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 over the last decade.  In the current climate, clients need to
Syed Abdul Wahab, Dr.Mohd Hamraj, Abuzar have the confidence to commit to a project and to help instill
Emamai this much needed assurance, the design team needs to be
able to demonstrate affordability and viability from the
Abstract: A design procedure implementing a simple genetic
outset.
algorithm (GA) has been developed for optimization of
It is fairly accepted fact that one of the most important
Reinforced Concrete multi-bay building frames which
human activities is decision making. It does not matter what
conforms to the IS 456:2000. Genetic algorithms are search
field of activity one belongs to. Whether it is political,
algorithms based on the mechanics of natural selection and
military, economic or technological, decisions have a far
natural genetics. Thus, the present work demonstrates an
reaching influence on our lives. Optimization techniques
application of the natural selection process to the design of
play an important role in structural design, the very purpose
structural members that how various chromosomes
of which is to find the best ways so that a designer or a
representing a design solution can be formulated.. For this
decision maker can derive a maximum benefit from the
purpose, a multi-paradigm numerical computing
available resources. The basic idea behind intuitive or
environment and fourth-generation programming language
indirect design in engineering is the memory of past
software called MATLAB was used. The required procedure
experiences, subconscious motives, incomplete logical
was converted in to functions for implementing genetic
processes, random selections or sometimes mere
algorithm in the software. The objective function is the total
superstition. This, in general, will not lead to the best
weight (or cost) of the structure subjected to constraints like
design. The shortcomings of the indirect design can be
Moment of resistance, Length-to-depth ratio, and Minimum
overcome by adopting a direct or optimal design procedure.
area of steel required for beams and columns, all these
The feature of the optimal design is that it consists of only
constraints were carefully coded in to constraints function.
logical decisions. In making a logical decision, one sets out
The prime focus of this procedure is to minimize the
the constraints and then minimizes or maximizes the
material and construction costs of reinforced concrete
objective function (which could be either cost, weight or
frames of a building subjected to strength and serviceability
merit function).
requirements described by the Indian Standard Code using
Structural optimum design methods can also be according to
genetic algorithm.
the design philosophy employed. Most civil engineering
In this research the dimensions and
structures are even to-day designed on the basis of
reinforcing steel were introduced as design variables, taking
permissible stress criterion. However, some of the recent
flexure in to account. The forces and moments needed in the
methods use a specified factor of safety against ultimate
GA constraints will be found automatically from the
failure of the structure. Presently, the approach is based on
ETABS, software.. Reinforced concrete frames of a 4x4
the design constraints expressing the maximum probability
bays, 5 storey building were considered and optimization
of various types of events such as local or ultimate failure.
and design were carried out. It is concluded that the
The objective function is obtained by calculating each event
proposed optimum design model yields rational, reliable,
and multiplies it by the corresponding probability. The sum
economic and practical designs. The total cost obtained was
of all such products will be the total objective function. The
found to be 15% less than the cost obtained by conventional
constraints may also be probabilistic. These are suitable in
method. It proves that the genetic algorithm is capable for
situations when the loads acting on the structure are
designing optimum structural elements despite complex
probabilistic or the material properties are random. During
constraints.
the early fifties there have been considerable advances in
`art` and economy of the structural design through the use of
Index Terms: Design, Optimization, MATLAB, Genetic
Algorithm better structural materials and refined knowledge of
structural design processes. Thus, the aim was to put
I. INTRODUCTION structural design on a scientific basis. The need for
innovation and optimization arose in the challenging
1.1 General problems faced by the aerospace industry, which gave a
Engineers are often assigned to design projects that require Philip to research activities in this area.
them to seek a solution that efficiently locates a design that The basic requirements for an efficient structural design is
meets the identified criteria within the given constraints. In that the response of the structure should be acceptable as per
Civil Engineering, the most important criteria is the cost of various specifications, i.e., it should at least be a feasible
the structure. The importance of cost in design has achieved design. There can be large number of feasible designs, but it
greater focus within the property and construction industry is desirable to choose the best from these several designs.
1
Revised Manuscript Received on December 22, 2018. The best design could be in terms of minimum cost,
Syed Abdul Wahab Muddasir, CYIENT-SMEC, Bangalore, India. minimum weight or maximum
Dr.Mohd Hamraj, Civil Engineering Department, Muffakham Jah College performance or a combination
of Engineering and Technology, Osmania University, Hyderabad of these. Many of the methods
Third Author name, His Department Name, University/ College/
Organization Name, City Name, Country Name. give rise to local

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minimum/maximum. Most of the methods, in general give The present work aims to determine the minimum possible
rise to local minimum. This, however, depends on the cost of the building as well as to determine the optimum
mathematical nature of the objective function and the sizes of the beams, interior columns and exterior columns,
constraints. with optimum reinforcement for the beams and columns.
The optimization problem is classified on the basis of nature The procedure adopted for the present work similar to and
of equations with respect to design variables. If the objective combination of studies of ‘H Nikzad, S Yoshitami, S.
function and the constraints involving the design variable Malasri, D.A Halijan and M.I. Keough,
are linear then the optimization is termed as linear And Salim T. Yousif , Rabi M Najem with use of
optimization problem. If even one of them is nonlinear it is optimization software MATLAB.
classified as the non-linear optimization problem. In general The code for the design in the MATLAB consists of an
the design variables are real but sometimes they could be objective function and a constraint function where the
integers for example, number of layers, orientation angle, number of floor of the building, breadth and depth of beams
etc. The behavior constraints could be equality constraints or ,columns ,etc.. can be altered for required building.
inequality constraints depending on the nature of the Both the functions will be called in MATLAB and solved
problem. for optimum results using GENETIC ALGORITHM as a
solver.
1.2 Importance of optimization in design 2.1 General
Since the investment cost, efficiency, energy savings, etc. Optimization of RC buildings using Genetic Algorithm has
are critical aspects. In particular, engineering disciplines been discussed in various papers and articles by many
need to develop mathematical and computational authors. The main aim of the discussions was to determine
optimization methods to improve the efficiency of the the optimum cost of the building elements subjected to all
processes. One of the simplest definitions for optimization is possible loading conditions. Some of the articles compared
“doing the most with the least” The optimization gives the the accuracy of the procedure and the time elapsed for the
“best” design relative to a set of prioritized criteria or program to give output with other civil engineering
constraints. These include maximizing factors such as softwares like ETABS and STAAD. Out of these journals
productivity, strength, reliability, longevity, efficiency, and and paper few advantages and importance of Genetic
utilization. Since Civil Engineering projects involve Algorithm are listed below:
investment of huge amount on the mark of the work, as the Genetic Algorithms are best suited for structural
materials (Concrete, Steel, Admixtures. Etc.) are very optimization since they handle the discrete variables
expensive and prone to wastage also for obvious reasons efficiently.
and the expenses increases as further it includes the Genetic Algorithms do not require gradient computations.
expenditure of labors, scaffolding and other expenses. Hence, problems where gradient computations are difficult
Hence Optimization plays a very important role in can very well be solved using genetic algorithm.
designing, some of which are discussed below. To a structural engineer, the design of a reinforced concrete
1.3 Need for the present study beam is a simple problem and many design aids are
Demand for high quality design remains paramount but the available. But for other more complex problems where
days of access to a bottomless pit of money have long gone. design aids are not available and a reasonable trial section is
Funding is still difficult to secure and the viability of any hard to guess, this evolution approach becomes very useful.
scheme remains risky. Thus optimization seeks to improve The methodology of the solution with the GAs provides a
performance towards some optimal points resulting in robust optimum design approach for the challenging
minimum cost of the building. Many other engineering problems especially with large constraints requirements, and
fields have been using optimization and genetic algorithm to achieving the design requirements with minimum time and
solve problems like optimization of machines, network effort.
analysis etc., and this technique had proved to be very 2.2 Literature Review
effective and efficient with their results. But civil 1.H.Nikazad, S.Yoshitomi (2017)[1] designed and
engineering works like design and analysis of huge optimized 3D Reinforced concrete structure building. In this
structures and minimization of their cost have never optimization problem, cross section of beams, columns and
explored with this technique, which is proving good for shear wall are considered as design variables and the
other engineering works. Limited research has been carried optimal cross section are derived to minimize the total cost
out on optimization of reinforced concrete structures using of the structure .As per the final design applications ,the
genetic algorithm. Thus this study demonstrates an most suitable section are selected to satisfy ACI 318-
application of natural selection to the design of structural 14 code provision based on linear static analysis. The
members. validity of the method is examined through numerical
1.4 Aims and Objectives of the present study example of 15 storied 3D RC building.
To perform the optimum design of reinforced concrete Reinforced concrete structures are very common and shear
frames using Genetic Algorithm. walls are widely used in tall building and high rise building.
To calculate the minimum cost of the building with Seismic design of such structures, however leading
optimum design and satisfying all the constraints subjected expensive structures, the
to it. optimization is required to
minimize the cost of the
1.5 Scope of the present study structures. The structural

