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822 TURKEY

Grutman, R. (1998), “Multilingualism and (1882, Miss Durdaneh) opened up a social


Translation,” in Routledge Encyclopedia of space of self-examination with a moral in-
Translation Studies, ed. M. Baker.
tent to guide and instruct readers in the face
Hugo, V. (1941), Hunchback of Notre Dame.
of European cultural encroachment. The
Hugo, V. (2002), Hunchback of Notre Dame, rev.
trans. C. Liu, intro. E. McCracken. transition from a literary modernity to a
Jin, W. (2006), “Transnational Criticism and Asian fin-de-siecle aesthetic of literary modernism
Immigrant Literature in the U.S.,” Contemporary occurred through authors like Halit Ziya
Literature 47(4):570–600. Uş aklıgil, who were able to emphasize aes-
Levy, L. (2003), “Exchanging Words,” Comparative thetic concerns and structure in novels like
Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, Mai ve Siyah (1897, Blue and Black) and
23(1/2):106–27.
Aşk-i Memnu (1900, Illicit Love). In other
Moretti, F., ed. (2006), Novel.
Prendergast, C. (2004), “The World Republic of words, the Ottoman novel itself was a me-
Letters,” in Debating World Literature. dium of modernization. Its mediation, re-
Schleiermacher, F. (1982), “On the Different vision, and updating of narrative traditions
Methods of Translation,” trans. A. Lefevere, in in a new genre marked the beginnings of a
German Romantic Criticism, ed. A.L. Willson. literary modernity that persisted into the
Spivak, G.C. (1993), Outside in the Teaching twentieth century and laid the foundation
Machine.
for an aesthetic of modernism that emerged
Steiner, G. (1998), After Babel, 3rd ed.
Venuti, L. (1995), Translator’s Invisibility.
more fully in the Republican era.
Venuti, L. (1998), Scandals of Translation. The process of Ottoman modernization
Zabus, C. (1990), “Othering the Foreign did not prevent the failure of the Ottoman
Language in the West African Europhone state. The historical oppositions of tradi-
Novel,” Canadian Review of Comparative tion and modernity, East and West, and
Literature 17(3/4):348–66. Islam and Christianity found their way into
literature through representative characters
and tropes. These cultural oppositions were
Turkey intensified by the occupation of the Otto-
 GOKNAR
€ man capital of Istanbul (1918–23) by Allied
ERDAG
armies after WWI and the Kemalist Cul-
The origins of Turkish literary modernity tural Revolution (1922–38) that responded
can be traced back to a mid-nineteenth- to that occupation with a concentrated
century Ottoman Muslim engagement with period of social engineering. Whereas the
Enlightenment ideals. The literary form of occupation ensured the partition of Otto-
the novel appeared during the Tanzimat era man territories into mandates, nation-
of modernization, first through translations states, and kingdoms, the Cultural Revo-
(e.g., of François Fenelon’s Telemaque and lution, as if to sanction a European secular
Victor Hugo’s Les Miserables in 1862 and example, abolished the Ottoman Islamic
Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe in 1864), sultanate, followed by the caliphate, and
then through imitations that merged local changed the written language, the legal
form and content such as traditional med- system, dress codes, time, and the calendar.
dah storytelling with the European novel. Perhaps owing to the intensity of events, a
Early novels such as Şemsettin Sami’s historiographic mode of novel-writing be-
Taaşşuk-i Tal^at ve Fitnat (1872, The gan to define literary modernity as in the
Romance of Tal^at and Fitnat), Namık novels of Halide Edib and Yakup Kadri
Kemal’s _Intibah (1874, The Awakening), Karaosmanoglu. Literary realism dominat-
and Ahmet Mithat Efendi’s D€urdane Hanim ed in the milieu of Republican social
TURKEY 823

