches shall be avoided. This type of construction is permitted for drainage piping,
cooling water piping and wastewater piping, within processing units, and for machine suction piping,
where no other viable solution is available.

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6.5 Piping shall form parallel groups, with the same elevation of the outside bottom of pipe (bottom
elevation). Whenever possible, these parallel groups shall have an orthogonal design direction (North-
South or East-West), or vertical direction. Piping operating at high temperatures shall be placed
externally to the group of parallel pipes and at the highest point of the pipeway in order to facilitate the
placement of expansion bends. Heavier pipes shall be located at the lowest elevation of the pipe rack
and closer to the pipe rack columns. Groups of parallel horizontal pipes shall have different elevations
for different directions. Piping branching off to various units or to equipment on one side or the other of
a central pipeway shall preferably be located at the center of the pipeway. For economic reasons,
large diameter pipes or those made of special materials may be dealt with differently from the ones
described above (see Figure A.3.3, references 4 and 6).

6.6 Within processing areas, the largest possible part of the piping shall be installed on elevated
pipeways (pipe racks), as shown in Figure A.3. Whenever provision is made for traffic of vehicles, the
height of those pipeways shall be such as to allow a piping arrangement with clear spaces of at least 4 m
in height by 3 m wide. When only traffic of people is considered, the height may be reduced to 3 m and
the width to 1,5 m. When traffic of load handling or lifting equipment is expected to occur, the spaces
beneath the pipe racks shall be suitable for these equipment items. Pipe sections close to the floor level
are permitted, provided they do not obstruct trafficways of vehicles and people. Due to process or
economic reasons, properly supported piping installed at high points directly interconnecting equipment
is permitted.

6.7 Interconnection piping outside process areas shall be installed, whenever possible, on supports at
a short distance from the floor. When crossing streets or avenues, piping shall be installed in trenches
(pipeways) allowing the passage of vehicles on bridges over the pipes as shown in Figure A.2. In
special cases, non-construction of a trench shall be assessed (crossings of fire piping or individual
piping). Trench depth shall be the smallest possible and sufficient to:

a) allow construction of bridges;


b) allow a branch of the largest diameter pipe to pass beneath the street;
c) leave a sufficient clearance to allow personnel to pass beneath the bridges for
inspection and painting of piping.

6.8 Pipes on elevated pipeways shall be arranged in such a way that the small diameters lines lie
between 2 large diameter lines, allowing the former to rest on the latter, thereby reducing the need for
intermediate supports.

6.9 All elevated piping shall be designed in such a manner as to not obstruct access for people.
Piping shall not rest on platforms or walkways.

6.10 Some space shall always be set aside on elevated pipe supports (pipe racks or pipeways) for
the passage of electrical cable and instrument ducts. These spaces, in principle, are indicated below
(see Figure A.3.3, reference 8):

a) 800 mm x 300 mm - total space for electrical instrument ducts;


b) 1 000 mm x 300 mm - electrical aerial interconnections for lighting and load feeding.

6.10.1 In pipeways in general a space corresponding to 25 % of their width shall be provided for
future expansion. [Recommended Practice]

6.10.2 For each design and for each case, the final dimensions of pipeways shall be approved by
PETROBRAS.

6.11 The spacing between parallel pipes shall be at least the values given in Figure A.9.1. For
crossings at 45°, use Figure A.9.2. In both cases, the displacements that may occur on piping due to
thermal expansion shall be considered.

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6.12 When routing the piping special attention shall be paid to those cases where certain conditions
are required by the process, such as: slope, absence of high points, and minimum head loss.

6.13 All piping shall be arranged in such a manner as to allow fast and safe access to equipment,
valves, and instruments, for maintenance as well as operation (see Figure A.3.3, reference 13). Piping
and supports shall be located in such a way as to allow all removable parts to be easily dismantled
and removed.

6.14 Whenever possible, all discharge nozzles of pump assemblies shall be aligned.

6.15 Expansion loops shall be placed at a point above the piping level (spatial), except when this is
not allowed for process reasons (piping with a constant slope, two-phase flow, and some pump
suction lines). Expansion loops in the vertical plane shall be avoided.

6.16 All utility, washing and flushing oil connections as well as lines of safety valves shall be installed
on top of the trunk line (see 6.21).

6.17 Changes in direction shall meet the requirements set forth in 6.17.1 to 6.17.5.

6.17.1 Changes in pipe direction shall be made using bends, elbows, tees, crosses or by bending the
pipe itself. The use of flanged tees shall be minimized.

6.17.2 Pipe bending shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of PETROBRAS N-115.

6.17.3 Miter bends shall be designed according to ASME Code B 31.3.

6.17.4 In all of the above cases, when the bend does not have a long radius, the drawings shall
indicate which bend was used.

6.18 The use of flanges shall be minimized and shall be usually allowed only for connecting valves, vessels,
tanks, pumps or other equipment. Pipes that need to be frequently disassembled for cleanup or inspection
and those having an internal lining may be flanged.

6.19 Thermally insulated piping shall be provided with skids or cradles (see 12.8.3) for protection of
the thermal insulation, regardless of the piping material, diameter or service (see Figure A.3.3,
reference 7).

6.20 All flanges shall be placed in a manner allowing vertical or North-South design lines to pass
through the middle of the interval between 2 holes (see Figure A.4).

6.21 For pipes having a diameter of NPS 30 or larger, carrying liquid or subject to dynamic forces or
whose head loss is critical, branches may be made to 45° with respect to the flow direction.
[Recommended Practice]

6.22 Expansion bends shall be routed in 2 plans, so as to allow the location of adjacent pipes. In case
of lines with continuous slope, lines that cannot have high points, flare lines, lines subjected to
formation of liquid or steam pockets, among others, the expansion bend routings shall be on the
horizontal plan.

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7 Layout of Piping Connected to Equipment

7.1 General Conditions

7.1.1 On intake piping of any machine (such as pumps, turbines and compressors) a temporary
strainer shall be provided in accordance with PETROBRAS N-118, except when there is a permanent
strainer on the piping. The temporary strainer shall be installed in such a manner as to allow it to be
easily placed and removed.

7.1.2 The forces and moments caused by the piping on nozzles of any machine (due to thermal
expansion, dead weight, or any other factor) shall be below the allowable limits provided by the
manufacturers of those machines. The values provided in API STD 610, API STD 611, API STD 612,
API STD 617, and NEMA SM 23 may be taken as a preliminary indication. It shall be noted, however,
that use of those standards is only possible for the machines designed and built in accordance with all
the requirements of those standards.

7.1.3 Piping shall be designed in such a way that vessels and equipment can be easily blocked for
maintenance without posing any risks. Blocking shall be done by means of block valves and spectacle
blinds placed at strategic points of the piping, and easily accessed from the ground or from any
platform or operating floor, defined according to PETROBRAS during the detailed design. Spectacle
Blinds shall be depicted on engineering flow sheets.

7.1.3.1 For supported piping connected to bottom nozzles of equipment, adjustable supports shall be
provided in order to allow paddle blanks to be inserted.

7.1.3.2 When no provision is made for these blanks, the piping layout shall allow valves or other
components to be removed for the installation of blind flanges, caps or plugs.

7.2 Piping Connected to Pumps

7.2.1 The piping arrangement shall be such as to allow for easy and free access for pump operation
and maintenance, as well as for removal of the pump and driver, minimizing disassembly on piping to
the greatest extent possible. A minimum space of 1 500 mm shall be provided on the pump driver side
(see Figure A.3.3, reference 19). Figures A.3 and A.5 show some typical arrangements. A minimum
straight section of 5 x NPS (five times the piping nominal diameter) shall be provided, including full
passage valves, reductions, and long radius bends.

7.2.2 Pump operation valves shall be easily accessible, avoiding operation by drive chains or
extension rods.

7.2 Drains shall be provided upstream from suction valves at the lowest point and downstream from
check valves at the discharge point, in order to allow full drainage and pipe cleaning operations with
pumps blocked (see Figure A.6 and PETROBRAS N-108).

NOTE When it is possible to drain the suction piping through the pump, a drain upstream from the
suction valve may be dispensed with. [Recommended Practice]

7.2.4 Routing of suction piping shall be as short and direct as possible, without high or low points, and
taking into consideration the thermal flexibility required for the lines.

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7.2.5 Installation of valves close to pumps shall comply with the following criteria:

a) pumps with flooded suction or parallel pumps suctioning from the same header line:
mandatory installation of a block valve close to the suction nozzle of each pump; this
valve is not recommended for pumps with non-flooded suction, and that are not in parallel
with other pumps;
b) pumps with non-flooded suction: mandatory installation of a check valve (foot valve) at
the free end of the suction line, sufficiently immersed in the liquid of the suction tank;
c) discharge piping (in all cases): mandatory installation of a block valve close to the
discharge nozzle of each pump;
d) pumps discharging to a higher static level or parallel pumps discharging to the same
header line: installation of a check valve close to the discharge nozzle of each pump, in
addition to the block valve in enumeration c);

7.2.6 Special care shall be taken with respect to piping connected to reciprocating pumps, in order to
avoid undesirable vibrations in the systems.

7.2.7 When the diameter of the pump nozzle is smaller than the piping connected to the nozzle, Table 7
should be used for the sizing of valves close to the pump. [Recommended Practice]

Table 7 - Valve Sizing

Nozzle Nominal nozzle diameter Nominal valve diameter

One diameter smaller than the piping Same diameter as the piping
Suction
2 or more nominal diameters smaller than One diameter smaller than the
the piping piping
One nominal diameter larger
Discharge Smaller than the piping
than the nozzle

7.2.8 When the diameter of the suction piping is larger than the pump intake nozzle, the reduction
placed adjacent to the pump shall be in accordance with Figures A.5 and A.6.

7.2.9 Branches for 2 or more pumps operating in parallel, suctioning from the same header line, as
well as for double suction centrifugal pumps, shall be as symmetrical as possible, with the same head
loss, so as to prevent preferential flow through a branch.

7.2.10 For systems operating at temperatures higher than 300 ºC, a standby pump shall be kept
warm by means of fluid recirculation, as indicated in the diagram shown in Figure A.7.

7.2.11 Positive displacement pumps shall be provided with a bypass and a vent valve at the
discharge with the same pump flow capacity.

7.2.12 Discharge piping of dosing pumps shall meet the requirements stipulated by the manufacturer.

7.3 Piping Connected to Turbines

7.3.1 The same requirements and recommendations of 7.2.1 and 7.2.2 are applicable. Figure A.8
shows a typical diagram.

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7.3.2 Steam turbineintake piping, shall preferably, be vertical, with a downward flow.

7.3.3 A pressure relief system shall be installed at the turbine outlet piping and before any valve. This
relief system is not necessary when the turbine discharges directly to the atmosphere.

7.3.4 Turbine intake piping shall be provided with a steam trap installed at the lower point immediately
before the regulating or control valve.

7.3.5 A permanent strainer shall be provided at the turbine intake piping, whenever there is no
integral strainer in the turbine itself. This strainer shall be placed as close as possible to the intake
nozzle.

7.3.6 When 2 or more pumps share a control valve, block valves shall be provided at the intake
nozzle of each turbine. Block valves shall also be provided at the discharge of each turbine.