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optimization method 3D RC dual-system is proposed, and involved when using genetic algorithm such as
MATLAB frame structures optimizer is utilized as representation, parameter tuning and genetic operators were
optimization solution. All design formulas are coded in also discussed and presented a methodology to deal with
MATLAB programming based on ACI 318-14 code them.
provision, and constraints consist is shear force, axial force According to the article, the normal method of design of
and reinforcement ratio. Optimal cross sections of member reinforced concrete elements involves a tedious, time taking
are generated considering initial sizes, and total cost of the and uneconomical procedure. In this paper, the concern was
structure is obtained for all steps of optimization. to fin the optimum cost of the reinforced concrete element
The research finding of this method of optimization is based on not only on the allowable stresses but also in the
expected to provide a useful reference ,and can be an cost of concrete, steel and formwork. To solve this
effective and powerful tool for optimization of RC dual optimization problem, simple genetic algorithm (SGA) was
system structures. used.
. 4., Yu ZHANG Caitlin MUELLER (June,2017)[4] in their
2. S. Malasri, D.A Halijan and M.I. Keough (1994)[2] journal “Shear Wall Layout Optimization for Conceptual
designed and optimized concrete beams using Genetic Design of Tall Buildings”, The work presented in this paper
Algorithm. This paper demonstrates an application of the intends to accelerate the process with an optimization
natural selection process to the design of structural system involving a ground structure program formulation, a
members. Reinforced concrete beam design is used as the modified evolutionary algorithm, and innovative
example to show how various chromosomes representing a computational techniques. Unlike existing work that focuses
design solution can be formulated. Fitter chromosomes (or either exclusively on structural performance or architectural
better solutions) have a better chance of being selected for layout, this research integrates both. An efficient
cross over; this in turn creates better generations. Random computational design methodology for shear wall layout in
mutation is used to enhance the diversity of the population. plan is introduced. The method minimizes structural weight
The evolution progresses through several generations, and with constraints on torsion, flexural strength, shear strength,
the best solution is then used in the design. The method drift, and openings and accessibility. It can be applied from
gives reasonable results, but sometimes a local (as opposed the very beginning of floor plan design or after generating
to the global) optimized solution is obtained. an architectural floor plan. This paper demonstrates the
The evolution process starts with a randomly created first potential of this approach through a variety of case studies.
generation. A generation consists of a constant population Key contributions include the novel application of ground
size, in which an individual in the population is represented structure, fast and robust modified evolutionary algorithm,
by a chromosome. Each chromosome, consisting of genes, and a simplified auto-calculation system for reinforced
represents a design solution. A fitness value is then concrete design.
evaluated for each chromosome. Fitter chromosomes are 5. Dr. Salim T. Yousif and Rabi’ M. Najem (2013)[5]
assigned greater probabilities to be selected as parents for designed reinforced concrete columns with all loading
the next generation. Some of these selected chromosomes conditions (axially, uniaxially and biaxially loaded) using
exchange genes with others during the crossover stage. the Genetic Algorithms Gas and also the optimum cost of
Some genes are also randomly mutated. The process repeats the columns.
through several generations. The fittest chromosome is then Each of the designed columns was handled by the GAs
used as the design solution. solver according to its loading condition specifications. The
This paper demonstrates that it is possible to automate the load contour method was used to design the biaxial sections
design process using the evolution process as seen in the with the adjustment of the plastic centroid. A long column
reinforced concrete beam design example. The cumulative constraint was introduced to limit the design procedure with
selection (as opposed to pure random selection) is a very the short columns only. The optimum results were compared
powerful mechanism in evolution. As shown in the example, with other published works, and a reduction in design cost
acceptable solutions are obtained quickly (within 20 of the biaxially loaded columns of about 26 % was achieved
generations). In this problem, the goal is to optimize the using the GAs design method while a small percent in the
bending capacity with the three constraints: Md is greater or cost reduction (1 – 3 %) was achieved for the uniaxially
equal to Mu, section proportion is around 0.5, and steel ratio designed sections, while 50% was the cost savings in the
should lie within the acceptable range. For a more complex axially loaded columns. It was proved that the genetic
problem with more constraints, more generations may be algorithm is capable for designing optimum columns
needed. sections despite the complex constraints that control the
3. Carlos Coello Coello and Franciso Alonso Ferrera (1995) designing procedure. Many design constraints were used to
[3] extended an optimization model for design of cover all the reliable design results, such as limiting the
rectangular RC beams subjected to a specified set of cross sectional dimensions, limiting the reinforcement ratio
constraints, subjected to different conditions of loading. This and even the behaviour of the optimally designed sections.
extended model is closer to concrete design regulations and Conducting the completely new optimization problem for
practical recipes used by experienced engineers. the long columns, with all of its designing constraints, and
To solve it, Genetic Algorithm was used and the results not only the special case for
obtained from genetic algorithm were compared with a the buckling factor, which
mathematical programming technique tht deals with the was used in this study. And
nonlinear equations of our model. Some of the issues for a better way optimizing