engineering that resulted in a cultural European culture (including dress, the


mapping of the opposition between tradi- French language, and new modes of con-
tion and modernity upon two distinct sumption). The dilemma, in short, was one
historical polities: the defunct Ottoman of Ottoman Islam on the cusp of European
Islamic empire and the secular Republic of colonization, and the response of Ottoman
Turkey, respectively. As a result, the Tan- intellectuals preoccupied with reform and
zimat state of duality that dominated the negotiating a synthesis between aspects of
formative period of Ottoman literary mo- tradition and modernity. Though such
dernity became a trope of the “divided self” themes are taken up in Recaizade Ekrem’s
in the Republican period. The duality Araba Sevdasi (1896, Carriage Romance)
preoccupied Republican authors and intel- and H€ useyin Rahmi G€ urpınar’s Şipsevdi
lectuals, constituting one of the major (1911, Love at First Sight), the representative
tropes of Turkish literary modernism ob- novel of this era is Ahmet Mithat Efendi’s
servable in the novel from Ahmet Mithat Felatun Bey ve Rakim Efendi (1876, Felatun
Efendi to Orhan Pamuk. Bey and Rakım Efendi). This iconic novel
The following tripartite periodization em- describes positive and negative engagements
phasizes the contingencies of a century and a in the late Ottoman modernization process
half of literary development from modernity through its display of the lives of two op-
to modernism and postmodernism. posing characters: one representing passive
mimickry of Europe and the other a strong
work ethic steeped in traditional values.
OTTOMAN LITERARY MODERNITY
These two possible models of social change
are contrasted as an object lesson against
Early Ottoman authors of modernization in-
excessive “Westernization.”
cluding Şinasi, Namık Kemal, Samipaşazade
Sezai, Muallim Naci, and Recaizade Ekrem
sanctioned “Westernization” only to the de- Ottoman Turkism (1908–22)
gree that it would preserve the Ottoman— This time span reflects a period of almost
Islamic order. They did not fully adopt constant warfare. The ideological changes
Enlightenment epistemological foundations. brought about by the second constitutional
The crises of modernization, as they affected revolution (1908), the Balkan Wars, WWI,
Ottoman society, focused on a process of and its continuation in Anatolia until 1922
defensive modernization over the nineteenth resulted in a violent remapping of Otto-
and early twentieth centuries. This meant that man territory based on ethno-religious
novels were often socially instructive and categories that led to the transformation
didactic in their aim rather than literary. of the figure of the Ottoman modern.
Turkism, the ideology of Turkish nation-
Ottoman modernism (1876–1908)
alism, provided an argument for self-
This period is marked by two constitution- determination in a limited territory that
al periods in late Ottoman history— avoided the vagueness of Ottomanism, the
beginning in 1876 and 1908, respectively— expansiveness of Islamism, and the colo-
that might be read as part of a transnational nial cast of Westernism. “East vs. West”
movement of Modernist Islam stretching debates regarding tradition and reform are
from Central Asia to North Africa. The late reflected in the works of Ottoman Turkist
nineteenth-century Ottoman modern was writers such as Ziya G€ €
okalp, Omer Seyfet-
an urban figure seduced by the trappings of tin, Halide Edib Adıvar, and M€ ufide Ferit
824 TURKEY