7.3.7 A steam trap system shall be provided at the steam intake piping even if the turbine has an
automatic steam trap.

7.4 Piping Connected to Vessels

7.4.1 Piping shall be arranged in such a manner as to not obstruct access for operation, maintenance
and tests. All manhole covers as well as other removable parts of the vessels shall be left completely
unobstructed. Clearances required between piping and vessels shall be as shown in Figures A.3 and
A.9.

7.4.2 For vertical vessels, nozzles connected to piping and instruments shall be grouped together
preferably in 1 or 2 sectors properly chosen on the vessel shell.

7.4.3 All valves shall be accessible for operation from the floor or platform.

7.4.4 Forces imposed by piping on vessel nozzles (due to thermal expansion, weights etc.) cannot
cause stresses larger than those allowed on the nozzles. Piping flexibility analysis shall consider
vessel nozzle displacements due to thermal expansion of the vessels.

7.5 Piping Connected to Heat Exchangers

7.5.1 The same requirements in 7.4.4 are applicable.

7.5.2 Piping shall be arranged so as to allow removal of tube bundles, channels, and shell covers
minimizing disassembly of tubes to the greatest possible extent. There shall be no piping in the area in
front of the channel cover, within the space needed for tube bundle removal. There shall also be
sufficient space left in the entire perimeter of shell and channel flanges to allow bolts to be dismounted
from those flanges (see Figure A.3, reference 1). If required, include a pair of flanges in piping
connected to the top nozzle of the channel so as to facilitate the dismantling and enable the removal
of the channel during maintenance shutdowns.

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7.5.3 Provision shall be made in the piping design for an area for cleaning operations, with water taps,
electrical outlets, access to machines, and lighting. A beam shall also be provided for installation of a
tackle capable of removing exchanger covers.

7.5.4 Cooling water piping connected to heat exchangers shall be arranged in such a way as to
prevent water from being drained by the outlet piping in the event of a feed failure.

7.5.5 Air coolers shall have block valves on intake and outtake piping.

7.5.6 The arrangement shall provide for blocking (even in series) and bypass piping whenever heat
exchangers are subject to individual in-service maintenance.

7.5.7 In the case of heat exchangers stacked one on top of the other, Spectacle blind shall be
provided in order to allow individual hydrostatic testing of the equipment.

7.6 Piping Connected to Compressors

7.6.1 The arrangement of compressor piping shall facilitate dismantling of the housing and removal of
inside parts.

7.6.2 The suction piping arrangement, with a connection to the atmosphere, shall be such as to
prevent moisture penetration into the compressor. Long suction lines shall be avoided, and where
necessary, liquid separators shall be installed close to the compressor. Figures A.10 and A.11 show
some typical arrangements.

7.6.3 Low points in suction lines shall be avoided, and piping shall be as straight as possible so as to
avoid surge and head loss problems. Whenever necessary, provision shall be made for removal of
accumulated condensate and dirt. Suction lines shall preferably have an upward flow. Air intakes for
air compressor shall be located away from windows, chimneys, gas discharges, or any other source of
air contamination, and shall not be positioned at a point that restricts suction.

7.6.4 Piping connected to the compressor shall not transmit excessive forces due to weights and
thermal expansion, according to the provisions in 7.1.2. Anchors, supports or expansion joints shall be
provided to minimize the effects of pulsation and vibrations. Supports shall be conveniently spaced to
prevent vibrations. In the case of a reciprocating compressor, the equipment and driver base and
piping supports connected to the compressor shall be built “separately from the foundations, structure,
and cover. Piping shall preferably not have supports on the compressor foundation block.

7.6.5 Compressor operation valves shall be accessible from the floor or platforms.

7.6.6 Condensate drained from each pressure stage shall be collected by independent piping. When
there is a single condensate piping, proper means shall be provided to prevent the high-pressure
condensate from returning to the lower pressure stages.

7.6.7 Safety valves, with a capacity equal to that of the compressor, shall be provided between the
compressor discharge and the block valve, and in the interstage piping.

7.6.8 Pulsation damper vessels shall be placed as close as possible to the compressor discharge
and, if necessary, at the suction line.

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7.6.9 Suction line filters shall be provided.

7.6.10 Steam traps shall be installed at low points of compressed air distribution piping.

8 Requirements For SDP in Critical or Hazardous Services

Design requirements for the following piping systems are presented below:

a) process lines, their bypasses and thermal relief;


b) auxiliary valve lines: flushing, blowdown, bypass, and equalization;
c) lines of auxiliary product pump systems;
d) instrumentation and control lines on equipment and piping.

NOTE Drains and vents installed on piping shall comply with the specifications of PETROBRAS N-108.

8.1 Requirements for SDP Piping

8.1.1 Small diameter process piping is considered to be the following piping systems: process piping,
branches, thermal relief connections and PSVs, as well as auxiliary valve lines (flushing, blowdown,
bypass and equalization).

8.1.2 Requirements for Piping Material Standardization.

8.1.2.1 SDP materials shall comply with PETROBRAS N-76.

8.1.2.2 For critical or hazardous services use plain-end seamless pipes, with a minimum nominal
diameter of NPS 1, except for drains and vents which shall be, at least, NPS 3/4 and for orifice plate
connections which shall be NPS 1/2.

8.1.3 Requirements for Mechanical Design

8.1.3.1 There shall be a detailed design, with isometric and field as-built drawings.

8.1.3.2 The nut of clamp type supports shall be spot welded and a wear plate shall be installed
between the pipe and the clamp.

8.1.3.3 It is not permissible to weld supports of piping on machines and piping with possibility of
vibration.

8.1.3.4 In the case of thermal insulation of stainless steel piping, an aluminum foil shall be installed
between the line and the insulating material to prevent condensation of the moisture found on the
thermal insulation on the pipe.

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8.2 Requirements for SDP of Auxiliary Product Pump Systems

8.2.1 According to API 610, auxiliary pump systems are considered to be the following services:

a) auxiliary process fluid piping;


b) steam piping;
c) cooling-water piping;
d) lubricating oil piping.

8.2.2 For the piping in 8.2.1, according to API 610, the pump manufacturer is responsible for design
and supply, within the limits of the pump base, and the requirements of 8.2.3 of this Standard shall be
met.

8.2.3 General Requirements

8.2.3.1 Easy operation and maintenance shall be ensured, properly arranging the piping on the
contour of the pump base without obstructing access.

8.2.3.2 The lines shall have a detailed design with field as-built drawings.

8.2.3.3 Provision shall be made for complete drainage of the pump without dismantling the piping.

8.2.3.4 The formation of an air pocket in the pump shall be prevented.

8.2.3.5 Materials according to API STD 614 shall be used. The corrosion allowance adopted shall be
compatible with the corrosion rate expected for the pumped fluid.

8.2.3.6 A 150 mm long nipple shall be provided with a pair of flanges, on all auxiliary piping, as close
as possible to the pump to facilitate dismantling and removal.

8.2.3.7 PIs and TIs installed close to pumps shall be installed on adjacent lines interconnected to the
pump, never on the pump body.

8.2.3.8 For dismantling piping, a pair of flanges shall be used instead of a union.

8.2.3.9 Slip-on or lap joint type flanges are not allowed. Socket-weld flanges shall be used.

8.2.3.10 Valves and accessories of the type with socked weld (SW) ends shall be used.

8.2.3.11 For fabrication and assembly inspection, the provisions of PETROBRAS N-115 are applied.

8.2.3.12 It is not permissible to weld piping supports to dynamic equipment.

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8.2.3.13 For thermal insulation of stainless steel piping, an aluminum sheet shall be installed between
the piping and the insulation to prevent condensation of the moisture found on the thermal insulation
on the pipe.

8.2.4 Specific Requirements for Auxiliary Process Fluid Piping

Piping connected to the pump body:

a) balance lines;
b) quench lines;
c) priming lines;
d) recirculation lines;
e) flushing or blowdown lines;
f) sealing lines;
g) external fluid injection lines;
h) lines between the mechanical seal and the pump;
i) vent and drain lines.

8.2.4.1 The requirements of API STD 614 and API STD 682 and those of PETROBRAS N-553 shall
be adopted.

8.2.4.2 Pipe

a) materials (see Table 8);

Table 8 - Carrier Pipe Materials

Material Application limit

ASTM A 106 Gr B Temperature  260 °C

Temperature > 260 °C


ASTM A 335 Gr P5 SC
Cl content > 10 ppm
Temperature > 260 °C
ASTM A 312 Gr TP316 SC
Cl content  10 ppm

b) plain end;
c) thickness limits according to PETROBRAS N-1673.

8.2.4.3 Heat exchanger pipe:

a) material: ASTM A 269 Gr 316, annealed, with a maximum hardness of 25 HRC, for Cl
content  10 ppm;
b) minimum thickness: 1 mm;
c) for interconnection to threaded ends, use ring type connections according to ASTM A 564
Gr 630, NPS 1/4 – NPS 3/4 – class 3 000 - CCT x RO - ASTM A 182 Gr F316 and nut
according to ASTM A 182 Gr F316;
d) for interconnection to socket weld ends of carbon steel pipes, use ring type connections:
NPS 1/4 - NPS 3/4 - class 3 000 - CCT x ES - ASTM A 105 and nut according to ASTM A
105 coated as specified in Note 11 of PETROBRAS N-76.

8.2.4.4 Use accessories, valves, and flanges with socket-weld ends.

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8.2.4.5 Threaded fittings shall only be used where strictly necessary, such as on slip-on connections
of mechanical seals and flushing connections of stuffing boxes.

8.2.5 Specific Requirements for Steam Piping

8.2.5.1 Copper piping shall not be used.

8.2.5.2 Pipe:

a) material: ASTM A 106 Gr B;


b) plain end;
c) thickness limits (see Table 9).

Table 9 - Thickness Limit for Pipe - Steam Piping

Diameter range (NPS) Minimum thickness


1/2 to 1 1/12 SCH 80

8.2.5.3 Heat exchanger pipe:

a) material: ASTM A 269 Gr 316, annealed, with a maximum hardness of 25 HRC, for Cl
content  10 ppm;
b) minimum thickness: 1 mm;
c) for interconnection to threaded ends, use ring type connections according to ASTM A 564
Gr 630, NPS 1/4 – NPS 3/4 – class 3 000 - CCT x RO - ASTM A 182 Gr F316 and nut
according to ASTM A 182 Gr F316;
d) for interconnection to socket weld ends of carbon steel pipes, use ring type connections:
NPS 1/4 - NPS 3/4 - class 3 000 - CCT x ES - ASTM A 105 and nut according to ASTM A
105 coated as specified in Note 11 of PETROBRAS N-76.

8.2.5.4 Use accessories, valves, and welded flanges with socket-weld ends.

8.2.6 Specific Requirements for Cooling-Water Piping

8.2.6.1 Pipe:

a) material: galvanized carbon steel;


b) plain end;
c) thickness limits (see Table 10).