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the type of the used columns for the structure whether it was In mathematics and computer science, an
short or a long one, instead of using only one design
optimization problem is the problem of finding the
direction, such as the short column which was enforced in
this study. best solution from all feasible solutions.
2.3 Critical Appraisal Optimization problems can be divided into two
Optimization is relevant to every engineering work
categories depending on whether the variables are
and most of them depend on the total cost of the
continuous or discrete. An optimization problem with
project. Genetic Algorithm is the new and very easy
discrete variables is known as a combinatorial
technique to optimize a problem subject to
optimization problem. In a combinatorial
constraints. Many other engineering fields have been
optimization problem, we are looking for an object
using optimization and genetic algorithm to solve
such as an integer, permutation or graph from a finite
problems like optimization of machines, network
(or possibly countable infinite) set.
analysis etc., and this technique had proved to be
Continuous Optimization Problem :
very effective and efficient with their results. But
civil engineering works like design and analysis of The standard form of a (continuous) optimization
huge structures and minimization of their cost have problem is
never explored with this technique, which is proving
good for other engineering works. Hence the present
study is to exhibit the importance of optimization and
genetic algorithm. 3.1 General
Two major processes were used in this project. One
where
is OPTIMIZATION and the other is the phenomena
carrying out the optimization of the structural
elements by search algorithms based on the   is the objective
mechanics of natural selection and natural genetics function to be minimized over the
called as GENETIC ALGORITHM. variable  ,
3.2 Optimization:
  are called inequality
The purpose of Optimization is to find an alternative
constraints, and
with the most cost effective or highest achievable
performance under the given constraints, by   are called equality

maximizing desired factors and minimizing constraints.

undesired ones. In comparison, maximization means By convention, the standard form defines
trying to attain the highest or maximum result or a minimization problem. A maximization
outcome without regard to cost or expense. Practice problem can be treated by negating the objective
of optimization is restricted by the lack of full function.
information, and the lack of time to evaluate what
Combitorial Optimization Problem:
information is available. In computer simulation
(modelling) of business problems, optimization is Formally, a combinatorial optimization problem   

achieved usually by using linear programming is a quadruple  , where


techniques of operations research, in other words it is
an act, process, or methodology of making something   is a set of instances;
(as a design, system, or decision) as fully perfect,
functional, or effective as possible.

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or auburn. These genes and their settings are usually
 given an instance  ,   is the set
referred to as an organism's genotype. The physical
of feasible solutions;
expression of the genotype - the organism itself - is
 given an instance   and a feasible
called the phenotype [6].
solution   of  ,  denotes the measure When two organisms mate they share their genes.
of  , which is usually a positive real. The resultant offspring may end up having half the

  is the goal function, and is either    genes from one parent and half from the other. This

or  . process is called recombination. Very occasionally a


gene may be mutated. Normally this mutated gene
The goal is then to find for some instance   
will not affect the development of the phenotype but
an optimal solution, that is, a feasible solution   with
very occasionally it will be expressed in the
organism as a completely new trait. Life on earth has
evolved to be as it is through the processes of natural
For each combinatorial optimization problem, there
selection, recombination and mutation.
is a corresponding decision problem that asks
Genetic algorithm (GA) is a search heuristic that
whether there is a feasible solution for some
mimics the same process of natural selection as
particular measure . For example, if there is
discussed above. Genetic Algorithm belongs to the
a graph   which contains vertices   and  , an
family of ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK .This
optimization problem might be "find a path from    heuristic (also sometimes called a metaheuristic) is
to   that uses the fewest edges". This problem might routinely used to generate useful solutions to
have an answer of, say, 4. A corresponding decision optimization and search problems. Genetic
problem would be "is there a path from   to   that Algorithms (GAs) are adaptive heuristic search
uses 10 or fewer edges?" This problem can be algorithm based on the evolutionary ideas of natural
answered with a simple 'yes' or 'no'. selection and genetics. As such they represent an
In the field of approximation algorithms, algorithms intelligent exploitation of a random search used to
are designed to find near-optimal solutions to hard solve optimization problems. Although randomized,
problems. The usual decision version is then an GAs are by no means random, instead they exploit
inadequate definition of the problem since it only historical information to direct the search into the
specifies acceptable solutions. Even though we could region of better performance within the search space.
introduce suitable decision problems, the problem is The basic techniques of the GAs are designed to
more naturally characterized as an optimization simulate processes in natural systems necessary for
problem. evolution, especially those follow the principles first
laid down by Charles Darwin of "survival of the
3.3 Genetic Algorithm:
fittest.". Since in nature, competition among
Every organism has a set of rules, a blueprint so to
individuals for scanty resources results in the fittest
speak, describing how that organism is built up from
individuals dominating over the weaker ones.
the tiny building blocks of life. These rules are
encoded in the genes of an organism, which in turn A typical genetic algorithm requires:
are connected together into long strings called
chromosomes. Each gene represents a specific trait 1. A genetic representation of the solution domain,

of the organism, like eye colour or hair colour, and


2.A fitness function to
has several different settings. For example, the
evaluate the solution domain.
settings for a hair colour gene may be blonde, black

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A standard representation of each candidate solution problem dependent. For instance, in the knapsack
is as an array of bits. Arrays of other types and problem one wants to maximize the total value of
structures can be used in essentially the same way. objects that can be put in a knapsack of some fixed
The main property that makes these genetic capacity. A representation of a solution might be an
representations convenient is that their parts are array of bits, where each bit represents a different
easily aligned due to their fixed size, which object, and the value of the bit (0 or 1) represents
facilitates simple crossover operations. Variable whether or not the object is in the knapsack. Not
length representations may also be used, but every such representation is valid, as the size of
crossover implementation is more complex in this objects may exceed the capacity of the knapsack.
case. Tree-like representations are explored in The fitness of the solution is the sum of values of all
genetic programming and graph-form representations objects in the knapsack if the representation is valid,
are explored in evolutionary programming; a mix of or 0 otherwise.
both linear chromosomes and trees is explored
Genetic Operators:
in gene expression programming.
The next step is to generate a second generation
Once the genetic representation and the fitness
population of solutions from those selected through a
function are defined, a GA proceeds to initialize a
combination of genetic operators: crossover (also
population of solutions and then to improve it
called recombination), and mutation.
through repetitive application of the mutation,
For each new solution to be produced, a pair of
crossover, inversion and selection operators.
"parent" solutions is selected for breeding from the
Initialization:
pool selected previously. By producing a "child"
The population size depends on the nature of the
solution using the above methods of crossover and
problem, but typically contains several hundreds or
mutation, a new solution is created which typically
thousands of possible solutions. Often, the initial
shares many of the characteristics of its "parents".
population is generated randomly, allowing the entire
New parents are selected for each new child, and the
range of possible solutions (the search space).
process continues until a new population of solutions
Occasionally, the solutions may be "seeded" in areas
of appropriate size is generated. Although
where optimal solutions are likely to be found.
reproduction methods that are based on the use of
Selection:
two parents are more "biology inspired", some
During each successive generation, a proportion of research suggests that more than two "parents"
the existing population is selected to breed a new generate higher quality chromosomes.
generation. Individual solutions are selected through
These processes ultimately result in the next
a fitness-based process, where fitter solutions (as
generation population of chromosomes that is
measured by a fitness function) are typically more
different from the initial generation. Generally the
likely to be selected. Certain selection methods rate
average fitness will have increased by this procedure
the fitness of each solution and preferentially select
for the population, since only the best organisms
the best solutions. Other methods rate only a random
from the first generation are selected for breeding,
sample of the population, as the former process may
along with a small proportion of less fit solutions.
be very time-consuming.
These less fit solutions ensure genetic diversity
The fitness function is defined over the genetic within the genetic pool of the parents and therefore
representation and measures the quality of the
represented solution. The fitness function is always