Tek. Reşat Nuri G€ untekin’s Çalikuşu 1924. Over the next few decades, the national
(1922; Autobiography of a Turkish Girl, allegories in novels written in the 1920s and
1949), a popular novel of this era, is sig- 1930s by Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoglu,
nificant for its use of Anatolia as a setting, Peyami Safa, and Halide Edib gradually give
its identification of the challenges that way to more nuanced accounts. In the work
await the “new” women of modernist of Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar, the reader is
Islam, and its implicit critique of Istanbul confronted not with object lessons, morality,
society for its ignorance of the lives of or “party” novels espousing the Kemalist
Anatolian peasants. Compromised in vision of society and history, but with a
terms of gender and sexuality, the main complex reckoning of the transition between
character Feride becomes the focus of a Ottoman and Turkist worldviews. In the
dilemma of modernization; in short, as an milestone novel Huzur (1949; A Mind at
educated woman she must struggle against Peace, 2009), the historical traumas experi-
the obstacles of Anatolian traditionalism. enced in the establishment of the Republic
have become psychological dilemmas that
afflict the middle-class characters. The novel,
REPUBLICAN LITERARY set in 1939, dramatizes the mental break-
MODERNISM down of the main character, M€ umtazm in
the turmoil of the illness of his cousin and
The Kemalist Cultural Revolution instigat- _
mentor Ihsan, the ending of his relationship
ed a new wave of Turkish literary modernity with his beloved Nuran, the suicide of his
in the 1920s and 1930s. The intensity of the nemesis Suad (who also loves Nuran), and
social engineering that occurred during the impending WWII. In its depiction of
these years caused a break between the Istanbul’s streets, neighborhoods, Ottoman
Ottoman—Islamic past and national prog- music, and the Bosphorus, the novel is an
ress that affected literary production icon of modernist, cosmopolitan prose with
throughout the Republican era. Not only leitmotifs of urban Turkish culture. Huzur,
were the alphabet and language trans- harkening back to the era of Ottoman mod-
formed, but Muslim traditions and symbols ernism, is one of the first testimonies to the
were pushed into the private sphere, and cultural limitations of national and social
Sufi practices were outlawed. The tensions modernization projects.
between Istanbul cosmopolitanism and
Anatolia were reflected in the novel through Anatolian realism (1950–71)
realistic depictions that constituted the The start of multiparty politics in 1946 and
dominant conflict of literary modernism. the election of the Democrat Party to power
in 1950 contained an implicit critique of the
Republican Turkism (1922–50)
Cultural Revolution that was reflected in
This era witnessed the proliferation of ideo- literature through a move away from na-
logical novels supporting the Cultural tionalist ideals focusing on elite intellectuals
Revolution, i.e., historically grounded repre- to socialist ideals focusing on the Anatolian
sentations of new “men” and new societies peasant. The genre, often historically
with a socialist, nationalist, and/or Turkist grounded and based on the use of actual
coloring. Often the main characters can be documents, addresses bleak economic
clearly read as didactic, allegorical figures. hardships, blood feuds, patriarchy, honor,
This period begins with the abolition of the outlaws, and the cruelty of gendarmes, petty
Ottoman sultanate in 1922 and caliphate in officials, and exploitation by ag as (land-
TURKEY 825

owners). The 1960 coup and the new con- and Yusuf Atılgan. Futhermore, themes in-
stitution established wide-ranging freedom volving Islam and lived traditions began to
of the press, an independent judiciary, and appear with greater frequency, perhaps fill-
the right to form unions, and autonomy in ing “spaces” evacuated by large-scale social-
universities reinforced a socialist context ist movements that had failed to gain polit-
and kept alive the possibility of social free- ical power and transform society. At the
doms and justice. Author-intellectuals in- same time, the hidayet romani (Islamic
cluding Orhan Kemal, Ilhan_ Tarus, Talip novel) grew through the efforts of authors
Apaydın, Fakir Baykurt, and Tarık Bugra such as Şule Y€ uksel Şenler, Ahmet G€unbay
helped to establish the genre that advocated Yıldız, and Mustafa Miyasoglu.
social justice for the dispossessed. But not The “inter-coup” era was a socially fragile
until the work of Kemal T^ahir was this genre period that witnessed the removal of intel-
historicized and applied innovatively to the lectuals from life, career, and family in
Ottoman past. In his famous novel Devlet society. Irony and sarcasm about ideological
Ana (1967, Mother State), T^ahir combines projects on the left and the right began
Anatolian realism, the Marxist belief in the to make their way into fiction, and depic-
Asiatic Mode of Production, and strains of tions of alienation become prominent.
Turkism, introducing a new understanding Themes include the critique or indictment
of historiography into the socialist novel. of national and socialist modernity from
Drawing on the geographic, economic, the perspective of its victims: women, alien-
and social conditions that gave rise to the ated intellectuals, Islamicists, and other
Ottoman Anatolian (and by extension, the marginalized populations. Adalet Agaoglu’s
Turkish Republican Anatolian) state, Devlet €
Olmeye Yatmak (1973, Lying Down to Die)
Ana focuses on the establishment of the is a novel that represents this period with a
Ottoman state after the dissolution of the female protagonist, Aysel, a professor who
Seljuk state around 1300. It is, however, an withdraws to a hotel room to commit sui-
allegory for the establishment of a socialist cide. The focus on the plight of one woman
state accepting a variety of people, lan- is set against a reckoning of Turkish history
guages, and religions in the present. between 1938 (Atat€ urk’s death) and the
revolutionary upheavals of 1968 in Europe.
Aysel has had an affair with one of her
Feminism and existentialism (1971–80)
students, Engin, and believes she might be
The Anatolian socialist novel, which was pregnant. The moral and ethical implications
meant to confront the realities of rural life, disrupt everything she has known about
became formulaic and idealized, later lead- bourgeois life in Turkey. The reemergence of
ing to the emergence of individual concerns sexuality is an important theme here, and the
in the following generation, especially by novel represents the stirrings of second-wave
women authors frustrated with marginali- feminism out of the first wave (“state femin-
zation. Strong women emerged to make ism”) in the Turkish context.
social critiques of earlier eras, as exemplified
by the narratives of Leyla Erbil, Sevgi Soysal, REPUBLICAN LITERARY
and F€ uruzan. Other writers retreated into POSTMODERNISM
isolation and alienation, such as Oguz Atay
(noted for his iconic novel Tutunamayanlar, The strong hold of committed literature of
1972; The Good-for-Nothing), Bilge Karasu, social engagement and realism delayed the
826 TURKEY