Table 10 - Thickness Limit for Pipe - Cooling Water

Diameter range (NPS) Minimum thickness


1/2 to 1 1/12 SCH 80

8.2.6.2 Heat exchanger pipe:

a) material: ASTM A 269 Gr 316, annealed, with a maximum hardness of 25 HRC, for Cl
content  10 ppm;
b) minimum thickness: 1 mm;

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c) for interconnection to threaded ends, use ring type connections according to ASTM A 564
Gr 630, NPS 1/4 – NPS 3/4 – class 3 000 - CCT x RO - ASTM A 182 Gr F316 and nut
according to ASTM A 182 Gr F316;
d) for interconnection to socket weld ends of carbon steel pipes, use ring type connections:
NPS 1/4 - NPS 3/4 - class 3 000 - CCT x ES ASTM A 105 and nut according to ASTM A
105 coated as specified in Note 11 of PETROBRAS N-76.

8.2.7 Specific Requirements for Lubricating Oil Piping.

8.2.7.1 Carbon steel pipe either requiring or not requiring cleaning shall not be used.

8.2.7.2 Pipe:

a) material: ASTM A 312 Gr TP316 SC;


b) plain end;
c) thickness limits (see Table 11).

Table 11 - Thickness Limit for Pipe - Lubricating Oil

Diameter range (NPS) Minimum thickness

1/2 to 1 1/12 SCH 80S

8.2.7.3 Heat exchanger pipe:

a) material: ASTM A 269 Gr 316, annealed, with a maximum hardness of 25 HRC, for Cl
content  10 ppm;
b) minimum thickness: 1 mm;
c) for interconnection to threaded ends, use ring type connections according to ASTM A 564
Gr 630, NPS 1/4 – NPS 3/4 – class 3 000 - CCT x RO - ASTM A 182 Gr F316 and nut
according to ASTM A 182 Gr F316;
d) for interconnection to socket weld ends of carbon steel pipes, use ring type connections:
NPS 1/4 - NPS 3/4 - class 3 000 - CCT x ES - ASTM A 105 and nut according to ASTM A
105 coated as specified in Note 11 of PETROBRAS N-76.

8.2.7.4 On lines after the oil reservoir and up to the bearing box the accessories, valves, and flanges
shall have butt-weld ends without using joint filler. Only in the case of lines returning to the oil reservoir
will socket welds be allowed.

8.2.7.5 Horizontal sections shall have a slope (greater than 1:50) toward the oil reservoir.

8.2.7.6 Branches shall be minimized and enter to an angle of 45º in the direction of flow of the main
line.

8.2.7.7 Clean piping before operation.

8.3 Requirements for SDP of Instrumentation and Control Systems

8.3.1 Requirements for Instrument Impulse Lines

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8.3.1.1 The requirements of PETROBRAS N-76 and the additional requirements of this Standard
shall be complied with up to the limit between piping and instrumentation, according to Figure 2, in
impulse lines of instruments, transmitters, and orifice flanges.

Half-coupling

Piping Instrumentation
N-76 N-1931

Figure 2 - Diagram for Instrument Impulse Lines

8.3.1.2 Instrument line connections shall be installed and mounted according to the quality control
requirements of PETROBRAS N-115, and respecting the same criteria of the selected pipe specof
PETROBRAS N-76, with respect to NDT, heat treatment and tightness and pressure tests.

8.3.1.3 The diameters and materials of process connections for installation of instruments are defined
in PETROBRAS N-1882, N-1931 and N-2791.

8.3.1.4 Threaded connections may be used in connections and instruments and tubing lines, when
permitted by PETROBRAS N-1931.

8.3.2 PSV Piping

In the installation of thermal relief valves on piping, the length of the piping between the connection
and the PSV shall be the shortest possible, with support being provided when there is risk of vibration.

NOTE For the other small diameter piping not fitting the descriptions of 8.1, 8.2 and 8.3, the general
requirements contained in the body of this Standard are valid.

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9 Valves

9.1 General Considerations

9.1.1 All valves shall be installed in such a way as to facilitate operation and allow dismantling or
removal when necessary. Lever operated valves shall be installed with sufficient clearance to allow
the lever to be operated. Motorized valves shall also have access for manual operation.

9.1.2 Valves that are frequently operated shall be placed in a position where they can be easily
operated from the floor or platform. When valve stem is horizontally mounted, valve elevation above
operating floor shall be 1 900 mm.

9.1.3 For valves located beneath platforms or in trenches, extension stems may be used.

9.1.4 Valves shall be placed at all times in such a way as to ensure that their stems or levers will not
obstruct or prevent passage of operation and maintenance personnel.

9.1.5 No valve shall be placed with its stem pointing downward.

9.1.6 Valves provided with a bypass shall be installed with a block valve in steam piping at the limit of
the unit, when specified by the design or material pipe spec.

9.1.7 As a general rule, in all piping systems, the number of valves shall be the smallest possible,
compatible with the operation, maintenance, and safety needs of the plant. Some cases where
installation of valves is needed, in addition to those shown on the engineering flow sheets or required
in accordance with other items of this Standard, are listed below:

a) battery limits of processing units and property boundaries: usually block valves are
required for all piping. At the limits of units, provision shall be made for the installation of
a spectacle blind close to the valves;
b) service points (as close as possible) in all utility piping;
c) steam process lines interconnected to any equipment, or process line, shall have a check
valve installed as close as possible to the interconnection point, or between the
interconnection point and the block valve, where applicable;
d) fuel oil or fuel gas lines for furnaces and boilers: a block valve shall be installed away
from the furnace or boiler at a location accessible for emergency operation;
e) outlet piping of any equipment, where there is the possibility of flow inversion: placement
of a check valve;
f) all equipment that may be temporarily taken out of service without interrupting unit
operation: placement of block valves near all nozzles; consider the need for double
blocking arrangements, with a locking mechanism, for level gauges in hydrogen vessels
and other hazardous situations;
g) systems where reciprocal contamination cannot be allowed: placement of 2 block valves
(one after the other), with a drain between them, at all system interconnection points;
h) at points of interconnection of temporary systems with final tie-ins, block valves usually
need to be installed as well;
i) at points where new branches are installed with trunk in operation (use of Hot Tapping
Machine): a block valve has to be installed. If this valve is the definitive one, it shall be
properly located to facilitate normal operation (see PETROBRAS N-2163);
j) LPG tank farms (see PETROBRAS N-1645);
k) selection and installation of fire tested valves (see PETROBRAS N-2546).

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9.2 Safety and Relief Valves

9.2.1 Piping containing liquids shall be provided with relief valves in the sections between 2 block
valves.

9.2.2 Safety valves shall preferably discharge to the top of a collecting pipe. This collecting pipe
cannot have low points. Piping between the safety valve and the collector shall have a constant
downward slope towards the collector. When this arrangement is not possible, a drainage line having
a diameter of at least NPS 3/4 shall be provided, branched from the lowest point of the piping and
extending up to a safe location.

9.2.3 A 10 mm diameter drain hole shall be provided in the atmospheric safety valve discharge pipe.

9.2.4 Discharge from any safety valve to atmosphere shall be located in such a way as to not reach
personnel or equipment.

9.2.5 Safety valves shall be located close to the piping or equipment to be protected. When this is not
possible, the head loss in the valve inlet piping shall be checked in accordance with API STD 520 PT I.

9.2.6 Block valves shall not be used between protected equipment and piping and safety and relief
valves, as well as between these valves and the discharge points, except under the conditions
stipulated in ASME Code B31.3, B31.4 e B31.8.

9.2.7 The safety and relief valve discharge piping shall be properly supported considering vibrations
and other dynamic effects inherent in the flow type. Easy access shall also be provided for
maintenance of these valves.

9.3 Control Valves

9.3.1 Control valves shall be installed as shown in Figure A.12 where block valves (before and after)
and a bypass line with a regulating valve shall be installed when this is not forbidden by the process.

9.3.2 As a general rule, the thickness for bypass, blocking, and control piping shall be in accordance
with API RP 553 for control valves NPS 12 and smaller, except where otherwise indicated in
engineering flow sheets. For control valves with a nominal diameter larger than NPS 12, these
dimensions shall be defined for each case. It is recommended that regulating valves be of the globe
type up to NPS 8, and gate type for larger diameters. [Recommended Practice]

9.3.3 Sufficient space shall be left for dismantling and maintenance of the diaphragm and valve stem.

9.3.4 Control valves shall be, whenever possible, located at floor level, in an easily accessible
location. (see Figure A.3.4, reference 14).

9.3.5 Level control valves in vessels shall be installed in such a manner as to allow the level gauge to
be visible during the operation of the bypass line regulating valve.

9.3.6 Proper supports shall be provided for control valves in order to avoid vibrations of valves.

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9.3.7 When a control or regulating valve is manually operated and on a set with an indicating
instrument (flow, pressure or other variable), the valve and the instrument shall be installed nearby so
that the valve operator can observe the instrument.

10 Expansion Joints

10.1 The use of expansion joints shall be avoided whenever possible, and a route with changes in
direction in the plane or in space is preferred, so that the piping has its own flexibility and does not cause
loads or stresses greater than allowable values on equipment.

10.2 When expansion joints are used, the system shall be properly supported, anchored, and guided
in a manner to ensure joints will not be subjected to the weight of piping or any forces or stresses
greater than allowable values.

10.3 All expansion joints (except swivel joints) shall be obligatorily placed between 2 anchor points,
and between those points there can only be one expansion joint. By anchor point it is meant the
anchors and the points for connection to any equipment held in place by anchor bolts.

11 Steam Trap Systems in Piping and Equipment

11.1 Steam traps shall be provided in order to drain steam piping at the following points:

a) low points of piping;


b) points where pipe elevation increases (in the direction of flow), with the steam trap being
placed at the lowest point as close as possible to the point where the elevation increases;
c) before all block, control, and check valves, as well as before ends closed with blind
flanges, caps, or other blocking devices;
d) at the inlet of any steam machine;
e) in long horizontal sections properly spaced.

11.2 Steam trap systems shall be in accordance with PETROBRAS N-116.

11.3 In addition to the steam traps for draining steam piping, steam traps shall also be provided at the
outlet of any equipment where steam is used for heating (heaters, coils, reboilers, steam jacketed
vessels, and other equipment with a similar purpose). In this case, the steam trap shall be placed in
the condensate outlet piping itself, as close as possible to the outlet nozzle of the equipment, as
shown in Figure A.13.

11.4 The steam trap discharge shall be made preferably to a condensate collection system, and
discharge to the atmosphere can occur where this is more economically advantageous. In case the
steam trap discharges to the atmosphere, the discharge pipe shall be located in such a manner that
the steam jet will be directed towards the ground (preferably conducted to the local storm water
drainage system) and will not be able to reach personnel or equipment. Dampers shall be used where
necessary.

11.5 Steam traps shall be sized in line with the following criteria:

a) steam traps for drainage of steam lines: according to PETROBRAS N-116;


b) steam traps for outlet of heating devices: the capacity of these steam traps shall be equal
to or greater than the steam consumption of the heating device.

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12 Piping Supports, Shoes and Restraints

12.1 The terminology and constructive details of supports, shoes and restraints shall be in
accordance with PETROBRAS N-1758.

12.2 All piping shall be properly supported, guided, and anchored, in order to avoid excessive
stresses on the piping itself and on equipment connected to piping, as well as to limit displacements.
Piping supports near nozzles of rotary equipment and bottom nozzles of boiling equipment shall be of
the adjustable type so as to facilitate assembly, testing, and maintenance.