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ensure the genetic diversity of the subsequent mathematical expression describing a relationship of
generation of children. the optimization parameters or the result of an
operation (such as simulation) that uses the
Opinion is divided over the importance of crossover
optimization parameters as inputs. The optimization
versus mutation. There are many references
objective is the objective function plus optimization
in Fogel (2006) that support the importance of
criterion. The latter determines whether the goal of
mutation-based search.
the optimization is to minimize or maximize the
Although crossover and mutation are known as the
value of the objective function.
main genetic operators, it is possible to use other
Constraints: It is an equation, element, factor or an
operators such as regrouping, colonization-
threshold value that works as a bottleneck. It restricts
extinction, or migration in genetic algorithms.
or guides the entity or the problem to attain its
It is worth tuning parameters such as solution in the designed limits.
the mutation probability, crossover probability and Algorithm: A process or set of rules to be followed in
population size to find reasonable settings for the calculations or other problem-solving operations,
problem class being worked on. A very small especially by a computer.
mutation rate may lead to genetic drift (which is non- Gene: A potential solution to a problem may be
ergodic in nature). A recombination rate that is too represented as a set of parameters( for example width
high may lead to premature convergence of the of beam ). This parameter is known as gene.
genetic algorithm. A mutation rate that is too high Chromosome: Genes are joined together to form a
may lead to loss of good solutions, unless elitist string of values , often referred to as chromosome.
selection is employed. Individual: For a particular problem, chromosome is
represented as individual.
Termination:
Population: A set of individuals is called as
This generational process is repeated until a Population for a particular generation.
termination condition has been reached. Common Genotype: The set of parameters represented by a
terminating conditions are: particular chromosome is referred to as a genotype.
Phenotype: The genotype contains the information
 A solution is found that satisfies minimum
required to construct an organism which is referred
criteria
to as phenotype.
 Fixed number of generations reached
Violation Coefficient: It is the coefficient which
 Allocated budget (computation time/money) represents the error or violation by an individual with
reached respect to constraints.
 The highest ranking solution's fitness is Fitness Function: A fitness function is a particular
reaching or has reached a plateau such that type of function that is used to summarize, as a single
successive iterations no longer produce better results figure of merit, how close a given design solution is
 Manual inspection to achieving the set aims. The fitness function must

 Combinations of the above not only correlate closely with the designer's goal, it

3.4 must also be computed quickly. Speed of execution


General Terms
is very important, as a typical genetic algorithm must
Objective Function: The goal of the optimization be iterated many times in order to produce a usable
process is to find the parameter values that result in a result for a non-trivial
maximum or minimum of a function called the
objective function. Objective function is a

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problem. If properly defined, it converges to the most implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces,
appropriate solution. and interfacing with programs written in other languages,
Fitness Value: It is the value obtained from fitness including C, C++, Java, Fortran and Python.
function for a particular individual. It defines the Although MATLAB is intended primarily for numerical
fitness of the individual. When population converges, computing, an optional toolbox uses the MuPAD symbolic
the average fitness will approach that of the best engine, allowing access to symbolic computing capabilities.
individual. An additional package, Simulink, adds graphical multi-
Reproduction Operators: Operators used to decide domain simulation and model-based design for dynamic and
the survival of the individuals in the next generation embedded systems.
with the help of fitness values. In 2004, MATLAB had around one million users across
Actual Count: Rounding off of the values obtained industry and academia.[3] MATLAB users come from
from reproduction operators which represents the various backgrounds of engineering, science, and
existence and repetition of particular individual in economics. MATLAB is widely used in academic and
next generation research institutions as well as industrial enterprises.
Mating Pool: In mating pool, two parent individuals MATLAB is a high-level language and interactive
are selected and their chromosomes are recombined, environment for numerical computation, visualization, and
using the mechanisms of crossover and mutation. programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data,
Crossover: Crossover is a genetic operator used to develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The
vary the programming of a chromosome or language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to
chromosomes from one generation to the next. It is explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than
analogous to reproduction and biological crossover, with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages,
upon which genetic algorithms are based. Cross over such as C/C++ or Java. You can use MATLAB for a range
is a process of taking more than one parent solutions of applications, including signal processing and
and producing a child solution from them. There are communications, image and video processing, control
methods for selection of the chromosomes. systems, test and measurement, computational finance, and
Mutation: Mutation is a genetic operator used to computational biology. More than a million engineers and
maintain genetic diversity from one generation of a scientists in industry and academia use MATLAB, the
population of genetic algorithm chromosomes to the language of technical computing.
next. It is analogous to biological mutation. Mutation (A) Syntax:
alters one or more gene values in a chromosome The MATLAB application is built around the MATLAB
from its initial state. In mutation, the solution may scripting language. Common usage of the MATLAB
change entirely from the previous solution. application involves using the Command Window as an
Convergence: It is the progression towards interactive mathematical shell or executing text files
increasing uniformity. A gene is said to have containing MATLAB code.[7]
converged when 95% of the population share the (B) Variables:
same value. The population is said to be converged
Variables are defined using the assignment operator, =.
when all of the genes have converged.
MATLAB is a weakly typed programming language
3.5 MATrix LABoratory (MATLAB):
because types are implicitly converted. It is an inferred
MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm
typed language because variables can be assigned without
numerical computing environment and fourth-generation
declaring their type, except if they are to be treated as
programming language. A proprietary programming
symbolic objects and that
language developed by MathWorks, MATLAB allows
their type can change. Values
matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data,

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can come from constants, from computation involving "MEX-files" (for MATLAB executable). Since 2014
values of other variables, or from the output of a function. increasing two way interfacing with python is being added.

(C) Structures: Libraries written in Perl, Java, ActiveX or .NET can be

MATLAB has structure data types. Since all variables in directly called from MATLAB, and many MATLAB

MATLAB are arrays, a more adequate name is "structure libraries (for example XML or SQL support) are
array", where each element of the array has the same field implemented as wrappers around Java or ActiveX libraries.
names. In addition, MATLAB supports dynamic field names Calling MATLAB from Java is more complicated, but can
(field look-ups by name, field manipulations, etc.). be done with a MATLAB toolbox[29] which is sold
Unfortunately, MATLAB JIT does not support MATLAB separately by Math Works, or using an undocumented
structures, therefore just a simple bundling of various mechanism called JMI (Java-to-MATLAB
variables into a structure will come at a cost. Interface), (which should not be confused with the

(D) Functions: unrelated Java Metadata Interface that is also called JMI).

