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is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Established in 1846, the Smithsonian Institution—the
world’s largest museum and research complex—includes
19 museums and galleries and the National Zoological
Park. The total number of artefacts, works of art, and
specimens in the Smithsonian’s collection is estimated at
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a renowned research centre, dedicated to public
education, national service, and scholarship in
the arts, sciences, and history.


Clive Gifford is the winner of the Royal Society
Young People’s Book Prize and the School Library
Association Information Book Award. He has written
more than 150 books including Wow! Science,
Car Crazy, and Super Trucks.
s m i t h s o n i a n

A visual encyclopedia of every vehicle

Foreword 6
DK India timelines 8
Project Editor Sneha Sunder Benjamin Land 16
Project Art Editor Vaibhav Rastogi
Editor Medha Gupta Animal power 18
Art Editor Rakesh Khundongbam Camel caravan 20
Assistant Editor Isha Sharma
Assistant Art Editors Anusri Saha, Riti Sodhi
Bicycle 22
Jacket Designer Dhirendra Singh Pedal power 24
Jacket Managing Editor Saloni Singh Speed wheels 26
DTP Designer Jaypal Chauhan Sprint finish 28
Senior DTP Designers Harish Aggarwal, Neeraj Bhatia
Picture Researcher Aditya Katyal
Bike business 30
Managing Editor Rohan Sinha Fun on wheels 32
Managing Art Editor Sudakshina Basu Extreme cycling 34
Pre-production Manager Balwant Singh
Mountain bike madness 36
Production Manager Pankaj Sharma
Motorcycle 38
Revving up 40
Bikes in battle 42
Senior Editor Francesca Baines
Scooting around 44
Senior Art Editor Rachael Grady
US Editor Allison Singer Three-wheelers 46
Jacket Designer Mark Cavanagh Road burners 48
Jacket Assistant Claire Gell Burning rubber 50
Managing Editor Linda Esposito
Jumps and flicks 52
Managing Art Editor Philip Letsu
Pre-production Controllers Nikoleta Parasaki, Gillian Reid Off-roaders 54
Production Controller Srijana Gurung Fastest on two wheels 56
Design Development Manager Sophia MTT Easy riders 58
Publisher Andrew Macintyre
Car 60
Art Director Karen Self
Associate Publishing Director Liz Wheeler Pioneering cars 62
Publishing Director Jonathan Metcalf Thrills and spills 64
First American Edition, 2015 Early race cars 66
Published in the United States by DK Publishing Machines with style 68
345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014
Fins and finery 70
Copyright © 2015 Dorling Kindersley Limited Faster and faster 72
A Penguin Random House Company
Fast and furious 74
15 16 17 18 19 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
The ultimate test 76
Fun in cars 78
All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under the copyright Crazy cars 80
reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored
in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or A spin across the waves 82
by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or Family cars 84
otherwise), without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.
Outdoor warriors 86
Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited.

A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.

ISBN 978-1-4654-3805-8
DK books are available at special discounts when purchased
in bulk for sales promotions, premiums, fund-raising, or educational
use. For details, contact: DK Publishing Special Markets, 345
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Printed in China

Convertibles and sports cars 88
Mini motors 90
The Mopetta microcar 92
Supercars 94
Luxury rides 96
Record breakers 98 On the farm 116 Dawn of diesel 134
Dragster burnout 100 Monster leap 118 Mainstream diesel 136
Truck 102 Construction and mining 120 Rail workhorses 138
Tons of trucks 104 Tanks and tracks 122 Going electric 140
Special task trucks 106 Steam train 124 High-speed electric trains 142
Shuttle crawler 108 Early steam 126 Bullet train 144
Bus stop 110 Mainstream steam 128 Urban railroads 146
Tractor 112 Flying Scotsman 130 Streetcars and trolleybuses 148
Total tractor 114 Diesel train 132 Hold on tight! 150

Water 152
Taking to the water 154 Sailing ship 160 City on the sea 178
World of watercraft 156 Sail power 162 World War ships 180
Over the top 158 Trade and exploration 164 Aircraft carriers 182
War at sea 166 Modern warships 184
Riding the wind 168 Submarine 186
Steamship 170 Dive, dive, dive 188
Steam meets steel 172 Need for speed 190
Working ships 174 Fun and games 192
Passenger carriers 176 A flying success 194

Air 196
Airplane 198 Eyes in the sky 226 Spacecraft 236
Taking to the skies 200 Helicopter 228 Launch vehicles 238
First planes 202 Whirlybirds 230 Space probes 240
The girl of nerve 204 Working choppers 232 Out of this world 242
Fighter planes 206 Air support 234 Liftoff! 244
Strike force 208
Racers and record-breakers 210
Jet fighters 212
Super speed 214
Seaplanes 216
Light aircraft 218
Plane spotting 220
Coming in low 222
Straight up and supersonic 224

Glossary 246
Index 250
Acknowledgments 255
Peel P50

KTM 350 SX-F

New Holland T
Foreword aircraft—from massive jet bombers to nimble
aerobatic biplanes. I found them astonishing,
Welcome to the world of fast cars and even just as I did the giant trucks and two Ferrari
faster planes, of mighty ships, awesome supercars in the air show’s parking lot. I was
motorcycles, and heavy hauling trucks and hooked and have remained excited by all forms
trains. All these and many more machines of transportation ever since.
that move people, goods, and materials can This book is packed with vehicles, craft, and
be found in this big book of transportation. vessels that have enabled people to travel farther,
I have had a fascination with transportation faster, and with greater ease—from the slickest
for as long as I can remember. My father flew street bike to the most powerful diesel train.
gliders and worked for an early airline company Many have played their part in changing people’s
that offered many people their first taste of air lives, and how and where they work and live.
travel. I remember him taking me to an air show Before the development of modern cars, trains,
when I was eleven to see an array of amazing ships, and planes, few people traveled outside

DHR Class B De D ion-Bouton Type O

f ier Hot-a
t gol ir
on B

Bücker Bü133C Jungmeister

of their own neighborhood and even fewer

traveled long distances overseas. Today, coast-
to-coast journeys that once took weeks take
hours, while you can cross the planet in less
than a day on a giant jet airliner. Shipping now Throughout this book you will find scale boxes
that show the sizes of types of transportation
connects all parts of the globe, enabling you compared to either a child or a school bus.
to buy food grown on the other side of the
world and many other goods, too. Advances in
transportation have helped people explore and Child = 4 ft 9 in (1.45 m) tall
settle new lands, make exciting discoveries about
our world, and even blast off, leaving the planet
altogether to explore the marvels of space.
School bus =
36 ft (11 m) long
Clive Gifford

Sea-Doo® Spar John Deere 650K XLT
On the road
The first automobile was a steam-powered cart that set off in
1769 at a top speed of 2.5 mph (4 km/h). Over the years, many French
clever inventions have helped shape modern motor vehicles. inventor
Today, more than one billion travel along the world’s roads. Nicolas-Joseph
Cugnot builds the first
working automobile.

1868 The first

traffic lights
are installed in 1927
London. Not long
afterward, The Napier-Campbell
they explode! Blue Bird sets a
land-speed record of
195 mph (314 km/h).
1876 1885
German engineer Nikolaus The Benz Motorwagen, the
Otto builds the first internal first wheeled vehicle powered
combustion engine. by an internal combustion
Blue Bird
engine, takes to the road.

1850 1900

In Germany, Hildebrand
and Wolfmüller build
1880 1908
the Motorrad, the first
production motorcycle. The Ford Model T goes
Several inventors
develop so-called on sale in the USA. It
“safety bicycles” becomes the first car
1871 driven by a pedal and to be mass-produced on
chain mechanism. an assembly line.
The High Wheeler, the first
bicycle with big front wheels to
boost speed, is designed.

1916 The
first fully working
armored tank, the
Mark 1, goes into battle
in France in World
War I. Ford Model T
2013 British company
1979 Bigfoot, the first FlashPark invents a
monster truck, is developed talking parking ticket.
in the USA by Bob Chandler
for off-road adventures.

The Volkswagen Type 1,
or Beetle, rolls off the
production line in Germany.
Over the years, a further 1997
21.5 million are built.
Thrust SSC sets a world
land-speed record of
763 mph (1,228 km/h), faster
than the speed of sound.

1950 1980
The world’s first Formula 1 The world’s longest
World Championship is won recorded traffic jam
by Italy’s Giuseppe Farina in of 105 miles (170 km)
an Alfa Romeo 159. blocks roads in France.

1950 2000

1946 1981
In Italy, Vespa produces Stumpjumper, the first mass-
its first scooter, sparking produced mountain bicycle, A Bugatti Veyron sets the record
a fashion craze from the goes on sale in the USA. for the world’s fastest production
1950s onward. car, clocking 253 mph (407 km/h).

The Jeep is first
introduced as Jeep
a general
light truck. Bugatti Veyron

1949 Sierra Sam becomes

the first fully formed crash
test dummy, used to test
the safety features of cars.

Along the tracks
Steam locomotives were known as “iron horses” when they
started a transportation revolution in the early 1800s, speeding 1913
Grand Central Terminal
up the movement of people and goods all over the world. Today, opens in New York. The
diesel and electric locomotives have taken over from steam. station has the most
number of tracks—
67 in all.
1829 1830 The first intercity
steam passenger service, the
The first modern steam Liverpool and Manchester
locomotive, the Rocket, Railway, begins.
built by Robert Stephenson, 1881
sets new speed records.
The first electric
streetcar service
begins in Germany.
Scottish inventor
James Watt invents
the compound steam The first Transcontinental
engine, versions of Railroad across the USA
which will power is completed—a total of
early locomotives. 1,907 miles (3,069 km)
of tracks.

1800 1850 1900

1804 1863 1914

The Pen-y-Darren The first underground city railroad, the Throughout World
locomotive is built Metropolitan Line, opens in London. War I, railroads
by British inventor 1906 prove invaluable
Richard Trevithick, The for moving troops
for work in mines. en loco Simplon Tunnel, and supplies.
y- Dar r mo connecting Italy and
e n- t Switzerland under the

Alps, opens. It is the world’s


longest railroad tunnel.

Golden E xpr ess
a gl e Tr a n s - S i b e r i a n E 1964 In the UK, the first commercial
maglev transportation system
The world’s first bullet opens, connecting Birmingham
1916 train, Shinkansen, International Airport and
connects Tokyo to nearby terminals.
The world’s longest railroad line, the other cities of Japan.
Trans-Siberian Railway across Russia, is
completed. It runs for 5,772 miles (9,289 km).

1937 1960 2012

Tokyo metro carries
German inventor French Railways
1994 3.29 billion passengers in a
Hermann Kemper introduce the world’s
The high-speed year, making it the busiest
develops magnetic first 125 mph
Channel Tunnel metro system in the world.
levitation (maglev) as a (200 km/h) service—
Eurostar service begins
force for moving trains. the Le Capitole.
from London
to Paris.

1950 2000

1955 1975 2007

Initial trials of the English In the UK, the Inter-City HST An experimental French TGV sets the
Electric Deltic—the most becomes the fastest diesel- world record for the fastest electric train,
powerful diesel locomotive powered train in the world. with a speed of 357 mph (574 km/h).
in the world—take place.
1938 First passenger-carrying
test run of Japan’s new maglev
The Mallard sets the world record for train system. Trains reach speeds
the fastest-ever steam locomotive, at a of 373 mph (600 km/h).
speed of more than 125 mph (200 km/h).
1988 The world’s longest
underwater railroad tunnel,
the Seikan Tunnel, 33.5 miles
(53.9 km) long, is built to connect
two Japanese islands.

Across the water
Humans have been traveling by water for so long that it is
impossible to know exactly when the first boats were built.
Some have changed little over the centuries, but today
there are also hi-tech speedboats, mighty 1768
tankers, and giant cruise liners on the Captain James
waters of the world. Cook sets off from
England to explore the
South Pacific. His voyage
takes three years and covers
more than 30,000 miles
ia (48,000 km).
Explorer Christopher
Columbus sails west from 1661
Spain in the Santa Maria.
The first recorded yacht race takes
He crosses the Atlantic
place, between the English King
Ocean and lands in
Charles II and his brother James,
the Bahamas.
on the Thames River in London.

1500 1600 1700

The English ship Mary Rose
The Mayflower leaves 1716
is one of the first to be built y 1700s,
with gunports, holes for
Plymouth, England, In the earl
of the
taking 102 pilgrims the waters
cannons to fire through. were at
to settle in the New Caribbean
M as pirates
World (America).
ay dangerous,
their most asure ships.
f lo d e re d Spanish tre
we p lu n

Portuguese navigator
Ferdinand Magellan sets out
with a fleet of five ships. Just
one would make it back in
1522, having completed the
12 first voyage around the world.
er s 1922
by 1 iing wa 2014 The CSCL Globe container ship goes into service. At 1,311 ft
Sam 8-y e s in
uels ar-old vented (400 m) long, it is the longest container ship in the world.
pull o R
ed a n whe alph
cros n he
in M s La was Tû r
on t nnesot ke Pepi ano
wo a
woo , USA,
n rP
den lan
skis et
. So

a dn
D re 2012
Tûranor PlanetSolar,
the largest solar-
powered boat in the
world, completes its
trip around the globe.

1906 1914 1977

1819 The Dreadnought is launched The Panama Canal, NS Arktika, a nuclear-
by the English king, George V. linking the Pacific Ocean powered icebreaker,
SS Savannah
At the time, it was the most with the Atlantic Ocean, becomes the first
becomes the first
powerful battleship in the world. opens. Ships no longer surface ship to reach
steamship to cross
have to take the long and the North Pole.
the Atlantic Ocean.
dangerous route around
South America.

1800 1900 2000

1775 1912 2009

In the USA, the world’s On her maiden voyage, the MS Allure of the Seas—
first combat submarine, RMS Titanic sinks after the biggest passenger
the Turtle, is designed. striking an iceberg in cruise liner ever
1822 the North Atlantic. built, launches.
French scientist
Augustin Fresnel designs a
lens that makes the beam of
a lighthouse five times The world’s first nuclear-
more powerful. powered submarine, the USS
Nautilus, is launched.
In 1958, it crossed the
North Pole underwater.

Turtle USS Nautilus 13

Up in the air
Powered flight took off in 1903 when American brothers
1913 Russian Pyotr Nesterov
Wilbur and Orville Wright attached an engine to a glider
becomes the first pilot to fly a
and traveled through air for 12 seconds. This short flight loop-the-loop.
blazed the trail for supersonic jets, giant airliners, and
even spacecraft.

1785 Frenchman Jean-Pierre

Blanchard and American John
Jeffries fly across the English
Channel in a balloon.

In Paris, France, the
Montgolfier brothers’ 1900 The first rigid airship, the 1903
hot-air balloon makes Zeppelin LZ1, makes its maiden The Wright brothers’ first
the world’s first manned voyage in Germany. powered flying machine,
flight, lasting 25 minutes. the Wright Flyer, takes
off in the USA.

1850 1900

The first flight of a
1896 rotary-wing aircraft,
American inventor forerunner of the
Samuel Pierpont helicopter, is
Langley flies his piloted by
1891 steam-powered French engineer
model aircraft, Paul Cornu.
German “Flying man” the Aerodrome.
Otto Lilienthal makes
the first of more than
1852 2,000 flights in a series
of fixed-wing gliders.
Frenchman Jules
Henri Giffard’s
airship makes its
first flight, proving
controlled flight
Li l

is possible. ie
al’s Nor
14 m a l A p p a r at u s
1930 A nurse by profession, Ellen
Church becomes the first flight attendant.

ce Shu
In the UK, the
Hawker Siddeley
Harrier becomes the
first vertical-take-off-
and-landing (VTOL)
military jet in service.
1938 1981
The US Apollo 11 spacecraft
The American Boeing 307 Stratoliner, takes off for the moon. Two Space Shuttle Columbia lifts off from
the first airliner with a pressurized of its astronauts become the Cape Canaveral, Florida, for its first
cabin, helps make flying a pleasant first humans to walk on the space mission. The Space Shuttle
experience for passengers. lunar surface. program continues until 2011.

1950 2000

In the UK, the first commercial
jet airliner, the de Havilland
Comet, enters service.
1927 Russian cosmonaut Yuri 1976 2014
Gagarin becomes the
American Charles Lindbergh makes
first man in space. He The UK/French After a 10-year
the first nonstop flight across North
orbits the Earth for 108 supersonic airliner journey, the
Atlantic in his Ryan NYP Spirit of
minutes onboard his the Concorde enters European Space
St Louis, a distance of more than
Vostok 1 spacecraft. passenger service. Agency spacecraft
3,600 miles (5,800 km).
Rosetta reaches
a comet and lands a
1949 A B-50 Superfo probe on its surface.
rtress mak
first nonstop f light aroun es the
d the world.
d in midair fo
It is refuele ur times!

Animal power Wooden,

Handler, called spoked wheel
C h a 200 BCE

musher, gives
commands to dogs e
Roman Ro m
chariots pulled
by four horses

could race at speeds

sk y

of 30 mph Leather
(50 km/h).


re g

Canvas cover stretched over iron hoops

to provide protection against weather
Reins are attached to the
harness at the mouth

L i ve r p

ool g ig 800s
Straight UK 1

k wagon
Conestoga wagon
USA 18th and 19th century
glass lanterns

The Glass
Coach is used for
the weddings
of the British
royal family.

The Glass Coach

UK 1881

For thousands of years, people have As early as 3000 BCE, animals were used to pull
harnessed the power of large animals the first chariots into battle in the Middle East and
to transport them and their goods. Oxen, Asia. Later, the Romans turned chariot racing
dogs, horses, mules, and reindeer have into a sport, using lightweight designs in which
all been used to pull sleds or haul wagons the driver rode from a small platform over the
18 and, in some parts of the world, still do. wheel axle. Wagons got bigger when pioneers set
“Rumble” Arched hood Coachman’s
seat for can be raised seat
servant or lowered

S p i d UK c.1890
or groom

er pha

Animal power
tires Square landau
UK c.1890
Lead dogs find
the trail and set
the pace Railway horse bus
Enclosed cab UK c.1900
for passengers

Iron hoop
forms frame for
a canvas cover
Chuck box—a
set of drawers
for storing goods

Flag with red cross indicates

wagon was a medical vehicle

Wooden wheels Ambulance wagon

with iron rims
World War I 1914–18

off across North America in the 18th and 19th as they herded cattle across the country. In the
centuries. The four-wheeled, covered Conestoga towns, small, lightweight carriages such as the
wagon could carry five tons of food, tools, and Liverpool gig or the Spider phaeton carried
belongings, and was usually pulled by oxen. Not up to two people on short journeys, while bigger
long after, fully working kitchens on wheels, called carriages, such as the Square landau could
chuck wagons, could be seen following cowboys transport four people in greater comfort. 19
CAMEL CARAVAN  Out of the way, there’s a convoy coming through!
It’s made up of camels carrying salt—Ethiopia’s
white gold, mined from the Danakil Depression. Highly prized, both to flavor food and preserve
it, salt is levered out of the giant salt flats at Danakil in slabs. These slabs are then cut into blocks
and lashed onto the backs of the camels, the ultimate desert pack animal.
Caravans (convoys) of pack animals—from camels, horses, Ethiopia, from Danakil to the trading center of Mekele,
and mules, to yaks, llamas, and even elephants—have been involves a 60-mile (100-km) trek across one of the hottest
used throughout history to transport food, materials, and places on Earth, with temperatures soaring past 122°F
goods for trade. Camels are famed for their ability to (50°C). Salt caravans have crossed the Sahara for more
withstand heat and a lack of water, making them perfect for than 2,000 years. In the past, thousands of animals made
cargo-carrying trips across hot deserts. This route across up the camel trains, but today 20 to 30 are more common.

Bicycles are a fun and efficient way

of getting around. A cyclist can travel
around four to five times faster than a Saddle ❯ The
bicycle’s seat can be solid
walker, using the same amount of energy. or padded for comfort. Seat post
Although designs vary, most bicycles share It is attached to a seat
common key parts. A chain, powered by post, which slides into the
frame’s seat tube.
a chainwheel and driven by pedals and
cranks, transmits power to the rear wheel,
which turns and drives the bicycle forward. Rear brake Seat
cable tube

Wheel and tire ❯ These Rear brake

support the weight of the
bicycle and the rider. Different
tires have different patterns
on their outer surface known
as tread. This bicycle has
smooth tread tires for road
racing. An off-road bicycle
will have chunkier tread
to provide better grip.

Gear cable

derailleur ❯
The derailleur
gear moves
the chain
to different
gear cogs.

Spokes ❯ Thin and

strong, spokes connect
the wheel’s rim to its
center, or hub. They allow Chainwheel
wheels to be built that are strong
but light in weight, and they let air Bottom
22 through when the wheel faces the wind. Chain bracket
Handlebars ❯ These act as a lever
for the rider to grip and turn the front
wheel when steering. They also hold
the gear controls, bicycle computers,
Frame ❯ This is the skeleton
and brake levers. This racing bicycle
of the bicycle, to which all the
has dropped handlebars for a low,

other parts are attached. The
Stem tucked-in riding position.
frame is usually formed out
of hollow tubes of steel for
cheaper bikes, or aluminum
combined with other metals
(alloy), titanium, or carbon fiber
for higher performance models.

Brake lever

Cable guides

Water bottle
held in cage



Crank ❯ The crank is

a shaft connecting the
pedal to the toothed
chainwheel through a series
of arms called a spider. The
spider and chainwheels turn
on the bottom bracket axle.
Pedal power Handlebar
Similar-sized front
and rear wheels

on iron stem
lo cipede UK

Ve 3

Dandy Horse Draisienne
Germany 1817

crossbar Long shaft
connects pedal to
rear wheel

Saddle on single
metal spring


u x Velocip Solid iron
a e 1869
ich aker Franc
handlebar stem
M esh

Spoon brake
bo presses directly on

solid rubber tire to


slow bicycle down


Considering the wheel has been around The German Baron Karl Von Drais invented the
for more than 5,000 years, it is amazing Dandy Horse in 1817, which had a saddle and
to think that it was only 200 years ago handlebars but was powered by a rider paddling
people finally got the idea to place two his feet along the ground. It led to other human-
wheels on a frame and create pedal- powered machines, including the Michaux
24 powered personal transportation. Velocipede, which had pedals fitted directly
Curved steel High wheeler

tubes form a front wheel acts

diamond shape as a rear wheel
R ove r s

er t

r i c yc l e
c yc

Pedal power

UK 1
UK 188

Straight Chain links pedals
front forks and rear wheel

In 1885, Sw
Large front
the Rover bicycle Solid rubber tire, bi cy ift
wheel up to cl
won a 100 mile replaced by pneumatic

sa UK 1887
5 ft (1.5 m)

in diameter (air-filled) tires

f et y
(160 km) race in from 1888
the UK in 7 hours,
5 minutes.

