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Creole nationalism

Main article: Creole nationalism

"Creole nationalism" refers to the ideology that emerged in independence movements


among the creoles (descendants of the colonizers), especially in Latin America in the
early 19th century. It was facilitated when French Emperor Napoleon seized control of
Spain and Portugal, breaking the chain of control from the Spanish and Portuguese
kings to the local governors. Allegiance to the Napoleonic states was rejected, and
increasingly the creoles demanded independence. They achieved it after civil wars
1808–1826.[150]

Nativist nationalism

Nativist nationalism is a type of nationalism similar to creole or territorial types of


nationalism, but which defines belonging to a nation solely by being born on its territory.
In countries where strong nativist nationalism exists, people who were not born in the
country are seen as lesser nationals than those who were born there, and are called "
immigrants" even if they became naturalized. It is cultural as people will never see a
foreign-born person as one of them, and is legal, as such people are banned for life
from holding certain jobs, especially government jobs. This nationalism is common in
the Americas, both in daily life and in legal and work areas.

Ethnic nationalism

See also: Ethnic nationalism

Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethno-nationalism, is a form of nationalism wherein


the "nation" is defined in terms of ethnicity.[151] The central theme of ethnic nationalists
is that "nations are defined by a shared heritage, which usually includes a common
language, a common faith, and a common ethnic ancestry".[152] It also includes ideas
of a culture shared between members of the group, and with their ancestors. However,
it is different from a purely cultural definition of "the nation," which allows people to
become members of a nation by cultural assimilation; and from a purely linguistic
definition, according to which "the nation" consists of all speakers of a specific
language.

Whereas nationalism in and of itself does not imply a belief in the superiority of one
ethnicity or country over others, some nationalists support ethnocentric supremacy or
protectionism.

The humiliation of being a second-class citizen led regional minorities in multiethnic


states, such as Great Britain, Spain, France, Germany, Russia and the Ottoman
Empire, to define nationalism in terms of loyalty to their minority culture, especially
language and religion. Forced assimilation was anathema.[153]

For the politically dominant cultural group, assimilation was necessary to minimize
disloyalty and treason and therefore became a major component of nationalism. A
second factor for the politically dominant group was competition with neighboring states
—nationalism involved a rivalry, especially in terms of military prowess and economic
strength.[154]

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