When creating a MATLAB function, the name of the file As alternatives to the MuPAD based Symbolic Math
should match the name of the first function in the file. Valid Toolbox available from Math Works, MATLAB can be
function names begin with an alphabetic character, and can connected to Maple or Mathematica
contain letters, numbers, or underscores.
Libraries also exist to import and export MathML
(E) Function handle:
(G) Alternatives:
MATLAB supports elements of lambda calculus by MATLAB has a number of competitors.[39] Commercial
introducing function handles, or function references, which competitors include Mathematica, TK Solver, Maple, and
are implemented either in .m files or anonymous/nested IDL. There are also free open source alternatives to
functions. MATLAB, in particular GNU Octave, Scilab, FreeMat,

(F) Classes and Object-Oriented Programming: Julia, and Sage which are intended to be mostly compatible
with the MATLAB language. Among other languages that
MATLAB's support for object-oriented
treat arrays as basic entities (array programming languages)
programming includes classes, inheritance, virtual dispatch,
are APL, Fortran 90 and higher, S-Lang, as well as the
packages, pass-by-value semantics, and pass-by-reference
statistical languages R and S. There are also libraries to add
semantics. However, the syntax and calling conventions are
similar functionality to existing languages, such as IT++ for
significantly different from other languages. MATLAB has
C++, Perl Data Language for Perl, ILNumerics for .NET,
value classes and reference classes, depending on whether
NumPy/SciPy for Python, and Numeric.js for JavaScript.
the class has handle as a super-class (for reference classes)
GNU Octave is unique from other alternatives because it
or not (for value classes).
treats incompatibility with MATLAB as a bug (see
can alter any member of object only if object is an instance MATLAB Compatibility of GNU Octave). Therefore, GNU
of a reference class. Octave attempts to provide a software clone of MATLAB.
(H) Key features:
Interfacing with other languages:
 High-level language for numerical computation,
MATLAB can call functions and subroutines written in
visualization, and application development
the C programming language or FORTRAN.
 Interactive environment for iterative exploration,
A wrapper function is created allowing MATLAB data design, and problem solving
types to be passed and returned. The dynamically loadable
object files created by compiling such functions are termed

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 Mathematical functions for linear algebra, MATLAB includes a variety of tools for efficient algorithm
statistics, Fourier analysis, filtering, optimization, numerical development, including:
integration, and solving ordinary differential equations  Command Window - Lets you interactively enter
 Built-in graphics for visualizing data and tools for data, execute commands and programs, and display results
creating custom plots  MATLAB Editor - Provides editing and debugging
 Development tools for improving code quality and features, such as setting breakpoints and stepping through
maintainability and maximizing performance individual lines of code
 Tools for building applications with custom  Code Analyzer - Automatically checks code for
graphical interfaces problems and recommends modifications to maximize
 Functions for integrating MATLAB based performance and maintainability
algorithms with external applications and languages such as  MATLAB Profiler - Measures performance of
C, Java, .NET, and Microsoft Excel MATLAB programs and identifies areas of code to modify
for improvement
3.6 The MATLAB language:
 Additional tools compare code and data files, and
The MATLAB language provides native support for the
provide reports showing file dependencies, annotated
vector and matrix operations that are fundamental to solving
reminders, and code coverage.
engineering and scientific problems, enabling fast
Performance:
development and execution.
MATLAB uses processor-optimized libraries for fast
With the MATLAB language, you can write programs and
execution of matrix and vector computations. For general-
develop algorithms faster than with traditional languages
purpose scalar computations, MATLAB uses its just-in-time
because you do not need to perform low-level administrative
tasks such as declaring variables, specifying data types, and (JIT) compilation technology to provide execution speeds

allocating memory. In many cases, the support for vector that rival those of traditional programming languages.

and matrix operations eliminates the need for for-loops. As a


result, one line of MATLAB code can often replace several To take advantage of multicore and multiprocessor

lines of C or C++ code. computers, MATLAB provides many multithreaded linear


MATLAB provides features of traditional programming algebra and numerical functions. These functions
languages, including flow control, error handling, and automatically execute on multiple computational threads in
object-oriented programming (OOP). You can use a single MATLAB session, enabling them to execute faster
fundamental data types or advanced data structures, or you on multicore computers.
can define custom data types.
You can produce immediate results by interactively You can take further advantage of multicore desktop and
executing commands one at a time. This approach lets you other high-performance computing resources such as GPUs
quickly explore multiple options and iterate to an optimal and clusters with add-on parallel computing products. These
solution. You can capture interactive steps as scripts and products provide high-level constructs that let you
functions to reuse and automate your work.
parallelize applications with only minor changes to
MATLAB add-on products provide built-in algorithms for
MATLAB code.
signal processing and communications, image and video
processing, control systems, and many other domains. By 3.7 Genetic Algorithm Procedure Using
combining these algorithms with your own, you can build MATLAB.
complex programs and applications.
The prime focus of the project
Development Tools:
is to analyze a string of

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buildings in a single program and select an optimum a) [Selection] Select two parent chromosomes from a
structure based upon many constraints like moments population according to their fitness. Better the
in the beams, base shear etc. and design the same fitness, the bigger chance to be selected to be the
economically using Genetic Algorithm which is parent.
quick and simple but some assumptions have to be b) [Crossover] with a crossover probability, cross
made therein. Few assumptions are listed below. over the parents to form new offspring, that is,
 Design variables of structural elements are children. If no crossover was performed, offspring is
required to be considered as discrete for the exact copy of parents.
optimization. c) [Mutation] with a mutation probability, mutate
 Quantity of steel in reinforced concrete new offspring at each locus.

elements in considered to be negligible when it d) [Accepting] Place new offspring in the new

comes to determination of quantity of concrete. population.


Step IV [Replace] Use new generated population for
 Fitness function need not necessary to be
a further run of the algorithm.
same for every problem.
Step V [Test] If the end condition is satisfied, stop,
 Population Generation, Crossover, Mutation
and return the best solution in current population.
occurs randomly.
Step VI [Loop] Go to step 2.

The workability of genetic algorithms (GAs) is based Encoding Technique in Genetic Algorithm
on Darwinian’s theory of survival of the fittest. Encoding techniques in genetic algorithms (GAs) are
Genetic algorithms (GAs) may contain a problem specific, which transforms the problem
chromosome, a gene, set of population, fitness, solution into chromosomes. Various encoding
fitness function, breeding, mutation and selection. techniques used in genetic algorithms (GAs) are
Genetic algorithms (GAs) begin with a set of binary encoding, permutation encoding, value
solutions represented by chromosomes, called encoding and tree encoding.
population. Solutions from one population are taken a) Binary encoding
and used to form a new population, which is
It is the most common form of encoding in which the
motivated by the possibility that the new population
data value is converted into binary strings. Binary
will be better than the old one. Further, solutions are
encoding gives many possible chromosomes with a
selected according to their fitness to form new
small number of alleles.
solutions, that is, offspring. The above process is
b) Permutation encoding
repeated until some condition is satisfied.
Algorithmically, the basic genetic algorithm (GAs) is Permutation encoding is best suited for ordering or
outlined as below: queuing problems. Travelling salesman is a
Step I [Start] Generate random population of challenging problem in optimization, where
chromosomes, that is, suitable solutions for the permutation encoding is used.
problem. c) Value encoding
Step II [Fitness] Evaluate the fitness of each
chromosome in the population. Value encoding can be form number, real number on