Simple mudguard Curved

covered the small front
rear wheel forks

Facile dwarf safety bicycle Singer safety UK 1888

UK 1888 Saddle made
of 131 ft (40 m) of
woven cord weighs
31⁄2 oz (100 g)
In 1884,
Thomas Stevens
crossed the USA
on a high

Dursley Pedersen bicycle UK 1898–99

to the front wheel. The experience of its iron resulting in many falls. Alternatives were sought,
“tires” on cobbled streets earned it the nickname including pairing two high wheeler front wheels
boneshaker. High wheelers, or Penny Farthings, to form the rear wheels of the Singer tricycle,
in the UK, France, and the USA had no chains or and using a chain-driven rear wheel, as in the
gears, but had bigger front wheels to boost speed. Rover safety bicycle. This design ushered in
It perched the rider high above the ground, the modern bicycle with wheels of similar size. 25
Seat post


Dedacciai Str a 201

Rear wheel da A I t a ly
with spokes
ssoluto Isaac Force Germany 2005
and carbon
fiber rim Tires inflated with helium gas
Dropped to save 3⁄8–9⁄16 oz (10–15 g) per tire

Molded carbon
fiber frame

track bicycle
weighed just
20 lb (9 kg).
bicycles often have
narrower handlebars

Single, fixed gear

Marin Ravenna A6WFG USA 2012

If you have a need for speed, then a Not all racing bicycles are used for racing. Many
racing bicycle is for you. Designed for are used by cyclists to commute rapidly to work or
fast riding on smooth surfaces, racing for a workout. Frames are designed for both men
bicycles are light in weight with a high and women; the Ravenna A6WFG is a women’s
seat and low, dropped handlebars. racing bicycle designed for endurance riding.
26 Competition racing bikes are designed with super-
Narrow aero bars help bicycle Frame extends all Long tri-bars
and rider cut through air the way to the saddle to rest arms on

K 1992
Rossin Time Trial 08 U
Italy 1983 p e1


Speed wheels
This Brake and gear cables
bicycle broke hidden inside frame to
Three-spoke improve aerodynamics
carbon fiber wheel
the 400 m
world record in the
1992 Olympic


Cervelo P5
ve r

Canada 2012

Pannier bags
UK 198

for storage

Third bottle fitted

underneath down tube Cannondale ST1000 USA 1988

lightweight frames of aluminum or titanium alloys, aerodynamic (cut through air more easily) than
or carbon fiber. The Assoluto’s carbon fiber frame wheels with spokes. Solid-bodied track racers,
weighs just 2 lb 6 oz (1.1 kg), a little more than a such as the Windcheetah Carbon Cantilever,
baseball bat. Solid disk rear wheels are used on appeared in the 1980s with a solid carbon fiber
track racers, in time trials, and on triathlete’s bikes body. They were tested in wind tunnels to ensure
such as the Cervelo P5, because they are more they were as aerodynamic as possible. 27
SPRINT FINISH  You can feel the pain just watching these sprinters pump the
pedals at the end of another grueling stage of the world’s
most famous bike race, the Tour de France. This stage—the tenth of the 2011 Tour—started 98 miles
(158 km) back. In a photo finish, André Greipel of Germany (right) crossed the line a fraction ahead
of Mark Cavendish of the UK (left). Both are given the time of 3 hours, 31 minutes, and 21 seconds.
The Tour de France takes place over three weeks every part, each with nine riders. The cyclists’ times for each day
summer. It covers more than 2,175 miles (3,500 km), broken are added together and the rider with the overall lowest time
up into 21 stages. Each year, the route across France changes, gets to wear the prized maillot jaune (yellow jersey). But there
sometimes entering other European countries, but it always are also prizes for the fastest sprinter (green jersey), the
challenges riders over all sorts of terrain, with stages on the fastest climber (red polka dot jersey), the fastest rider under
flat, in the hills, and in the mountains. Around 20 teams take 25 (white jersey), and for the fastest team.
Bike business Wicker basket holds up Pannier bag
p o n se b i
to 55 lb (25 kg) of goods contains emergency
medical equipment c ycle UK 2000

lib i ke UK 1948
l ey

Butterfly screw can be Folding stand supports

loosened to fold frame in half the bicycle when parked
side lights
on rack bag
B SA Ai r
b o
K 1943

Police mountain bicycle

Germany 2000s
Tool bag hung from
top tube of frame

Folded-up bicycle is less

than 23 in (57 cm) in height
and 22 in (55 cm) in length

There are
more than
1,200 parts
in a Brompton

Brompton Folding Bicycle UK 1981–83

Cycling may be lots of fun, but many In both crowded towns and cities, and isolated
people ride their bicycles to and from countryside areas, police mountain bicycles
work, or use them in order to do their allow officers to get to a crime scene quickly.
jobs. Bicycles offer a cheap, quick, and Response bicycles, with their pannier bags
convenient way to get around, and to filled with lifesaving medical equipment, can get
30 transport people and deliver goods. through traffic or crowds to reach a patient where
Container for letters
and small packages

Hooded canopy
provides shade

Bike business
DHL Parcycle Netherlands 2014


ys i
Seat for up to
two passengers s
keeps ice cream
Cart handle acts as shaded from Sun
bicycle’s handlebars

rt India 1980s
Height and angle of the ca
saddle can be adjusted for
maximum comfort
Tric ycle ic

Brake and gear

cabling hang loose, so
the bike can be folded

Small wire
basket to
Luggage rack
carry shopping
can hold large bag

China 2000s
y c le
Public b

Small, 16-in
(40.6-cm) wheel

larger vehicles cannot go. The BSA Airborne bicycles are equipped with baskets or carriers to
was used by British troops during World War II— carry cargo. The DHL Parcycle fits a giant
its frame folded in half when two butterfly screws container onto a bike to carry packages. Bicycles
were loosened. Folding bicycles, such as the can also be modified, and their frames attached
Brompton Folding Bicycle, continue to be to carts or carriages, such as the ice cream cart
used by thousands of commuters. Delivery and the pedal-powered Penang Trishaw taxi. 31
Fun on wheels 19

eed SL
W in I Sp etah
Padded seat
supports back c ar


c e 193

Un Backrest includes
icy lockable trunk and
c rear lights

“rubber legs”

when they try a


new style of bike


and use new

n g c yc l e

UK 1

Dropped handlebars
with brakes for the rider
at the back

Santana Triplet USA 2000s

If you think all bicycles feature just one A unicycle has a single wheel, turned by pedals,
rider sitting upright, supported by two and demands great balance from the rider to stay
wheels, think again! Many variations on. Three-wheelers are easier to ride, and some,
on the bicycle’s basic design have been such as the Pashley Tri.1, even offer a platform
attempted for greater speed, more to carry large loads. Tandem bicycles, such as the
32 comfort, or just for fun. Dawes Galaxy Twin, have two riders pedaling,
Joystick Kin
Body shell and cle
Brakes on
bicycle weigh Be
82 lb (37.2 kg)

front wheel


Fun on wheels
d 199
er lan Hinged windshield
This itz acts as a door
slick bicycle Sw
has joysticks

instead of
Electric motor, plus
pedal power, gives top
speed of 15 mph (24 km/h) for steering.

gripped under
rider’s knees

Twin seats

Sinclair C5 UK 1985
Platform to
carry loads

h le


Tr i

UK 201
Hinged frame
folds up for storage

D aw e s G a l a x y T w i n UK 200

Timing chain links two sets

of pedals and chainwheels

but only the front rider steers. The Santana The Windcheetah Speedy was cycled the length
Triplet has seats for three riders, with a long of the UK in just 41 hours, 4 minutes, 22 seconds.
chain linking each rider’s chainwheel to ensure Some recumbents fit a body shell around the rider
smooth pedaling. In recumbent bicycles, riders sit to let air flow past more smoothly. In 1990, the
or lie down with their legs out in front; the bicycle Kingcycle Bean set a world speed record of
is low and can slip through air at high speed. 47 mph (76 km/h) over one hour. 33
Extreme cycling
Suspension allows Gear changer on the
Trek 8900 Pro

USA 1990 front forks to telescope handlebar helps select

down into lower tubes between the bicycle’s 15 gears
when hitting bumps

Single gear
cog on rear

Specialized Stumpjumper x

USA 1981

2ft-6in- (6.4-cm-)

Frame made of wide tire for great grip
carbon fiber tubes fitted in sand, dirt, and mud

R aleig
to aluminum joints

Some SA 1991
mountain dy
bicycles have
Chance Yo-E

up to 30 gears
to speed over

Shock absorber
cushions bumps

Tr e k 6
9 91

Hydraulic (fluid-
Toe straps operated) disk brakes
secure rider’s
feet on pedals Stumpjumper FSR Pro USA 2004

While ordinary bicycles can be ridden The first mountain bicycle made on a large scale
off-road, their smooth tires and slender was the Specialized Stumpjumper. Only 500
frames are not suitable for rough stuff. were initially produced, but they started a
When bikers in the USA began redesigning revolution. Soon, many manufacturers came up
bicycles for better off-road performances with their own designs. The Trek 6000 had a
34 in the 1970s, mountain biking was born! lightweight, all-aluminum frame, while the Trek
Rubber grips Derailleur gear system Front forks have suspension
on handlebar has 20 different gears for that can slide as much as 3.8 in
rider to select from (99 mm) to cushion bumps

Cushioned saddle
with plastic covering

Large frame

Marin Nail Trail

USA 2014


Chain guard
stops clothing from
snagging on chain
Reflector fitted to
wheel spokes

Saddle set low so

Foot peg for that rider’s weight is
stepping on when over rear wheel
performing tricks

MBM Instinct BMX Haro Freestyler BMX

stunt bicycle Italy 2000s racing bike USA 2012

8900 Pro’s frame was made of carbon fiber to such as the Stumpjumper FSR Pro, have shock
keep its weight down. Many mountain bikes are absorbers for both wheels. BMX bikes are strong,
fitted with suspension systems. Hardtail bicycles small-wheeled bicycles, some of which are raced
(with rigid frames), such as the Marin Nail Trail, over dirt tracks. Freestyle (stunt riding) BMX
have front forks that lessen the impact of bumps bikes such as the MBM Instinct, are built for
and landings. In contrast, full-suspension bicycles, doing tricks and out-of-the-saddle moves. 35
MOUNTAIN BIKE MADNESS  MTB freerider Louis Reboul
launches his mountain bike
off a giant 52-ft- (16-m-) high ramp during the Red Bull Rampage 2014. He twists the bike and his
riding position in midair to pull off a perfectly judged landing. One mistake and the result could be
disastrous, with a huge drop onto the hard, unforgiving sandstone below.
Mountain bike (MTB) freeriding involves riders pulling moves and complexity of their tricks. These can involve full 360°
and tricks as they take on a challenging run, full of dramatic spins, backflips, and no-hands riding. Held on the edge of
natural features and, sometimes, man-made obstacles such Zion National Park in Utah, the Red Bull Rampage is an
as large ramps. Competitors ride bikes with full suspension annual invite-only tournament for some of the hottest
on both wheels to allow for heavy impacts on landing, and freeriders in the world. Each gets to pick their own route
their runs are judged for speed, control, and the execution along the almost-vertical drops of ridges and cliffs.

Bikes were first fitted with engines in the 19th century and have
never looked back! Today, millions enjoy the fast, convenient
travel and the freedom of the open road or trail that motorcycles
Chassis ❯ The frame
provide. This Yamaha XJR 1300 is called a “naked” bike, to which other parts
because its engine is not hidden behind body panels. With a top of the motorcycle are
speed of 130 mph (210 km/h), it is faster than many cars. attached, the chassis
helps keep the wheels in
line for good handling. It
Rear seat ❯ Big motorcycles have a is usually made of steel
seat long enough for a passenger, who or a combination of
can grip the handle behind the seat. metals (alloy).

JR 1


Shock absorber ❯
A coil-spring and
oil-filled cylinder cushion
the bike and rider over
bumps in the road.

Rear wheel ❯
This is driven by
power from the
engine through a shaft Exhaust pipe ❯ The exhaust
or belt, or on this pipe channels waste gases from
motorcycle, a metal chain the engine out behind the bike.
38 similar to a bicycle chain.
Side mirrors ❯ Throttle ❯ Controlled by twisting the
Mounted on the right handlebar, the throttle controls
handlebars, these allow the flow of gas and air mixture into the
the rider to see what’s cylinders in the engine. More air means
going on behind the bike. more power and a higher speed.


Fuel tank ❯
The tank
holds the gas
and pumps it
to the engine.
Headlight ❯ Powered by
the motorcycle’s alternator,
this lights up the road ahead.

Front wheel ❯ Fitted

with an air-filled tire,
this wheel is steered
Front by the handlebars.

Brake disk

Engine ❯ Fueled by gasoline, the engine generates power,

which is transmitted to the rear wheel. This engine generates
around 107 horsepower, as much as a hatchback car.
Revving up

M i c h a ux- F
ve l o c i p e d

Handlebars er

Saddle caught fire on

for steering
its first journey because it ra ux
n ce
was directly above the 186
hot ignition tube 7–71

Metal-rimmed steam-powered
wooden wheel
weighing 195 lb
(88 kg) had no


& any 4
nd d G
M o b ra
to r

was also the
water tank Cyklon Germany 1901

The first powered motorcycles used a With its 0.5 horsepower engine, the Daimler
small steam engine to drive the rear Reitwagen is considered to be the first “real”
wheel, but motorcycles made a great motorcycle, even though it was crafted out of
leap forward once internal combustion wood. It proved to be an uncomfortable ride due
engines were built small enough to to its wooden wheels and lack of suspension. The
40 attach to a bicycle-styled frame. faster Motorrad and the first widely made
g le USA 1904
saddle n

M La

ur l B
in Czech Repub avia
K lement Sl

Revving up
Pedaling backward
activated the brakes

Brass tank held

03 gas and oil
Pedal to start
the engine FN Fo

Pope M


m 1911
USA 1911

Engine gives top speed

Comfortable padded
of 40 mph (64 km/h), a
leather seat
record at the time
Three speed n T MC UK
gears when many so 2
motorcycles had one in
W ilk

Clancy rode
17,895 miles
(28,800 km)
around the world
on a Henderson
Four in 1912.
Engine is water-cooled
like many cars
Early record
Motorcycle gives top speed breaker—reached
of 60 mph (97 km/h), making 71 mph (115 km/h)
it a hit with police forces Long handlebars extend
back toward the seat

Henderson Four
USA 1912 Norton Old Miracle UK 1912

motorcycle, with around 2,000 built. Some early more than one cylinder. The Pope Model L had
motorcycles had their engines mounted in strange two cylinders and cost as much as a Ford Model T
places. The Cyklon’s engine sat in front of the car. The FN Four was one of the first motorcycles
rider; it drove the front wheel around. The Indian with four cylinders. The four-cylinder Wilkinson
Single’s engine was so low, riding over a bump TMC was designed for long-distance touring with
could knock it. Over time, engines were built with a padded leather seat, but it had no front brake. 41
Bikes in battle
Rikuo Type 97 Japan 1933 Sidecar wheel powered by the

motorcycle’s 745 cc engine

Headlight hood to mask the Sun’s glare,

which could give away the bike’s position Zu

r many
Steel frame for heavy panniers
BMW R12 Germany 1940 that could hold ammunition
Twin fuel tanks hold 8-in (20-cm) ur
Sidecar U Fo
5 gal (19 liters) of gas drum brake 40
Nor ton B

Indian 841 USA 1941

As motorcycles became faster, sturdier, Many World War II motorcycles were adapted
and more reliable, they were adopted by civilian models. More than 70,000 Harley-
armed forces in their thousands. World Davidson WLAs were made for the American
War II saw heavy motorcycle use, as forces, while 126,000 BSA M20s were built by the
scouts, in convoys, and as couriers, UK and its allies—making it the most produced
42 transporting messages and people. motorcycle of the war. A prewar Harley-Davidson
Motorcycle could carry Cannister, with
three soldiers and their the bike fitted
weapons at speeds up to inside, is just 13 in
59 mph (95 km/h) (33 cm) in diameter


Bikes in battle
Welbike UK 1942

UK 194
could be put
together in just
11 seconds.


Holster to hold rifle canvas panniers

or machine gun
y UK
Nor ton 16H Deser t Dut
USA 19


ley- so
Metal sheet The just 130-lb (60-kg)
“bash plate” motorcycle could be dropped by
to protect engine parachute or carried by a glider

Small engine used

0.26 gal (1 liter) of gas
per 33 miles (53 km)

Royal Enfield WD/RE125 Flying Flea UK 1948

built in Japan, the Rikuo Type 97 served was one of the biggest World War II sidecars.
Japanese forces during wartime. Its sidecar was In contrast, the 71-lb (32-kg) Welbike could
engine-powered, improving travel over rough be folded inside a cannister, dropped from a
ground, a feature also found in the sidecar of the plane, and parachuted to the ground. Another
Norton Big Four, used as a scout by British lightweight, the Flying Flea was used to carry
soldiers. The 930-lb (420-kg) Zundapp KS750 messages when radio contact was impossible. 43
Scooting around
Steering column folds Lockable glove box

down when not in use

202 cc engine
mounted under

the seat

Cushman Auto-glide
USA 1938
155 cc engine directly
over the front wheel

Rear wheel
is 10 in (25 cm) Exhaust pipe
in diameter

Lambr etta LD150 I t a ly 1


Padded bench
saddle seats two

Vespa Rally 250

Italy 1976

Saddle that can

seat two people

More than
60 million
Super Cubs have
been built—the most
produced motor
vehicle ever. Air vents help cool
engine, which can
Honda Super Cub C100 propel scooter to speeds
Japan 1958 up to 70 mph (113 km/h)

Scooters are small motorcycles with a step- The Autoped was one of the first scooters; its
through design and the driver’s seat above engine drove the front wheel using gears. The
an enclosed engine. The term mopeds once VéloSoleX 45, an early moped, had an engine
meant motorized bikes that had to be that powered a ceramic roller that gripped the
pedaled to start, but now it applies to small top of the front wheel to turn it. Lightweight and
44 scooters with 50 cc or lesser power engines. fuel-efficient, scooters and mopeds such as the
Safety cell crumples in Hooded 25
crash to protect rider instrument panel 2



BM scooter
Front wheel fitted
W can go from
with hydraulic brake
C1 0–60mph
20 (100km/h) in under

Scooting around
7 seconds.
Large lithium-ion battery

powers electric motors and


can be recharged in 4 hours


r ma

Scooter travels 60 miles

(100 km) on a single charge

Carrier with
Small fuel tank holds storage box
1.3 gal (5 liters) of gas

rack Vélo
Fra S
o l e 194
eX 9

Motobécane Mobylette

France 1986
Hinged seat with
compartment underneath

Yamaha Jo Headlight
g RR fitted into the

plastic fairing
an 2011

Naked Taiwan 2011

Honda Super Cub proved to be a cheap form and mopeds are still in demand. The Yamaha
of transportation in the postwar years. A craze Jog and the PGO PMX, powered by small
for stylishly designed Italian scooters in the 50 cc engines, are aimed at young riders. Future
1950s and 1960s led to the popular Lambretta scooters may be enclosed with a roof, such as
LD150 with its large windshield, passenger seat, the BMW C1 200 concept, or be powered by
and top speed of 50mph (80km/h). Scooters electric motors, like the BMW C Evolution. 45
Ariel Tric ycle Single-cylinder
Top box holds tools
and spare clothing
UK 18
98 engine propelled bike
to 24 mph (39 km/h)
e t te seat in front
a l eighUK 1904 of the driver
R r
l e i g h T r i ca
R dem

Steering wheel
instead of handlebars
Rexette 5HP UK 1905
Coiled radiator
tubes filled with
water to cool engine
Front fender

Chopper-styled Stre
Har ley-Davi wide, padded seat
S e r v i - C a r G E so n
USA 1969 Police



Not all motorcycles have two wheels. Ever Early three-wheelers were pedal-powered tricycles
since bikes were first developed, engineers fitted with an engine. The Ariel Tricycle used
have experimented with three-wheeled the space between the rear wheels for the engine.
machines, which are easier to learn to ride, Some manufacturers preferred to power a single
have more space for engines or loads, and rear wheel, so they placed a pair of wheels in the
46 come with an extra tire for better grip. front. Both the Rexette 5HP and Raleighette
in k C a r ve r O n e Ne
n br the
r la
de s2
Van 00

Honda Goldwing EML Trike
Japan/Netherlands 1994

Short, plastic
windshield deflects air Three-wheeled
up and over rider’s head car-like body tilts up to
45 degrees, with wheels
staying on the road
Can-Am front
wheel has its own
to ride out

Weighs 335 lb
(152 kg), a quarter
of the Carver One

Can-Am Spyder Trike Yamaha Tricity

Japan 2014
Canada 2011
Twin six-spoked wheels
with 13.8 in (35 cm) diameter

Tricar had rear-wheel drive and used the space a small hatchback car. Advances in technology
above the front wheels to fit a passenger chair. have brought in new three-wheelers that can tilt
The Harley-Davidson Servi-Car GE served their bodies as they turn. The Vandenbrink is like
police forces and breakdown mechanics from a three-wheeled car, with a fully enclosed cockpit
the 1930s to the 1970s. In contrast, the Can-Am and twin rear wheels, while the Yamaha Tricity
Spyder is built for fun and has as much power as resembles a motorcycle with twin wheels in front. 47


exhaust pipe

Seat with springs


Royal Enfield 500

Twin UK 1951

Front fender shows

name of motorcycle
Honda CB550
Four Japan 1976

Electra Glide USA 1965
front forks
More than
3,000 police
units across Rear tire with 18 in
(45 cm) diameter, 33⁄4 in
the USA use (9.4 cm) width

KMZ Dnepr
Kawasaki H2C Japan 1975 MT11 Russia 1985
60/6 Ger many 197

Various types of motorcycles have been Standard motorcycles are ideal for riding around
designed for road use, from standards to town and for short journeys. Popular midsize
cruisers. Most standards offer a relatively engine bikes in the 1970s included the BMW
upright riding style and have smooth tires. R60/6 and the Honda CB550, with a top speed
Cruisers are bigger, with a reclining back of 102 mph (164 km/h) from its 500 cc engine.
48 and relaxed riding position for long rides. For long-distance riding, cruisers are more

Ducati M9

Road burners
M Harley-Davidson
FLSTF Fat Boy USA 1999

I t a ly 1
A Fat Boy
starred in the
Terminator 2
Large twin 12-ft-6-in-
(32-cm-) diameter
Long exhaust BM brake disks for high
pipe from braking power
engine cylinder

5.5 gal

(21 liter)
Yamaha FZS1000

fuel tank
Fazer Japan 2002
any 20

Engine gives top

speed of 135 mph
(217 km/h)

Instrument panel Tr
on top of fuel tank iu
Long bench seat
is 29 in (74 cm)

above ground
illeUK 201

Triumph Thunderbird

UK 2010

popular. The Electra Glide was the first big possible. The Ducati M900 stands out with its
Harley-Davidson motorcycle to have an electric large, sculpted fuel tank and unusual triangular
engine starter. The Thunderbird, manufactured frame. Other road motorcycles have picked up
in UK, was Triumph’s first belt-driven motorcycle design elements from classic machines, such as
since the 1920s. Muscle bikes have powerful the Harley-Davidson Fat Boy and the
engines and are shaped to look as modern as Triumph Bonneville. 49
Burning rubber
Oil tank fitted in
front of fuel tank

Heavily sprung

80 mph (129 km/h) 95 mph (153 km/h)

Scott Super Squirrel UK 1927 Norton International 30 UK 1936

Padded seat windshield
for comfort

RC166’s engine
could turn at
20,000 rpm,
which is 333
turns every

130 mph (209 km/h)

NSU Rennmax Ger many 1953
Rider has to
lean over large Three of the
nda RC16 6 6 6
aluminum fuel tank Japan 19
motorcycle’s six
exhaust pipes

178 mph (286 km/h)

150 mph (241 km/h)
Moto Guzzi V8 Italy 1957

Racing motorcycles are built and tuned Early racing motorcycles, like the Scott Super
for ultimate performance, and maximum Squirrel and the Norton International 30,
speed, acceleration, and braking power competed in different kinds of races, from track
on the track. Sports bikes also boast high races to time trials. In 1934, the Nortons finished
performance, but are used on roads. Some first, second, third, and fourth in the famous Isle
50 mimic the style and features of racers. of Man TT (time trial). Track racers compete
Low fairing with
built-in windshield
K aw a s a k i D r a g s t e r

Burning rubber
Two Kawasaki 850 cc 220 mph (354 km/h)
motorcycle engines work together

Sculpted 996
ly 1
seat for low
B i mo t a M a n t r a It a

riding position

The Dragster
RG 5

could reach
149 mph

(240 km/h) in just


7.7 seconds.