12.3 For the sizing of supports, shoes and restraints as well as their functions, the calculation criteria
contained in PETROBRAS N-1673 shall be considered.

12.4 As a general rule, all equipment connected to the piping system shall be self-supported, and
may not be supported by the piping.

12.5 The criterion for identification of supports and restraints shall be in accordance with
PETROBRAS N-1758.

12.6 Pipes shall be left completely free to move on their supports, avoiding the use of clamps,
hangers and other means of attachment of pipes to supports, except where special attachments are
stipulated in the piping design (restraints, anchoris, guides and stops).

12.7 Anchors shall be provided at the following points of the piping systems:

a) battery limits of process units and property boundaries;


b) between 2 expansion joints (as recommended in 10.3);
c) between 2 expansion bends (loopings), general straight piping.

12.8 Shoe of line on supports (see Figure A.3.3, reference 4).

12.8.1 All non-insulated piping having nominal diameter equal to or larger than NPS 16 to NPS 24
shall receive reinforcing plates with integral welding, according to PETROBRAS N-1758. For
diameters equal to or than NPS 26, cradles shall be used according to PETROBRAS N-1758.

12.8.2 In installations subject to rainfall or high relative humidity causing severe external pipe
corrosion in the gaps with the support (beams), saddles or bases may be used, at the discretion of the
user, for pipes with NPS 1 1/2 in nominal diameter or larger.

12.8.3 Piping with thermal insulation, regardless of the type and purpose of the insulation, shall not
rest directly on supports but shall use skids and cradles in order to prevent contact between the
insulation and the supports. See PETROBRAS N-1758.

12.8.4 For hot pipes having a nominal diameter larger than NPS 3/4, the skids and cradles shall be
made of steel, 100 mm high and of sufficient length to easily accommodate thermal expansion
movements, with a minimum length of 300 mm being required at all times.

12.8.5 For piping operating at low temperatures, saddles and cradles shall be in accordance with
PETROBRAS N-896.

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12.9 For alloy steel piping, supports (saddles and bases) welded to the piping made of carbon steel
will only be permitted if the stresses on the weld region do not jeopardize the performance of the
component.

12.10 For pipes made of materials requiring heat treatment, no elements of saddles, cradles, guides,
and anchors shall be welded to the pipe, but should be preferably fastened by means of bolted clamps
or other adequate means. When this is not possible, provision shall be made for a component welded
to the pipe before heat treatment.

12.11 Piping supports welded, fastened by clamps or directly bolted in flanges are not allowed. Pad
eyes directly welded in the flange tab shall only be allowed with lifting purposes for assembly and
dismantling.

13 Miscellaneous

13.1 The installation of vents at all high points and drains at all low points is mandatory for any piping,
except for utility stations (water, steam, air, and nitrogen), in addition to those required by the process.
Drains shall be provided above valves, in vertical sections, at the battery limits of the units or systems
and on both sides of control valves.

13.2 The diameter and installation details of drains and vents shall be as indicated in the pipe spec of
each piping and according to PETROBRAS N-108.

13.3 Utility piping (steam, water, compressed air) shall be located, whenever possible, on one of the
edges of the assembly of parallel pipes on a pipeway or on the elevated supports in processing units.

13.4 Blocking arrangements shall be provided in branches from the main utility lines in order to allow
maintenance and/or isolation of these systems.

13.5 The basic design shall assess the need for steam injection in equipment for steam-out during
start up and shut down operations of units and systems.

13.6 The following requirements shall be followed for utility stations (Figure A.3.2, reference 2):

a) steam, air, and water at ground level: utility stations shall be spaced in such a way that
the entire area may be reached with a 15 m hose;
b) steam and air in alternating platforms of structures and vessels (to be located on
platforms having access to manholes);
c) water and air piping for utility stations shall be NPS 3/4 in diameter, whereas steam
piping shall be NPS 1;
d) each piping for utility stations shall have a globe valve with a quick connect system for
hose.

13.7 The straight piping sections upstream and downstream from orifice flanges shall comply with API
RP 551. Orifice flange installation at elevations equal to or lower than 5 m from the floor shall allow the
use of mobile stairs. In all remaining cases platforms shall be installed.

13.8 Spectacle or paddle blinds (PETROBRAS N-120) shall be installed at the following points:

a) in all lines at the battery limits;

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b) in lines situated at system limits to be defined by the basic design;


c) in steam injection points of boiling equipment;
d) in equipment nozzles as defined in the basic design or whenever required by regulatory
standard;
e) in nozzles of heat exchangers with diameter equal to or larger than NPS 8;
f) in places requiring a pressure test, in accordance with PETROBRAS N-115.

13.9 For piping and equipment subject to steam-out, the basic design shall define the need for
chlorine content control of the steam used.

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Annex A - Figures

4,00 m 3,00 m

Minimum free height Minimum free height


for vehicles for persons

Floor

NOTE In the event of street crossing out of processing area, minimum height shall be 4,50 m.

Figure A.1 - Pipe Rack

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Minimum clearance: 10 cm
Multiple of 3,0m
for tube of
largest diameter
3,0 m 3,0 m 3,0 m 3,0 m
Bridge
Elevation of
Slope street level

Minimum free
height: 150 cm to Reserve Space
permit access of
persons Drainage Channel
Electrical Cables & Instrumentation
(minimum range)
Support

Section A-A

BRIDGE
L WALLS
ACCESS
L ROUTE

Sleepers

A A

Spacing for Spacing for


Small Tubes Ø Large Tubes Ø

Plant

NOTE The sections indicated with the symbol should not be used for installing longitudinal piping to pipeway. These ranges
shall coincide with positions of sustaining wall sections of bridges and shall be used for longitudinal supports piping route
supporting transverse piping thereto.

Figure A.2 - Piping on Pipeways

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~
~
~

Detail A Detail B Detail C

Figure A.3.1 - Overview

Figure A.3 - Schematic Arrangement of a Unit

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80 mm minimum spacing from top of


platform until lower flange face

Drainage hole diameter 10 mm


for safety valve discharging
into atmosphere

600 mm
minimum spacing
150 mm minimum spacing

Utility
2
Stations
See item 13.6

2 050 mm
at least for
passage of
persons
~

Free area designed


for removal of set
See Items 9.1.2 e 9.1.5
Basic
Elevations
13

10

16

Clearance 1 200 mm for


head maintenance

300 mm minimum spacing


from low point of pavement

Figure A.3.2 - Detail A

Figure A.3 - Schematic Arrangement of a Unit

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Minimum space 750 mm minimum


1 200 mm, if removable column space
230 mm minimum spacing see item 7.5.2
for removal of carretel

1 13

~
Upstairs

750 mm minimum spacing


150 mm minimum spacing

120 mm minimum spacing


1 Front of spool lids

Eliminate curves 50 mm
where possible fire protection
where required
Plant

See item 7.5.3


20

750 mm minimum width


platform

See item 9.3.4 300 mm


12 minimum
14
See item 6.13
13
High paving point

Low paving point

75 mm walls Use red. conc. for 150 mm


height above check valve, see fig. A.12
pavement

Figure A.3.4 - Detail C

Figure A.3 - Schematic Arrangement of a Unit

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V V

W N

S E

Figure A.4 - Positioning of Flange Holes

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Incorrect Correct

Gas bag (cavitation)

Air bag

Gas bag (cavitation)

Air bag

Air bag

Figure A.5 - Typical Arrangements of Pump Suction Lines

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Incorrect Correct

Air bag

Figure A.5 - Typical Arrangements of Pump Suction Lines (Continued)

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Reserve line discharge

Drain
(alternative) Reduction, if necessary

Lateral suction
reserve pump Gate valve

Space or 3/4" drain Check valve


directly in valve

PI
Reduction, if necessary

"Vent" to atmosphere,
Alternative
to vacuum system or
burn system

Gate valve Drain

Reduction, if necessary

Temporary filter

5 x DN

Figure A.6 - Typical Pump Piping Layout

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Figure A.7 - Heating of Standby Pump

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Non-flanged piping
Hot insulation lines Cold insulation lines

76 76 76 76 102 102

Flanged piping

Non-insulated Flanges
Option 1
Note 3

Option 2
Note 3

26 26 26 26

Instruments shall be installed close to pipe-rack


to avoid required spacing of 610 mm

Figure A.9.1 - Spacing between Parallel Tubes

NOTE 1 Distances in mm.


NOTE 2 Movements due to thermal expansion shall be calculated for each piping.
NOTE 3 Use Option 1 for removal of steam and Option 2 for liquids.
NOTE 4 Piping supports shall be in accordance with PETROBRAS standard N-1758.

Figure A.9 - Spacing between Tubes

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ce
an
ce

ar
an

le
ar

C
le

50

E2
ce

C
an

50
ce
ar

an
le
C

ar

E2
EI
50

le
C
EI

50
100 100 100
100
D

C
A B
Bottom tube non-insulated
Both tubes with Bottom tube insulated Both tubes with Top tube insulated
no insulation Top tube non-insulated insulation

Figure A.9.2 - Minimum Distances for Crossings at 45°

NOTE 1 The "A" distances were calculated for a clearance of 50 mm between tubes. If a larger clearance is required, the
distances shall be increased.
NOTA 2 When the distance of the table is smaller than the minimum distances between tubes, the table shall prevail.
NOTA 3 The quotes of dimensions A, B and C are in mm.

Figure A.9 - Spacing between Tubes

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Support 150 Min.

300
Support 150 min.
Min.
Support
300
Guide Min.

Support
Guide Support
Platform
300
Min.

See item 6.1.3

Support 150 Min.

300
Min.

Support 150 Min.

150 Min. Support

300 300
Min. Min.

NOTE 1 When piping and vessels have thermal insulation, add the insulation thickness to the spacing.
NOTE 2 Size in mm.

Figure A.10 - Spacing between Tubes and Vessels

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Not recommended Recommended

Separator
Separators

Compressors Compressors

Separator too distant from compressor Separator close to each unit

Drain

Compressors Compressors

Cylinders
Cylinders

Collector Collector

Collector

Cylinders Cylinders

Pulsating drum Pulsating drum


Outlet

Drain

Cylinder Cylinder

Figure A.11 - Typical Array of Compressor Tubing

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Air adm. filter minimum


Min. 2 400 mm from wall 1 800 mm from ceiling

Compressor Compressor

Drain Drain

Air admission Avoid long suction lines


filter directly to compressor

1 800 mm

Cleaning and
drainage leg

Compressor

Figure A.12 - Minimum Distances for Air Compressor Suction Lines

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Case 1 Case 2

300 mm minimum
(free)

~
~

Case 3 Case 4

~ ~

~
~

Case 5 Case 6
~
~
~
~

450 mm to 600 mm
(Typical)

NOTE Provide union for threaded valves and with socket weld.

Figure A.13 - Typical Control Valve Layouts

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~
N

~
~
~
~

PG

PG

~
ible
poss
as
se
clo
As

NOTE Design shall evaluate the need for more parallel purges.