Step III [New population] Create a new population characters to some complicated objects. Value

by repeating following steps until the new population encoding is technique in

is complete. which every chromosome is a


string of some values and is

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used where some more complicated values are c) Steady-state selection


required.
This method replaces few individuals in each
d) Tree Encoding
generation, and is not a particular method for
It is best suited technique for evolving expressions or selecting the parents. Only a small number of newly
programs such as genetic programming. In tree created offsprings are put in place of least fit
encoding, every chromosome is a tree of some individual. The main idea of steady-state selection is
objects, functions or commands in programming that bigger part of chromosome should retain to
languages. successive population.
Selection Techniques in Genetic Algorithm Genetic Algorithms (GAs) Operators:
Selection is an important function in genetic 1. Crossover
algorithms (GAs), based on an evaluation criterion
It is the process in which genes are selected from the
that returns a measurement of worth for any
parent chromosomes and new offspring is created.
chromosome in the context of the problem. It is the
Crossover takes two individuals parent1, parent2,
stage of genetic algorithm in which individual
and produces two new individuals child1, child2.
genomes are chosen from the string of chromosomes.
Crossover can be performed with binary encoding,
The commonly used techniques for selection of
permutation encoding, value encoding and tree
chromosomes are Roulette wheel, rank selection and
encoding.
steady state selection.
a) Binary encoding crossover

a) Roulette Wheel Selection In binary encoding, the chromosomes may crossover


at single point, two points, uniformly or
In this method the parents are selected according to
arithmetically. In single point crossover, a single
their fitness. Better chromosomes, are having more
crossover point is chosen and the data before this
chances to be selected as parents. It is the most
point are exactly copied from first parent and the data
common method for implementing fitness
after this point are exactly copied from the second
proportionate selection. Each individual is assigned a
parent to create new offspring’s. Two parents in this
slice of circular Roulette wheel, and the size of slice
method give two new offspring’s.
is proportional to the individual fitness of
b) Uniform Crossover
chromosomes, that is, bigger the value, larger the
size of slice is. In uniform crossover, data of the first parent
b) Rank selection method chromosome and second parent chromosome are
randomly copied.
The application of Roulette wheel selection method
c) Arithmetic Crossover
is not satisfactory in genetic algorithms (GAs), when
the fitness value of chromosomes differs very much. In arithmetic crossover, crossover of chromosomes is
It is a slower convergence technique, which ranks the performed by AND and OR operators to create new
population by certain criteria and then every offspring.
chromosome receives fitness value determined by d) Permutation encoding crossover
this ranking. This method prevents quick
convergence and the individuals in a population are In permutation encoding crossover, one crossover
ranked according to the fitness and the expected point is selected. The
value of each individual depends on its rank rather permutation is copied from
than its absolute fitness. first parent chromosome up to

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the point of crossover and the other parent In permutation encoding mutation, the orders of the
chromosome is exactly copied to ensure that no two numbers given in a sequence are exchanged.
number is left to be put in the offspring. Further, if c) Value encoding mutation
the number is not yet in the offspring, it is added to
In value encoding mutation, a small numerical value
the offspring chromosome.
is either added or subtracted from the selected values
e) Value encoding crossover
of chromosomes to create new offspring’s.
It can be performed at single point, two point, d) Tree encoding mutation
uniform and arithmetic representation as in binary
Tree encoding mutation, mutates the certain selected
encoding technique.
nodes of the tree to create new offspring.
f) Tree encoding crossover
3.8 Optimization of a building – calculations
In this type of crossover, one point of crossover is Many various structural elements of the building are
selected in both parent tree chromosomes, which are designed and optimized using genetic algorithm, both
divided at a point. The parts of tree below crossover manually and using MATLAB.
point are exactly exchanged to produce new Here is an example of a residential building is
offspring. The choice of the type of the crossover is analysed and designed using ETABS and optimized
strictly depends upon the problem. using Genetic Algorithm.
2. Mutation STRUCTURE:
A residential building frame of size 4 bays in both
An alternate operator, mutation, can search new areas
the directions is manually designed using ETABS.
in contrast to the crossover. Crossover is referred as
It consists of the same lengths of the beams in each
exploitation operator whereas the mutation is
bay of the building frame and the columns of the
exploration one. Like crossover, mutation can also be
same length and the size is assumed in each floor.
performed for all types of encoding techniques.
Mutation alters one individual, parent, to produce a
single new individual, child. Let pm be the
probability of mutation, then as in the crossover
routine, we first determine whether we are going to
perform mutation on the current pair of parent
chromosomes. If a mutation operation is called for,
we select a mutating point m-point, and then change
a true to a false (1 to 0) or vice versa
a) Binary encoding mutation

In binary encoding mutation, the bits selected for


Fig 3.2 Plan of 4x4 bay structural frame
creating new offsprings are inverted.
In binary encoding mutation, if the bit 1 is converted DATA COLLECTION:

into bit 0, it decreases the numerical value of the Table 3.1 Data for optimization of 4x4 structural

chromosome, and is known as down mutation. frames

Similarly, if the bit 0 is converted into bit 1, the


numerical value of the chromosome increases and is PROCEDURE:

referred as up mutation.
b) Permutation encoding mutation

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Define an optimization function to be minimized (Pu/(0.65*0.8(0.8Fy*Fc(b(2)*d(2))-(AST2*


representing the cost of the beams , columns for b(2)*d(2))+Fy*AST2* b(2)*d(2))))-1 <=0
each floor -----------------4

y=N*((n1*(L1/1000000)*(b(1)*d(2)*540+AST1*33 (AST2/0.08)-1 <


7980))+ -----------------5
(nc*(L2/1000000)*(b(2)*d(2)*540+AST2*337980))
+ (AST2/0.01) <=0
(ni*(L2/1000000)*(b(2)*d(2)*540+AST2*337980))) -----------------6
+(4(L1*L2)*0.125*540); .
The fitness function is given as
y= cost of the building Fi= [M.F max +M.F min]- M.F ind.
N= number of floors Where Fi= fitness of ith individual
n1=number of beams The total fitness of the population is 966210258.4
nc=number of exterior columns and the average fitness of the population is given by
ni=number of interior columns 120776282.3.
L1= Length of beams The next step is to declare the fittest chromosome in
L2= Length of columns the present generation and to generate the next
b(1)=Breadth of beam generation which are the offspring of the current
b(2)=Breadth of column generation. Two genetic operators are used for this
d(1)=Depth of beam purpose, Reproduction Operator and Crossover.
d(2)= Depth of column As the number of individuals in the next generation
AST1=Area of steel in beam is also same, the worst fit individual dies off. The
AST2=Area of steel in column reproduction operator is implemented as follows
Fi/Favg
Now it is necessary to check for possible violation Where
of constraints. The building is analyzed for the given Fi= Fitness of an individual
loading conditions and the values of maximum Favg= Average fitness.
moments, maximum and minimum steel and their A mating pool represents a mate for an individual for
violation coefficient is calculated and represented in crossover.
columns Both the mates and cross over limits are randomly
created.
The constraints for beams are given as This Procedure is repeated for next generation till the
satisfactory results are developed
Mu-0.85*Fy*AST1*d(1)(1-(AST1*Fy)/ .
(b(1)*d(1)*Fck)) <=0 ----------- 1