125 mph (201 km/h)

Wide, slick,
147 mph (237 km/h) treadless tire
for racing on
smooth tracks
YZF R1 Japan
ha 1998

200 mph (320 km/h)

Honda CBR1000RR Fireblade Japan 2009

A p r i l i a R S V4 Ital y 2011

171 mph (275 km/h)

Single racing exhaust
180 mph (290 km/h) made of titanium metal

according to their type and engine size. The motorcycle’s suspension, gearbox, and engine
Honda RC166 weighed 247 lb (112 kg) and had performance while riding. Manufacturers can
a 250 cc engine, yet it could race at speeds up produce street versions of their more successful
to 150 mph (241 km/h). Modern racers, such as racers. The Suzuki RG500 was based on the
the Aprilia RSV4, are packed with electronic racing RG500s, which had won four 500 cc Grand
wizardry. An RSV4 rider can adjust the Prix World Championships in seven years. 51
JUMPS AND FLICKS  Woooah! Pedro Moreno pulls a spectacular
midair move during the 2013 freestyle
competition in Zurich, Switzerland—the largest freesport event in Europe. Moreno is a professional
freestyle motocross (FMX) rider. This is a sport in which motocross riders perform routines,
throwing stunning shapes and pulling wicked tricks in the air as their bikes leap off giant ramps.
Freestylers use modified motocross racing motorcycles with and rider; “the cliffhanger,” where the rider hooks his or her
a number of adjustments. These include shaving the foam toes under the handlebars; and “the tsunami,” where the rider
saddle down to narrow it, replacing components with lighter performs a handstand over the handlebars while keeping the
variations, and rerouting cables to keep from getting boots bike horizontal! Riders can also twist in the air, grab the
tangled up in them as they perform their tricks and moves. saddle, and even let go of the bike completely, but they must
These can be spectacular, such as full backflips by both bike nail a safe landing to get great scores from the judges.
Off-roaders ld Star Scrambler UK 1
Har ley- Raised mudguard to Go
D n SA
Hillclim avidso 30
keep mud and water

from flinging up
ber USA 19

Large, steel
Metal chains Hollow Rok cargo rack
wrapped around on T
aluminum USA 1
rear tire to grip
wheels meant rail-b r e a k e r 9 63
loose ground
this motorcycle
could f loat
in water!

d ur o
a r n a E n3
Husqv 9 7
den 1

Chain driving
front wheel

Road-legal bike 2.8 gal (10.6 liters)

weighs 240.3 lb (109 kg) plastic fuel tank
tire for gripping
soft ground
Race number

Suzuki Enduro
PE250X Japan 1981
CZ 250 Motocross Czech Republic 1974

Off-road motorcycles let you get away The Rokon Trail-breaker is the only widely
from the traffic, unless you are competing produced motorcycle to offer an all-wheel drive.
in a motocross race with 30 or 40 riders Other off-roaders rely on rear-wheel drive and
over a bumpy dirt course. Off-roaders are chunky tires with deep tread to grip sand or mud.
tough and strong, and equipped with The KTM 65SX is ideal for 8 to 13 year olds, but
54 plenty of suspension to soak up impacts. young riders may progress to a top motocross bike
bikes take under Small tank holds
enough methanol fuel
3 seconds to for four laps of racing
accelerate from
0–60 mph Forks steeply angled to give
(100 km/h). more response when steering
Weslak K 19 8 1

Speedway U

Motorcycle can travel


373 miles (600 km) on
n a
Tw da Af r ic 0
Twin headlights one tank of gas
in Japan 199


Japan 201
11 Long-travel
KTM 65SX Au s t r ia 20 front forks
exhaust silencer
tucked up under
seat rear

Motorcycle gives top speed KTM 350 SX-F

of 50 mph (80 km/h) Austria 2012

such as the KTM 350 SX-F. KTMs won the off-roaders with large fuel tanks, such as the
Motocross MX2 World Championships from 2008 Yamaha XT Tenere, which is based on the bike
to 2014. Enduro bikes, such as the lightweight that won the Dakar Rally seven times. Speedway
Suzuki Enduro PE250X, race off-road but are bikes, such as the Weslake Speedway, have no
usually used for competing over longer courses brakes and just one gear. They are raced in
than motocross. Adventure motorcycles are big laps on a tight, oval dirt track in competitions. 55
Fastest on
A 1929
SS100 once
sold for a record
(about $460,000)

two wheels
at auction in
the UK.

lsior 20R
Engine’s U SA Pannier bags
E xc e
two cylinders 1 for storage

form a V-shape

102 mph (164 km/h)
Brough Superior SS100
UK 1927
nt B l a c k S h a d o
100 mph (160 km/h) Vi

Single exhaust
Wheelie bar stops
from V-twin engine
front of bike flipping
up as it accelerates Vi n
nt UK 1966
M ighty Mouse 122 mph (196 km/h)

160 mph (257 km/h)

Body shell, made of carbon

fiber, is 21-ft (6.4-m) long Two Suzuki Hayabusa
engines power the bike

367 mph (591 km/h)

Ever since motorcycles were built, they The Excelsior 20R was one of the first
have been raced or tested to see just how motorcycles to reach 100 mph (160 km/h). It was
fast they would go. Designers, engineers, overtaken by the Brough Superior SS100 and
and riders would push everything to the later the Vincent Mighty Mouse, which became
limit to squeeze every drop of speed from the fastest single-cylinder motorcycle when it
56 their magnificent machines. raced along drag strips in the 1960s. Most modern
Winner of the first
BMW R90S 916
Germany 1975
AMA Superbike at i I t a ly 1


in 1976

Fastest on two wheels

125 mph (200 km/h)

160 mph (257 km/h)

Hinged fuel tank
lifts up for access to Streamlined
parts inside fairing channels
Giant exhaust air past bike
for jet engine gases

186 mph (299 km/h) 250 mph (402 km/h)

MTT Turbine Superbike
Suzuki GSX 1300R Hayabusa USA 2001
Powerful disk Giant 1,441 cc engine
Japan 1999
brakes has power of two cars

Top 1
Ack Attack USA 2004

376 mph (606 km/h) 187 mph (301 km/h)

B U B S e ve n S t r e a m l i n e r USA 200 Kawasaki ZZR1400 Japan 2011

SPEED Top three record breakers

Top 1 Ack Attack

376 mph (606 km/h)

BUB Seven Streamliner

367 mph (591 km/h)

MTT Turbine Superbike

250 mph (402 km/h)

motorcycles have engines with multiple cylinders. fastest so far. Even faster are modern streamliners,
The Ducati 916 won four World Superbike motorcycles with low-slung aerodynamic bodies
Championships with its twin-cylinder engine, while inside which riders lie flat. The BUB Seven
the four-cylinder Suzuki GSX 1300R Hayabusa Streamliner was the first to break 350 mph
was the fastest production motorcycle of last (563 km/h) in 2006, while the Top 1 Ack Attack
century, and the Kawasaki ZZR1400 is the is currently the world’s fastest motorcycle. 57

Easy riders 932

Indian Two-Si x t y

UK 1
Fo Oversized

s t in
oug Super ior Au
Br Passenger seat
perched over the
rear wheel
S 7 D e L u xe UK 1 9 4

Fat tires for
comfortable ride

Shaft from engine drives

the rear wheel around

engines from Windshield height
the R26 were can be adjusted
used to power the
BMW R26 Germany 1957
BMW Isetta
300 car.
passenger seat
luggage rack

Harley-Davidson FLHT
Electra Glide Classic USA 1984

Large, heavy, and powerful, touring and Early big motorcycles often copied features
sports-touring motorcycles are designed usually found in cars. The Indian Two-Sixty was
for comfortable long-distance riding. Some the first bike to come with electric lighting as a
of these big beasts are the last word in standard feature. The Brough Superior Austin
luxury, with high-quality audio systems Four used an engine and a gearbox from a car to
58 and comforts not found on other bikes. drive two closely set rear wheels for a smoother
Cruise control allows
motorcycle to travel at set speed

Easy riders
Honda Goldwing
GL1500 Japan 1999
Suzuki M1800R
O Intruder Japan 2007
C V 20

Har ley-
D d s o n SA 1,078 cc engine gives top speed
Soft a i l Co avi t i ble U Carbon fiber of 196 mph (315 km/h)
n ver body panels

MV Agusta08
F4CC Italy 20

Cast aluminum front wheel

Adaptive headlight
changes brightness
according to conditions
a cost of Twin disk brakes, normally
$300,000, found on racing motorcycles

this motorcycle
comes with a Air bag inflates in
$20,000 0.1 seconds during crash

Germany 2011

Frame made of
light but strong
titanium metal

Ecosse Titanium GL180 Goldwing
USA 2011 0 Japan

ride. In the 1970s and 1980s, big motorcycles feature a built-in jukebox. The BMW K1600GT
got even larger and heavier. The Electra Glide has heated seats and handlebar grips for cold
Classic weighed more than 738 lb (335 kg) weather, and an onboard computer with a color
empty. Modern luxury motorcycles continue to touch screen. The Honda Goldwing GL1800
offer innovative features. The Honda Goldwing has an electric reverse gear and an air bag for
GL1500 comes with foot heaters and some the rider. 59

The car revolutionized transportation in the 20th century, and more than
half a billion cars are found on the world’s roads today. While some are
powered fully or partly by electric motors, most cars use an internal
combustion engine in which gas and air are mixed and burned to produce
power to drive the wheels. The Toyota Yaris (or the Vitz) is a popular, Rearview
small family car, with more than 200,000 manufactured every year. mirror

Steering wheel
Engine ❯ Under the hood
sits an internal combustion Side mirror
engine that generates around
90 horsepower to give a top
speed of 109 mph (175 km/h).
Headlight ❯
Protected by transparent
plastic cover, headlights
light up the path ahead.

Disk brakes ❯ Brakes apply

pads onto discs, which are
attached to the wheels. The
friction between the pad and
disc slows the wheel down.

Hatchback ❯ A full-height rear
lifting trunk door gives this car
71.8 gal (272 liters) of storage
Interior ❯ Inside the car, the space. Cars with a rear door like
driver and passengers are this are known as hatchbacks.
protected by a number of air

bags, which inflate when there
is a severe impact, to cushion
the occupants. The Yaris has Radio antenna
front and side air bags.

Toyota Yaris/Vitz

Rear indicator
and brake light

Passenger door ❯ These are fashioned

out of steel panels, aluminum, or carbon
fiber. This car is fitted with remote central locking.
The driver presses a button on the key to open or
close the locks on all four doors.
Pioneering cars
Vertical boiler
Handle steers the
generates steam
Grenville St front wheel to the

to run the engine

Car riage UK am
left or right B e n z M o to r
18 wa

r man
y 1885
Da i m l e r Ger many 1886
panels on a
steel frame

Seats can fit six

people sitting Steel spoke
back-to-back wheels

Gas cylinder

spoked wheel Arrol-Johnston Dogcart UK 1897
Tiller moves left
steering Rear-mounted or right to steer car
wheel engine started
by turning Contoured
crank handle mudguard

Daimler Cannstatt
Germany 1898 Oldsmobile Curved Dash USA 1901

Early attempts to take to the road were Karl Benz’s three-wheeled Benz Motorwagen
in steam-powered vehicles, such as the was the first car with a working internal
Grenville Steam Carriage. It took the combustion engine. A year later, the Daimler, a
development of reliable internal motorized horse carriage became the first gas-
combustion engines fueled by gasoline, driven four-wheeler. While Daimler continued
62 to produce the first popular cars. to develop motorized horse carriages, more car
Hand-squeezed horn High roof for men
wearing top hats

Rolls-Royce Silver
Ghost UK 1906
De D ion-Bouton wheel with
Type O France 1902 detachable rim

Ford Model

More than
15 million

Citroën Type A
Model Ts were

France 1919
Gas lamp produced between
1907 and 1927.

car weighs
just 795 lb
(360 kg)

Austin Seven
Roof made of
UK 1926
high-quality canvas

Hood covers 4-ft-4-in-

(1.3-m-) long 698 cc engine

Single rear light

Duesenberg Model J USA 1928

Side-mounted spare wheels
sits on both sides of the car

makers emerged. The Oldsmobile Curved Ford Model T, had gas lamps. Built on an
Dash was the world’s first mass-produced car, assembly line, the Model T made motoring
with more than 19,000 sold. Some early cars affordable for the masses. The 1920s saw an
had somewhat primitive features. The engine of explosion in car design, from the Duesenberg
the Arrol-Johnston Dogcart was started by Model J, driven by American gangsters and
pulling on a rope, and many cars, including the movie stars, to the compact Austin Seven. 63
THRILLS AND SPILLS  At first, this dramatic tangle of men and
machines looks like a horrible accident.
In fact, it’s all fun and games. A clue is the ball on the ground on the right of the picture—and, if
you look closely, you can see that the two passengers in the cars are wielding mallets. Welcome
to the sport of “auto polo,” and a crunch moment during a game in Florida, in 1928.
Polo is usually played by riders on horseback. In the USA their steeds were stripped-down Ford Model Ts. The driver
in the early 1900s, the sport was spiced up a little when the was held in place with a seat belt, while his malletman leaned
horses were replaced with cars. It is said that the inventor out and tried to hit a basketball into a goal. The cars tore
was a Ford automobile dealer who came up with the idea as around the field at furious speeds up to 40 mph (64 km/h),
a publicity stunt, and it caught on. The game was played by while the referee chased the action on foot. By the end of
two teams, each made up of two cars and four players, and the game, most of the cars were destroyed.
Early race cars Cylindrical fuel tank

Some early
race cars had a Small, round
mechanic windshield
known as a
onboard to make monocle
85 mph (137 km/h)
Lancia Tipo 55 Corsa
Italy 1910

80 mph (129 km/h)

Starting handle
Mercer Type 35R Raceabout USA 1910 turns to fire up engine

Bucket seats
nb er g 183 US
A 1921

75 mph (121 km/h)

Stutz Bearcat USA 1912 112 mph (180 km/h)

Eight-spoke cast
SPEED Top three rapid racers Bugatti Ty pe 35B France 192
7 aluminum wheels

Auto Union Type D

205 mph (330 km/h)

Mercedes-Benz W125

205 mph (330 km/h)

Maserati 8C 3000

149 mph (240 km/h)

127 mph (204 km/h)

As soon as cars were mass produced, Some early race car drivers turned into car
people became eager to race them. Early builders. Italy’s Vincenzo Lancia, who won the
racing tested speed as well as reliability, 1904 Coppa Florio race, manufactured the
since early cars broke down a lot. But Lancia Tipo 55 Corsa. Across the Atlantic, the
advances in technology quickly saw Stutz Bearcat won 25 of the 30 races it entered,
66 race cars develop into speed demons. while the Mercer Type 35R Raceabout won
a l ve S p e c i a
r B oy l e V l USA
ille 193

92 mph (148 km/h)

Bentley 41 ⁄ 2 liter UK 1927

Early race cars

140 mph (225 km/h)

Maser ati 8C 3000 I t a ly 1 9 3 2 Spoked tire Four exhaust pipes

merge into one to carry
away waste gases

149 mph (240 km/h)

Exhaust pipe runs

below cockpit napolis
E i g h t India USA 193
Hud s o n
135 mph (217 km/h)

Alfa Romeo 8C 2300 Monza Italy 1933

130 mph (209 km/h)

Hand brake lever

Engine mounted mounted outside
behind driver
205 mph (330 km/h) Au t o U n i o n
Mercedes-Benz Ger many
1938 D
W125 Germany 1937

205 mph (330 km/h)

five of its first six races in 1911. Race cars Alfa Romeo 8C 2300 Monza and the Bugatti
remained box-shaped until after World War I, Type 35B, were produced throughout the 1920s
when sleeker, more rounded shapes started to and 1930s. Type 35 cars won more than 1,000
emerge. In 1921, the Duesenberg 183 became races and battled it out with German cars such as
the first all-American car to win a Grand Prix the Mercedes-Benz W125, which dominated
race in Europe. Stunning speedsters, such as the at the 1937 European Grand Prix Championship. 67
with style

Mercedes-Benz 500K
Special Roadster Germany 1934
Electric, hard-metal,
foldable roof Vents in the hood
cool the engine

Peugeot 401 Eclipse

France 1934 Bugatti Type 57SC
Giant Atalante France 1935
wheel fenders
or “wings”

Auburn Speedster USA 1935

Metal plate prevents

damage from gravel

Spare tire fits

in trunk to keep
car streamlined

MG TA Midget UK 1936
Spare wheel
Gas tank can hold
18 gal (68 liters)

Low-cut sloping door

hinged at the back
Fashionable, full
Lincoln-Zephyr USA 1936 whitewall tire BMW 328 Germany 1936

In the 1930s, some cars got slick and sleek The Lincoln-Zephyr created a sensation at the
as research revealed the importance of 1936 New York Auto Show with its teardrop
airflow around a car, especially at higher shape. On the road, the Auburn Speedster
speeds. Streamlining vehicles to improve roared with a 148 horsepower engine that
performance resulted in some stylish and generated a top speed of around 100 mph
68 eye-catching designs. (160 km/h). While some European sports cars
folding hood
Cord 810 USA 1936

Machines with style

A mere 8 C 2 9 0 0 B C o u pé
m eo I t a ly
seventeen Ro
1938 Long, sweeping
wheel fender
of the elegant lf a
Bugatti Type A
57SCs were
ever built.

Leather strap holds

engine hood down

Delage D6-75 France 1938


A Enclosed rear
won the
2-liter class
Le Mans
24 Hour race
in 1938.
Peugeot 402 Darl’Mat France 1938

stayed boxy, such as the MG TA Midget, others The sleek Mercedes-Benz 500K Special
like the Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Coupé were Roadster was packed with advanced features
designed with sweeping, rounded body shapes. for its time, including electric door locks, turn
The exotic Peugeot 402 Darl’Mat showcased indicators, hydraulic brakes, and separate
extreme streamlining with a lightweight suspension systems for each wheel for a
aluminum body and an advanced gearbox. comfortable ride. 69
Fins and f inery Rear compartment seats four
people on two rows of facing seats

Mercedes-Benz 300 Germany 1951

Buick Roadmaster
USA 1951

7,046 cc engine with a top

speed of 110 mph (177 km/h)

Cadillac Series 62
Club Coupé USA 1952
Big fins were
Armstron g Siddeley Sap pioneered
p by Cadillac

UK 19
5 3
Large tailfin contains the gas cap
of the 23-gal (87-liter) gas tank

Front doors open at

the back, the opposite
way of the rear doors Chrysler New Yorker
USA 1957
Large tail fin rises up
from main body

Studebaker Silver Hawk USA 1957

The 1950s saw an incredible economic Germany’s first postwar luxury car, the
boom in the USA; 30 million more cars had Mercedes-Benz 300, seated six people and
taken to its roads by the end of the decade. was called the Adenauer after the West German
Cars went from everyday transportation to chancellor who installed a writing desk inside
chrome-covered status symbols, packed one of his 300s. In contrast, the American Buick
70 with innovative new features. Roadmaster was a riot of two-tone color and
soft-top roof

Chevrolet Bel Air Aluminum trim

Convertible USA 1957 on body panels

Fins and f inery

Foldable hardtop, a feature
Large, wraparound,
many years ahead of its time
chrome bumper

Chrome hubcaps

ln Capri USA 1958
Ford Fairlane USA 1958

Power steering Tail fin ends with

Radio antenna and power brakes bullet-shaped rear light

Advanced electric
windows came
Air-powered suspension Cadillac Eldorado USA 1959
as standard fitting
system provides a
comfortable ride
1956, some
Chrysler cars came
with Highway
Hi-Fi, a built-in
record player.

n ev i l l e
1959 ia c 9
USA Po n t
l Co
(1.97-m-) wide car

chrome, including chrome engine vents. The (5.5 m) long, while the Lincoln Capri was
USA had entered the jet-aircraft age and this was even longer at over 20 ft (5.8 m). Automatic
reflected in the design of many cars—such as transmission was popular in big cars such as the
the Pontiac Bonneville, with its futuristic styling Chevrolet Bel Air Convertible, which also had
and large tail fins. Some cars also grew in length. fuel injection and luxurious styling. It remains
The Chrysler New Yorker was more than 18 ft one of the most collectable cars from the fifties. 71
Faster and faster
Single, two-eared wheel Removable steering
cedes-Benz W196

Ger many 1954 wheel

nut for quick replacement

Large 53-gal (200-liter) gas tank

carries 50 percent methanol Large stabilizing fin

1 954
I t a ly
r i 2 50F gu ar D-type UK 1956
a s e a t Ja

Driver’s headrest

r tin DBR1
ton Ma
UK 1956

Formula 1 racer
won 8 Grand
Prix between
1954 and 1960.
Roll bar to protect
driver if car turns over

fenhau ser Special USA 19

ke r-Of

Race car design developed greatly Track racing began in the 1950s with mostly
from the 1950s onward. Engineers and front-engined race cars, such as the Maserati
designers were constantly looking for 250F and the Mercedes-Benz W196, which
improvements to increase speed, enhance won the Formula 1 (F1) Championships in
handling, and boost performance in order 1954 and 1955. By the end of the 1950s,
72 to be the first to cross the finish line. rear-mounted engines became all the rage in
Lotus 49 UK 1967

Ford GT40 MKII USA 1966

L o l a - C o sw o r t h T 5 0 0 UK 1978

Faster and faster

Nose fitted with
low front wing

Carbon fiber body

-For d B193
UK 1

Adjustable rear spoiler

Williams-Renault Williams-
FW18 UK 1996 Renault FW18
won 12 of the
16 F1 races
in 1996.
Holden VR Commodore SS Australia 1993

Windshield clipped Large, aerodynamic wing keeps

in for easy removal the car stable at high speed

3,000 cc engine gives top

speed of 220 mph (354 km/h)
Chevrolet Monte Carlo USA 2000 Front wing ensures car
grips the track

F1 and Indy Cars. Sports car racing also saw Le Mans in 1966. In some parts of the world,
change. Open cockpit cars such as the Jaguar track racing featuring modified sedan cars
D-Type, which won the Le Mans 24-hour gained popularity. A Holden VR Commodore
endurance race in 1955, 1956, and 1957, were SS won the 1995 Australian Touring Car
replaced by cars with a roof. The sleek Ford Championships, while the Chevrolet Monte
GT40 MkII finished first, second, and third at Carlo was driven by many NASCAR racers. 73
Fast and

9 UK 2005
Rear wing deflects in DBR
ley Speed 8 Mar t
Bent Aston
air to keep car stable
UK 20

Le Mans 205 mph (330 km/h) Le Mans 186 mph (299 km/h)

Powerful headlights
for nighttime racing Au d
i R10 Ger man y 2006

Le Mans 211 mph (339 km/h)

Radio transmitter sends information
about the car’s performance to race team
Roll cage frame
protects driver if
BMW M3 GT2 Ger many 2008
car rolls over

Ferrari F2008 Italy 2008

Powerful disk brakes can

stop a car at 125 mph
(200 km/h) in three seconds

Le Mans 180 mph (290 km/h)

Modern high-speed racers packed with All successful race cars must be fast, but different
electronics are designed and modeled forms of racing place different demands on the
on computers, and tested in wind tunnels vehicle. A power-packed rally car must be rugged
to ensure their design offers maximum and able to handle roads, tracks, and rough
performance. No expense is spared ground. The World Championship winning
74 on these sleek speed machines. Volkswagen WRC Polo R can accelerate from
Heated, wide, Hinged side
rubber tires window Lola Asto UK 200 9
n Ma 1
acts as door
r tin L M P

Fast and furious

Formula 1 200 mph (322 km/h)
Le Mans 209 mph (336 km/h)
MP4/23 UK 2008 SS USA/Australia 2013 Large roof flaps lift up
r ol
to ground car during crash

C he v

F1 drivers
shift gears
more than 3,600
times in a Grand
Prix race.
NASCAR 196 mph (316 km/h)

Volkswagen WRC
Polo R Germany 2014

Indycar Series 230 mph (370 km/h)

Team Penske Dallara/Chevrolet USA 2014

Rally 125 mph (201 km/h)

SPEED Top speeds in different races

Indycar Series

Formula 1 200 mph (322 km/h) Team Penske Dallara/Chevrolet 230 mph (370 km/h)
Formula 1
Mercedes AMG Petr onas W05 Ger m
any 2 Mercedes AMG Petronas W05 212 mph (341 km/h)
Le Mans

Audi R10 211 mph (339 km/h)


Chevrolet SS 196 mph (316 km/h)


Volkswagen WRC Polo R 125 mph (201 km/h)

Formula 1 212 mph (341 km/h)

0–60 mph (0–100 km/h) in 3.9 seconds. Cars built R10. Danica Patrick, in a Chevrolet SS, became
for endurance racing must be very reliable. In the first woman to win pole position for NASCAR’s
2009, the Lola Aston Martin LMP1 raced Daytona 500. Lewis Hamilton won the World
3,159 miles (5,084 km) in 24 hours at Le Mans. Its Championship with the McLaren-Mercedes
driver, Tom Kristensen, also won the race a record MP4/23 in 2008, and again in 2014, with the
nine times in the Bentley Speed 8 and the Audi Mercedes AMG Petronas W05. 75
THE ULTIMATE TEST  Powering through giant sand dunes, some more
than 66 ft (20 m) high, is just one of the many
challenges facing this Monster Energy X-Raid Mini in the 2013 Dakar Rally. Considered the toughest
test of car and driver on the planet, competitors race across more than 5,280 miles (8,500 km) of the
toughest terrain imaginable, from rocky pavements to giant deserts and forest trails.
The Dakar was first held in 1979 across the unforgiving 111 mph (178 km/h) top speed, and tanks able to hold up to
Sahara in Africa, but since 2009 it has run through South 106 gallons (400 liters) of gas. Driver Stéphane Peterhansel
America. More than 400 cars, motorcycles, quad bikes, is a Dakar legend. He won the motorcycle class of the rally
and trucks take part in each race, but fewer than 60 percent six times before switching to cars. Over two solid weeks of
of these reach the finish line. This Mini is built tough and phenomenal off-road racing in his Mini, Peterhansel won
equipped with four-wheel drive, a powerful engine giving it a the 2013 Dakar—his fifth victory in the car class.
Fun in cars Fold-down windshield
Rear spoiler

Willys MB Jeep with hand-operated

Chunky-tread tire
wipers in early models

USA 1941 provides grip over

rough ground

Mini Moke
UK 1964 1960s

Leyland Mini Moke Australia 1968


93⁄4 in- (25 cm-) Steel side box holds car battery
diameter wheel

LJ 10 Japan
ny 7 Spare wheel

in place of
Suzuki J

a fourth seat
1960 and 1980,
every second
car on Magnetic
Island, Australia
was a Mini
Moke. Bucket seats with
Fold-down harness to keep driver
windshield and passenger secure

etle Baja
en Be Bu
ag g

or t RS1800


Grille lets air into


19 r 73
engine compartment


Toughened body
for rallying

Strong towing bar

to pull car out if
stuck in sand or mud

Driving can be enjoyable, but some cars The Willys MB Jeep could be driven just about
are more fun than others! A number of anywhere, with more than 600,000 produced
cars have been modified or designed from during World War II. Civilian Jeeps followed until
scratch to offer a fun drive on open roads, 1986 when they were replaced by the Jeep
across stretches of sand, or along trails Wrangler, which allowed drivers to switch
78 and rally courses. between two- or four-wheel drive. Several fun
Gas cap of 76.6-gal V12 engine from
(290-liter) gas tank a Lamborghini
Countach supercar

Fun in cars
LM002 Italy 1986

Steel half-door
Peugeot 205 T16
Evo 2 France 1985
Spare wheel

Rear door for

passengers to enter

Jeep Wrangler
USA 1987

Heavy-duty suspension
to withstand bumps

M C C S m a r t C r o s s bl a

Cut-out sides offer
open-air driving
Doors are optional
on this two-seater
Crossblade has
no doors, no
and no roof.