Figure A.14 - Isometric Steam Trap Installation in Equipment

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Annex B - Tables of Maximum Spans between Supports

B.1 In the calculation of maximum spans, according to 5.3 of this Standard, the pipe was considered
as full of water, at allowable stress SH/2, being the allowable stress Sh and the modulus of elasticity E
of carbon steel API 5L Gr. B, in upper limits of temperature ranges presented in
the Tables below.

B.2 The deflection value was limited to 6 mm within the process units (on-site) and to 25 mm off-site.

B.3 The corrosion allowance adopted was 1,6 mm or 3,2 mm, as the case may be, and the fabrication
tolerance was fixed in 12,5 % of the pipe thickness.

B.4 Specific weights of 2 160 N/m3 for thermal insulation (calcium silicate), of 76 790 N/m3 for carbon
steel, and of 9 807 N/m3 for water were considered.

B.5 It was not considered the additional overload of 1,000 N in the middle of the span or any other
overloads. In case of piping no fitting in the Tables below or subjected to other loads, the maximum
spans shall be calculated according to 5.3 of this Standard.

B.6 “Economic thicknesses” from PETROBRAS N-550 were adopted for thermal insulation.

B.7 In case of pipes containing products heavier than water, these Tables shall not be used, and the
maximum span shall be calculated according to 5.3 of this Standard.

B.8 The thicknesses or schedules of pipes correspond to the most used values in PETROBRAS N-76.

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Table B.1 - Maximum Spans between Piping Supports (On Site) - Deflection: 6 mm,
Corrosion Thickness: 1,6 mm

Maximum spans

Pipe + water Pipe + water + insulation

Room
Nominal 35 °C to 200 °C 201 °C to 330 °C 331 °C to 400 °C
Thickness temperature
diameter
Span Insul. Span Insul. Span Insul. Span
ND NPS SCH (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m)
15 1/2 80 2.7 38 2.3 51 2.1 63 1.9
15 1/2 160 2.8 38 2.4 51 2.2 63 2.0
15 1/2 XXS 2.8 38 2.4 51 2.3 63 2.1
20 3/4 80 3.0 38 2.6 51 2.4 63 2.3
20 3/4 160 3.1 38 2.8 51 2.6 63 2.4
20 3/4 XXS 3.1 38 2.8 51 2.6 63 2.5
25 1 80 3.4 38 3.1 63 2.8 63 2.7
25 1 160 3.5 38 3.2 63 2.9 63 2.9
25 1 XXS 3.5 38 3.2 63 3.0 63 2.9
40 1 1/2 80 4.1 51 3.7 63 3.5 63 3.5
40 1 1/2 160 4.3 51 3.8 63 3.7 63 3.6
40 1 1/2 XXS 4.3 51 3.9 63 3.8 63 3.7
50 2 40 4.4 51 3.9 63 3.7 63 3.7
50 2 80 4.6 51 4.2 63 4.0 63 4.0
50 2 160 4.8 51 4.4 63 4.3 63 4.2
50 2 XXS 4.8 51 4.5 63 4.3 63 4.3
80 3 40 5.5 63 5.0 63 4.9 63 4.8
80 3 80 5.7 63 5.2 63 5.2 63 5.1
80 3 160 5.9 63 5.5 63 5.4 63 5.3
80 3 XXS 5.9 63 5.5 63 5.5 63 5.4
100 4 40 6.2 63 5.7 63 5.6 89 5.4
100 4 80 6.5 63 6.0 63 6.0 89 5.7
100 4 120 6.6 63 6.2 63 6.1 89 5.9
100 4 160 6.7 63 6.3 63 6.2 89 6.0
100 4 XXS 6.7 63 6.4 63 6.3 89 6.1
150 6 40 7.5 63 7.0 89 6.7 102 6.6
150 6 80 7.9 63 7.5 89 7.2 102 7.1
150 6 120 8.1 63 7.7 89 7.4 102 7.3
150 6 160 8.2 63 7.8 89 7.6 102 7.4
150 6 XXS 8.2 63 7.9 89 7.6 102 7.5
200 8 20 8.1 63 7.6 102 7.3 102 7.2
200 8 40 8.5 63 8.0 102 7.7 102 7.6
200 8 60 8.8 63 8.3 102 8.0 102 7.9
200 8 80 9.0 63 8.6 102 8.3 102 8.1
200 8 100 9.1 63 8.7 102 8.4 102 8.3
200 8 120 9.2 63 8.9 102 8.6 102 8.5
200 8 140 9.3 63 8.9 102 8.7 102 8.5
200 8 XXS 9.3 63 9.0 102 8.7 102 8.6
200 8 160 9.3 63 9.0 102 8.7 102 8.6

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Table B.1 - Maximum Spans between Piping Supports (On Site) - Deflection: 6 mm,
Corrosion Thickness: 1,6 mm (Continued)

Maximum spans

Pipe + water Pipe + water + insulation

Room
Nominal 35 °C to 200 °C 201 °C to 330 °C 331 °C to 400 °C
Thickness temperature
diameter
Span Insul. Span Insul. Span Insul. Span
ND NPS SCH (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m)
250 10 20 8.8 63 8.3 102 8.0 102 7.9
250 10 40 9.4 63 9.0 102 8.7 102 8.6
250 10 60 9.8 63 9.4 102 9.1 102 9.0
250 10 80 10.0 63 9.6 102 9.4 102 9.2
250 10 100 10.2 63 9.8 102 9.6 102 9.4
250 10 120 10.3 63 10.0 102 9.7 102 9.5
250 10 140 10.4 63 10.1 102 9.8 102 9.6
250 10 160 10.4 63 10.1 102 9.9 102 9.7
300 12 20 9.3 63 8.9 102 8.6 126 8.3
300 12 S 10.1 63 9.7 102 9.4 126 9.1
300 12 40 10.2 63 9.8 102 9.5 126 9.3
300 12 XS 10.6 63 10.1 102 9.8 126 9.6
300 12 60 10.7 63 10.3 102 10.0 126 9.8
300 12 80 10.9 63 10.6 102 10.3 126 10.0
300 12 100 11.1 63 10.8 102 10.5 126 10.2
300 12 120 11.3 63 10.9 102 10.6 126 10.4
300 12 140 11.3 63 11.0 102 10.7 126 10.5
300 12 160 11.4 63 11.1 102 10.8 126 10.6
350 14 10 9.6 63 9.2 114 8.8 140 8.6
350 14 20 10.1 63 9.7 114 9.3 140 9.0
350 14 S 10.5 63 10.0 114 9.7 140 9.4
350 14 40 10.7 63 10.3 114 10.0 140 9.7
350 14 XS 10.9 63 10.5 114 10.2 140 9.9
350 14 60 11.2 63 10.8 114 10.5 140 10.2
350 14 80 11.5 63 11.1 114 10.8 140 10.5
350 14 100 11.7 63 11.3 114 11.0 140 10.8
350 14 120 11.8 63 11.5 114 11.2 140 10.9
350 14 140 11.9 63 11.5 114 11.2 140 11.0
350 14 160 11.9 63 11.6 114 11.3 140 11.1
400 16 10 10.0 63 9.6 114 9.3 140 9.0
400 16 20 10.6 63 10.2 114 9.8 140 9.5
400 16 30 11.0 63 10.6 114 10.2 140 9.9
400 16 40 11.5 63 11.1 114 10.8 140 10.5
400 16 60 12.0 63 11.6 114 11.2 140 11.0
400 16 80 12.3 63 11.9 114 11.6 140 11.3
400 16 100 12.5 63 12.1 114 11.8 140 11.6
400 16 120 12.6 63 12.3 114 12.0 140 11.7
400 16 140 12.7 63 12.4 114 12.1 140 11.8
400 16 160 12.8 63 12.4 114 12.1 140 11.9

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Table B.1 - Maximum Spans between Piping Supports (On Site) - Deflection: 6 mm,
Corrosion Thickness: 1,6 mm (Continued)

Maximum spans

Pipe + water Pipe + water + insulation

Room
Nominal 35 °C to 200 °C 201 °C to 330 °C 331 °C to 400 °C
Thickness temperature
diameter
Span Insul. Span Insul. Span Insul. Span
ND NPS SCH (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m)
450 18 10 10.4 63 10.0 114 9.7 140 9.4
450 18 20 11.0 63 10.6 114 10.3 140 10.0
450 18 STD 11.4 63 11.0 114 10.7 140 10.4
450 18 30 11.8 63 11.4 114 11.0 140 10.8
450 18 XS 12.0 63 11.6 114 11.3 140 11.0
450 18 40 12.3 63 11.9 114 11.5 140 11.2
450 18 60 12.7 63 12.4 114 12.0 140 11.7
450 18 80 13.0 63 12.7 114 12.3 140 12.1
450 18 100 13.3 63 12.9 114 12.6 140 12.3
450 18 120 13.4 63 13.1 114 12.8 140 12.5
450 18 140 13.5 63 13.1 114 12.9 140 12.6
450 18 160 13.6 63 13.2 114 12.9 140 12.7
500 20 10 10.8 63 10.4 114 10.1 140 9.8
500 20 20 11.9 63 11.5 114 11.1 140 10.9
500 20 30 12.5 63 12.1 114 11.8 140 11.5
500 20 40 12.9 63 12.5 114 12.1 140 11.9
500 20 60 13.4 63 13.0 114 12.7 140 12.4
500 20 80 13.8 63 13.4 114 13.1 140 12.8
500 20 100 14.0 63 13.6 114 13.3 140 13.0
500 20 120 14.1 63 13.8 114 13.5 140 13.2
500 20 140 14.2 63 13.9 114 13.6 140 13.3
500 20 160 14.3 63 14.0 114 13.7 140 13.4
600 24 10 11.4 63 11.1 114 10.7 140 10.5
600 24 20 12.6 63 12.2 114 11.9 140 11.6
600 24 XS 13.4 63 13.0 114 12.6 140 12.3
600 24 30 13.7 63 13.2 114 12.9 140 12.6
600 24 40 14.1 63 13.7 114 13.4 140 13.1
600 24 60 14.7 63 14.3 114 14.0 140 13.7
600 24 80 15.1 63 14.7 114 14.4 140 14.1
600 24 100 15.4 63 15.0 114 14.7 140 14.4
600 24 120 15.5 63 15.2 114 14.9 140 14.6
600 24 140 15.6 63 15.3 114 15.0 140 14.7
600 24 160 15.7 63 15.3 114 15.0 140 14.8

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Table B.2 - Maximum Spans between Piping Supports (On Site) - Deflection: 6 mm,
Corrosion Thickness: 3,2 mm