ASTmin-AST1 <=0
----------------2

AST1-ASTmax <=0
----------------3
The constraints for columns are given as

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objective function, requires coding of two different
programs i.e., Objective function and Constraint
function.
Objective function is a function coded to obtain the
minimum value of the function.
Constraint function is a function coded with many
3.9 Programs in MATLAB functions controlling and restricting the objective
The programming structures presented below apply function under many limits.
to MATLAB. However, these structures look very These two functions will be called in GENETIC
similar in other computer languages, such as C, Java, ALGORITHM TOOL (gatool) provided with upper
Pascal, etc. When writing programs, you need to do and lower bonds of the variables to give minimum
this in a separate window, called the editor. In the value of the objective function as output[9].
editor one can now type in your code, similarly to 3.10 Coding for Optimization of reinforce concrete
how it would be, using a word processor. There are frames of n size
menus for editing the text, just like word processor. Two major parts of optimization using ga tool is
While typing the code in the editor, no commands creating a module and calling functions in ga tool.
will be performed. In order to run a program does the A code was written in MATLAB to analyze the
following: reinforced concrete frame using substitute frame
Save the code as <filename>.m, where <filename> is method, carrying out the calculation for area of steel
anything. It is important to add ".m" at the end of required in the beams and the columns. The code was
your filename. Otherwise MATLAB may not so written that any frame of any size and any number
understand the program. of floors can be analyzed and designed.
Go to the command window. If necessary, change The program was guided to determine the total cost
directories to the directory containing the file. For of steel required in the building frame and will be
example, if the saved file in the directory is clubbed with the total cost of the concrete required
"C:\mymatlab", it is needed to change the current for the building frame (objective function) later to
directory of MATLAB to this directory. This can be get the optimum cost of the building.
accomplished using the cd command common to As stated earlier two different programmes have to
UNIX and DOS. Or, alternatively, select the button be written, namely, Objective function and
labeled "..." on the "Current Directory" window, and Constraint function as give below
change directories graphically. Current directory can Objective function
be viewed by typing the pwd command. This is the governing function the problem which
In order to run the program, type the name of the file returns a value that is minimized.
containing the program at the prompt. When typing
the filename in the command window do not include Constraint function.
".m". By pressing enter, MATLAB will run the This function controls and regulates the objective
program and perform all the commands given in the function using different constraints provided in this
file. function.
In case the code has errors, MATLAB will complain 3.11 Genetic Algorithm Toolbox
when the program runs in the command window. The Genetic Algorithm Toolbox for MATLAB ®
Since the optimization of any complex function (cost was developed at the
of building let us say) is constrained by many other Department of Automatic
functions, the coding for MATLAB for such type of Control and Systems

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Engineering of The University of Sheffield, UK, in Custom data type support in genetic algorithm, multi
order to make GA's accessible to the control engineer objective genetic algorithm, and simulated annealing
within the framework of a existing computer-aided solvers
control system design package. The toolbox was
written with the support of a UK SERC grant, and Genetic Algorithm Solver
the final version (v1.2) was completed in 1994. The genetic algorithm solves optimization problems
Global Optimization Toolbox provides methods that by mimicking the principles of biological evolution,
search for global solutions to problems that contain repeatedly modifying a population of individual
multiple maxima or minima. It includes global points using rules modeled on gene combinations in
search, multistart, pattern search, genetic algorithm, biological reproduction. Due to its random nature,
and simulated annealing solvers. You can use these the genetic algorithm improves your chances of
solvers to solve optimization problems where the finding a global solution. It enables you to solve
objective or constraint function is continuous, unconstrained, bound-constrained, and general
discontinuous, stochastic, does not possess optimization problems, and it does not require the
derivatives, or includes simulations or black-box functions to be differentiable or continuous.
functions with undefined values for some parameter The toolbox includes a number of plotting functions
settings. for visualizing an optimization. These visualizations
Genetic algorithm and pattern search solvers support give you live feedback about optimization progress,
algorithmic customization. You can create a custom enabling you to make decisions to modify some
genetic algorithm variant by modifying initial solver options or stop the solver. The toolbox
population and fitness scaling options or by defining provides custom plotting functions for both the
parent selection, crossover, and mutation functions. genetic algorithm and pattern search algorithms.
You can customize pattern search by defining They include objective function value, constraint
polling, searching, and other functions[8]. violation, score histogram, genealogy, mesh size, and
Key Features function evaluations. You can show multiple plots
Interactive tools for defining and solving together, open specific plots in a new window for
optimization problems and monitoring solution closer examination, or add your own plotting
progress functions.
Global search and multi start solvers for finding Using the output function, you can write results to
single or multiple global optima files, create your own stopping criteria, and write
Genetic algorithm solver that supports linear, your own apps to run toolbox solvers. When working
nonlinear, and bound constraints from the Optimization app, you can export the
Multi objective genetic algorithm with Pareto-front problem and algorithm options to the MATLAB
identification, including linear and bound constraints workspace, save your work and reuse it at a later
Pattern search solver that supports linear, nonlinear, time, or generate MATLAB code that captures the
and bound constraints work you’ve done [10].
Simulated annealing tools that implement a random A picture of Genetic Algorithm Tool in MATALB is
search method, with options for defining annealing given below.
process, temperature schedule, and acceptance
criteria
Parallel computing support in multi start, genetic
algorithm, and pattern search solvers

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The assumed sectional and material properties of the
considered structure are given below along with the
4.1 General
loads to which the structure was subjected
The main aim is to make a MATLAB program which
will minimize a function which gives the cost of the
STRUCTURE:
building for a building of any shape (regular and
irregular), this can be achieved by declaring the
number of bays in both the directions in the program.
An irregular building can be represented by the
different number of bays in both directions. The
compiled program would take the input values as
number of bays, number of floors, length of beams
and columns and weight on the structural elements.
The ETABS program will analyse the building sizes
of beams and columns from wide range of options
provided .
Fig 4.1 3-D View of Building
Hence there were two major studies to be conducted,
one is the analysis using ETAB and MATLAB to
find the optimum design of the reinforced concrete
frames in a building.