Secma F16 Sport France 2008

cars started life as military prototypes, such as tailor-made for beaches, while some modified cars,
the Lamborghini LM002, an off-roader with such as the Baja Bug, had raised bodies and
four-wheel drive, air conditioning, and a roof- strong suspensions to overcome the most difficult
mounted stereo. The Leyland Mini Moke, on terrains. Buggy-styled cars are still made today,
the other hand, was a bare-bones vehicle with no such as the Secma F16 Sport, which has plastic
frame around the driver. Dune Buggies were body panels and a convertible roof for rainy days. 79
Crazy cars
plywood body Brooke Swan

Whitewash came
out of the back to UK 1910
simulate bird
ny 1958
or Ger ma
o nat
Aluminum et

disc wheel

at H

élica France 1919

34-ft- (10.4-m-) ta

long wings

Aer ocar USA 1954

This doors
Colorful, hot-rod
Bond car can paint scheme
race in reverse Body made
gear at speeds of brushed
above 112 mph
(180 km/h).
ner mobil
DeLorean DMC-I2 UK 1981 W ie e USA 2

r ti n Vanquish UK 2002
n Ma Machine guns

A sto

Rockets fire from

radiator grille

Think all cars are simple, straightforward Some of these wacky machines, such as the
boxes-on-wheels? Think again! Over the Brooke Swan, which hissed hot water and steam
years, designers and engineers have let out of its beak, were special one-of-a-kind models
their imaginations run wild, and some built for eccentrics, or for movies such as the
outrageous and surprising designs have left Batmobile Tumbler. The Flatmobile, however,
80 the drawing board and turned into reality. was made to break records. At just 19 in (48.2 cm)
19 in (48.2 cm) tall

Batmobile Tumbler USA 2005

Crazy cars
Four rear tires

Homemade jet engine

Flatmobile UK 2007
from a Volvo F10 truck
gia Tr a n s i t i o n Electromagnets
Ter r afu
USA 200
9 lock wings into place

can convert
Cockpit has an from a car to a
aircraft control stick plane in less than
and a car steering wheel 13 60 seconds.

Giant Buick-
Rover V8 engine Controlled by
fitted to the rear driver’s body

Cab shaped
like a hot dog
Small cockpit pod
y 2013
i a 3 Ital
ola r e Em i l
Ond a S

Solar panels produce

more than 1,200 watts of
electricity to drive motors

tall, it is the lowest street-legal car in the world. aircraft propeller and could reach speeds of up
Flying cars are among the craziest of all, but the to 106 mph (170 km/h). Some strange-looking
Aerocar and Terrafugia Transition did work, cars are experiments to test out new ideas, such
using folding wings and a pusher-propeller at the as the solar-powered Onda Solare Emilia 3, or
rear to thrust the car forward. The Leyat Hélica the Toyota FV2, whose body can change color
couldn’t fly but was pushed into action by an to reflect the driver’s mood! 81
A SPIN ACROSS THE WAVES  Is it a car? Is it a boat?
The answer is it’s both!
The WaterCar Panther is an American amphibious vehicle equally at home on water as it is on land.
When on a lake, river, or bay, its engine powers jet thrusters that suck in water and then push it out
behind the craft, propelling it forward at speeds up to 43 mph (70 km/h).
On the road, the car’s 1-gal (3.7-liter) Honda Acura engine it float. When reaching the water, the driver only has to pull
powers the Panther’s rear wheels, giving it a top speed of a knob to engage the jet thrusters, and press a button. The
around 80 mph (128 km/h). The 15-ft- (4.6-m-) long Panther does the rest, using its hydraulic suspension system
waterproof, Jeep-shaped body can carry four people and is to retract its wheels up into its body. This all takes under
sculpted out of fiberglass fitted to a steel frame. Parts of its 15 seconds! Once on the water, the Panther can glide with
body are filled with incredibly lightweight Styrofoam to help ease and can even tow a water-skier or wakeboarder.
Volkswagen Kombi Germany 1950


antenna Engine at the
rear of car

Hillman Imp UK 1963

Cortina was
the UK’s
car from 1972
to 1981. Ford Cortina
MK I GT UK 1963 Chrome hubcaps
96 4
rf i re 18 ft (5.5 m) long
O l d s m o b i l e S ta

ri na
Au s t i n M a x i 1 7 5 0 ris
Fake air vents, 19
only for show 69 Rear seats
fold flat to form
cargo area

Gas tank can hold

13.7 gal (52 liters)

A family car needs to be economical Family cars in the 1960s, such as the Oldsmobile
and have space for four to five people, Starfire, were often based on a three-box design,
as well as for plenty of storage. Many with an engine compartment, passenger cabin,
manufacturers work hard to build and large trunk. The Hillma n Imp changed
affordable cars that have the perfect things by putting the engine in the rear, while early
84 balance of space, performance, and price. hatchbacks, such as the Austin Maxi 1750,
Front wheels drive
Volkswagen Golf GTI Germany 1975 110-horsepower engine

Family cars
a da/Ritmo I t a ly 1 9
Top speed of just Str
58 mph (93 km/h)

Tra bant East Ger many 19

u ge
o t 406
France Engine gives top speed
199 of 60 mph (100 km/h)

Body panels made

of recycled materials
Volvo V70 T5 Sweden 1997 Mercedes-Benz A-C
Top speed of II G
135 mph (218 km/h) er m

came with a sloping rear door to offer more with more hatchbacks such as the Fiat Strada/
versatile storage space. The affordable Morris Ritmo—and the Volkswagen Golf GTI, which
Marina was built to compete with the highly launched a new class of cars, the “hot hatch.”
popular Ford Cortina, which was bought by These offered a hatchback design with a faster,
more than two million customers, mostly in the sportier output than most family cars. More
UK. Sleeker family cars appeared from 1970s, than 29 million Golfs have been built to date. 85

Spyker 60HP
Netherlands 1903

Low height Jeep Wagoneer Wheels powered

USA 1972 by 8-liter engine
to enable easy
loading of cargo

Subaru Leone Estate J Rear seats fold down to

an create large cargo space
7 2

Car switches
between four- and
two-wheel drive

Top speed of p or t Quattro Ger m

154 mph
d iS any
(248 km/h) Au 3

rtrak Japan 1987

Low rear
spoiler Daihatsu Spo
Small 7 ft 2 in Turbocharger boosts
(2.2 m) wheelbase engine power to
185 horsepower


Most 4x4s
can climb
at angles
up to 45°

Lancia Delta Integrale

Italy 1987

Most cars transmit power from their In 1903, the Spyker 60HP used the first four-
engine to either the front or rear wheels, wheel drive on a gasoline-fueled car. However,
but not four-wheel drives. Known as only military and special purpose off-road 4x4s,
“4x4s,” these cars direct power to all four such as Land Rovers, were built in large numbers
wheels, offering better grip on slippery until the 1960s and 1970s. The Subaru Leone
86 roads and tricky off-road conditions. Estate was one of the first everyday 4x4s. It was
Land Rover Discovery se Rubber impact
bumper Volvo XC90 Sw e d e n 2

r ie
Top speed

U of 98 mph
998 (158 km/h)

Outdoor warriors
cargo area
Electronic suspension
Ra allows car to have better
ng grip for twisting roads
e r
or t

Lincoln MK LT Fold-down
UK 2005

USA 2005

Mounted rear
tire takes length
Hummer H3 USA 2005 to 15 ft 8 in (4.8 m)

S at u r n
l oo The H3
kU was the
SA 20
Three rows
of seats
0 6 smallest
accommodate up
among the Hummer
to eight people models, and the
only one to be
built by GM.

designed mainly for driving on roads in all the first sports utility vehicles (SUVs) had emerged.
conditions, with some light, off-road action. In the These rugged cars, like the Daihatsu Sportrack
1980s, rallies became dominated by fast, rugged and Volvo XC90, had high-set bodies for better
4x4s, such as the Lancia Delta Integrale and the ground clearance over bumpy roads. The
Audi Sport Quattro, which won many World Hummer H3 can travel through 24 in (60 cm)
Rally Championship titles between them. By then, of deep water and drive up 60-degree slopes. 87
and sports cars

Soft-top roof had

to be folded by hand M
ale y 3000 UK 19
GB -He
C o nv stin
e r t i bl e UK 1

wheels any 19
Ger m
r sc

Ford Mustang
Small, narrow Fastback USA 1965
trunk wide enough Rear-mounted
to hold spare tire engine
I t a ly
6 GT
D ino Headlight with
ra ri transparent plastic cover

Fast to accelerate and quick to brake, There’s no mistaking the love for sports cars—
sports cars are built to thrill. Mostly old and new! The first generation of Chevrolet
two-seaters, they offer higher performance Corvettes were built in 1953 and the seventh
and sharper handling than everyday cars. generation came out in 2014. More than 820,000
Convertibles have a folding roof for open- high-performance Porsche 911s have been
88 top driving on sunny days. built, while Ford Mustang Fastbacks were
Datsun 260Z Jap

Pontiac Trans Am
Large V8 engine
USA 1975
under steel hood

Convertibles and sports cars

indicator C h e v r o l e t C o r ve t t e
lights US

The 260Z
series was one
of the world’s
sports car in
the 1970s.

Long, sloping

Mazda MX-5 Alloy wheel

(MkI) Japan 1989 fitted with
disc brake
Fiberglass body on top
of aluminum frame
More than
MX-5s were
sold by 2015.

Lotus Elise UK 1996

an Aer o 8 UK 2001
Mor g

Audi TT Roadster Louvers channel air over front brakes

Germany 1999 to keep them cool

among the two million Mustangs sold in the first if not as powerful and fast, also proved fun to
two years of production. Many Mustangs in the drive due to their light weight. The Mazda
late 1960s and 1970s were fitted with large V8 MX-5 weighed 1,962 lb (890 kg), while the Lotus
engines to offer the brute force provided by Elise tipped the scales at just 1,598 lb (725 kg).
fellow muscle cars such as the Pontiac Trans The popular British soft-top MGB Convertible
Am. Sports cars fitted with smaller engines, even sold half a million models in the UK alone. 89
Mini motors Ger many
Front of car opens
out as a single door

etle Ger many 194

Be 5 Rear engine 30
en air-cooled via vents a


ksw a



13 ft 6in (4.1 m) long

it t KR200 Ger many

hm 6

M 7 ft 6in (2.3 m) long

The Subaru 360

Shallow doors open
out at the front took 37
seconds 19

Three UK 195 to do 0–60 mph

i ly

(0–100 km/h).


❹ Frisk

9 ft 4 in (2.8 m)


10 ft 2 in (3.1 m) long

i Seven
UK 1959


Space for UK 1963


four seats


❻ Au

Car has a handle

at the back for
driver to pull it into
9 ft 8 in (2.9 m) long parking spaces
4 ft 4 in (1.3 m) long

Small is beautiful when you need a car to Partly inspired by the success of the Volkswagen
dodge and weave through narrow city Beetle, a wave of tiny cars hit the roads in the
streets, and to squeeze into the smallest 1950s and 1960s. The compact Messerschmitt
parking spaces. Light in weight and easy KR200 could accommodate only a driver and
on the pocket, their small engines make one passenger, while the egg-shaped BMW
90 these mini motors cheap to run. Isetta 300 had two front wheels placed close

SIZE Smallest to biggest

7 2 12 9 3 5 6

t Robin
4 11 8 10 1

Mini motors
UK 1973
I t a ly 2 0 0 7
a t5
10 ft 10 in (3.3 m) long
Small trunk
area above ❿

é Ger many/France 1998

Single -C
front wheel
t Ci
ar 11 ft 6 in (3.5 m) long

ia 2
n o
Ta ta
8 ft 3 in (2.5 m) long

Fiberglass roof
Gas cap

10 ft 3 in
(3.1 m) long

⓬ Renault Twizy


9 ft 8 in (2.9 m)
Small 1-ft-1-in-
Storage space under hood (32.5-cm-) long
as engine in the back wheels Scissor doors 7 ft 6 in
open upward (2.3 m) long

together, no hood, and a motorcycle engine Seven reached more than four million by 1976.
tucked behind the seat. Many three-wheeled Today, mini cars such as the Smart City-Coupé
cars, such as the Reliant Robin and the Frisky and the Tata Nano are popular in crowded
Family Three, could be driven on a motorcycle cities. However, all of them still dwarf the Peel
license. While the Frisky sold only in hundreds, P50, the world’s smallest car, which weighs a
the sales of the hugely popular Austin Mini mere 130 lb (59 kg). 91
THE MOPETTA MICROCAR  In 1958, the passionate
German car designer Egon
Brütsch decided he was going to build the world's smallest car for the International Bicycle and
Motorcycle Exhibition in Frankfurt that year. His idea was to use a new material called fiberglass
to make two shell-like panels, which would fit together to form an egg-shaped microcar.
Brütsch built the prototype of the Mopetta overnight, but wide, and had a 50 cc engine that took it to a top speed of
he did not have time to sort out the mechanics before the 22mph (35 km/h). With its fiberglass body, Brütsch thought
exhibition, so the microcar was displayed up high, away the car would also work as a boat. Although publicity
from prying eyes. Success at the show meant Brütsch then photographs showed the Mopetta crossing a shallow stream,
had to make his design work. The result was a single-seat it could never be made fully watertight. Sadly, the Mopetta
three-wheeler that was 5 ft 7 in (1.75 m) long, 3 ft (0.9 m) never became popular and only 14 were ever made.
Engine mounted
0 I t a ly 1 9

sideways just behind

Lambor ghini M

driver’s seat
I t a ly 1 9 6 6 iur

170mph (274km/h)

Rear wing keeps

wheels on the ground
177 mph (285 km/h)
at high speeds
g h i n i D i a bl o I t a ly 1 9
Lambor 90 Gandini
designed the Miura
before he
turned 28.

202 mph (325 km/h)

Driver sits in the center
99 5 and slightly in front of
U K1 two passenger seats
McLar en F1

230 mph (370 km/h)

Five-spoke magnesium
wheels fitted with tires
0–62 MPH (0–100 KM/H) specially made for the car

Caparo T1 Body panels

made of light but
2.5 seconds Pagani Zonda I t a ly 1 9 strong carbon fiber

Porsche 918 RSR Spyder

3.0 seconds
Koenigsegg CCX-R

3.1 seconds

220 mph (354 km/h)

Some cars are just too hot to handle. The first supercar emerged in the 1960s. High-
These high-performance sports cars, performance cars such as the Lamborghini
known as supercars, are phenomenally Miura had sleek lines, powerful engines, and
fast and often very expensive. Hand- were built low to the ground. Miura’s successor,
crafted in small numbers, they offer the Countach, LP 400, was just 3 ft 7 in (1.1 m)
94 the last word in speed and handling. tall. Some supercars were made of high-tech
Inset rear wing rises automatically
to help car grip the road

headlights I t a ly
in the nose
E n zo
r ari

226 mph (363 km/h)
Lar en SLR 722S
Scissor doors open
s -M c
upward and forward de
M er ce

209 mph (336 km/h)

Twin exhaust pipes

mounted in the middle
of the car
igs egg CCX-R Swed
e n 200
K oen 6

205 mph (330 km/h)

Caparo T1 UK 2007
250 mph (402 km/h)
U K2
Wheels made of carbon fiber
N o bl e save 11 lb (5 kg) weight per wheel

A Venom
GT reached
a top speed of
225 mph (362 km/h) 270 mph
(435 km/h) in a
S R S pyd e r
e 918 R Ger many 2011 Air inlet channels air into test run.
s ch the engine compartment

270 mph (435 km/h)

Hennessey Venom GT
211 mph (340 km/h) USA 2014

material to keep their weight down, with the Noble M600’s twin turbochargers give it a top
1,036 lb (470 kg) Caparo T1 being the lightest. speed of 225 mph (362 km/h), while the
The heavier supercars compensate with McLaren F1 LM can hit 230 mph (370 km/h).
incredibly powerful engines. The Hennessey Some supercars feature the latest in race car
Venom GT can deliver up to 1,244 horsepower, technology, like the Mercedes-McLaren SLR
which is 10 times the power of a hatchback. The 722S, which has fly-by-wire (electronic) brakes. 95
Luxury rides
Buick NA 8/90

USA 1934

luggage rack

Spare tires on each

side of the body

s ler New Yor ker US

GAZ C haika USSR 195
9 hr y A1
C 960

Finned rear
Power steering wings took the
Lincoln Continental car’s length to
18 ft 4 in (5.6 m)
Convertible USA 1961

Rear doors open

out at the front ilver Cloud
R oyc e S I
l s- II UK 19
Rol 62

Jaguar Mark X UK 1962

The last word in comfort, luxury cars Celebrities and dignitaries did not have to shut
are often packed with the most advanced the doors of the Mercedes-Benz 600. This
driving and passenger features. These 2.9-ton car did it for them! Owners ranged from
grand, superexpensive cars offer a quiet, the Pope and presidents of many countries to the
cushioned ride for the rich, the powerful, rock ’n’ roll legend Elvis Presley. In the Soviet
96 and the famous. Union, the 18 ft-4 in- (5.6 m-) long, seven-seater
Luxury rides
Checker Marathon USA 1963
A rugged taxi,
but stretched
Mer cedes-Benz 600 Ge Gas tank with 12 gal for style
(45 liter) capacity fitted imler DS420 UK 1968
y1 inside each rear wing

Car accelerates from

0–60 mph (0–100 km/h) Bentley Conti
in under 7 seconds ne R oyc e P h a n t o
l R UK 1991 lls- m

UK 20

Fold-up roof stored

in rear of car
The Phantom
Drophead was
available in
4,300 different
Cadillac STS V8 USA
Sensors alert the
driver if the car
200 drifts out of its lane

GAZ Chaika was the choice car for politicians, Rolls Royce Silver Cloud IIIs had cocktail bars
while the stately Daimler DS420 was used by and televisions, while the Lincoln Continental
the British, Swedish, and Danish royal families. Convertible turned heads with its convertible,
The car was based on the Jaguar Mark X, four-door design. The statue on the hood of the
which came with a wood-paneled interior, plenty Rolls-Royce Phantom Drophead sinks into the
of legroom, and fold-down picnic tables. Some hood when the car is locked up. 97
Record breakers
Exposed engine
rr acq 200HP France 1905
without any
Da Basket seat

bodywork This car

is made up
of a Fiat SB4
and parts of a
120 mph (193 km/h)

B l i t ze n - B e n z 21.5-liter engine eles I t a ly / U K
e phistoph
Ger many 1909

Engine uses 44 gal

(166 liters) of gas per
60 miles (100 km)

141 mph (228 km/h)

France 1923
Delage V12
145 mph (234 km/h)

Gull-wing doors
open up and out
Ger many 1954 from the car roof
enz 30
Mer cedez-B
143 mph (230 km/h)

SPEED Top three record breakers

Bloodhound SSC

1,050 mph (1,690 km/h) 129 mph (208 km/h)

Thrust SSC

763 mph (1,228 km/h)

Spirit of America Solid titanium
wheels spin
600 mph (966 km/h)
around 10,000
times per minute

Cars have always been valued for The Blitzen-Benz was the first car with an
their speed. Some people have built internal combustion engine to break the 125 mph
one-of-a-kind fast cars in an attempt (200 km/h) barrier. In 1924, the Delage V12 held
to break land-speed records, while the land-speed record for six days before it was
car manufacturers have competed to broken by the Fiat Mephistopheles with a
98 produce the fastest production cars. bomber aircraft engine. The Bluebird CN7, also
Sculpted front
N for air intake
u e b i r d C 7 UK 1962 Spirit of America Soni c


Record breakers
403 mph (648 km/h) 600 mph (966 km/h)
Body fairing covers large 37ft-8in- (11.5m-)
4ft-4in- (1.3m-) diameter wheel r ari long body
GTB/4 Daytona I t a ly 1

174 mph (280 km/h)

Exhaust pipes
run along the side
Thrust SSC UK 1997 Spey jet engine
rear wheel

V 763 mph (1,228 km/h)
S p o r t Ge e yr o n
r ma Su
Fran per
ce 2
012 Tailfin

Bloodhound SSC
Tire can run flat
for up to 31mph
(50 km/h)

268 mph (431 km/h)

UK 2015

1,050 mph (1,690 km/h)

with an aircraft engine, was the last record- engine, and a rocket engine, will set a new record
breaking car with wheels driven directly by the at supersonic speeds. The Mercedes-Benz
engine. Record breakers since then, such as the 300SL set a record for fastest production car
current holder Thrust SSC, are propelled by jet in 1955, which was broken by the Ferrari 365
engines. The Bloodhound SSC team is hoping GTB/4. The Bugatti Veyron Super Sport
that their machine, using a Jaguar car engine, a jet is the current fastest production car. 99
DRAGSTER BURNOUT  Vrrrm, Vrrrm! Dave Gibbons revs up his
Rough Diamond T dragster at the UK’s
Santa Pod Raceway in 2014. These mean machines race along straight pieces of tarmac track,
known as drag strips, in high-speed races that last as little as five or six seconds. Blink and you’ll
miss the contests between these epic racers—the fastest-accelerating cars in the world.
Dragsters feature ridiculously powerful engines that burn an 0–100 mph (0–160 km/h) in less than 0.8 seconds. After
explosive fuel mixture. The most powerful, found in a class two or three seconds, they’re rocketing along at more than
of dragster called Top Fuel, can generate a staggering 8,000 250 mph (400 km/h) while the fastest can cross the line
horsepower. That’s more than the power created by all of at 310 mph (500 km/h). Dragsters need plenty of braking
the first 10 NASCARs or Formula One cars on a starting grid assistance, usually provided by large parachutes that open
put together. This phenomenal force carries dragsters from out behind the car to generate drag and slow it down.
Truck Sleeper cab ❯ This

cab contains a bed,

Trucks come in many shapes and sizes. Articulated trucks storage space, and, often,
come in two parts. At the front is a tractor, containing the cooking facilities for
engine and driver’s cab. It is connected to the cargo-trailer long-distance truckers.

by a pivoting joint, which allows the truck to go around Kenw

tight corners. The Kenworth C540 is a powerful or th C
long-distance truck that can haul a fully
loaded trailer over long distances.

side curtain

Semitrailer ❯ This is called a

semitrailer, because it does not have Side
a front set of wheels. It is designed lights
to hook up to the tractor. This model Gas
is a curtain-sider, with fabric side Wheels ❯ Two sets of tank
panels that can be pulled aside for tractor rear wheels support
loading or unloading. the weight of the trailer.
Exhaust stack ❯

Vertical exhaust pipes
Cab light release waste gases
from the engine.

Windshield Rearview
mirror Radiator grille ❯
The grille lets in air
to cool the large
diesel engine that
powers the truck.