acceptance of formal innovation in the nov- fantasy or magical realism. Latife Tekin
el that relied on metanarrative, metahistory, and Nobel laureate Orhan Pamuk define
and deconstruction. Republican postmod- this generation of writers. Pamuk’s ever-
ernist writing focused on historiographic changing narrative style reached the first of
fiction, fantasy, and parodic genres that many peaks with his third novel, Beyaz Kale
placed literary artifice over and above so- (1985; The White Castle, 1990), a concise
cialist concerns and Anatolian realism. The historical metafiction that subtly criticizes
literary establishment reacted with animos- authoritarian nationalism while reintrodu-
ity toward such cosmopolitan formal inno- cing the Ottoman past to a sophisticated,
vation, which also implicitly critiqued the literary readership. Furthermore, the novel
narrative of national and social progress. presents an allegorical challenge by sub-
Well-known practitioners of this trend in- verting the self/other binary through a
clude Oguz Atay, Bilge Karasu, Hasan Ali display of narrative finesse that marked
_
Toptaş , and Ihsan Oktay Anar. Pamuk as a postmodern writer. In the
novel, a Venetian slave and his Ottoman
master reveal their worlds to each other
Post-nationalism and neo-Ottomanism until they begin to overlap. The Ottoman
(1980–2002)
theme in Pamuk’s work is picked up again
The leftist intelligentsia marks the 1980 with Benim Adim Kirmizi (1998; My Name
coup as the beginning of “depoliticization,” Is Red, 2001), a complex and fragmented
a first step in reorienting society toward work that takes the flat, two-dimensionality
neoliberalism. In literature, this led to dras- of the Ottoman miniature painting and
tic changes, as writers responded to the transforms it into a living, vital, aesthetic
political transformations by moving away model pertinent to the present day. The
from social issues and realism in a manner novel, combing a number of genres, is a
that questioned grand narratives of nation- historical murder mystery focusing on the
alism/Kemalism and socialism through aes- imperial miniaturists’ guild and a mysteri-
thetic experimentation with content and ous book that the Sultan has commissioned.
form. Though these trends could be more In its multiplicity of narrators and its aes-
generally labeled part of postmodernism, thetic self-consciousness, the novel becomes
their manifestation in the Turkish context Pamuk’s “large canvas.”
can be further specified as expressions of
literary post-Kemalism, post-socialism, and
Cosmopolitical texts (2002–present)
neo-Ottomanism (not to be confused with
the political ideology). There are a few hundred novelists writing in
A strong Marxist tradition led to a delay Turkish today. The novels of the youngest
and resistance to the representation of generation of Turkish writers, represented
postmodernism, a literary category that _ uzel, and
by Murat Uyurkulak, Şebnem Işig€
was suspect to the practitioners of engaged Elif Şafak, are emotionally charged, cynical,
literature and the literature of witness. The and violent. They are political, yet promote
novels of this period acknowledge the col- distance from their immediate cultural af-
lapse of metanarratives of socio-national filiations. The novelistic claims by these
progress through the multiplication of per- authors are cosmopolitical in that they have
spectives, the ironic revisiting of Ottoman multiple national and international affilia-
history, parody, formal experimentation, tions that strive for transnational legibility
and the subversion of realism through and relevance. This is the generation of EU
TYPOGRAPHY 827