Maximum spans

Pipe + water Pipe + water + insulation

Room
Nominal 35 °C to 200 °C 201 °C to 330 °C 331 °C to 400 °C
Thickness temperature
diameter
Span Insul. Span Insul. Span Insul. Span
ND NPS SCH (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m)
15 1/2 80 2.0 38 1.7 51 1.6 63 1.5
15 1/2 160 2.5 38 2.1 51 1.9 63 1.8
15 1/2 XXS 2.7 38 2.4 51 2.2 63 2.1
20 3/4 80 2.4 38 2.0 51 1.9 63 1.8
20 3/4 160 2.9 38 2.5 51 2.4 63 2.2
20 3/4 XXS 3.0 38 2.7 51 2.6 63 2.4
25 1 80 2.9 38 2.6 63 2.4 63 2.3
25 1 160 3.3 38 3.0 63 2.7 63 2.7
25 1 XXS 3.4 38 3.1 63 2.9 63 2.9
40 1 1/2 80 3.6 51 3.2 63 3.1 63 3.0
40 1 1/2 160 4.0 51 3.6 63 3.5 63 3.4
40 1 1/2 XXS 4.2 51 3.8 63 3.7 63 3.6
50 2 40 3.3 51 2.9 63 2.8 63 2.8
50 2 80 4.2 51 3.7 63 3.6 63 3.6
50 2 160 4.6 51 4.2 63 4.1 63 4.0
50 2 XXS 4.7 51 4.4 63 4.2 63 4.2
80 3 40 4.9 63 4.4 63 4.4 63 4.3
80 3 80 5.4 63 4.9 63 4.9 63 4.8
80 3 160 5.7 63 5.3 63 5.2 63 5.1
80 3 XXS 5.8 63 5.4 63 5.4 63 5.3
100 4 40 5.6 63 5.1 63 5.1 89 4.8
100 4 80 6.1 63 5.7 63 5.6 89 5.4
100 4 120 6.4 63 6.0 63 5.9 89 5.7
100 4 160 6.5 63 6.1 63 6.1 89 5.8
100 4 XXS 6.6 63 6.3 63 6.2 89 6.0
150 6 40 6.9 63 6.5 89 6.2 102 6.1
150 6 80 7.6 63 7.2 89 7.0 102 6.8
150 6 120 7.9 63 7.5 89 7.3 102 7.1
150 6 160 8.0 63 7.7 89 7.4 102 7.3
150 6 XXS 8.1 63 7.7 89 7.5 102 7.4
200 8 20 7.3 63 6.9 102 6.6 102 6.5
200 8 40 7.9 63 7.5 102 7.2 102 7.1
200 8 60 8.4 63 8.0 102 7.7 102 7.6
200 8 80 8.7 63 8.3 102 8.0 102 7.9
200 8 100 8.9 63 8.5 102 8.2 102 8.1
200 8 120 9.1 63 8.7 102 8.4 102 8.3
200 8 140 9.1 63 8.8 102 8.5 102 8.4
200 8 XXS 9.2 63 8.8 102 8.6 102 8.5
200 8 160 9.2 63 8.9 102 8.6 102 8.5

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Table B.2 - Maximum Spans between Piping Supports (On Site) - Deflection: 6 mm,
Corrosion Thickness: 3,2 mm (Continued)

Maximum spans

Pipe + water Pipe + water + insulation

Room
Nominal 35 °C to 200 °C 201 °C to 330 °C 331 °C to 400 °C
Thickness temperature
diameter
Span Insul. Span Insul. Span Insul. Span
ND NPS SCH (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m)
250 10 20 7.9 63 7.5 102 7.3 102 7.2
250 10 40 8.9 63 8.5 102 8.2 102 8.1
250 10 60 9.5 63 9.1 102 8.8 102 8.7
250 10 80 9.8 63 9.4 102 9.1 102 9.0
250 10 100 10.0 63 9.6 102 9.4 102 9.2
250 10 120 10.1 63 9.8 102 9.5 102 9.4
250 10 140 10.3 63 9.9 102 9.7 102 9.5
250 10 160 10.3 63 10.0 102 9.8 102 9.6
300 12 20 8.4 63 8.0 102 7.8 126 7.5
300 12 S 9.6 63 9.2 102 8.9 126 8.7
300 12 40 9.8 63 9.4 102 9.1 126 8.8
300 12 XS 10.2 63 9.8 102 9.5 126 9.3
300 12 60 10.4 63 10.0 102 9.7 126 9.5
300 12 80 10.7 63 10.3 102 10.0 126 9.8
300 12 100 11.0 63 10.6 102 10.3 126 10.1
300 12 120 11.1 63 10.8 102 10.5 126 10.3
300 12 140 11.2 63 10.9 102 10.6 126 10.4
300 12 160 11.3 63 11.0 102 10.7 126 10.5
350 14 10 8.7 63 8.3 114 8.0 140 7.8
350 14 20 9.4 63 9.0 114 8.7 140 8.4
350 14 S 9.9 63 9.5 114 9.2 140 8.9
350 14 40 10.3 63 9.9 114 9.6 140 9.3
350 14 XS 10.6 63 10.2 114 9.8 140 9.6
350 14 60 10.9 63 10.5 114 10.2 140 9.9
350 14 80 11.3 63 10.9 114 10.6 140 10.3
350 14 100 11.5 63 11.2 114 10.9 140 10.6
350 14 120 11.7 63 11.3 114 11.0 140 10.8
350 14 140 11.8 63 11.4 114 11.1 140 10.9
350 14 160 11.8 63 11.5 114 11.2 140 11.0
400 16 10 9.1 63 8.7 114 8.4 140 8.2
400 16 20 9.9 63 9.5 114 9.1 140 8.9
400 16 30 10.4 63 10.0 114 9.7 140 9.4
400 16 40 11.1 63 10.7 114 10.4 140 10.1
400 16 60 11.7 63 11.3 114 11.0 140 10.7
400 16 80 12.1 63 11.7 114 11.4 140 11.1
400 16 100 12.3 63 12.0 114 11.7 140 11.4
400 16 120 12.5 63 12.1 114 11.8 140 11.6
400 16 140 12.6 63 12.3 114 12.0 140 11.7
400 16 160 12.7 63 12.3 114 12.1 140 11.8

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Table B.2 - Maximum Spans between Piping Supports (On Site) - Deflection: 6 mm,
Corrosion Thickness: 3,2 mm (Continued)

Maximum spans

Pipe + water Pipe + water + insulation

Room
Nominal 35 °C to 200 °C 201 °C to 330 °C 331 °C to 400 °C
Thickness temperature
diameter
Span Insul. Span Insul. Span Insul. Span
ND NPS SCH (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m)
450 18 10 9.4 63 9.1 114 8.8 140 8.5
450 18 20 10.3 63 9.9 114 9.6 140 9.3
450 18 STD 10.8 63 10.5 114 10.1 140 9.9
450 18 30 11.3 63 10.9 114 10.6 140 10.3
450 18 XS 11.6 63 11.2 114 10.9 140 10.6
450 18 40 11.9 63 11.5 114 11.2 140 10.9
450 18 60 12.5 63 12.1 114 11.8 140 11.5
450 18 80 12.8 63 12.5 114 12.1 140 11.9
450 18 100 13.1 63 12.7 114 12.4 140 12.2
450 18 120 13.3 63 12.9 114 12.6 140 12.4
450 18 140 13.4 63 13.0 114 12.7 140 12.5
450 18 160 13.5 63 13.1 114 12.8 140 12.6
500 20 10 9.8 63 9.4 114 9.1 140 8.9
500 20 20 11.2 63 10.9 114 10.5 140 10.3
500 20 30 12.1 63 11.7 114 11.4 140 11.1
500 20 40 12.5 63 12.1 114 11.8 140 11.5
500 20 60 13.2 63 12.8 114 12.5 140 12.2
500 20 80 13.6 63 13.2 114 12.9 140 12.6
500 20 100 13.9 63 13.5 114 13.2 140 12.9
500 20 120 14.0 63 13.7 114 13.4 140 13.1
500 20 140 14.1 63 13.8 114 13.5 140 13.2
500 20 160 14.2 63 13.9 114 13.6 140 13.3
600 24 10 10.4 63 10.0 114 9.7 140 9.5
600 24 20 12.0 63 11.6 114 11.3 140 11.0
600 24 XS 12.9 63 12.5 114 12.2 140 11.9
600 24 30 13.2 63 12.8 114 12.5 140 12.2
600 24 40 13.8 63 13.4 114 13.0 140 12.7
600 24 60 14.5 63 14.1 114 13.8 140 13.5
600 24 80 14.9 63 14.5 114 14.2 140 13.9
600 24 100 15.2 63 14.9 114 14.6 140 14.3
600 24 120 15.4 63 15.0 114 14.7 140 14.5
600 24 140 15.5 63 15.2 114 14.9 140 14.6
600 24 160 15.6 63 15.2 114 15.0 140 14.7

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Table B.3 - Maximum Spans between Piping Supports (Off Site) - Deflection: 25 mm,
Corrosion Thickness: 1,6 mm

Maximum spans

Pipe + water Pipe + water + insulation

Room
Nominal 35 °C to 200 °C 201 °C to 330 °C 331 °C to 400 °C
Thickness temperature
diameter
Span Insul. Span Insul. Span Insul. Span
ND NPS SCH (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m)
15 1/2 80 3.8 38 3.2 51 3.0 63 2.8
15 1/2 160 3.9 38 3.4 51 3.1 63 2.9
15 1/2 XXS 3.9 38 3.5 51 3.2 63 3.0
20 3/4 80 4.3 38 3.7 51 3.5 63 3.3
20 3/4 160 4.5 38 3.9 51 3.7 63 3.5
20 3/4 XXS 4.5 38 4.0 51 3.8 63 3.6
25 1 80 4.9 38 4.4 63 3.9 63 3.9
25 1 160 5.0 38 4.5 63 4.2 63 4.1
25 1 XXS 5.0 38 4.6 63 4.3 63 4.2
40 1 1/2 80 5.9 51 5.2 63 5.0 63 4.9
40 1 1/2 160 6.1 51 5.5 63 5.3 63 5.2
40 1 1/2 XXS 6.1 51 5.6 63 5.4 63 5.3
50 2 40 6.2 51 5.5 63 5.3 63 5.2
50 2 80 6.6 51 6.0 63 5.8 63 5.7
50 2 160 6.9 51 6.3 63 6.1 63 6.0
50 2 XXS 6.9 51 6.4 63 6.2 63 6.1
80 3 40 7.8 63 7.1 63 7.0 63 6.9
80 3 80 8.2 63 7.5 63 7.4 63 7.3
80 3 160 8.4 63 7.8 63 7.7 63 7.6
80 3 XXS 8.4 63 7.9 63 7.8 63 7.7
100 4 40 8.9 63 8.1 63 8.0 89 7.6
100 4 80 9.3 63 8.6 63 8.5 89 8.1
100 4 120 9.5 63 8.9 63 8.8 89 8.4
100 4 160 9.6 63 9.0 63 8.9 89 8.5
100 4 XXS 9.6 63 9.1 63 9.0 89 8.7
150 6 40 10.7 63 10.0 89 9.6 102 9.4
150 6 80 11.3 63 10.7 89 10.3 102 10.1
150 6 120 11.5 63 11.0 89 10.6 102 10.4
150 6 160 11.7 63 11.1 89 10.8 102 10.6
150 6 XXS 11.7 63 11.2 89 10.9 102 10.7
200 8 20 11.6 63 10.9 102 10.4 102 10.3
200 8 40 12.1 63 11.5 102 11.0 102 10.9
200 8 60 12.5 63 11.9 102 11.5 102 11.3
200 8 80 12.8 63 12.3 102 11.8 102 11.6
200 8 100 13.0 63 12.5 102 12.1 102 11.9
200 8 120 13.2 63 12.7 102 12.3 102 12.1
200 8 140 13.3 63 12.8 102 12.4 102 12.2
200 8 XXS 13.3 63 12.8 102 12.4 102 12.3
200 8 160 13.3 63 12.8 102 12.5 102 12.3