Steps to
driver’s cab

Fender Bumper 103

Stack from steam engine

of trucks

Thornycroft Type J UK 1917 Flatbed to carry

Wagolis & Stee
sacks, boxes, or
other loads
n 7 2 7 ve n s
9 UK

World War I,
some Type Js were
fitted with guns
to shoot at enemy
Solid-rubber tires aircraft.
Two-doored cab
seats only one
M Pia Frame for
Subar u Samb
od g protective cover ar
el gio tr uck Japan 196 Kei
Ita pe

Tree logs carried

in trailer from forest
to lumber mill

Chevr olet C10 US Renau

lt TR 2


Driver’s cab contains 971


sleeping bunk in roof


There are almost as many types of trucks In Japan, tiny Kei trucks, such as the Subaru
as there are jobs they perform—from Sambar, carry small cargos around cities,
whisking packages around town to hauling while in Italy, the even smaller Piaggio Ape
farm animals, cars, or goods on trailers. Model D runs on three wheels, with a
The first motorized trucks ran on steam motorcycle engine powering its rear wheels.
104 power, but today most have diesel engines. Pickup trucks, such as the Chevrolet C10,
5 Nether lands 1
AF 8 992

Tons of trucks
Mer ced
enz 1
838 t
r tr u
c k
Nether la

nds 20
XF 08
many 1996

DA DAF 85 trucks
reach speeds of up
to 100 mph
(160 km/h) on
race tracks.
Rear supported
by three sets
of wheels

Large 793-cu in
Vertical (13-liter) engine situated
exhaust below driver’s cab

sem Volvo
Radiator grille uc Bob
k t Sw a

Living quarters

contain bed for driver

Scania P400 Sweden 2009

are often just a little larger than a sedan, and an engine, and are articulated, which allows the
have an open cargo bed behind the driver’s cab. truck to turn around tight corners. Trailers can
Many large trucks, such as the Volvo Bobtail be box-shaped, open, or specialized, such as the
and Scania P400, are designed to haul a range ramped car transporter hauled by the MCD
of trailers carrying very different loads. These DAF 85, or a tanker containing liquid pulled by
trucks have a tractor unit with a driver’s cab and the Mercedes-Benz 1838. 105
Special task A l v i s S t a lw a r t UK
Three-seater cab can
be entered from the roof



Underside of vehicle is
Douglas P3 UK 1970 waterproof to travel
through water

w fighter USA 19
Walter Sno

Water-and-foam cannon can fire

hundreds of liters of liquid per minute

er Sar
o Jave
lin UK 19 Large blades push
87 snow to the sides

Telescopic ladder can

extend upward to reach
into multistory buildings

200 Large hopper
ik 75 to collect garbage

tr ost
Six-wheel drive with
ra nce
engine powering all wheels
L aF
c an Extended cab carries
eri firefighters and equipment
stable base
when ladder
is extended

While some trucks are designed to be Every airport has tugs, such as the Douglas P3,
versatile and carry a wide range of loads, which can pull a giant aircraft into position, and
others are designed and specially built to crash tenders such as the Gloster Saro Javelin.
do one job and do it extremely well. Meet These high-speed firefighting vehicles often have
some of the more extraordinary special four-, six-, or eight-wheel drive and can rush to
106 task trucks. a stricken aircraft to cover it in water and foam.
Powerful crane can
lift smaller tow trucks

warning lights

it aro9
zC 200
B en r many
s - Ge
e de nce
r c la

Kenworth W900 tow truck

Australia 2007

Driver’s cab windows

are protected from branches
and debris by metal mesh

John Deer e 843K USA 2010

Citaro is
the largest
civilian ambulance,
with space for 20

Giant tires Holder C270 Ger many 2010

support weight
of the 27,990-lb
(12,696-kg) vehicle
and its load
Au t o c exhaust pipe
ar E
r ef
t r uck
USA 2011

Rapidly spinning
brushes remove dirt

Hyundai 700S-7E South Korea 2012

Special purpose trucks are also found every day dumps or recycling centers. The Walter
on city streets. Street sweepers, such as the small Snowfighter can clear roads of snow, and the
Holder C270, can turn their cabs to sweep Kenworth W900 lifts and recovers broken-down
around tight corners, while garbage trucks, vehicles. Out in the countryside, tree fellers such
such as the Autocar E3, collect and compact as the John Deere 843K use powerful saws and
garbage in their rear hoppers before taking it to grippers to fell and remove trees. 107
SHUTTLE  CRAWLER  Meet the ultimate heavy hauler—NASA’s
gigantic Crawler Transporter. This picture
shows it inching the Space Shuttle Discovery from the Vehicle Assembly Building to Launchpad 39B
at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida in 2005. Fully loaded, the Shuttle spacecraft weighs more
than 2,500 tons (2 million kg), so it takes a serious machine to carry such an extreme load.
NASA’s two Crawler Transporters, nicknamed Hans and vehicle, the crawlers move along a special, heavy-duty road,
Franz, were built in the 1960s to carry Saturn V launch known as a crawlerway, at a top speed of 1 mph (1.6 km/h).
vehicles. The loading platform is 295 sq ft (27.4 sq m)— The vehicle is powered by 16 electric engines, and the
about the same size as a baseball diamond. Each Crawler electricity is supplied by an onboard generator run by two
Transporter is 131 ft (40 m) long, 115 ft (35 m) wide, and diesel engines. Burning fuel at 126 gal per mile (297 liters per
weighs 3,000 tons (2,721,000 kg). When loaded with a space km), the Crawler Transporter is a real gas-guzzler.
Bus stop
Bollée L'Obeissante Steam
France 1873 stack

Open cab
for driver


LCOG B-type
U K 1911

27 ft 6 in (8.4 m) long

For emo
s t Ter r a
Canada 1 bus
Open platform
AEC Routemaster UK 1954
to enter and exit

Door powered by
compressed air Volvo B10MA Bendy Bus Sweden 1996

The first motorized buses were steam- Driven by twin steam engines, one for each rear
powered and carried people for short wheel, the Bollée L’Obeissante could carry
distances in the 19th century. The arrival 12 passengers at speeds up to 25 mph (40 km/h).
of the internal combustion engine led to Gradually, gasoline-engine buses took over the
bigger and more powerful buses for first mass-produced bus, the LCOG B-type,
110 commuters, tourists, and school runs. had seats for 16 passengers inside and 18 on the
Volvo B12M Sweden 2001

Underfloor-mounted engine Joint covered by

flexible rubber seals

The bendy,
92-ft- (28-m-)
long B12M can
seat up to 270

School bus USA 2002

Rails for a
flexible roof

driver’s cab

49 ft 2 in (15 m) long Roma Cristiana open bus Italy 2003

Wi-fi onboard for

using gadgets

Fold-down steps

Belgium 2009
lee per bus
Van Hool s

top deck. Double-decker buses proved popular, The rugged, single-decker Foremost Terra Bus
with room for many more people. The AEC transports tourists and workers around ice-bound
Routemaster became a British icon, carrying up regions in Canada and Antarctica. The Volvo
to 64 passengers around London, UK, while B10MA can bend in the middle to travel around
today’s open-topped buses, such as the Roma corners, while the Van Hool sleeper bus’s seats
Cristiana, give tourists spectacular city views. convert into 42 beds for long, overnight journeys. 111

Tractors are a farm’s workhorses, used to pull plows and other tools in fields,
or to carry and lift a range of loads. These machines vary in size, from tiny
tractors used in gardens and parks to giant beasts with massive pulling power.
The Massey Ferguson 7618 is a versatile, large tractor that can perform lots of
different jobs in the field.

Engine ❯ A large engine burns Engine Vertical exhaust

diesel fuel. This tractor has a hood
top speed of around 31 mph
on 7618
(50 km/h) on the road and
a s s e y Fer gus
17 mph (28 km/h) on the field.

Radiator grille


Weight frame ❯
Weights can be Fuel
added to the front of tank
the tractor to balance
out the weight of
the tools or loads it
carries behind it. Tire tread ❯ Deep
tread on the rubber tire
helps the tractor grip the
soft ground and move
112 forward or backward.
Driver’s cab Warning light
Cab light ❯ Equipped on all the four
corners of the cab, these light up the
area around the tractor.

Rear wheel ❯ Huge rear
wheels equipped with giant
tires, 5 ft 1 in (1.8 m)
in diameter and 223⁄4 in
(58 cm) wide, support
the tractor’s weight.

Steps to
the cab

Stack funnel




Canopy covered

driver and engine


l t
ton & Sh
Steering chains
turn front wheels
Twin City 40-65
UK 1916

Waterloo Boy
USA 1917
Steel wheels equipped with
blades dig into the ground to
provide more grip

Caterpillar Sixty
USA 1931

Driver’s cab sits

high above ground

A 1978
Bud 16V 7

TE-20 UK 1946

Rubber tires with heavy Each tire measures 7 ft

tread for better grip 10 in (2.4 m) in diameter

Powered by steam, the first farm tractors The Clayton & Shuttleworth Dorothy
were often heavy and slow, but they could steam-powered tractor weighed 22,046 lb
pull objects with great force. Over time, (10,000 kg) and had a top speed of 5 mph
diesel and gas engines replaced steam, (8 km/h). In contrast, the 15,212-lb (6,900-kg)
while solid steel wheels made way for JCB Fastrac 185-65 can reach 50 mph
114 tracks and wide rubber tires. (80 km/h). The Ferguson TE-20 became so

Hydraulic arms raise Bar protects the driver
and lower farm tools st r if the tractor rolls over

85-65 UK 1994
Storage area

Total tractor
A Fastrac
the world’s fastest
diesel car on
Wheel turned by its record run. Massey Ferguson 1540
steam engine USA 2005

Rear linkage

Weights balance hook to pull
heavy tools or loads
pulled by the tractor 50 plows or other

Ren 76 farm tools

au M TF
Frl g er
t Ace 200

r es 9

710 R Z

Steps to
driver’s cab
Xenon lights illuminate
field around tractor
Kingpin around

n which both halves of


De the body can turn New

T9.50 Holland



popular that over half a million were built. Some Tractors today range greatly in size. The small
tractors run on a continuous belt called a track, Massey Ferguson 1540 is used in parks and
which spreads weight evenly over the ground, gardening, while the New Holland T9.505 is
giving good stability and grip. The Caterpillar so long that its body is hinged in the middle.
Sixty had steel tracks, while the modern At 27 ft (8.23 m) long, the Big Bud 16V 747
Challenger MTF 7650 has rubber tracks. was used on large American cotton farms. 115
On the farm
Massey Ferguson 9240 UK 1995

harvester can
pick and wash
as many as
Sharp metal discs of
one million the harrow break up soil
pumpkins in a
week! Tank provides water
to wash pumpkins
ar ve s
k i n H006
p K2
Pum U

Large, chunky tire

provides grip over rough
and muddy ground
Folding crop-spray boom
can stretch out to a width
of almost 60 ft (18 m) Forks can lift
up to 7,716 lb
(3,500 kg)

Reel gathers in
stalks of cereal crops
Catterpillar TH406 USA 2010
John Deere 5430i USA 2008 Steps to toward cutting bar
driver’s cab

Cutting head
cuts grass and
stalked crops

John D
0 Cutting bar eer e S6
W26 90 USA 201
e slices the stalks
Jo h n off the plant

Farming involves a vast amount of hard Some farm tools like plows and disk harrows
work but, fortunately, machines have can be pulled or operated by multipurpose
come to the rescue. Farm machines tractors such as the Massey Ferguson 9240.
automate and speed up many tasks, Growing crops are protected by crop-dusting
which previously had to be done by machines, such as the John Deere 5430i,
116 hand or by using animals. whose giant booms spray large areas of fields

grippers can hold

and lift hay bales

740 Hol

On the farm
Unloading pipe discharges
35.7 gal (135 liters) of
grain per minute

New Holland T6.140

USA 2013

Grain tank can hold

up to 3,725 gal
(14,100 liters) of grain

New Holland Braud 960L USA 2013

Cutter head
removes flowers from
top of corn plant

Narrow wheels fit
into gaps between
rows of corn crops
Hagie 204SP Detassler USA 2013

with pest-removing chemicals. Come harvest harvesters, such as the John Deere S690, cut
time, different machines speed up the collection the stalks of cereal crops, separate the grain,
of crops, such as the New Holland Braud 960L, and shoot the remaining straw out the back. This
which travels above rows of vines, harvesting straw is packed into hay bales that can be lifted by
grapes, or the Pumpkin Harvester, which picks, forklifts, such as the Caterpillar TH406, or held
washes, and packs pumpkins. Large combine by grippers, as on the New Holland 740TL. 117
MONSTER LEAP  At the Monster Mania festival in the UK, Ian Batey flies
high in his Lil’ Devil monster truck over a row of old cars.
Fueled by high octane racing methanol in its hefty V8 engine, this powerful vehicle boasts ten times
as much power as a regular family car. It weighs more than 8,800 lb (4,000 kg)—guaranteeing a
crushing ending for any of the wrecked cars should it land on them.
Ever since Bob Chandler built the original Bigfoot monster the case of Lil’ Devil. Only the body is kept, as the vehicle is
truck in 1979 in the USA, these mean machines have been tricked out with a tubular steel frame chassis and mighty
entertaining crowds all over the world with their antics. Events 5-ft-7-in- (1.7-m-) high “terra” tires. These ride on suspension
include races over dirt courses in arenas as well as stunts, systems capable of absorbing enormous impacts on landing
jumps off ramps, and plenty of car crushing. Many monster while the driver, held firmly in his seat in a racing harness,
trucks begin life as a humble pickup, a Chevrolet Silverado in focuses on pulling amazing monster truck moves.
and mining

hopper can
hold 90 tons
Front roller Arm can move bucket to
can be moved dig down to depths of of rock—as heavy
left or right to more than 14 ft 10 in (4.5 m) as 20 monster
turn the vehicle

Hamm HW90/10 Germany 1987 Case Poclain 688B USA 1993
Steel loader can lift more
Vertical than 2,200 lb (1,000 kg)
Hopper can
exhaust pipe in a single scoop
be tipped by
hydraulic arms

Tire is 8 ft 11 in (2.7 m)
tall and weighs more
Caterpillar 950G USA 1998 than 3,307 lb (1,500 kg)

BELAZ-75570 er r LT
M150 Outriggers
0 Ger m stabilize the crane
any 20 when it is raised

31 ft 10 in (9.7 m) tall

Construction sites and mines have a lot Excavators are digging machines usually fitted
of digging, leveling, and heavy lifting with a steel bucket that cuts into the earth. Some,
going on, and big, rugged machines do such as the Case Poclain 688B, run on wheels,
most of the work. They have to be strong while others, such as the John Deere 160DL C,
to withstand the stresses of the tasks, run on continuous tracks, which are ideal for
120 and reliable to work all day long. crossing muddy ground. Front loaders, such as
Drum mixes concrete
for building purposes

n Dee
re 1
L C Diesel engine
turns the tracks

to move digger

en z Ger many 2007
Excavator can dig up to a
BelAZ-75570 Belarus 2008 depth of 21 ft 4 in (6.5 m)

Backhoe bucket to
dig holes or trenches
for pipelines

Front loader can

carry and push large
amounts of soil and
other materials

JCB 3CX UK 2009

Diggers are a
team of JCBs that
perform routines
to music.

Long blade levels

materials for a Caterpillar 12M2 USA 2011
smooth surface John Deere 650K XLT USA 2012

the Caterpillar 950G, feature a large front-scoop, HW90/10, use heavy rollers to press down and
and backhoe loaders, such as the JCB 3CX, have make a firm surface. Giant cranes lift materials
both a front-loader and a rear bucket-digger. The when building tall structures and some, such as
John Deere 650K XLT is a bulldozer equipped the Liebherr LTM1500, are mobile, with an arm
with a long, strong blade to push materials along that telescopes out and up to a distance of 276 ft
the ground, while compactors, such as the Hamm (84 m)—longer than a Boeing 747 jumbo jet. 121
Tanks and

Stabilizer prevents tank

from tipping over
Renault FT-17 France 1917
Mar k Turret hatch, below
K1 which tank commander sits

Gun originally
used in ships Continuous metal
and coastal forts tracks around
side of body

r man US Panzerkampfwagen IV Germany 1936

Turret holds three of


the five crew members

Soviet Union 1941

Large gun can fire shells

more than 3 miles (5 km)
Tough armor made
of ceramics and metals


9 ft 8 in (3 m) tall

Tanks are heavily armored vehicles that The Mark V had an eight-man crew and a top
run on tracks so they can cross muddy speed of 5 mph (8 km/h), the same as the two-
ground and other difficult terrain. They man Renault FT-17—the first tank with a
are usually equipped with a powerful, rotating gun turret. The Panzerkampfwagen
shell-firing artillery gun. The first tanks IV’s powerful gun could pierce the armor of
122 saw service in World War I. other tanks. It had a top speed of 24 mph
M4 Sherman V
Crab USA 1943

Tanks and tracks

landing craft

M-29C Weasel tank Landing Vehicle Tracked

With a transported inside Mk IV Buffalo USA 1943
top speed of
Heavy, spinning 57 mph (92 km/h),
chains pound the
ground to set off this was the
land mines fastest tank
of World War II.

ellcat USA 194

8H 16-ft- (4.9-m-)
M1 long aluminum
body holds a crew
of three

Alvis FV107 Scimitar UK 1971

launchers generate
smokescreen for defense

Tracks can travel through

6-ft- (1.8-m-) deep water

Challenger 1 MBT UK 1983

FV104 Samaritan UK 1978

Leopar d C2 Ger many 2000

Armored skirt
protects upper tracks

(39 km/h) and a range of 125 miles (200 km). The Sherman Crab has flailing chains to clear paths
T-34/85, one of its opponents, could travel twice through minefields. Main battle tanks, such as
as far. Other military vehicles are also armored the 68-ton Challenger 1 MBT, are large and
and tracked but perform different tasks. The equipped with powerful weapons. In contrast,
FV104 Samaritan is a battlefield ambulance, the Alvis FV107 Scimitar weighs less than
carrying up to six patients on stretchers, while the 9 tons and can travel at 50 mph (80 km/h). 123
Steam train

Steam trains have engines that burn fuel in their firebox. The heat boils water to
produce steam, which is fed into cylinders where it expands to drive the pistons.
The movement of the pistons turns the wheels with the help of a rod and a crank,
moving the train. This American locomotive from 1863, Thatcher Perkins,
weighs 45 tons and could haul several wagons or carriages at 50 mph (80 km/h).

B&O Class B No. 147 whistle
Thatcher Perkins


Tender ❯ On many trains, this Driving

stored both water and fuel, often Wheel brakes ❯ To slow down the train, wheel
in the form of coal or, on this the driver pulls a lever, which presses brake
train, wood, to power the engine. shoes directly onto the driving wheels.
Stack ❯ The smoke from the
burning fuel in the firebox is
channeled up and out through
the stack. This one is fitted with
layers of mesh to stop any
dangerous sparks from escaping. Headlamp ❯

Steam train
A large lamp burned
oil to light up the
tracks ahead.

number plate


Coupling Engine
Wheel arrangement ❯ Steam Pilot ❯ Also known
rod cylinder
engines are defined by the number of as the cowcatcher, this brushes
wheels they have. This one has four Leading aside obstacles, such as tree
leading wheels and six driving wheels. wheel branches, from the train’s path.

da r ren loco
releases y- m

i ve
UK 1804 3
y UK
Towing hook

16-ft- (4.9-m-) tall

Vertical boiler smokestack
filled with
hand-pumped water
Giant flywheel
measures 8 ft
(2.45 m) in diameter
Steam Wagon USA 1825
UK 1829

Top of stack is 29
21 ft 11 in (6.7 m)
above the ground

Upright boiler


Novelty UK 1829

The first steam engines were used in In Wales in 1804, Trevithick’s Pen-y-darren
factories to run machines, or in mines made the first railroad journey at less than 2 mph
to pump out water. Richard Trevithick, (4 km/h), hauling 12 tons of cargo and 70 people
a mining engineer, was one of the first to over 8.9 miles (14.4 km). Other steam engines,
use steam to power a moving locomotive, such as the Puffing Billy and Agenoria, quickly
126 sparking a transportation revolution. followed, ferrying coal or goods from factories.
Tubes inside
boiler are Large boiler helps
made of Tom Thumb achieve a top speed
gun barrels USA 1830 of 20 mph (32 km/h)

Early steam
B&O Atlantic USA 1832

pulled by
horses ran
on the same lines
as the Adler.
Adler UK/Germany 1835
Water barrel
Driving wheel 6 ft
(1.8 m) in diameter

GJR Columbine UK 1845

Large funnel-styled
stack with wire netting Cab made of
to trap fire sparks walnut wood

Cowcatcher to
Inclined push obstacles
cylinder from the track
pushes the driving
ion eer
.13 P
wheel forward
N o 5 1
In 1829, Robert Stephenson’s Rocket beat the Steam Wagon was the first American train, but it
Novelty at the Rainhill Trials in the UK, where ran on a small circular track. The first engine used
engines competed to run on the Liverpool and on regular service in the USA was Tom Thumb on
Manchester Railway—the world’s first intercity the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O). By 1840,
line. Stephenson’s company later built the Adler, the country had over 2,796 miles (4,500 km) of
the first German commercial train. John Steven’s track, more than found in the whole of Europe. 127
Mainstream SNB Limmat
Germany/Switzerland 1847



Queen was Engine named
after the river
given national Headlight it traveled
treasure alongside

status by India
in 1972.

em non
. 5 7M
stack opening No
C l ass
Hinged door
to access
Headlight Driver's

2 2 Fair 5
No. ia 18
E I R n UK/Ind

Steam railroads boomed in the later half The SNB Limmat ran on the first railroad line in
of the 19th century, opening up new Switzerland, while the EIR No. 22 Fairy Queen
territories and connecting towns and operated in India for 54 years. The DHR Class B,
cities. Locomotives developed rapidly, to also from India, had a short wheelbase, which
become faster, more reliable, and able helped it grip the track of the Darjeeling
128 to pull more cars or cargo wagons. Mountain Railway that rose 6,500 ft (2,000 m) in
Open cab as train

operates underground



Mainstream steam
Coupling rod joins driving wheels High-pressure boiler
powers train to top
speeds of 68 mph After
(110 km/h) World War I,
Germany gave
627 Class P8s to
European nations
as war damages.

LB&SCR B1 Class UK 1882 Locomotive named after

British Prime Minister
William Gladstone
Saddle tank can holds
144 gal (545 liters) of water

er m
Streamlined nose 8
to cut through air USA 19
DHR Class B t i ve
UK/India 1889 Double stack, at high speeds
a first for steam trains le ss L
P & L D Fir e

Class A4 Mallard UK 1938

altitude. In contrast, the Met Class A ran on elsewhere. Innovations included the PP&L D
the world’s first underground train line, the Fireless, which stored steam in its boiler so it
Metropolitan Railway in central London. Steam could work in places where flammable fuel was
trains were built well into the 20th century. More a hazard. Steam engines were also streamlined
than 3,700 Prussian Class P8 engines were for extra speed. The Class A4 Mallard was the
built and used in Romania, Poland, France, and fastest, with a top speed of 125 mph (202 km/h). 129
The No. 4472 Flying Scotsman powers along the
FLYING  SCOTSMAN  tracks of the Carlisle to Settle line in the north-
west of England, a service known as the “Cumbrian Mountain Express.” The 71-ft-2-in- (21.7-m-)
long locomotive weighed more than 109 tons, but generated enormous pulling power. In 1934, it
became the first steam locomotive officially recorded to exceed 100 mph (160 km/h).
The Flying Scotsman was designed by the British engineer in 1963, but the engine’s travels weren’t over. It was saved
Sir Nigel Gresley, who had joined the railroad as a 17-year- from being scrapped by enthusiast Alvin Pegler and, after
old apprentice. The locomotive was built in 1923, and soon restoration, underwent a five-year tour of the USA, before
after was painted its famous apple-green color. During World being taken to Australia, where she set a new world record
War II, however, it was painted black. After 40 years of for the longest nonstop locomotive run, traveling 422 miles
faithful service, the Flying Scotsman was retired by British Rail (679 km) on the Alice Springs to Melbourne route.
Diesel train

Diesel trains contain one or more large internal combustion engines that
generate hauling power. This power is transferred to the wheels by different
transmission systems. Locomotives using the diesel-mechanical system, such
as this BR Class 05, transfer the power directly to the wheels by means of shafts
and cranks. In a diesel-electric system, the power is converted into electricity
in a generator, which drives the motors that turn the locomotive’s wheels.

BR Class 05

High visibilty
warning stripes


Ventilation grille ❯ The grilles let air

into the main body of the locomotive to Coupling rod ❯ This transmits power from the engine to
help cool the large diesel engine. all three driving wheels on each side of the locomotive.
Engine ❯ A large Gardiner eight-cylinder Cab ❯ The 11-ft-6-in- (3.5-m-) high
diesel engine gives this locomotive a lot cab gives a good view down the long
of pulling power with the help of a hood, while twin rear windows allow
four-speed gearbox. However, it has the driver to see what is going on
a low speed—18 mph (29 km/h). behind. Inside, a series of dials gives

Diesel train
the driver details of the engine’s
speed, temperature, and status.

cab door


Counterweight ❯ This helps to Steps to

Driving wheel is 3 ft 4 in
balance the force of the coupling rod. driver’s cab
(1.02 m) in diameter
Dawn of diesel

High, sloping
driver's windshield

tti r a
e 1932
Eight-wheel bogie 122 mph (196 km/h) GHE T1 Germany 1933
(set of wheels that pivot)

Body design
tapers at rear

The first
GWR completed
59,652 miles
(96,000 km) in
its first year.

25 mph (40 km/h)

Small, sliding

r UK 1934
m l i n e d r ailca
re a
80 mph (129 km/h) GWR st
45 mph (72 km/h)

As engine technology developed in Diesel engines required less maintenance than

the early 20th century, some engineers steam locomotives and could be operated without
turned away from steam in favor of extra crew to stoke the boiler. This made some,
locomotives that ran on diesel fuel. such as the VC Porter No.3 and DR Class Kö,
Diesel-engined trains entered service ideal as low-speed switchers. Many early diesel
134 in numbers from 1930s onward. trains used their engines to drive the wheels
Stainless steel car
DR Class Kö Ge

any 1934
yr USA 193
Q P i o n eer Zeph
112 mph (181 km/h)

11 mph (18 km/h)

Boxley Whitcomb USA1941
cab door Single

20 mph (32 km/h)

VC Porter No.3 USA 1944

Driver's cab

DUSA 1 9 4 2

Side rods powered by

engine turn wheels around
20 mph (32 km/h)

mechanically, but not the PMR GM EMD. carry 34 passengers and ran on just four wheels.
A diesel-electric locomotive, its diesel engine The GWR streamlined railcar had a top speed
powered a generator that supplied electricity to of 80mph (129km/h), while the Bugatti railcar
its four electric motors. Diesel engines were also was even faster. This sleek machine broke the
used to power railcars—train passenger cars with record for high-speed trains in 1934 with a top
motors fitted below. The GHE T1 railcar could speed of 122mph (196km/h). 135
diesel 106 mph (171 km/h)

Powerful headlight to
illuminate track ahead
i n Clas1946 Logo of the
Bald -660 US
A Norfolk and
Western Railway
- 4

75 mph (125 km/h)

60 mph (96 km/h)

Stainless steel body is

85 ft (25.9 m) long

Budd RDC railcar USA 1949 85 mph (137 km/h)

B&O F7 Class USA 1949

Two jet
engines were fitted
to the roof of a
Budd to set a
speed record
in 1966.