accession politics and the rise of the Justice two are on a train journey from Istanbul to
and Development Party, which won general the heavily Kurdish region of Diyarbakır—
elections in 2002 and 2007. The writers of two cities representing the opposing poles
the newest generation do not ascribe to any of modern Turkish modernity and oppres-
particular movement in the traditional sion/dispossession. Tol conveys the per-
sense. Their idiosyncrasies, experimental in spective of frustrated leftist idealism that
terms of form and content, are, however, exacts its revenge against the state and a
unified in one important respect: their work system of war, inhumanity, and capitalism
represents a mixing or crossing of tradition- through alternative narratives and ways
al novelistic styles that might include DETEC- of being.
TIVE stories, underground fiction, youth This 150-year overview of Ottoman and
subcultures, and fantasy. The boundaries Republican literary modernity reveals that
that they cross in their fiction challenge the the Turkish novel has not stayed within the
limits of national tradition through trans- confines of historically determined binaries
gressions of taboo, history, gender, and of modernization such as “East and West”
GENRE. They have learned to live with contra- but has established contingent tropes and
dictions rather than trying to resolve them. chronotopes of literary modernity, modern-
In the wake of the collapse of grand narra- ism, and postmodernism.
tives of modernization, nationalism, and
socialism, and in an increasingly consum-
erist culture, they explore new avenues of BIBLIOGRAPHY
cynical narration that unsettle concepts of
belonging. Evin, A. (1983), Origins and Development of the
Representing the first generation to grow Turkish Novel.
up within the neoliberal system that was G€oksu, S. and E. Timms (1999), Romantic
established after the 1980 coup, these writers Communist.
G€urbilek, N. (2010), Return of Turkey.
are tacticians of resistance on an individual
G€uzeldere, G. and S. Irzık (2003), Relocating the
rather than social scale. They have little Fault Lines.
conviction in monolithic ideologies, but Holbrook, V.R. (1994), Unreadable Shores of Love.
they do have an inkling of the market of Moran, B. (1983), T€urk Romanina Eleştirel bir Bakiş
identities and a multitude of sites of power [A critical look at the Turkish novel], 3 vols.
influencing one’s choices. In short, there is a Ostle, R., ed. (1991), Modern Literature in the Near
new relationality in these works, a new way and Middle East 1850–1970.
Pamuk, O. (2007), Other Colors.
of seeing the regional and international
Rathbun, C. (1972), Village in the Turkish Novel and
world into which Turkey has increasingly Short Story 1920 to 1955.
become integrated. Importantly, these Seyhan, A. (2008), Tales of Crossed Destinies.
authors are redefining what it means to be
Turkish.
Uyurkulak’s Tol (2002, Revenge) is a
reassessment, an unofficial history, of the Typography
previous fifty years of Turkey’s history told
ROBIN KINROSS
from the perspective of poets, revolution-
aries, and madmen from various genera- Novels are written in prose rather than in
tions. The fragmented plot revolves around verse. This simple insight promises to stim-
an alcoholic poet (“Poet”) and a proofread- ulate philosophical and historical investiga-
er, Yusuf, who has lost his will to live. The tions into the nature of the form. But any

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