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Table B.3 - Maximum Spans between Piping Supports (Off Site) - Deflection: 25 mm,
Corrosion Thickness: 1,6 mm (Continued)

Maximum spans

Pipe + water Pipe + water + insulation

Room
Nominal 35 °C to 200 °C 201 °C to 330 °C 331 °C to 400 °C
Thickness temperature
diameter
Span Insul. Span Insul. Span Insul. Span
ND NPS SCH (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m)
250 10 20 12.5 63 11.9 102 11.5 102 11.3
250 10 40 13.5 63 12.9 102 12.4 102 12.2
250 10 60 14.1 63 13.5 102 13.1 102 12.9
250 10 80 14.3 63 13.8 102 13.4 102 13.2
250 10 100 14.6 63 14.0 102 13.6 102 13.4
250 10 120 14.7 63 14.2 102 13.8 102 13.6
250 10 140 14.9 63 14.4 102 14.0 102 13.8
250 10 160 14.9 63 14.4 102 14.1 102 13.9
300 12 20 13.3 63 12.7 102 12.3 126 11.9
300 12 S 14.4 63 13.8 102 13.4 126 13.0
300 12 40 14.6 63 14.0 102 13.6 126 13.2
300 12 XS 15.1 63 14.5 102 14.1 126 13.7
300 12 60 15.3 63 14.7 102 14.3 126 13.9
300 12 80 15.6 63 15.1 102 14.7 126 14.3
300 12 100 15.9 63 15.4 102 15.0 126 14.6
300 12 120 16.1 63 15.6 102 15.2 126 14.9
300 12 140 16.2 63 15.7 102 15.3 126 15.0
300 12 160 16.3 63 15.8 102 15.4 126 15.1
350 14 10 13.7 63 13.1 114 12.6 140 12.3
350 14 20 14.4 63 13.8 114 13.3 140 12.9
350 14 S 14.9 63 14.3 114 13.8 140 13.4
350 14 40 15.3 63 14.7 114 14.2 140 13.9
350 14 XS 15.6 63 15.1 114 14.6 140 14.2
350 14 60 16.0 63 15.4 114 14.9 140 14.6
350 14 80 16.4 63 15.9 114 15.4 140 15.0
350 14 100 16.7 63 16.2 114 15.7 140 15.4
350 14 120 16.9 63 16.4 114 15.9 140 15.6
350 14 140 17.0 63 16.5 114 16.1 140 15.7
350 14 160 17.1 63 16.6 114 16.2 140 15.8
400 16 10 14.4 63 13.8 114 13.3 140 12.9
400 16 20 15.1 63 14.5 114 14.0 140 13.6
400 16 30 15.7 63 15.1 114 14.6 140 14.2
400 16 40 16.5 63 15.9 114 15.4 140 15.0
400 16 60 17.1 63 16.5 114 16.0 140 15.7
400 16 80 17.6 63 17.0 114 16.6 140 16.2
400 16 100 17.9 63 17.3 114 16.9 140 16.5
400 16 120 18.0 63 17.5 114 17.1 140 16.7
400 16 140 18.2 63 17.7 114 17.3 140 16.9
400 16 160 18.2 63 17.8 114 17.4 140 17.0

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Table B.3 - Maximum Spans between Piping Supports (Off Site) - Deflection: 25 mm,
Corrosion Thickness: 1,6 mm (Continued)

Maximum Spans

Pipe + water Pipe + water + insulation

Room
Nominal 35 °C to 200 °C 201 °C to 330 °C 331 °C to 400 °C
Thickness temperature
Diameter
Span Insul. Span Insul. Span Insul. Span
ND NPS SCH (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m)
450 18 10 14.9 63 14.3 114 13.9 140 13.5
450 18 20 15.7 63 15.1 114 14.7 140 14.3
450 18 STD 16.4 63 15.8 114 15.3 140 14.9
450 18 30 16.8 63 16.2 114 15.8 140 15.4
450 18 XS 17.2 63 16.6 114 16.1 140 15.7
450 18 40 17.5 63 16.9 114 16.5 140 16.1
450 18 60 18.2 63 17.6 114 17.2 140 16.8
450 18 80 18.6 63 18.1 114 17.6 140 17.2
450 18 100 19.0 63 18.4 114 18.0 140 17.6
450 18 120 19.2 63 18.7 114 18.2 140 17.8
450 18 140 19.3 63 18.8 114 18.4 140 18.0
450 18 160 19.4 63 18.9 114 18.5 140 18.1
500 20 10 15.4 63 14.9 114 14.4 140 14.0
500 20 20 17.0 63 16.4 114 15.9 140 15.5
500 20 30 17.9 63 17.3 114 16.8 140 16.4
500 20 40 18.4 63 17.8 114 17.3 140 16.9
500 20 60 19.2 63 18.6 114 18.1 140 17.7
500 20 80 19.7 63 19.1 114 18.7 140 18.3
500 20 100 20.0 63 19.5 114 19.0 140 18.6
500 20 120 20.2 63 19.7 114 19.3 140 18.9
500 20 140 20.3 63 19.8 114 19.4 140 19.0
500 20 160 20.4 63 19.9 114 19.5 140 19.1
600 24 10 16.4 63 15.8 114 15.4 140 15.0
600 24 20 18.0 63 17.5 114 17.0 140 16.6
600 24 XS 19.1 63 18.5 114 18.0 140 17.6
600 24 30 19.5 63 18.9 114 18.4 140 18.0
600 24 40 20.1 63 19.6 114 19.1 140 18.7
600 24 60 21.1 63 20.5 114 20.0 140 19.6
600 24 80 21.6 63 21.0 114 20.6 140 20.1
600 24 100 22.0 63 21.4 114 21.0 140 20.6
600 24 120 22.2 63 21.7 114 21.2 140 20.8
600 24 140 22.3 63 21.8 114 21.4 140 21.0
600 24 160 22.4 63 21.9 114 21.5 140 21.1

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Table B.4 - Maximum Spans between Piping Supports (Off Site) - Deflection: 25 mm,
Corrosion Thickness: 3,2 mm

Maximum spans

Pipe + water Pipe + water + insulation

Room
Nominal 35 °C to 200 °C 201 °C to 330 °C 331 °C to 400 °C
Thickness temperature
diameter
Span Insul. Span Insul. Span Insul. Span
ND NPS SCH (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m)
15 1/2 80 2.9 38 2.4 51 2.2 63 2.1
15 1/2 160 3.5 38 3.0 51 2.8 63 2.6
15 1/2 XXS 3.9 38 3.4 51 3.2 63 3.0
20 3/4 80 3.4 38 2.9 51 2.7 63 2.5
20 3/4 160 4.1 38 3.6 51 3.4 63 3.2
20 3/4 XXS 4.3 38 3.9 51 3.7 63 3.5
25 1 80 4.2 38 3.7 63 3.4 63 3.3
25 1 160 4.7 38 4.3 63 3.9 63 3.8
25 1 XXS 4.9 38 4.5 63 4.2 63 4.1
40 1 1/2 80 5.2 51 4.6 63 4.4 63 4.3
40 1 1/2 160 5.7 51 5.2 63 5.0 63 4.9
40 1 1/2 XXS 6.0 51 5.5 63 5.3 63 5.2
50 2 40 4.7 51 4.2 63 4.0 63 4.0
50 2 80 5.9 51 5.4 63 5.2 63 5.1
50 2 160 6.6 51 6.0 63 5.8 63 5.8
50 2 XXS 6.7 51 6.2 63 6.0 63 5.9
80 3 40 7.0 63 6.3 63 6.2 63 6.1
80 3 80 7.7 63 7.0 63 6.9 63 6.8
80 3 160 8.1 63 7.5 63 7.4 63 7.3
80 3 XXS 8.3 63 7.8 63 7.7 63 7.5
100 4 40 8.0 63 7.4 63 7.3 89 6.9
100 4 80 8.8 63 8.2 63 8.1 89 7.7
100 4 120 9.1 63 8.6 63 8.5 89 8.1
100 4 160 9.3 63 8.8 63 8.7 89 8.3
100 4 XXS 9.4 63 8.9 63 8.8 89 8.5
150 6 40 9.9 63 9.2 89 8.9 102 8.7
150 6 80 10.8 63 10.3 89 9.9 102 9.7
150 6 120 11.2 63 10.7 89 10.4 102 10.1
150 6 160 11.4 63 10.9 89 10.6 102 10.4
150 6 XXS 11.5 63 11.1 89 10.8 102 10.5
200 8 20 10.5 63 9.9 102 9.5 102 9.3
200 8 40 11.4 63 10.8 102 10.3 102 10.2
200 8 60 12.0 63 11.4 102 11.0 102 10.8
200 8 80 12.4 63 11.9 102 11.4 102 11.3
200 8 100 12.7 63 12.2 102 11.8 102 11.6
200 8 120 12.9 63 12.4 102 12.0 102 11.9
200 8 140 13.1 63 12.6 102 12.2 102 12.0
200 8 XXS 13.1 63 12.6 102 12.3 102 12.1
200 8 160 13.1 63 12.7 102 12.3 102 12.1

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Table B.4 - Maximum Spans between Piping Supports (Off Site) - Deflection: 25 mm,
Corrosion Thickness: 3,2 mm (Continued)

Maximum spans

Pipe + water Pipe + water + insulation

Room
Nominal 35 °C to 200 °C 201 °C to 330 °C 331 °C to 400 °C
Thickness temperature
diameter
Span Insul. Span Insul. Span Insul. Span
ND NPS SCH (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m)
250 10 20 11.3 63 10.8 102 10.4 102 10.2
250 10 40 12.8 63 12.2 102 11.8 102 11.6
250 10 60 13.6 63 13.0 102 12.6 102 12.4
250 10 80 14.0 63 13.4 102 13.0 102 12.8
250 10 100 14.3 63 13.8 102 13.4 102 13.2
250 10 120 14.5 63 14.0 102 13.6 102 13.4
250 10 140 14.7 63 14.2 102 13.8 102 13.6
250 10 160 14.8 63 14.3 102 13.9 102 13.7
300 12 20 12.0 63 11.5 102 11.1 126 10.8
300 12 S 13.7 63 13.1 102 12.7 126 12.4
300 12 40 13.9 63 13.4 102 13.0 126 12.6
300 12 XS 14.6 63 14.0 102 13.6 126 13.2
300 12 60 14.9 63 14.3 102 13.9 126 13.5
300 12 80 15.3 63 14.8 102 14.4 126 14.0
300 12 100 15.6 63 15.1 102 14.7 126 14.4
300 12 120 15.9 63 15.4 102 15.0 126 14.7
300 12 140 16.0 63 15.5 102 15.1 126 14.8
300 12 160 16.1 63 15.7 102 15.3 126 15.0
350 14 10 12.4 63 11.9 114 11.4 140 11.1
350 14 20 13.5 63 12.9 114 12.4 140 12.1
350 14 S 14.2 63 13.6 114 13.1 140 12.8
350 14 40 14.7 63 14.1 114 13.6 140 13.3
350 14 XS 15.1 63 14.5 114 14.1 140 13.7
350 14 60 15.6 63 15.0 114 14.5 140 14.2
350 14 80 16.1 63 15.5 114 15.1 140 14.7
350 14 100 16.5 63 16.0 114 15.5 140 15.1
350 14 120 16.7 63 16.2 114 15.7 140 15.4
350 14 140 16.8 63 16.3 114 15.9 140 15.6
350 14 160 16.9 63 16.4 114 16.0 140 15.7
400 16 10 13.0 63 12.5 114 12.0 140 11.7
400 16 20 14.1 63 13.5 114 13.1 140 12.7
400 16 30 14.9 63 14.3 114 13.8 140 13.5
400 16 40 15.9 63 15.3 114 14.8 140 14.5
400 16 60 16.7 63 16.1 114 15.6 140 15.3
400 16 80 17.2 63 16.7 114 16.3 140 15.9
400 16 100 17.6 63 17.1 114 16.7 140 16.3
400 16 120 17.8 63 17.3 114 16.9 140 16.5
400 16 140 18.0 63 17.5 114 17.1 140 16.8
400 16 160 18.1 63 17.6 114 17.2 140 16.9