Ladder to driver’s cab 50–120 mph (80–193 km/h)

Diesel locomotives became common after Baldwin Class DS-4-4-660 switchers were
World War II. Although they were often used to move cars and wagons in railroad yards.
more expensive to build, many were much With their 660-horsepower diesel engines,
cheaper and easier to operate than steam some 139 were built. The rugged and reliable
locomotives, and they spent less time in N&W EMD GP9 Class served all over the
136 repair shops as well. USA and Canada as a switcher, with more than
Spacious cab provided at either
end of the locomotive Driver’s cab
mounted on the roof

English Electric DP1 Deltic UK 1955

Cl a
A 19

9 57
ny 1
e r ma
. 5G
V T11
DB Radiator
100 mph (160 km/h) cooling fans

UP GM EMD Class SD60 USA 1984

Sliding double doors Rounded fuel tanks 65 mph (105 km/h)

Upper deck
D Class 66
connected to lower by
two spiral staircases BR GM EM

60 mph (100 km/h)

DWA Class 670 railcar
Germany 1996 75 mph (121 km/h)

4,000 produced. The DB VT11.5 hauled first- lines, each railcar could operate by itself to
class passengers at speeds of up to 100 mph carry a limited number of passengers, or they
(160 km/h) on the famed Trans-Europ Express could be linked together for greater capacity.
services, which linked 130 cities throughout Another option was a double-decker, such as
Europe. Diesel-powered railcars, such as the the DWA Class 670 railcar, which could hold
Budd RDC, proved very versatile. On small up to 110 people on two decks. 137
Rail workhorses
n non UK 1857
ha FR Prince UK 1863

S&PR No.5 S
Steam Tender holds
stack coal for
to burn to
produce steam

LNWR Pet UK 1865

Nose houses large
Locomotive is electric motor
7 ft 2 in (2.2 m)
high and 8 ft
6 in (2.6 m) long

Pantograph wit
supplies power to lan
locomotive's three 919
electric motors
PRR Class B1

Its long nose

gave the Ce6/8
the nickname
USA 1934


While passenger trains grab all the Freight trains often use diesel engines, such as
attention, thousands of other trains the DR V100, more than 1,100 of which have
are busy at work every day. These rail served across the world. The electric SBB Class
workhorses haul vast amounts of freight, Ce6/8, similar in design to the DR V100, has a
and move other trains and cars around central cab with a protruding nose at each end.
138 railroad yards. The engine was hinged so that it could turn on
Steam dome helps to
control steam pressure
Stack joined to
smokebox channels
smoke out of train

Rail workhorses
Driver's cab Sandbox contains sand, which can be rubbed on Front coupling
rails for better grip during bad weather

B&A GE 70-ton switcher USA 1946 Central driver's cab BR Class 08 Phantom UK 1953
gives excellent visibility
in all directions
100 Ger many 1
Driver's cab DR V 966

DR V15 Germany 1959

tight tracks in the Swiss mountains. Not around cars, wagons, and larger locomotives, to
all freight is carried cross-country. Many trains assemble and disassemble train services. These
move goods and equipment on lines serving switchers, such as the DR V15 and the BR
docks, mines, and factories, such as the FR Class 08, had to be robust and reliable. More
Prince, which hauled slate from Welsh mines. than 100 Class 08s are still in service more than
Many small locomotives are also used to move 50 years later. 139
Going electric CP
1 UK/
In dia 1

GIPR Class W
collects power from

Trolley pole Door to overhead cable

transfers engineers’s cab
electricity from
overhead cable
to train’s motor

B&O Bo Switcher USA 1895 Locom lectric
o t i ve
UK 190

Each half of locomotive

has two motors to drive
the wheels


DRE04 Germany 1933

pulled the
funeral train
of President
Franklin D.
USA 19
PRR Class

The 1880s saw electric streetcars and Experimental electric trains had been built since
trolleys rattling around cities, and it was the 1830s, but the first main line electric service
not long before electric trains appeared. was in Baltimore in the 1890s. The B&O Bo
They offered advantages over smoke- Switcher operated in Baltimore’s docklands at a
belching steam trains, but they needed top speed of 9 mph (16 km/h). Electric trains get
140 electrified railroad lines on which to run. their power supply either from overhead cables or
Going electric
nc e 19
9 00 0 Fra
l a s s BB
Cowcatcher pushes
S NC Single pantograph
obstructions from connects with overhead
the track power lines of 11,000 volts
Penn Central/Budd Metroliner USA 1969

DR Class 243 Ger many 1982

The BR
Class 92 was
built to run in the
Tunnel linking
England and

Locomotive weighs
141 tons BR Class 92 UK 1993

via a third rail running along the track. The NER around tight bends on American tracks. Electric
used both systems. After World War I, many railcars, such as the Budd Metroliner, also ran
countries began the electrification of their lines. on American railroads. Electric trains proved to
The GIPR Class WCP 1s were the first electric be reliable workhorses; more than 600 DR Class
engines to run in India. The 79-ft-31⁄2-in- (24.2-m-) 243s were built for East German railroads to haul
long PRR Class GG1 was designed to travel freight and passengers. 141
electric trains

Engineer’s cab separated from

M ag l ev passenger seats by a glass panel
Air por t
ham 19
DB ICE 3 Germany 2000
ming 84

199 mph (320 km


26 mph (42 km/h) Train is held 1⁄2 in (15 mm)
T r a n s 004
above the track by magnets i 2
a n ghaev China
UK 2002 S h M ag l
VT Class

249 m
ph (4
00 km

140 mph (2 Magnets raise the train around

25 km/h)
⁄ in (10 mm) above the guideway

Cabin tilts up to 8 degrees

when traveling on bends

199 mph
(320 km/
V PO S France 20
0 6

The need for speed has never been The superfast JRN700 Shinkansen train can
greater as high-speed trains take on accelerate from 0 to 168 mph (270 km/h) in
aircraft and road traffic to get passengers three minutes and can tilt slightly to keep its
from one point to another in the quickest speed when moving around bends. While most
possible time. Meet some of the most high-speed electric trains, such as the Hyundai
142 rapid railroad vehicles of all time. Rotem KTX, have powerful wheel-turning
in kan
7 00
Long, streamlined
nose cuts through the J RN (30 0 km

186 mph
air smoothly

Aluminum body

LSER Class 395 Javelin UK 2009

Nose cone contains

horn and coupler

140 mph (225 km/h)

R otem KTX S o u t h Ko r e a
d ai Automatic

un Train’s wheels are powered sliding doors

y by eight electric motors
GV Eur oduplex
SNCF T Fr an
(305 km/
190 mph NTV AGV ET
Ita 199 mph (3
ly 20 km/h)
Train can seat
560 passengers
Nose cone contains
op me
coupler to link train to vel
other locomotives r De
186 U nde
(300 Ja pan
km/ n

in ka
r i es

In 2007,

a modified TGV /h
0 km
Track-side (60

set a world speed electromagnets ph

record of 3m
propel train to 37
357 mph high speeds

(575 km/h).

electric motors housed in a power unit at the electromagnets to raise them above their track
front of the train, the DB ICE 3 has its motors and move them along. This is called magnetic
spread out over the entire length of the train levitation (maglev). The first public passenger
to distribute the weight. The SNCF TGV maglev train was the Birmingham Airport
Euroduplex is a rare example of a high-speed Maglev in the UK, while the fastest is the
double-decker train. Some trains use powerful Shanghai Transrapid Maglev, in China. 143
BULLET TRAIN  Sleek, streamlined, and super-fast, a Japanese Shinkansen
high-speed “bullet train” speeds across Honshu Island past
snow capped Mount Fuji. In 2014, Japan celebrated 50 years since Shinkansen trains ran for the
very first time, just before the 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games. Today, Japan’s high-speed rail network
has carried more than 11 thousand million passengers.
The first Shinkansen trains ran at speeds of up to 130 mph 13 bullet trains per hour fly between Japan’s two biggest
(210 km/h). The latest classes of trains take their power from urban areas, Tokyo and Osaka, providing an unrivalled
25,000 volt overhead electricity lines and can reach a top high-speed service. Before the bullet trains were introduced,
speed of 200 mph (320 km/h). The trains run on their own journey time between the two cities was around 6 hours,
lines, separate from slower rail traffic—a total of 1,483 miles 40 minutes. The fastest services today complete the route
(2,387 km) of high-speed track crosses Japan. As many as in just 2 hours, 35 minutes.
railroads Single, large

wiper cleans
entire windshield

Mud Island Monorail USA/Switzerland 1982

Suspended car can hold

up to 180 passengers

Gatwick Adtranz C-100 UK/Canada 1987

ine C151 Singapore 1987

SMRT North-South L Train runs on wheels
Train travels at speeds up fitted with rubber tires
to 50 mph (80 km/h)

on the Berlin
U-Bahn carry over

hn 508 million
B a 92 passengers
U-ny 19 every year.
r liner ma Articulated joints
Be G between short cars

Rail services in towns and cities ferry Rapid transit systems, such as the Matra
millions of people every day. Some travel Taipei Metro, offer quick and reliable
for work or for school, others for fun and transportation between city stations separated
leisure. There are urban railroads that by short distances. To avoid cluttering up the
link airports with towns, while others streets, many train lines run underground. The
146 help reduce congestion on city roads. Berlin U-Bahn has 80 percent of its 90 miles
Matra Taipei Met
e 1996

n to
Ger m
any 1

Urban railroads
Rail supplies
Hollow box 750-volt electricity to
girder contains n ada/Singapore 200 power train’s motors
cable along which Ca 0s
train’s wheels run IA


ny 2002
n Ger ma
nS k y t ra i
s s e l d orf H- Large windshield
D ü on engineer’s cab

Russia 2004
M o s c ow M

Automatic coupler,
Driverless train has a to link with other trains
maximum speed of
56 mph (90 km/h)

o h Wu
pper t
Ger ma
a l Sc hw
ny 201 e be ba
5 hn

(146 km) of lines running below the surface of trains are controlled by a human driver, some
the city. Monorails are trains that run on a single systems run automatically. The Gatwick
rail. Many, such as the Moscow Monorail, have Adtranz, the Düsseldorf H-Bahn Skytrain,
their trains running on top of the rail, while and the popular Bombardier MOVIA, which
some, such as the Mud Island Monorail, are runs in Singapore and China among other
suspended below the rails. While many urban countries, are driverless vehicles. 147
Streetcars and

double doors

G r e at Or m
K 1902

Electric tram Czech Republic 1907

Pantograph connects tram

with overhead electricity supply
Melbour ne t
ass ram
Cl Australi
a 1927

Streetcar pulled uphill by


cable moved by electric motors

This W2 Class has

been converted into a
restaurant on wheels

Wheels powered by
four electric motors

streetcars run in
Blackpool, England,
80 years
after they
were built.
English Electric Balloon Hong Kong Tr amways
UK 1934 China 1980s

Streetcars run on tracks, are powered by Britain’s first electric tramway was built in
electricity supplied by overhead cables, Blackpool in 1885. The double-decker English
and share space on streets with other Electric Balloon, which could hold up to 94
vehicles. They are also known as trams. passengers, ran along at speeds of up to 43 mph
Trolleybuses are also electrically powered, (70 km/h). The Hong Kong Tramways is an
148 but they run on tires instead of tracks. all-double-decker service—the only one in the
CAF trams
xit run an average
yS distance of
wi 59,030 miles
M (95,000 km) per Five articulated
segments allow

year. tram to travel

Streetcars and trolleybuses

around bends

C a n a d a / G e r m a ny 2 0 0 9
in 200

Seats up to
66 passengers
Low floor sits
133⁄4in (35cm)
above the track
Trolley pole channels
electricity from overhead
wire to trolleybus
Aluminum body panels
Solaris Trollino 15 Poland 2001

S a n Fr a n c i s c o Tr o l l e y b u s
4 2 0 0 3 A Belar us 200 h

world—and uses narrow trams, only 6 ft 5 in the San Francisco Trolleybus and the Solaris
(1.98 m) wide. Modern streetcars such as the Trollino 15, run on regular roads and need only
Flexity Swift are found in Manchester, Istanbul, a series of roadside poles from which their
and Cologne, while the CAF Urbos 3 runs on overhead power line is suspended. The Trollino is
tramways all over the world, from Australia and quieter and generates much less pollution than
Brazil to Taiwan and Spain. Trolleybuses, such as buses powered by gasoline or diesel engines. 149
HOLD ON TIGHT!  Followers of the Hindu religion crowd a train on its way
to the northern Indian town of Govardhan, to take part
in the Guru Purnima festival. Indian locomotives and train cars are not normally as crowded as this,
but the country does run one of the largest and busiest railroad systems in the world, with enough
track—some 71,500 miles (115,000 km) in total—to circle the Earth almost three times.
This WDM-3A class locomotive is just one of 5,345 diesel over the border, into the neighboring countries of Pakistan,
engines that runs along the tracks of Indian Railways. The Nepal, and Bangladesh. In India the cost of train fares is low,
company also operates 4,568 electric locomotives and and the number of car owners relatively small, so rail travel is
43 steam engines. These haul more than 62,000 passenger incredibly popular. In 2014, more than 8.5 billion passengers
cars and 239,000 freight wagons, stopping at more than took the train, giving Indian Railways’ 1.3 million employees
7,200 stations throughout India. Some services also travel plenty of work to do.
Taking to the water

Outrigger float Some

Hull of boat on each side gives
is a dug-out log narrow hull stability
Pacific sailors
used the sail to
collect rain
as drinking

Ne Curved roof for
shelter in bad weather
r i g ger Sail made of

O ut matting and shaped

like a crab’s claw

Sail made of
flattened and
dried reeds

Outrigger float

Crab c nds
R e e d b o at Per u/Bolivia law log boat Solomon Isla
Reeds from Lake Titicaca
woven and tightly bound
to form hull

Mast could be
pushed upright to
carry a small sail
Stout rope binds the nt Eg
hull together tightly
b o at
S e ag

Three long
paddles act as
rudders to steer boat

No one knows the name of the first sailor, Some of the earliest boats were large tree trunks,
or the craft that he or she used. They may hollowed out to form simple dugout canoes.
have sat astride a log, or on bundles of Ancient people throughout the Pacific learned
reeds, lashed together. What we do know how to build outrigger canoes, with a second,
is that people have travelled or fished in smaller hull floating on the water to provide
154 boats for more than 10,000 years. stability, while the Native American people built
Panels of birch bark,
waterproofed with resin
from spruce trees,
sewn together

Prow (front) of boat Dugout canoe Haiti

shaped to a point to
cut through water

Taking to the water

oe North Am
Bar k can

Frame made from

branches of willow

are still used
for fishing
fa I ra q
Quf Cur r ach I re l a n d Simple oar made and fun races
from ash wood
in Ireland and
Hull made from woven
reeds and rope, sometimes
covered in bitumen (tar)
Thung-chai Vietnam

Rim of boat is
made of bamboo

Sides lashed to bottom of hull

with flax fibre and decorated Stern covered with
with bird feathers ceremonial designs
Maori war canoe New Zealand

bark canoes out of a wooden frame covered in coracles in UK, a similar form of boat called a
tree bark. Reeds, which grow in abundance at Quffa existed in Iraq for at least 5,000 years.
the edges of many rivers and lakes, were dried, The ancient Egyptians built reed boats to sail the
bound, and woven to form reed boats. Reeds Nile River; around 5,500 years ago, they began to
could also be woven to form circular boats for build larger, wooden seagoing boats to venture
fishing. Known as Thung-chai in Vietnam, and beyond the Nile into the Mediterranean Sea. 155
World of watercraft

Square sail hanging

from horizontal
Kayak outer
surface made of
tanned sealskin

Seal bladder float—when a seal or

large fish is caught, the float is
attached so that it can be towed
Inuit used to store live fish
kayaks to hunt sea

mammals such as

seals and



s se


l Ja



Sail of matted
palm leaves Long, sharp

harpoon for

attacking a whale

Stout rope from wooden
Triangular lateen sails mast to bow of ship mast
can be rigged so that boat called a forestay
can sail in different winds
Pearling dhow

rt uga
o ry
Flat, square-ended sh
stern (back) of hull Fi
made of hardwood

Long oars
from wood
Simple anchor to prevent drifting
when in good fishing waters

An amazing variety of vessels have been Among the simplest boats are fishing rafts,
built to travel on water. Across the world, often just a bundle of tree branches lashed
people have used ingenuity, and the local together to form a platform. The raft-like
materials available, to build boats, rafts, Jangada, however, is able to sail over reefs on
canoes, and other watercraft, for fishing, the Brazilian coast to fish for hake and mackerel,
156 transportation, war, and pleasure. often spending 2 to 3 days at sea. Throughout
Built-in tray Large triangular sail Battle
holds harpoon rope helped vessel travel
made of leather at speeds between canoes could
12–17 mph (20–28 km/h) be more than
100 ft (30 m) long and
Harpoon c
Arcti hold up to 200
Inuit k warriors.

World of watercraft
Open stern
where outboard

Support for
motor can be fitted

canopy, erected
in bad weather


punting pole


cord rigging

Rounded roof
shelter used for
sleeping in

Each of the two hulls was

covered in gum and mulberry
Seating for bark, to help make it watertight
two passengers,
side-by-side Steel bow, weighing
22–44 lb (10–20 kg), helps
balance weight of
gondolier at the back

Single oar used for I t a ly
steering and propulsion
by standing gondolier

Hull made of six logs

from the lightweight
piúva tree, lashed Sides added to raft to prevent catch
together from being washed overboard

Daggerboard helps stop Jangad Fishing

raft from drifting sideways
a B ra z i l ra ft West Africa

Southeast Asia, another flat-bottomed boat, the times longer than their flimsy whaling boats.
sampan, is used by people to fish, travel, and On the Pacific island of Fiji, people built larger
even live in. In the Arctic, single- and two-person battle canoes, featuring a platform laid over
Inuit kayaks were used to hunt for mammals a double hull. And in Italy, slender gondolas
and fish, while in Indonesia, brave hunters travel the canals that crisscross the city of
chased after sperm whales, often two or three Venice, acting as water taxis. 157
OVER THE TOP  A kayaker takes a terrifying plunge, hurtling over the highest
of the five cascading waterfalls on the Agua Azul River in the
Mexican state of Chiapas. He’s one of six top professional kayakers who tackled the river and its
waterfalls for the short adventure movie Beyond The Drop. For a safe landing, the kayaker must
keep inside the flow of water, and land in the cushion of air and water at the foot of the waterfall.
It is likely that the first canoes and kayaks took to the water kayakers enjoy paddling on rivers, lakes, or the sea, on
thousands of years ago, and that most were built of wood. weekends or on vacation. A handful of the best kayakers
But the appeal of paddling your own personal watercraft still compete in competitions, either in speed races on flatwater,
holds today, even if modern canoes and kayaks are usually or on very technical whitewater slalom courses. Extreme
built from plastics, fibreglass, or, in the case of the most kayaking is an adventure sport for the crazy few who enjoy
advanced, Kevlar and carbon fibre. Thousands of amateur paddling down racing rivers, including giant waterfalls!
Sailing ship

Sailing ships rely on the force of the wind catching their sails
to propel them through water. By changing the number
of sails, and their positions, an experienced crew
can adjust the speed and direction of the ship. HMS
Endeavour left Plymouth, UK, in 1768, skippered by Main mast
Captain James Cook, and sailed around the world
on a three-year, 30,000-mile (48,000-km) voyage
of exploration. The former collier (coal ship)
became the first European vessel to
explore the east coast of Australia.

Mizzen mast ❯ The rear

mast on a three-masted ship
tended to be shorter than the
other two. Sails on all masts
are hung from long poles
called spars.

Stern rope ladder

Captain’s quarters ❯ Cook’s

cabin was situated at the back
of the 104-ft- (32-m-) long ship,
where the rise and fall was less
violent when sailing through
stormy waters.

Rudder ❯ This large, hinged flap

or panel at the stern (back) of the
ship can be moved to deflect
water as the ship sailed, forcing Officers’ quarters Food stored in
160 the bow (front) of the ship to turn. on lower deck barrels in the hold
Foremast ❯ This is the front mast on a three-
masted ship. On the Endeavour, the foremast
was built of pine and fir wood, and towered
some 112 ft (34 m) above the ship’s deck.

Sailing ship
Jib sail ❯ Skilled sailors were able to use
jib sails to steer the ship, by altering
their positions. When fully rigged,
with all of its sails on all its
masts, the Endeavour had
more than 29,000 square ft
(2,700 square m) of sail.

Bowsprit ❯ The long
pole rising from the bow
of the ship to which the
rigging for the bottom of
the jib sails was attached.

Hull ❯ For many centuries, the body of a

sailing ship was crafted out of planks of wood.
Endeavour’s hull was made mostly of white oak,
and was flat-bottomed, for sailing in shallow
waters. It was divided into different sections,
One of 22 cannons Rowboat including below-deck living quarters for 90 sailors.
protecting the ship 161
Sail power Sternpost carved into
an ornate design

Square sail

Animal carvings
decorate the covered
seats of this elegant
boat, used in

Hull made of locally Large,

available acacia wood square sail
made of
Cabin woven flax (a
fibrous plant)

Oars used Two banks

Sailin to steer of oars on
g boat Ancient Eg ypt c.1 3 0 0 bc e the boat each side

Shields protect
crew from enemy
Mainmast arrows

Square Phoenician war galley c.700 bce

Sail rolled up at top of

mast when not in use
a n 5 0 bc e


Helmsman controls Roman mer chant s hi
twin steering oars

Thousands of years ago, people learned Some of the earliest-known sailing boats were
to harness the power of the wind to push found on the Nile River in Egypt, more than 5,000
their craft through the water. Sails made years ago. They used a large, square sail made of
of cloth, reeds, or matting, and hung from cloth, which worked best when sailing downwind
a mast, caught the wind to move boats (with wind coming from behind the boat). Square
162 faster than people could row or paddle. sails were also invented independently in parts of
Large single sail
hung from a single spar, dragon head
Lookout position at the top
called a yard, or yardarm on the prow of of the main mast, for spotting
this dromon fired approaching ships or land

Hull built of burning

overlapping wooden flames at

Sail power
planks fixed to a frame
the enemy.

Rigging enabled crew to

V iking longship
climb up and unfurl sails

Norway c.800 ce Yardarm


Oars for use

when there
is no wind

Oars manned by as many

as 100 crew members

ce cc
i re c . 6 5 0 aI
Dromon Easter n Roman Emp tal
Fighting junk
fitted with guns


the Ming


Dynasty, China
had a navy with
Ju n k

more than 3,000 Wooden

war junks.


South America, and also in China, where they Viking longships were designed with shallow
were often equipped to the junks that sailed the hulls so they could sail right up to the shore to
Pacific and Indian oceans. Many ancient sailing attack and raid settlements. The Vikings were
ships, such as Phoenician war galleys, Roman skilled sailors who traveled all across Europe and,
galleys, and Viking longships, were fitted around 1000 ce, crossed the Atlantic reaching
with rows of oars, for when there was no wind. Newfoundland in Canada. 163
Trade and exploration

C a r t u ga l
r a 149
Main mast top
Wooden hull is
castle manned

ve 0 s
approximately Lateen sails
by crew member

58 ft (17.7 m) long used when winds
searching for land
blew toward the
side of the ship

Hull is approximately
90 ft (27.5 m) long

Santa M
0 6
Spain 14

When the
Santa Maria was
finally broken
up, the wood was
used to build a Short, deep wooden hull
could carry plenty of cargo
fort. below decks

Mayflower England 1600s H



Mizzen mast ag

added to ship when le


it was converted from a En


warship to a survey vessel gla




Ship carried 74
Hull converted to transport
people on a five-year
breadfruit plants from
survey voyage
Tahiti to the Caribbean

From the 15th century onward, Portugal was a major sea trading nation in the 15th
European sailing ships traveled the century, and caravels sailed along the coasts of
world. Many were trading vessels, Europe and Africa. Two accompanied the Santa
carrying cargoes as varied as slaves, Maria on Christopher Columbus’ famous 1492
food, and spices. Others explored new voyage across the Atlantic. Many European ships
164 lands, on epic voyages of discovery. would later head west for trade, or to conquer, or
Masts carried sails,
but ship was also
powered by a y
diesel engine 18

Trade and exploration

Square hull to
keep ship small, as
ships were taxed
based on their size
topsail Fluyt Netherlands 1700s
Hull was specially strengthened against
the pressure of ice freezing around it
Fram had a Cu
windmill on UK tt
board that ran a 18 Sa
generator to rk
Bowsprit power electric

Skysail is the
highest sail
on the mast

Wooden hull 212 ft

7 in (64.8 m) long

Hull, made from

iron plates riveted
together, carried
guano (animal dung),
wheat, and coal

Scotland 1884

establish colonies, such as the Mayflower, which sailed between Asia and Europe. One of the most
carried pilgrims to settle in North America. As epic trips of all was made by Fram, which sailed
European explorers found new lands, more more than 60,000 miles (100,000 km) around the
merchant ships engaged in trade. The fluyt was a Arctic, before carrying Norwegian explorer Roald
common Dutch design with a very narrow deck. Amundsen to Antarctica, where he became the
Fast ships called clippers, such as the Cutty Sark, first person to reach the South Pole. 165
War at sea Main mast has two

platforms on which lookouts

watched for enemy ships

Removable screen, called

Large sail
a blindage, protects crew
ribbed with
from enemy archers
wooden battens

Iron plates with

sharp spikes
protect the upper
Dragon’s head decks from attack
has an opening
for a cannon to
fire through

Mary Rose England 1510

the ship had 80
guns in total

1590 Cannons fired
p Ko r e a
Tu r t l e s h i through portholes

warship with a
total of 90 guns

Guns in bow

Oars of French
Unicorn galleys were
Reale9 often manned
L a 167 by convicts
St. Michael England 1669 c e
For almost as long as there have been Before naval artillery, battles at sea were mostly
ships, the sea has been a battlefield for rival close combat, with fire, rams, or arrows used in
nations planning invasion, or for control of attack. The Korean turtle ship protected itself
shipping routes and trade. From the 16th against archers, and from being boarded, with its
century, warships bristled with guns and hefty, spiked deck armor. Big guns allowed ships
166 battles at sea became even more deadly. to fight more at a distance. The Mary Rose’s iron
Gunports— l l e 500s
this galleon G a 1
carried about Sp
30 guns
Main mast rose
205 ft (62.5 m) above
the waterline

War at sea
Five school
Rigging is made
of about 26 miles
(42 km) of rope
Three masts
support a total
Narrow hull of 37 sails
cut through the
water quickly

firing gun

A crew of
850 lived aboard Giant bowsprit
Admiral Nelson’s extends 100 ft (30 m)
beyond ship’s bow
187-ft- (57-m-)
long warship.

