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Management by Objectives

An excellent tool for determining an individual employee’s progress because it-



1. The employee and supervisor meet and agree on the principal duties and responsibilities
of the employer’s job.

2. The employee sets short term goals and target dates in cooperation with the supervisor or

3. Both parties agree on the criteria that will be used for measuring and evaluating the
accomplishment of goals.

4. Regularly, but more than once a year, the employee and supervisor meet to discuss

5. The manager’s role is supportive, assisting the employee to reach goals by coaching and

6. During the appraisal process, the manager determines whether the employee has met the

7. The entire process focuses on outcomes and results and not on personal traits

Peer Review

 When peers rather than supervisors carry out monitoring and assessing work performance

Reasons why health care organizations had been slow to adopt Peer Review:

1. Staff are poorly oriented to the peer review method.

2. Peers feel uncomfortable sharing feedback with people with whom they work closely, so
they omit needed suggestions for improving the employee’s performance.

3. Peer review is viewed by many as more time-consuming than traditional superior-

subordinate performance appraisals.

4. Because much socialization takes place in the workplace, friendships often result in
inflated evaluations, or interpersonal conflict may result in unfair appraisals

5. Because peer review shifts the authority away from management, the insecure manager
may feel threatened.


1. It involves much _____________

2. Time consuming
3. Requires a great deal of energy


1. Potential to increase the accuracy of performance appraisal

2. Can provide many opportunities for increased professionalism and learning

3. Provides feedback that can promote _____________

4. Provide learning opportunities for the peer reviewers

If peer review is to succeed, the organization must overcome its inherent difficulties by doing the
following before implementing a peer review program:

 Peer review appraisal tools must reflect standards to be measured, such as the job

 Staff must receive a thorough orientation to the process before its implementation. The
role of the manager should be clearly defined.

 Ongoing support, resources, and information must be made available to the staff during
the process.

 Data for peer review need to be obtained from predetermined sources, such as
observations, charts, and patient care plans.

 A decision must be made about whether anonymous feedback will be allowed. This is
controversial and needs to be addressed in the procedure.

 Decisions must be reached on whether the peer review will affect personnel decisions and,
if so, in what manner.

Summary of Performance Appraisals Tool

1. Trait Rating Scale rates an individual against some standard

2. _____________________ rates the performance on job requirements

3. _______________________________________________(BARS) rates desired job expectations on

a scale of importance to the position.

4. Checklists rates the performance against a set list of desirable job behaviours

5. Essays a narrative appraisal of job performance

6. Self-appraisals an appraisal of performance by the employee

7. Management by objectives employee and management agree upon goals of

performance to be reached
8. Peer review assessment of work performance carried out by peers

The 360-Degree Evaluation

 Includes an assessment by all individuals within the sphere of influence of the individual
being appraised

 Getting feedback from multiple individuals provide a broader, more accurate perspective
on the employee’s work performance

 Heathfield(2007) suggests that an employee receives performance feedback from his or

her supervisor and four to eight others, including staff members, co-workers and
customers. This allows each individual “to understand how this effectiveness as an
employee, co-worker, or staff member is viewed by others”.

Planning the Appraisal Interview

 The most accurate and thorough appraisal will fail to produce growth in employees if
the information gathered is not used appropriately.

 An emotionally charged event

Overcoming Appraisal Interview Difficulties

Feedback perhaps the greatest tool a manager has for changing behavior; must be given in an
appropriate manner

Before the Interview

1. Make sure that the conditions mentioned previously have been met and he or she has a
copy of the appraisal form

2. Select an appropriate time for the appraisal conference.

3. Give the employee 2-3 days advance notice of the scheduled appraisal conference so that
he or she can be prepared mentally and emotionally.

4. Be prepared mentally and emotionally for the conference yourself. If something should
happen to interfere with your readiness for the interview, it should be cancelled and

5. Schedule uninterrupted interview time. Hold the interview in a private, quiet, and
comfortable place.

6. Plan a seating arrangement that reflects collegiality rather than power.

During the Interview

1. Greet the employee warmly, showing that the manager and the organization have a
sincere interest in his or her growth.

2. Begin the conference on a pleasant, informal note.

3. Ask the employee to comment on his or her progress since the last performance appraisal.

4. Avoid surprises in the appraisal conference. The effective leader coaches and
communicates informally with staff on a continual basis, so there should be little new
information at an appraisal conference.

5. Use coaching techniques throughout the conference.

6. When dealing with an employee who has several problems---either new or long standing---
do not overwhelm him or her at the conference. Fuimano states that “often, people are so
hard on themselves, that they don’t need leaders to be hard on them as well”.

7. Conduct the conference in a __________________and participatory manner.

8. Focus on the employee’s performance and not on his or her personal characteristics.

9. Avoid vague generalities, either positive or negative, such as “your skills need a little
work” or “your performance is fine”. Be liberal in the positive examples of employee
performance; use examples of poor performance sparingly.

10.When delivering performance feedback, be straightforward and state concerns directly so

as not to retard communication or cloud the message.

11.Never threaten, intimidate, or use status in any manner.

• __________________________ the space between the professional’s power and the

client’s vulnerability

• Power differentials the inequalities that exist between professionals and clients

12.Let the employee know that the organization and the manager are aware of his or her
uniqueness, special interests, and valuable contributions to the unit.

13.Make every effort to ensure that there are no interruptions during the conference.

14.Use terms and language that are clearly understood and carry the same meaning for both

15.Mutually set goals for further growth or improvement in the employee’s performance.

16.Plan on being available for employees to return retrospectively to discuss the appraisal
review further.

After the Interview

1. Both manager and employee need to sign the appraisal form to document that the
conference was held and that the employee received the appraisal information.

2. End the interview on a pleasant note

3. Document the goals for further development that have been agreed on by both parties.

 Appraisals are eliminated and the manager places his or her efforts into ongoing coaching,
mutual goal setting, and the leadership training of subordinates

 Requires the manager to spend more regularly scheduled face-to-face time with

 Performance management calendar is generally linked to the organization’s business

calendar therefore planning is coordinated throughout the entire organization, as
strategic goals for the year can be identified and subordinates’ roles to achieve those
goals can be openly discussed and planned.



 conveys the spirit of leaders’ and managers’ roles in informal day-to-day performance
appraisals, which promote improved work performance and team building

 can guide others into increased competence, commitment, and confidence as well as
help them anticipate options for making vital connections between their present and
future plans

Reflective Practice and Clinical Coaching

 a management strategy that fuses both performance coaching and performance


Clinical Coaching

 the manager or mentor meets with an employee regularly to discuss aspects of his or
her work

 the shared connection between the manager and employee makes the employee feel
validated and part of a larger team


 coaches require certain managerial skills to be successful, including a grounding in the

behavioural sciences such as psychology and organizational development

 They must also have strong communication skills, an ability to reflect back, and be able to
serve as a “mirror” for those being coached, in an “authentic, skilful, and compassionate


 be specific, not general, in describing behaviour that needs improvement

 be descriptive not evaluative, when describing what was wrong with the work performance

 be certain that the feedback is not self-serving but meets the needs of the employee
 direct the feedback toward behaviour that can be changed

 use sensitivity in timing the feedback

 make sure that the employee has clearly understood the feedback and that the
employee’s communication also has been clearly heard