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Table B.4 - Maximum Spans between Piping Supports (Off Site) - Deflection: 25 mm,
Corrosion Thickness: 3,2 mm (Continued)

Maximum spans

Pipe + water Pipe + water + insulation

Room
Nominal 35 °C to 200 °C 201 °C to 330 °C 331 °C to 400 °C
Thickness temperature
diameter
Span Insul. Span Insul. Span Insul. Span
ND NPS SCH (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m) (mm) (m)
450 18 10 13.5 63 13.0 114 12.5 140 12.2
450 18 20 14.7 63 14.1 114 13.7 140 13.3
450 18 STD 15.5 63 14.9 114 14.5 140 14.1
450 18 30 16.1 63 15.6 114 15.1 140 14.7
450 18 XS 16.6 63 16.0 114 15.6 140 15.2
450 18 40 17.0 63 16.4 114 16.0 140 15.6
450 18 60 17.8 63 17.3 114 16.8 140 16.4
450 18 80 18.3 63 17.8 114 17.4 140 17.0
450 18 100 18.7 63 18.2 114 17.8 140 17.4
450 18 120 19.0 63 18.5 114 18.1 140 17.7
450 18 140 19.1 63 18.6 114 18.2 140 17.8
450 18 160 19.2 63 18.8 114 18.3 140 18.0
500 20 10 14.0 63 13.5 114 13.0 140 12.7
500 20 20 16.1 63 15.5 114 15.1 140 14.7
500 20 30 17.3 63 16.7 114 16.2 140 15.8
500 20 40 17.9 63 17.3 114 16.8 140 16.4
500 20 60 18.8 63 18.3 114 17.8 140 17.4
500 20 80 19.4 63 18.8 114 18.4 140 18.0
500 20 100 19.8 63 19.3 114 18.8 140 18.4
500 20 120 20.0 63 19.5 114 19.1 140 18.7
500 20 140 20.2 63 19.7 114 19.3 140 18.9
500 20 160 20.3 63 19.8 114 19.4 140 19.0
600 24 10 14.8 63 14.3 114 13.9 140 13.5
600 24 20 17.1 63 16.5 114 16.1 140 15.7
600 24 XS 18.4 63 17.9 114 17.4 140 17.0
600 24 30 18.9 63 18.3 114 17.9 140 17.5
600 24 40 19.7 63 19.1 114 18.6 140 18.2
600 24 60 20.7 63 20.2 114 19.7 140 19.3
600 24 80 21.3 63 20.8 114 20.3 140 19.9
600 24 100 21.8 63 21.2 114 20.8 140 20.4
600 24 120 22.0 63 21.5 114 21.1 140 20.7
600 24 140 22.2 63 21.7 114 21.2 140 20.8
600 24 160 22.3 63 21.8 114 21.4 140 21.0

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INDEX OF REVISIONS

REV. A, B, C and D
There is no index of revisions.

REV. E
Affected Parts Description of Alteration

1 and 2 Revised

3.2 to 3.17 Included

4.1.2 Revised

4.1.3 Included

4.3.1 and 4.3.5 Revised

4.3.7 Included

4.3.8 Revised

4.6.1 and 4.7.1 Revised

4.9 Revised

5.2.1 and 5.2.3 Revised

5.3, 5.4 and 5.8 Included

5.17.3 Revised

5.21 Included

6.1.2, 6.1.3 and 6.1.3.1 Revised

6.2.8 and 6.2.12 Revised

6.5.6 and 6.6.3 Revised

6.6.10 Included

7.1 to 7.4 Included

8.1.7 and 8.2.6 Revised

8.3.7 Included

10.1,10.4 and 10.5 Revised


11.2, 11.3, 11.5, 11.8, 11.10.
Revised
and 11.10.3
11.11 Included
12.2, 12.3, 12.5 and
Revised
12.6
FIGURE A-3 Revised

IR 1/3
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INDEX OF REVISIONS

REV. F
Affected Parts Description of Alteration

2 Revised

3.1 at 3.4 Included

3.5 at 3.7 Renumbered

3.8 at 3.11 Includeds

3.12 Renumbered

3.13 and 3.14 Includeds

3.15 at 3.18 Renumbered

3.19 Included

3.20 at 3.28 Renumbered

4.3.6, 4.3.7, 4.3.9 and 5.7 Revised

5.17.3 and 5.17.4 Renumbered

6.2.1 Revised
7.1.2.2, 7.2.3.7, 7.2.4.3, 7.2.5.3,
Revised
7.2.6.2, 7.2.7.3 and 7.2.7.4
7.3.1 and 7.3.1.1 Revised

7.3.1.2 Renumbered

7.3.1.3 Included

7.3.2 Renumbered

8.1.7, 8.2.2 and 8.3.2 Revised

10.3 Revised

11.10.1, 11.10.2 and 11.10.4 Revised

11.13 Included

12.6 and 12.8 Revised

Tables 1, 5, 6 and 7 Revised

Figure 1 Revised
Figures A.3.4, A.5, A.6, A.12
Revised
and A.13
Figure A.14 Eliminated

IR 2/3
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N-57 REV. G ENGLISH 10 / 2012

INDEX OF REVISIONS

REV. G
Affected Parts Description of Alteration
Including technical requirements for Maximum spans between
supports Pipe present in PETROBRAS N-46 REV.D
(CANCELLED) and other requirements.
Including technical requirements for spacing tubes present in
All PETROBRAS N-105 REV.D (CANCELLED) and other
requirements.
Including technical requirements Criteria Calculation mechanical
piping present in PETROBRAS N-1673 REV.F (CANCELLED)
and other requirements.

IR 3/3
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N-57 REV. G ENGLISH 10 / 2012

ISO 15649 - Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries - Piping;

ABNT NBR 5580 - Carbon Steel Tubes for Common Use in Fluid Conduction – Specification
(Tubos de Aço-carbono para Usos Comuns na Condução de Fluidos – Especificação);

ABNT NBR 5590 - Carbon Steel Pipes with or without Longitudinal Weld, Black or
Galvanized - Specification (Tubos de Aço-carbono com ou sem Solda Longitudinal, Pretos
ou Galvanizados – Especificação);

ABNT NBR 12712 - Design of Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems for Fuel Gas
(Projeto de Sistemas de Transmissão e Distribuição de Gás Combustível);

ABNT NBR 15280-1 - Onshore Pipeline, Part 1: Design (Dutos terrestres, Parte 1: Projeto);

API RP 14E - Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Offshore Production
Platform Piping Systems;

API RP 520 - Sizing, Selection and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries;

API RP 551 - Process Measurement Instrumentation;

API RP 553 - Refinery Control Valves;

API STD 610 - Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum, Petrochemical and Natural Gas Industries;

API STD 611 - General-Purpose Steam Turbines for Refinery Services;

API STD 612 - Special-Purpose Steam Turbines for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry
Services;

API STD 614 - Lubrication, Shaft-Sealing, and Control-Oil Systems and Auxiliaries for
Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services;

API STD 617 - Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Expander-Compressors for
Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas e Industry Services;

API STD 682 - Pumps - Shaft Sealing Systems for Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps;

ASME BPVC Section VIII Division 2 - Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code - Section VIII - Rules
for Construction of Pressure Vessels - Division 2: Alternative Rules;

ASME B31.3 - Process Piping;

ASME B31.4 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids;

ASME B31.8 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems;

ASME B36.10 - Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe;

ASME B36.19 - Stainless Steel Pipe;

ASTM A 36 - Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel;

ASTM A 106 - Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature
Service;

NEMA SM 23 - Steam Turbines for Mechanical Drive Service.

NOTE For documents referred in this Standard and for which only the Portuguese version is
available, the PETROBRAS department that uses this Standard should be consulted for any
information required for the specific application.

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N-57 REV. G ENGLISH 10 / 2012

9.2 Safety and Relief Valves

9.2.1 Piping containing liquids shall be provided with relief valves in the sections between 2 block
valves.

9.2.2 Safety valves shall preferably discharge to the top of a collecting pipe. This collecting pipe
cannot have low points. Piping between the safety valve and the collector shall have a constant
downward slope towards the collector. When this arrangement is not possible, a drainage line having
a diameter of at least NPS 3/4 shall be provided, branched from the lowest point of the piping and
extending up to a safe location.

9.2.3 A 10 mm diameter drain hole shall be provided in the atmospheric safety valve discharge pipe.

9.2.4 Discharge from any safety valve to atmosphere shall be located in such a way as to not reach
personnel or equipment.

9.2.5 Safety valves shall be located close to the piping or equipment to be protected. When this is not
possible, the head loss in the valve inlet piping shall be checked in accordance with API RP 520.

9.2.6 Block valves shall not be used between protected equipment and piping and safety and relief
valves, as well as between these valves and the discharge points, except under the conditions
stipulated in ASME Code B31.3, B31.4 e B31.8.

9.2.7 The safety and relief valve discharge piping shall be properly supported considering vibrations
and other dynamic effects inherent in the flow type. Easy access shall also be provided for
maintenance of these valves.

9.3 Control Valves

9.3.1 Control valves shall be installed as shown in Figure A.12 where block valves (before and after)
and a bypass line with a regulating valve shall be installed when this is not forbidden by the process.

9.3.2 As a general rule, the thickness for bypass, blocking, and control piping shall be in accordance
with API RP 553 for control valves NPS 12 and smaller, except where otherwise indicated in
engineering flow sheets. For control valves with a nominal diameter larger than NPS 12, these
dimensions shall be defined for each case. It is recommended that regulating valves be of the globe
type up to NPS 8, and gate type for larger diameters. [Recommended Practice]

9.3.3 Sufficient space shall be left for dismantling and maintenance of the diaphragm and valve stem.

9.3.4 Control valves shall be, whenever possible, located at floor level, in an easily accessible
location. (see Figure A.3.4, reference 14).

9.3.5 Level control valves in vessels shall be installed in such a manner as to allow the level gauge to
be visible during the operation of the bypass line regulating valve.

9.3.6 Proper supports shall be provided for control valves in order to avoid vibrations of valves.

36