HMS Victory England 1765

Lower gundeck
housed 30 giant

32-pounder guns With


140 guns,

Santissima Trinidad

was the most heavily


armed ship in the


Fourth gundeck
added later to a Twin masts and a narrow
three-deck ship hull makes the ship fast
and maneuverable
Santissima Trinidad Spain 1769

cannons fired through flaps called gunports, in This made her menacing, but slow. Flagships,
the hull. To boost firepower, some ships were built such as the French navy’s La Reale, were home
with extra decks of guns. This led to three-decker to a fleet’s commander. HMS Victory was the
warships, such as the St. Michael, which fought flagship under British admiral Lord Nelson at
in the Caribbean, and the Santissima Trinidad, the battle of Trafalgar. With 104 guns, she was
which later received a fourth deck of heavy guns. a formidable, as well as fast, fighting machine. 167
RIDING THE WIND  The BMW Oracle Racing Team 90 (BOR90)
trimaran (three-hulled boat) lifts up into the air
during a training run. The 113-ft- (34.5-m-) long, 90-ft- (27.4-m-) wide giant is about the same size as
two basketball courts and was built to win the America’s Cup, sailing’s most prestigious competition,
which it did in 2010. The picture shows how racing sailors better not be afraid of heights!
Trimaran BOR90 (later renamed USA–17) needed more Kevlar, a material found in bulletproof armor. The result was
than nine months of careful construction in the state of a 190-ft- (58-m-) tall monster sail. At 7,770 lb (3,524 kg), it
Washington before it could be let loose on the water for was so heavy that powerful hydraulic systems were needed
testing, crew training, and modifications. Its body is made to move it, rather than regular rigging, but it boosted the
mostly of carbon fiber and weighs 18 tons. The main sail is trimaran’s speed to more than 30 mph (50 km/h) during
not made of fabric, but is solid and made of carbon fiber and parts of its triumphant America’s Cup run.

Steamships burned coal or oil to heat water and create steam to power an engine.
This either drove a paddle wheel or turned a screw propeller, as found on the SS
Great Britain. When launched in 1843, SS Great Britain was the largest ship in the
world, and the first iron-hulled steamship powered by a screw propeller. Two years
later, it became the first propeller-powered steamship to cross the Atlantic Ocean,
a journey that took 14 days.
Main mast ❯ The tallest mast
on a ship. On the SS Great
Hull ❯ The 322-ft- (98-m-)
Britain, this is the only mast
long hull is fashioned out
to carry large, square sails.
of overlapping iron plates
riveted together to form a
watertight outer body.


Decks ❯ The SS Great Britain Steerage ❯ Second-class

has three decks. The bottom accommodation, known
one is used for cargo, supplies, as steerage, is at the
and accommodation. bottom of the ship.
Rigging ❯ On the SS Great
Britain, the rigging is made
of iron cable rather than rope.

This is to reduce drag.

Mast ❯ Five of the ship’s

masts can be folded down
on deck to reduce air
resistance when the ship is
solely under steam power.

Spar ❯ Sails are hung

from these long poles
attached to masts.


Lifeboat ❯ There Propeller screw ❯ The giant propeller has

First-class dining
are seven lifeboats six blades and measures 16 ft (4.9 m) in
saloon and cabins
for 252 passengers diameter. As it turns, the propeller pushes
and 130 crew. water back, moving the ship forward.
Steam meets steel Side-mounted
paddle wheel Ship was often

fully rigged
with sails to use
wind power

ir e
PS Emp43
USA 18

S av
Sleek hull
designed Savannah
for speed
Antonio Le made the first
UK for Brazi
l 1900 transatlantic
voyage by steam
power, taking
80 days.

Paddle, known as Funnel could

a stern-wheeler, runs be collapsed
Hull contained width of boat when not in use
8 decks and held up
to 2,165 passengers
R M S M a u r e t a n i a UK 1906


Bridge, from where

ship was steered
Derrick for
re lifting cargo
g yl 19
790 ft (241 m) long


The invention of the steam engine meant Early steamships could not hold much cargo
that ships no longer had to rely on the because of the vast amounts of coal they
wind. When steam power was used to needed to carry as fuel. The SS Agamemnon,
drive steel ships, the result was large, however, could run on just 22 tons of coal a day,
sturdy vessels that could travel greater allowing it to sail economically between Europe
172 distances faster than ever before. and the Far East. Powerful steam liners such as
Masts for
carrying sails

Front raised
deck, called

Steam meets steel

the forecastle

SS Agamemnon UK 1865
Capacity for more than
3,086 tons of cargo—over
twice that of rival ships

Raised deck area

at the stern, known
as the poop deck

Springwell UK 1914

Iron plates 41⁄2 in (11.4 cm) thick,

protected the hull

Fuji had a
18 in (45 cm)
Figurehead belt of steel
around her
waterline, for
Hull covered protection.
with copper
Hatch for
refrigerated cargo HMS Warrior UK 1861

Gun turret Fu
contained two large ji J
12 in (30.5 cm) guns n1

the RMS Mauretania, were now able to cross transported meat from South America and
the Atlantic in as little as four or five days. Early Australasia to Europe. Steel and steam were also
steamships, such as the PS Empire, were mostly adopted by navies. HMS Warrior was among
made of wood, but iron and steel hulls became the first Royal Navy ships to come with an iron
more common. Steel made it possible to build hull and steel armor. It carried a crew of 706 as
refrigerated ships, such the Argyllshire, which well as 40 giant artillery guns. 173
Working ships
Powerful winch pulls fishing
nets and their catch into trawler

Main mast can be

lowered so that trawler Small wheelhouse,
can sail under bridges where ship is steered

Steam trawler UK 20th century 108 ft 1⁄2 in (33 m) long

78 ft 81⁄2 in Fiberglass hull divided

(24 m) long into 26 watertight
compartments allowing
Crew of six boat to right itself
Sailing trawler Valerian UK 1923 operate lifeboat after capsizing
Two medical
cabins below deck
Funnel for gases from
the 2,000 horsepower
Lifeboat diesel engine

Tug carries a powerful

electric winch for pulling,
as well as pumps to
empty a stricken
vessel of water

52 ft (16 m) long Arun class lifeboat UK 1970s–1990s

157 ft (48 m) long Tug Salvonia Netherlands 1951
Bridge, from where ship is controlled,
with crew quarters below
Fully loaded, the ship Giant nickel steel tanks hold
weighs 78,781 tons natural gas turned to liquid by
being cooled to -325°F (-163°C)

817 ft (249 m) long 965 ft (294 m) long

Gas carrier Norman Lady Norway 1973

Every day, thousands of ships are at work Tankers carry liquids, such as oil or, in the case
in a variety of different ways. Many carry of Norman Lady, liquefied natural gas. The
billions of tons of goods, fuel, and Shin Aitoku Maru is an oil tanker with a
material across the waters of the world. difference. Its computer-controlled sails help it
Others save lives, assist other ships, and save fuel, which is used to power its diesel
174 catch food from the seas and oceans. engines. The Ever Royal carries goods and
Large crane to lower Wheelhouse
and raise diving holds navigation and
equipment in and communications equipment
out of the water
Diving support vessel
Star Arcturus UK 1975

Working ships
265 ft 8 in (81 m) long
Canvas sail over
steel frame, 39 ft Funnel for gases
5 in (12 m) tall and from the ship’s
26 ft (8 m) wide large diesel engines

Sailing tanker Shin

Aitoku Maru
Japan 1980


236 ft (72 m) long

Small bridge—automation
means a crew of only six is
Tall bridge to give needed to control the ship
clear view ahead
Propeller speed is
Otso’s powerful Icebreaker Otso constantly adjusted by
computer for changing
engines generate Finland 1985
ice and water conditions
15 million
watts of

stacked on deck 324 ft 91⁄2 in (99 m) long


27 school buses
Container ship Ever Royal Japan 1993

materials stored in up to 4,200 standard 20-ft- as the oceangoing Salvonia, which can tow a
(6-m-) long containers, designed to be easily stricken ship out of danger and home for repairs.
unloaded onto trucks. Some working ships help Coastguards and other maritime rescue services
serve others. Icebreakers, such as Otso, can plow operate boats like the Arun class lifeboat,
through ice many meters thick to clear a path to which can travel through the stormiest of waters
let ships through. Other vessels act as tugs, such to rescue people at sea. 175
Passenger carriers
RMS Titanic UK 1911

The Titanic
had a kennel
for dogs of first-
class passengers, and
its own daily
newspaper. False funnel where 883 ft (269 m) long Funnel channels smoke
pets were housed from the ship’s 29 boilers
Normandie France 1932
Promenade deck
Children’s playroom
and gymnasium

1,029 ft (313.8 m) long

Cargo derrick Mast rises more than
for loading and Radio antenna strung 164 ft (50 m) above water
unloading cargo between two masts and holds powerful horns
from hull

Twin propellers give America USA 1939 723 ft (220.4 m) long

a speed of 26 mph (41.7 km/h)

Bridge, from Passenger cabins with

where the ship balconies overlooking the sea
is navigated


g E li
) zab
89 m eth
ft ( 2 965
948 ft (2
98 94 m K1
USA 19 969
Italy for
) lo
P r i n ce s s

Every year, hundreds of millions of people Water taxis, such as Tokyo’s Himiko water bus,
travel on ships for work or pleasure. transport people short distances, while larger
Many use ferry services, linking places ferries like the Arcturus move people and their
separated by water. Others cruise aboard vehicles across lakes and seas. The MDV 1200
large passenger liners, traveling the seas Class ferry has capacity for 175 cars and more
176 and oceans of the world. than 600 passengers. The America liner held
Stern door lowers Flat-bottom hull, 82 ft (25 m) Thrusters in the
to form ramp so cars at its widest point, gives lots of bow help the ferry to
roll on and roll off space for carrying vehicles maneuver in port
(ro-ro) the ferry

Passenger carriers
Ro-ro fer ry Arctur us
509 ft (155 m) long Finland 1982

Ferry carries a crew of

Curved glass panels
29 and has a top speed
give good views of city
of 48 mph (77 km/h)
for up to 70 passengers

328 ft (100 m) long

MDV 1200 Class ferry Italy 1990s
109 ft (33.3 m) long
Himiko water bus Japan 2010
Park area in the middle of the
ship is planted with more than
12,000 real plants and trees

33 school buses

Helipad, in case
18 lifeboats, emergency transport
each holding by helicopter
370 people is needed

the QE2 crossed MS
the Atlantic Ocean sis
88 f of t
a record 806 t (3 he S
62 m
) lo eas
times. ng USA

1,202 passengers, but during World War II was 1,972 passengers at a rapid 34 mph (54 km/h).
converted into a troop ship carrying 7,678 With 17 decks carrying up to 3,600 passengers,
soldiers. Over the years, even bigger passenger the Grand Princess became the world’s largest
liners were launched, including the RMS liner, until overtaken by the gigantic MS Oasis
Titanic, which sank on its maiden voyage in of the Seas, which, at 248,330 tons, weighs
1912, and the Normandie, which could carry almost five times as much as the Titanic. 177
CITY ON THE SEA  The world’s biggest cruise ship, Royal Caribbean
International’s Allure of the Seas, enters her home
harbor of Port Everglades, Florida, in 2010. This gigantic, 16-deck floating hotel is almost as long
as four football fields, and houses up to 6,318 guests who are looked after by a crew of 2,384 people.
It’s almost as if a small floating city has taken to the water.
Built in Finland between 2008 and 2010, this gigantic vessel and wave machines that pump out more than 58,000 gallons
is 1,188 ft (362 m) long. She rises to 236 ft (72 m) above the (220,000 liters) of water a minute, so people can surf as they
waterline, but her funnels can telescope down for passing cruise! There’s even a 2,230-ft- (680-m-) long running track,
under low bridges. The liner’s many attractions include and a park area with thousands of real plants and trees. The
25 restaurants, a 1,380-seat theater, a full-size basketball 248,330-ton ship cruises the Caribbean or Mediterranean
court, a rock climbing wall, 21 swimming pools and jacuzzis, Sea at the stately speed of 26 mph (42 km/h).
World War ships
Turret contained three
15 in (38 cm) guns

Gunnery spotting 778 ft (237 m) long

position high above deck The Yamato’s
giant guns
SD could fire shells
at targets Rear gun turret
First battleship ad 26 miles packs three 18 in
to run on steam no (46 cm) guns
turbine engines ug (42 km) away.

535 ft (163 m) long

Gun turret protected
by 103⁄4-in (27.5-cm)
thick armor at the front

Spar fitted to mast to raise Deck armor up

Three funnels signal flags that send messages to 93⁄4 in (25 cm)
released gases from to other ships in the fleet thick in places
the ship’s 12 boilers
P34 patrol boat UK 1916

SR Lifeboats for
ege Oversized rudder
nsb crew of 50 to 55
ur g to help the vessel
Ger m turn sharply Tank deck could hold up
a ny 1
915 to nine 33-ton tanks
Bow ramp opens
466 ft (142 m) long to let tanks roll off

Turret carried Single low Radar used to control

two 15 in (38 cm) funnel and direct guns when
artillery guns aiming at targets

Twin rudders Bismar ck Germany 1940

807 ft (246 m) long

Shipping played a crucial part in both HMS Dreadnought was faster and more heavily
World War I and World War II. As well as armed than previous battleships and started an
fighting in battles, warships were used to arms race between the major naval powers
disrupt enemy supply convoys, protect before World War I. Smaller ships, such as the
their own navies, and transport troops cruiser SMS Regensburg, and the P34 patrol
180 and equipment to invade enemy territory. boat, saw active service during WWI. P34 was
Vittorio Veneto YAMATO
Italy 1940
24 school

World War ships

Backward-sloping Catapult for launching
funnel directed smoke reconnaissance aircraft
away from bridge or fighter planes
Secondary gun
battery contained three
6 in (15 cm) guns Forward-facing turrets held
three 18 in (46 cm) guns
each weighing 165 tons

Yamato Japan 1941

863 ft (263 m) long
Single forward- Catapult for Radar
facing gun launching floatplanes antenna
at spotter aircraft
USS North Carolina
USA 1941

243 ft (74 m) long 728 ft (222 m) long

Protective belt of
armor 12 in (30 cm)
thick, at the waterline
Tank landing Camouflage- World War II,
craft UK 1942–45 painted hull
North Carolina took
part in every
Ship was gun major naval
run by a
crew of attack in the
187 ft (57 m) long Life floats 192 Pacific.

HMS Starling
UK 1942

299 ft (91 m) long

one of the first dedicated antisubmarine vessels. armed, with nine giant guns, dozens of smaller
HMS Starling performed a similar role during artillery weapons, and 162 antiaircraft guns. It
World War II, sinking 14 German U-boats. The cruised the Pacific with a range of 8,264 miles
Bismarck was Germany’s biggest battleship, (13,300 km). Tank landing craft had a tenth of
until it was sunk in 1941. Biggest of all was the that range, but were crucial in ferrying tanks
Yamato, at over 77,161 tons. It was heavily during the Normandy landings. 181
Aircraft carriers

Gases from funnel could

create difficult air currents reactors can
Up to 36 biplanes for landing aircraft keep USS George
Elevator could be carried
raises planes stored
Washington running
below onto flight deck for 18 years,
with no need
to refuel!

HMS Furious UK
786 ft 5 in (239.7 m) long 1917
Hangar for Missile
aircraft storage launcher

Akagi Japan 1927 855 ft 4 in (260.7 m) long

Four propellers move

the carrier at speeds
up to 35 mph (56 km/h)

Hangar deck Quick-firing Twin 8 in (20 cm)

on two levels Bulges in hull makes the antiaircraft guns guns in turret can
ship more stable and adds aim shells at targets
protection against torpedoes more than 17 miles
(27 km) away
Ship can hold more
than 2,700 personnel
USS Saratoga USA 1927

888 ft (270.7 m) long

Antiaircraft Radio masts for communication
guns between ship and aircraft Hangers could hold Aircraft parked on
more than 60 aircraft armored flight deck

HMS Illustrious
UK 1940

800 ft (243.8 m) long 8

H M S A r k R oya l U K 1 9 3 Flight deck ended
in “round down” to reduce air
turbulence for planes taking off 751 ft (229 m) long

As aircraft became important military Many early aircraft carriers, including the USS
weapons, ships that could act as floating Saratoga, HMS Furious, and the Akagi, were
airbases were designed. These aircraft initially designed as battle cruisers before being
carriers are huge vessels with a large, converted. The Akagi carried up to 66 aircraft,
flat flight deck, from which helicopters which took off from three flight decks, while the
182 and planes can take off and land. Saratoga could carry up to 78 planes. Specially
Aircraft launched from bow of Radio antennae enables
ship using two powerful catapults communication between
ship and its flying aircraft

Aircraft carriers
USS Hornet USA 1942 873 ft (266 m) long

Catapult to propel
aircraft along flight deck
USS George Washington USA 1990

1,093 ft (333 m) long

Elevator for moving
aircraft from below Ship can carry 30 helicopters
decks to the flight deck or around 12 helicopters
Ski jump ramp
and 12 Harrier aircraft
to assist aircraft takeoff

Biplane bombers
amongst the maximum
78 aircraft onboard

Juan Carlos I Spain 200

3 757 ft (230.8 m) long
Crane raised and
lowered boats into Propellers give a
and out of the water speed of 35 mph

30 school buses

built aircraft carriers, such as HMS Illustrious HMS Ark Royal. However, this figure is dwarfed
and the USS Hornet, featured catapults by the more than 6,000 who serve aboard the
powered by hydraulics or steam to propel the Nimitz Class carrier, USS George Washington.
aircraft on takeoff, as well as hangers below the This 97,003-ton ship holds up to 90 aircraft of
flight deck to store inactive planes. Aircraft varying types, from reconnaissance planes and
carriers have large crews—1,580 in the case of helicopters to fighters and bombers. 183
warships Merlin helicopter

Turret with two 4.5 in

(113 mm) guns with a
range of 11 miles (18 km)

Twin propellers
HMS Diamond UK 1952

390 ft (119 m) long

Tracking antenna can
Crane for deploying receive data sent from
equipment or satellites or rockets
recovering mines 151 ft (46 m) long
Ship manned by a
crew of 120 as well as
up to 100 technical experts

Twin propellers HMS Kirkliston

powered by UK 1954
diesel engine
The ship’s
missiles have a
range of more than
800 miles
(1,300 km).
Monge A601 France 1990 738 ft (225 m) long

Tomahawk cruise Sikorsky SH-60

missiles can launch
USS Arleigh Burke vertically from this
helicopter on
USA 1991 launch grid helipad

505 ft (154 m) long

Aircraft carriers and nuclear submarines Frigates like HMS Lancaster and HMCS
have taken over from battleships as the Vancouver are multipurpose—able to protect
biggest and most lethal craft in a navy’s and escort other ships, perform coastal patrols,
fleet. Yet there remains plenty of work for intercept suspicious ships, and engage in
smaller ships, which are built to perform antisubmarine warfare. The USS Arleigh Burke
184 a wide variety of important roles. destroyer also tackles submarines, as well as
Funnel Radar and
electronics mast
Antiaircraft missile system—ship
is also armed with antiship missiles
and antisubmarine torpedoes

Modern warships
Sea King helicopter HMS Lancaster UK 1992 436 ft (133 m) long
carried on the stern
Radar antenna Helipad on stern can bring in
doctors or evacuate injured personnel

Crane for loading and

unloading a maximum
of 24 containers
of supplies
440 ft (134 m) long HMCS Vancouver Canada

495 ft (151 m) long 331 ft (101 m) long Elbe class Germany 1993

Landing craft well

can hold 40 amphibious
Murasame class assault vehicles
destroyers Japan 1994 Flight deck supports
6–8 Harrier II jet aircraft

843 ft (257 m) long

USS Iwo Jima USA 2000
Twin diesel engines power four
Camouflaged waterjets, to propel the boat forward 23 school
hull buses

Type 022 missile boat China 2004 138 ft (42 m) long

attacking other targets at sea or on land, using and space missions. The Type 022 missile
guided missiles. Some warships have highly boat can creep under enemy warning systems
specialized roles. HMS Kirkliston swept for to launch attacks on shipping, while the USS
mines laid in shallow coastal waters. The Monge Iwo Jima supports missions onshore, carrying
A601 monitors the skies, using its 14 antennae just short of 1,900 marines, up to 30 helicopters,
and other electronic systems to track missiles and large numbers of amphibious landing craft. 185
Nuclear reactor ❯ The
submarine’s main power supply
comes from a mini nuclear
power station that splits atoms
to generate large amounts

of heat energy. The reactor

produces as much energy
as 100 sports car engines.


Bottom rudder

Propulsor ❯ This forces a

powerful jet of water out
behind the submarine to
propel the vessel forward.

Engine room ❯ Water

heated by energy from
the nuclear reactor turns
into steam, which drives Living area ❯ Seen here is
the turbines in the engine the dining area and, on the
room. The turbines, in floor above, the bunk beds.
turn, power the propulsor. The crew of 134 may spend
three months at sea, so there
is a gym and a movie theater
to keep them entertained.

Submarines can adjust their buoyancy (how much they can float or sink) using large
ballast tanks that can be filled with air or seawater. These tanks allow submarines
to dive deep below sea level, cruise stealthily underwater, or rise to the surface. The
377-ft- (115-m-) long Virginia class submarine serves in the US Navy. Packed with
186 advanced systems, each submarine took around nine million working hours to build.
Masts ❯ These carry radio
and global positioning
antennae, and a mast that
allows the crew to see above
the surface using night vision
and a zoom lens.

Conning tower ❯ This
central tower, rising from the
Cruise missile ❯ Up to 16 Tomahawk cruise
hull, contains navigation and
missiles can be fired vertically from launch
communications equipment.
tubes. Using their rocket engines, and
sending back information to the submarine’s
operations center, these weapons can travel
over 600 miles (1,000 km) to their target.

Hull ❯ Built to
withstand powerful
water pressure,
allowing sub to
dive to depths
of 788 ft (240 m).



Operations center ❯ All

the information gathered
by the submarine is
processed and analyzed Bow plane
here. It is also where the
torpedoes and movement of
the submarine is controlled.
Torpedo tube

Torpedo ❯ These are the standard weapons of

most military submarines. Launched from tubes, Sonar sphere ❯ This helps the
they travel to their target using built-in engines. The submarine navigate through the
Virginia class uses Mk48 torpedoes, which each weigh water, by sending out sound waves
3,435 lb (1,558 kg) and carry 650 lb (295 kg) of explosives. to measure the distance of objects.
Dive, dive, dive Three Aichi M6A
were stored in, and
launched, from
this submarine

Access hatch

64 ft (19.5 m) long

r tl
SA 1776
Propeller gives a top
No. 1 UK 1901 speed of 9 mph
(15 km/h) when
U-9 Germany 1910

Foot pedals used 188 ft 3 in (57.4 m) long

to turn the propeller
6 ft (1.8 m) tall

3⁄4 in (2 cm) cannon

220 ft (77 m) long

Torpedo tubes fired the
submarine’s 14 torpedoes,
Type VIIC Germany 1940
to sink enemy ships
Covered propeller reduces
the sound, making the
Pressurized hull provides living
submarine harder to detect
and working space for crew of 60
USS Gato USA 1941

Bow torpedo tubes Stern torpedo tubes

311 ft 7 in (95 m) long
Top rudder
helps steer
YURI DOLGORUKI the submarine
15.4 school buses

558 ft (170 m) long

With their ability to lurk beneath the The Turtle was the first sub to see action, when
waves for weeks at a time, submarines it attempted to place explosives on the hulls of
are a potentially deadly underwater enemy ships during the Civil War. It was not until
weapon. Submersibles are much smaller World War I that subs became effective in
vessels, used for underwater scientific warfare. The German U-9 sank 16 ships, and the
188 research, and rescue and salvage work. Type VIIC U-boat reached depths of 500 ft
Aircraft launch Periscopes
catapult 1-400 Japan 1944

Dive, dive, dive

400 ft (122 m) long Propellers turned by four
diesel engines—sub carries
59 ft (18 m) long Trieste Italy 1960
enough fuel to travel one and
a half times round the world
has made
over 4,440
dives, and explored 23 ft 31⁄2 in (7 m) long
the wreck of the

Observation sphere with

room for two people

TV camera 964
lv in

Cabin has capacity for

Robotic arms
Na (here shown folded)
two scientists and one pilot
Fra ut
n ce

26 ft 2 in (8 m) long Conning tower

L e Tr i o m p h a n t France 19
9 7

453 ft (138 m) long

Submarine is armed with 16 nuclear
missiles and antisubmarine torpedoes
Storage hatches for
16 guided ballistic missiles

Yuri Dolgor uki R ussia 2012

(150 m). The USS Gato could travel up to allowing them to patrol for months at a time.
12,500 miles (20,000 km) on patrols, while 1-400 Small research submersibles have limited range,
class submarines, the largest of World War II, but can perform amazing feats. DSV Alvin can
could launch aircraft from their decks. Nuclear dive to 21,000 ft (6,400 m), while Trieste carried
energy gave modern submarines like Le people to the deepest part of the Pacific Ocean,
Triomphant and Yuri Dolgoruki limitless power, 35,797 ft (10,911 m) below sea level. 189
Need for speed

Navigation and Large cabin can hold

communications 190–243 passengers
antennae BHC AP1-88 Hovercraft
UK 1990s

This craft is used by the

Rubber skirt is filled with Canadian Coastguard
air by fans under the body
of the hovercraft Capacity for up to 30
cars, which enter craft
using a ramp at the back

Railings for
observers on the
Voskhod 352 Eurofoil
roof of the cabin Russia 1973

SR.N4 Mk.I Hovercraft UK 1968

fan propels craft
at speeds up to
43 mph (70 km/h)
Windshield of
cockpit, which
Skirt, made up of 68 sections, seats 3 to 4
keeps the craft on a cushion of air

hovercraft are the
world’s biggest
and can carry up to
500 troops.
raft UK 2015
l Pro Hoverc
BHC Coasta
Some vessels don’t travel through water, A hovercraft rides on a cushion of air generated
they skim the surface, so that most of by lift fans under their bodies, which enables it to
their hull, or body, rides above it. This travel over both land and water. The SR.N4
means they can travel faster. Surface- Mk.I Hovercraft could hold 254 passengers
skimming craft, such as hovercrafts and cruise at over 60 mph (100 km/h), while the
190 and hydrofoils, are definitely fast movers! BHC AP1-88 Hovercraft was used by the
Handlebars contain
levers for throttle
and brake

Bridge from where

the craft is controlled
and steered 3
2 01

Need for speed

a rk


Perspex canopy
covers cockpit

Smooth aluminum
body fitted over
a steel frame
Boeing 929 Jetfoil USA 1974

The K7 set
Handlebars a world water
contain sound
system and speakers speed record of
276 mph
(444 km/h)
in 1964.

Bluebird K7 UK 1955

X Japan
K awasaki
V-shaped hull allows craft
to travel smoothly through
choppy water

body design
fashioned out of 201 Catamaran
light but strong
er boa hull design with
carbon fiber F1 Pow two floating hulls

Canadian Coastguard for rescue missions. which has a top speed of 50 mph (80 km/h).
Hydrofoils, such as the Voskhod 352 Eurofoil, Personal watercraft, like the Sea-Doo® Spark™
use wing-like foils under the hull to lift the boat and the Kawasaki Ultra 310LX, also use water
out of the water as it travels forward. Jetfoils are thrusters, while the fastest boats of all, F1
hydrofoils that use water jets to provide their Powerboats, use propellers driven by powerful
forward thrust, such as the Boeing 929 Jetfoil, engines to race at over 125 mph (200 km/h). 191
Fun and games Inboard motor at the back of the boat Inflatable body, 7 ft 21⁄2 in
spins propeller to move boat forward (2.2 m) long, takes less than
90 seconds to inflate

at USA 1
Safety helmets ild
must be worn as er
well as life jackets ne

Mooring ring

a t e r dingh
W hite Flexible cover
can be removed
Twin hulls in good weather
make this a
1,200 cabin cruiser

dinghies paddled
down the Aar River
in Switzerland
in 2011.
Cabin cruiser USA
Chimney stack

Old tires
cushion sides
of boat when

o a t UK 196
N a r r ow b

There is nothing like having fun on the A wilderness raft is a type of inflatable dinghy
water! Plenty of different boats and that is small and light enough to be carried in
watercraft of all shapes and sizes allow a backpack—before it is filled with air. Rugged
people to have fun on rivers, lakes, and whitewater dinghies are larger and ride down
seas, to explore wildernesses, and to take rapids and fast-flowing water. Paddles are used
192 part in races and competitions. in canoes and kayaks, while a rowboat has
Sailing dingh
Large fan, inside a safety In 2013, an
cage, is spun by the engine
to push the boat forward airboat reached Large sail
made of cotton
102 mph rigged to mast
(163.5 km/h)—a
top speed!

y RN

Fun and games

14 UK
Shallow hull for
traveling through


Airboat USA 2010s
Hull made of overlapping
wood panels over a
wood frame


R ow
Boy A boat
l ber t UK 1920s
Oars fitted
into oarlocks Metal rudder is
controlled by turning tiller

Boom is gripped
for stability and
Twin-bladed paddle Kayaker sits in
to adjust sail
allows kayaker to an enclosed seat
angle to wind
paddle continuously
without switching sides
Kayak UK 1980s

Rope handles
for lifting boat
out of water Single-bladed paddle used
to push the water backward

Mast fits into joint

on the board

Winds Canoe UK 1980s

u r fe r

oars, which pivot in fixtures called oarlocks as coal, cotton, and other goods along canals
they are rowed back and forth. Sailing dinghies before there were train and road networks;
are used to teach people how to sail, while today, they are equipped with beds and kitchens,
airboats offer thrilling rides, speeding along and used for pleasure cruising. You can live
with the help of large fans spun by car or aircraft aboard cabin cruisers, too, which travel on
engines. Narrowboats were once used to haul open water as well as canals. 193
A FLYING SUCCESS  Guido Cappellini’s F1 Powerboat flies across
the surface of Doha Bay during the Qatar F1
Powerboat Grand Prix in 2009. This racing catamaran is tearing along at over 125 mph (200 km/h)
around a course marked by floating buoys. As many as 24 F1 powerboats take part in each race,
battling for position, because points earned count toward the coveted World Championship title.
F1 Powerboats are the ultimate speed machines on water. in, and protected by a crash cabin, as he pushes his
Equipped with monstrous 425 horsepower engines, they powerboat to the limit. There are no gears and no brakes.
weigh around 1,102 lb (500 kg) and can accelerate from a It is edge-of-your-seat racing, with boats taking tight corners
standing start to 100 mph (160 km/h) in only four seconds, at 62–93 mph (100–150 km/h). Cappellini won this and four
quickly hitting top speeds of around 140 mph (225 km/h). other races in the 2009 season, earning him the world-
Inside its sleek carbon fiber body, the driver is firmly strapped championship crown for a record tenth time.

Airplanes are heavier than air, so they need to overcome the force of gravity,
which pulls them toward the ground. They do this with the help of curved
wings, which produce an upward force, called lift, as the plane moves through
the air. Most aircraft today are monoplanes, which means they have a single set
of wings. This de Havilland DH60 Gipsy Moth is a biplane, with two pairs of
wings and an open cockpit with two seats.

Tail ❯ Most aircraft have a tail

consisting of a fixed fin, horizontal
tailplanes, and hinged rudder and
elevator flaps. The rudder is moved
by controls in the cockpit
to help the aircraft turn. Elevators
Luggage locker
control up and down movements.

Control wires from

Fin cockpit to tail

s y Mot
i p
H6 0G
l a n dD
de H

Fuselage ❯ This is the body of the aircraft

to which wings are attached, and where the
Elevator pilot and passengers sit. The Gipsy Moth’s
fuselage is made of a wooden frame covered
in fabric. Most plane fuselages today are made
Rudder Tailplane of metals or materials, such as carbon fiber.

Engine ❯ Powered aircraft have an engine
that generates thrust to propel them forward.
Modern airliners and military planes use jet
Front cockpit for engines, while many light aircraft, such as the
passenger or Gipsy Moth, use an engine that turns a
propeller to move them through the air.

student pilot

Struts support
upper wing

Rear cockpit
for pilot


Lower wing

Bracing wires to
strengthen plane

Aileron ❯ This hinged flap at the

rear of the wing can be raised or Undercarriage ❯ Also known as landing
lowered, together with the aileron gear, these are the parts of the aircraft used
on the other wing, to tilt the aircraft. for moving on the ground and for takeoff
When used together with the and landing. On most aircraft these are sets
rudder, the ailerons allow the pilot of wheels, but some aircraft have skids or
to perform sweeping, angled turns. floats so they can operate on water.
Taking to
the skies

br othe
R ober t rs Wings made of linen
he la stretched over bamboo poles
t Ch
er Hot-air Balloo & and held in place by wires
lfi n

r le

t n ce


re F

J.A.C. C


ra n c e 1
nchar d’s
Blaon France 1784
r e l lo

le r

S t e e r ab - P i e
Balloon made of
rubber-coated silk
and filled with
hydrogen gas

Hydrogen was
made by pouring Paddles
Basket to hold passengers designed to
and a fire fueled by straw sulphuric steer balloon
to create extra-hot air
acid onto
half a ton of
scrap iron!

nt ha
Wing made of fabric rm
stretched over hollow canes al
Ap p
aratus 1894
Cayley Glider UK 1849 G e r m a ny

For thousands of years, people have In 1783, following a test flight carrying a sheep,
dreamed of flying. However, getting off a duck, and a rooster, the Montgolfier Hot-air
the ground successfully proved impossible Balloon took off in Paris, France, with two
until the invention of lighter-than-air craft, human passengers. Paris was the center of the
such as balloons and airships, and research new balloon age. Just 10 days later the city saw
200 into the principles of flight using gliders. the launch of the first hydrogen-filled balloon, the
H aw
k UK 1

Taking to the skies

Lebaudy No.1 le Jaune France 1902

Santos-Dumont No
Brazil/France 1898 .1

40 horsepower
Daimler engine
turns two propellers
Zeppelin LZ 96 Germany 1917

Motorcycle engine turns

propeller moving airship forward Hinged rudder
helps steer the craft

Gondola holds crew LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin Ger many 1928 778-ft- (237-m-) long hull
and up to 20 passengers covered in cotton over a rigid
frame of aluminum alloy girders


on the Graf
22 school buses
Zeppelin had their
own beds, a
main dining room,
and meals made
17-ft-4-in- onboard.
long glider

la Charlière, and, in 1898, the first flight of the wealthy. Other inventors believed that winged
airship Santos-Dumont No.1. In Germany, gliders were the way up. In the 1890s, German
large airships, such as the Zeppelin LZ 96, engineer Otto Lilienthal made many successful
scouted and bombed during World War I, while flights in gliders such as the Normal Apparatus.
postwar airships, such as the Graf Zeppelin, His work inspired other glider designs, as well as
offered long-distance transportation to the the Wright Brothers’ work on a powered aircraft. 201
First planes Wings stretch to 40 ft
4 in (12.3 m) and are
supported by struts

Wr ight Flyer USA 1903

Cradle where pilot

Voisin Biplane France 1907 lies across the wing

Frame made from

light bamboo poles

Hinged elevator panel controls

pitch (climb or dive) by pointing the
aircraft's nose upward or downward

Harriet S a n to s - D
Quimby, in Tail fin Type 20 F t Demoiselle
rance 1908
a Blériot XI,
became the first
woman to fly the Weighs 507 lb (230 kg)
English Channel empty (without fuel)
in 1912.

1 909
XI France
é r i o t Ty p e

Bracing wires make

wooden frame fuselage stiffer

On December 17, 1903, bicycle-maker Built by two brothers, the Wright Flyer was
Orville Wright lifted off into the air in a a biplane, with two sets of wings, and two
powered aircraft. This first flight lasted propellers spinning behind them. The Voisin
only 12 seconds and covered less than Biplane and Shorts S27 copied this pusher-
the length of a modern airliner, but it propeller design, but other aircraft, such as the
202 marked the beginning of a new age. Santos-Dumont Demoiselle, mounted their
Rudder turned by wires to
control aircraft's direction

First planes
Shorts S27 UK 1910

Steel tube along

Four-cylinder front edge of wing The wires
engine delivers
100 horsepower
on the Fokker
910 gave it the name
lands 1
Nether Spin—Dutch
r Spin
for spider.

Wing ribs made

from bamboo

Car-like steering
wheel in cockpit

1 910
Ty p e A
De p erdussin

Wings made of rubber-coated silk

stretched over ribs of spruce wood
Wings have a span
of 32 ft 2 in (9.8 m)
Cur tiss
USA 19 D

aircraft weighs 650 lb
(295 kg), fully fueled

Tricycle undercarriage
with bicycle wheels and
ne IV
inflatable tires Avro Tripla
UK 19
Sprung tailskid

engine and propeller at the front, or were France to England across the English Channel
monoplanes, with a single pair of wings. Early in 1909. The Deperdussin Type A flew 60 miles
aircraft were built light, using wood, cloth-covered (100 km) at a record speed of 60 mph (100 km/h)
wings, and wires to brace and stiffen their in 1911, carrying two people. This, and other
structures. The Blériot XI carried French aviator record breakers, helped to prove that planes
Louis Blériot on the successful first flight from could be a practical form of transportation. 203
THE GIRL OF NERVE  Daredevil wingwalker Lilian Boyer hangs from
the wingtip of a Curtiss JN-4 Jenny biplane
without a safety harness. Flying was new to the public in the 1920s and a ride in a biplane could be
an unnerving experience for some, even when safely strapped into their seat. So, large crowds were
thrilled by the exploits of barnstormers who performed amazing feats of daring in the sky.
In 1921, Boyer, a 20-year-old restaurant waitress, proved stand on the wing of the aircraft as it performed a loop-the-
fearless when on her second flight in an aircraft, she stepped loop, or dangle from the wing hanging by one hand, or even
out of her seat and onto the wing. Later that year, she by a cord she gripped with her teeth! She also mastered
teamed up with former World War I pilot Billy Brock. The jumping from a speeding car to a plane—a stunt she pulled
pair performed 352 shows across North America throughout on 143 occasions before bans on low flying came into place
the 1920s, dazzling crowds with their exploits. Boyer would in 1929. Miraculously, Boyer lived to the grand age of 88.
Fighter planes
Single machine gun
fires through propeller

N n
Franc ier
e 1915

Tail skid protects rear

of aircraft during
Small tail takeoff and landing 191
with rudder
m el
for sharp turns Ca
h F.1
SPAD SVII France wit

Twin engines give a long
Von Richthofen’s range of 1,300 miles (2,100 km)
Dr.1 was painted
all red, giving him
the nickname of Wingspan of 30 ft
(9 m) helps aircraft
the Red to climb up
r Dr. 7 Fokker D.VII Germany 1918
k ke
Fo er m any

Three sets of short wings enable

sharper climbing and turning

Fast and maneuverable, fighter planes Early World War I fighters, such as the Morane-
were an air force’s hunter-killers during Saulnier Type N, preyed on slow, often unarmed,
World Wars I and II. Their forward-firing bombers and reconnaissance aircraft. They were
weapons, such as cannons and machine soon outpaced by faster fliers, such as the
guns, were mounted on the nose or the Sopwith Camel and Fokker D.VII, which
206 wings to shoot down other aircraft. engaged in furious dogfights against each other.
Eight browning machine
guns mounted in wings

Powerful Daimler engine

generates top speed of
a w k e r Hur rican about 354 mph (570 km/h)

Fighter planes
M k 1 UK 19
The Bf 109
was the most
produced fighter
were built between
hmitt Bf
1936 and 1945. Messer scrmany 1938
1 0 9 E Ge
co I t a ly 1 9 4
Twin Vickers
i a t C R .42 Fal
machine guns F

Top wing spans

31 ft 91⁄2 in (9.7 m)

Bottom wing spans

2 1ft 31⁄2 in (6.5 m)

Wheels do not Mits

retract into the craft Zer obishi A6
Twin booms extend from
body to rear tail planes

Cannon mounted
in the wing

Lockhead P-38
Lightning USA 1941 Front windshield
made of bulletproof glass

Rolls Royce
Merlin 77 engine
gives top speed of
417 mph (671 km/h)

Super marine Spitfir e PR MkX UK 1944 Wheels retract into

the wing during flight

The famous German fighter ace, Baron Manfred Hurricane Mk1 and the Messerschmitt Bf
von Richthofen, made 19 of his 80 “kills” in his 109E battled in the sky. Some fighters, such as the
Fokker Dr.1 triplane. Fighter designs mostly Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero, also served as bombers,
moved from biplanes (with two pairs of wings) while the Supermarine Spitfire PR MkX relied
to monoplanes (with a single pair of wings) after on its speed to avoid other fighters as it took
World War I, and aircraft such as the Hawker photos over enemy lines. 207
Strike Wooden wing frame
covered in canvas


UK 19
Avr o

Tail skid helps

Three-bladed slow aircraft down
propeller while landing
any 19
ka Ger m
r s J u 87 Stu
Ju n k e

Electronics in tail to
Tail with confuse enemy radar and
rudder detect incoming missiles

Chin turret manned

by bombardier who
also aims the bombs

k e l He11
H ein 1940
USA 1935 Ger m
r tr ess
oe in g B -1 7 G Flying Fo
B Top speed
of 270 mph (434 km/h)
Exhausts to release gases from
the Rolls Royce Merlin engine
Fuel tanks in
lland DH wings and body
de Havi ito UK 1940
B-2 Spirit is
the world’s most
expensive aircraft,
costing $2.1

Strike aircraft attack ground targets using Some World War II bombers, such as the Junkers
bombs or missiles. The first bombers were Ju87 Stuka, would dive low to bomb enemy
regular planes from which small bombs forces on the ground. Others operated from high
were dropped by hand. Special bombers altitude, as much as 29,528 ft (9,000 m) in the case
were developed at the end of World War I of the Boeing B-17G Flying Fortress. The Avro
208 and saw major action in World War II. Lancaster had over double the bomb-carrying
Cockpit seats
four of the seven-
man crew with Mid gun turret armed
fifth in the nose with twin machine guns

Avr o Lancaster UK 1941

Rolls Royce Merlin engines give B-29A Superfor tr ess USA 1944
top speed of 282 mph (454 km/h)

Boeing B-52H
Stratofortress USA 1961

Twin turbofan engines give top

speed of 1,429 mph (2,300 km/h)

Tupolev Tu-22M3 Russia 1978

Could carry up to
69,446 lb (31,500 kg)
of weapons

Nose houses radar

Could carry 10 system to detect enemy
missiles or 33,069 lb fighters from up to
(15,000 kg) of bombs 60 miles (100 km) away

Rocket pods MiG-29 Russia 1982
Nor thr op Gr u make this a
mma multi-role aircraft
Spirit USA 1990
159 ft (48.5 m) long,
equivalent to four school buses

Elevons help aircraft

turn, climb, and descend

capacity of the B-17G and more than 7,000 were technology to strike its targets undetected. Some
built. Both were heavily armed, with machine jet-powered bombers could travel long distances,
gunners in turrets. Made out of wood, the de such as the Tupolev Tu-22M3, with a range of
Havilland DH98 Mosquito relied on its speed 4,200 miles (6,800 km), and the eight-engine
and agility to evade enemies. Fifty years later, the Boeing B-52H Stratofortress, which could fly
Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit uses stealth more than 10,000 miles (16,000 km). 209
Racers and

Cabane struts hold wires

-Dumont No.6
S a n to s
France 1901 that brace wings

or t II
N France
1 910

72-ft-1in- (22-m-) long envelope propeller turned by
filled with hydrogen gas Wingspan of 68 ft Rolls Royce Eagle
(20.7 m) VIII engine

no De p
coq er
ue dus
F s ran in

Smooth, streamlined
body made of wood
disc wheels

YP S pir it of S
yan N t. L
ou Vickers Vimy UK 1918
R is Large fuel tank
A1 holds 211 gal
927 (800 liters) of fuel
Cur t
Ole M ob
iss U in J-1
SA 1928

Steel tube

Getting into the air wasn’t enough for some In 1901, the Santos-Dumont No.6 airship won
pilots and engineers. They wanted to push one of the first aviation prizes—100,000 French
their planes to the limit and fly higher, francs in 1901 for a flight around the Eiffel Tower.
faster, longer than others. Races were held, In 1919, the Vickers Vimy made the first
records set and broken, as aircraft became nonstop flight across the Atlantic. American
210 stronger, more powerful, and reliable. aviator Charles Lindbergh completed a 331⁄2 hour
i Castoldi M.C.7
I t a ly 1 9 3 1
Supermarine S6B UK 1930
M acch

Floats designed
to give off heat to
Gee Be cool engine fluids
e Mod
el Z S
uper Spor tster
1931 The fastest
seaplane is the
M.C.72, with a speed
of 441 mph
(709 km/h).

Streamlined Hinged rudder

wheel coverings on tail for turning

Smooth wings of Per cival P10 Ve

39 ft 4 in (12 m) span ga G
to cut through air ull
U K1

Engine gives top

speed of 137 mph
(220 km/h) Sliding glass canopy
reveals seating for pilot
Aircraft only has 7.5 and three passengers
minutes of rocket power
to climb into air

Skid for landing as

wheels were discarded
after take off Messerschmitt Me163
Bücker Bü133C Jungmeister Germany 1936 Komet Germany 1944

nonstop solo flight from New York to Paris in 1927 set a record of 130 mph (210 km/h), while the
in the Spirit of St. Louis. In 1935, a Curtiss- Supermarine S6B and the Macchi Castoldi
Robin J-1 called Ole Miss, aided by inflight M.C.72 broke the 373 mph (600 km/h) and the
refuelling, stayed aloft for 27 days. As aircraft 435 mph (700 km/h) barriers. Even faster was the
design developed, speed records were frequently rocket-powered Messerschmitt Me163 Komet,
broken. The SPAD Deperdussin Monocoque which reached 624 mph (1,005 km/h) in 1941. 211
Jet fighters
62 Sc hwalb
c hm itt Me2 e Ger ma

s se r s
ny 1942

Wing-mounted turbojet
engine gives top speed of
559 mph (900 km/h)

G l o s te r M e te o r UK 1943

Tail plane mounted high

up on the tail to be clear
of engine exhausts

hunder je
4 CT t
USA 1946 Nose
Wheels retract into body u b l i c
when aircraft is in flight
Re p contains four
machine guns
Exhaust channels
waste gases from the
i koy n - G u r e turbojet engine
M vic
-15 Swept-back tail
Ru design matches
ssi swept-back wings

No r t h
F - 8 6 A A m e r i ca n
Sa bre U
The Nose contains S A 1949
seven cameras for
MiG-15 reconnaissance
could climb from missions
a b J 3 5 E D ra k e n Sweden 1955
sea level to 1,6404 ft Sa
(5,000 m) in two

Developed during World War II, jet North American F-86A Sabres and
fighters are mostly fast, nimble single- Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15s fought each
seaters that carry a wide range of other during the Korean War of 1950. The
weaponry, from cannons to missiles. Republic F-84C Thunderjet flew 86,408
They attack and chase off enemy fighters missions during the same war, and was the first
212 to establish air superiority over a region. mass-production jet fighter that could refuel
Cockpit seats
Dassault Mir age III France 1960
two people

More F-4
Phantoms were
built than any other

Jet fighters
US supersonic
Delta wing has
maximum span of Front seat jet—5,195
27 ft (8.2 m) where pilot sits in total.

as F-4
o n n e ll Dougl
ng F53
tric Lightni UK 1970
Large external fuel tank
s h Elec
gl i
M i k oy
evich MiG-23 En
Russia 1

External fuel tank

holds more than
263.9 gal (1,037 liters)
t i n F-22
a r
k h e ed MUSA 2005
Loc R aptor

Nose contains six

Browning M3
machine guns

Cockpit with
ejection seat

Eurofighter Typhoon FGR4 Multinational 2007

midair from a tanker aircraft. The Mikoyan- minutes. It could take off from roads as
Gurevich MiG-23 and the Dassault Mirage well as runways. Modern warbirds, such as