4.5 Optimization of a 4x4 bay, 5 storey structural


frame using Genetic Algorithm in MATLAB
4.2 Assumptions in the ETAB As discussed earlier, to optimize the multi-bay ,
Self-weight of the slab along with reinforcement is multi-storey reinforced concrete structural frames ,
incorporated in the objective function of the MATLAB programmes have been coded and written
program. perfectly, as its authenticity have been proved above,
All the beams in a single bay are assumed to be of thus the same was used to optimize of a 4x4 bay, 5
same size and length. storey structural frame using Genetic Algorithm in
All the columns in each floor are assumed to be of MATLAB .The structural and material properties of
same size and length. the assumed structured is substituted in the program.
The frames of the building are analysed using The procedure is briefly discussed below
substitute frame method. A 4x4 bay, 5 storey building was considered and its
The base of the building is assumed to be rigid. structural and material properties taken as input in
4.3 Assumed preliminary data used in ETABS and the MATLAB program and
MATLAB are given below

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L1=4; %Length of beam 5.1 General


L2=3; %Length of column As discussed earlier Optimization of reinforced
n=4; %Number of bays concrete multi-bay, multi-storey building frames
N=5; %Number of floors gives the total cost of the building including the cost
T=0.12; %Thicnkess of slab of the steel used. This cost doesn’t include the cost of
cc=30; %clear cover plastering, scaffolding, labor charges and other small
expenditures. This cost only represents the cost of the
fck=20; material used in the structure as a whole. As
fy=415; mentioned earlier, the result will include the
b=x(1)/1000; optimum sizes of the beam and columns along with
d=x(2)/1000; the reinforcements required and the total cost of the
bi=x(3)/1000; building.
di=x(4)/1000; SUBJECT OF RESEARCH:
B=x(5)/1000; A symmetrical 4x4 bay building of 5floors were
H=x(6)/1000; considered and subjected to constraints and its
dc=(d-(cc/1000)); optimum design and cost were determined using
dic=(di-(cc/1000)); genetic algorithm in MATLAB.
5.2 Results and discussions
Note: The depth of both beams and the columns were As an example, a 4x4 bay, 5 storey building frames
taken as variables, and to get optimized in were considered and is to be designed for a set of
MATLAB. loading discussed below, using the concrete strength
(fc) of 25 MPa and the steel yield strength 415
MPa . Other input parameters including the
The other input arguments are the inputs of upper population size, the crossover probability, the
bound and lower bounds, population type, population mutation probability, and the number of generations
size, creation function, initial population, fitness were also supplied to the genetic algorithm toolbox.
scaling, selection, reproduction, mutation, crossover, 5.4: Comparison of Optimized Beam Results
migration, stopping criteria etc., all these genetic Breadth Optimization: In this the data of beam such
algorithm settings are effective , hence alteration in as width are compared to determine the percentage
theses setting may change the result of the algorithm of optimization.
and the best setting may lead to best answer . Thus Table 5.2 Beam breadth
numbers of runs were made with all distinct genetic optimization data
algorithm settings and best of these results were
taken as the most optimum

Fig 4.3 Beam frame file

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BEAM BREADTH OPTIMIZED PERCENTAGE BEAM BREADTH OPTIMIZED PERCENTAGE


NAME (MM) BREADTH REDUCTION NAME (MM) BREADTH REDUCTION
(MM) (%) (MM) (%)
B1 350 290 17.41 B1 600 510 17.41

B2 350 283.9 18.8 B2 600 486 18.8

B3 350 318.5 9 B3 600 546 9

B4 350 311 11.4 B4 600 534 11.4

B5 350 276.5 21.1 B5 600 474 21.1

Breadth Optimization Depth Optimization


Thickness(mm)

400

Thickness (mm)
300 800
Breadth(mm)
200 600 Depth(mm)
Optimized
100 Breadth(mm) 400 Optimized
200 Depth(mm)
0
B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 0
B1 B2 B3 B4 B5
Beams
Beams

Fig 5.4 Optimized Breadth


Figure 5.5 Optimized depth

It was found that for various


beams for whose the optimization was carried out the It was found that for
sizes various beams for whose the optimization was
along the breadth was carried out the sizes
optimized up to certain 15% average satisfying the IS along the breadth was
456-2000 optimized up to certain 15% average satisfying the IS
code provision as 456-2000
shown in the figure 5.4 code provision as shown in
Depth Optimization: In this the data of beam such as the figure 5.4
depths are compared to determine the percentage of
optimization. 5.5 Discussions:
Table 5.3 Beam depth
This implies the population size should be as greater
optimization data
as possible to ensure the perfect and complete search
space for the genetic algorithm.We tried to keep the
structural elements as square as possible; hence the
third run can also be ruled out because it’s very bad
ration of width to depth of columns and beams.
This combination all genetic
algorithm options arguments

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gave the highest cost of the frame. Hence effective technique of quickly finding a reasonable
uneconomical. solution to a complex problem.
The following suitable genetic algorithm adjustments 4. The Genetic Algorithm proved that it a
can be concluded. sufficient method for finding the optimum solution
Population size should be large to ensure the genetic smoothly and flawless, especially for cases that
algorithm has a larger search space (As out of the handling many complicate constraints such as
eight runs conducted the run with least populations
reinforced concrete buildings subjected to many
gave uneconomical results).
loads as moments and shear with torsion, considering
Crossover Probability with value less than 0.3 yields
the limits of the design code.
the best results
(B) Specific:
Mutation Probability with value less than 0.1 gives
Based on the study conducted, as discussed above it
the best results for the search.
is concluded that
1. The optimum design of the reinforced

There are no easy ways to find the optimal cost concrete building was determined using genetic

design for the shear and torsion stirrups with their algorithm in MATLAB and it demonstrates that it is

distribution through the span because they changed possible to optimize the design process using the
distance from the support, hence the stirrups are not evolution process.
considered. 2. The total cost obtained was found to be 15%
less than the cost obtained by conventional method
The total cost obtained from the genetic
6.2 Scope for further study
algorithm was found to be 15 %( on average) less
As genetic algorithm is being used as search engine
than the cost obtained by conventional method.
in various engineering disciplines to optimal
6.1 Conclusion
solutions to more critical problem, it is possible to
(A) General: explore even more in civil engineering field
1. The above work can be carry forward for
1. To a structural engineer, the design of a
earthquake and wind analysis using genetic
reinforced concrete building is a simple problem and
algorithm , as the earthquake and wind design
many design aids are available. But for other more
includes heavy materials, cost plays a significant
complex problems where design aids are not
role.
available and a reasonable trial section is hard to
2. Present work is confined for a particular
guess, this evolution approach
number of floors and if the structure needs to be
(Genetic Algorithm) becomes very useful.
extended in number of floor, a new program need to
2. Using genetic algorithm, huge number of
be written.
models can be analysed in very less time.
3. Optimization of asymmetrical structure
3. Genetic algorithms can be applied to
could be the most advisable and beneficial scope.
domains in which insufficient knowledge of the
4. Design of slabs can be taken in to
system and/or high complexity is there. It can find
consideration and can be design optimally.
optimal solutions among the search space with the
5. Use and comparison
operators like crossover and mutation. It is a very
on some other heuristic

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searches for design of reinforced concrete building is of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of
recommended. Liverpool, Liverpool,UK

REFERENCES 9. Optimization Theory - A Modern face of Applied

1. Structural optimization Method for 3D Reinforced Mathematics, By Joydeep Dutta.

Concrete building Structure with shear


10. MATLAB code, Practical Genetic Algorithm
wall,H.Nikzard,S.Yoshitimi ,Department of Civil
Second Edition by Randi L Haupt and Sec Ellen Haupt
Engineering Ritsumekan University,Shiga,Japan
11. http://in.mathworks.com/help/gads/genetic-
2. Concrete Beam Design Optimization with Genetic
algorithm.html
Algorithm, S. Malasri, D.A.Halijan and M.L.Keough
Department of Civil Engineering Christian Brothers 12. http://in.mathworks.com/videos/writing-a-matlab-
University Memphis, TN38104. program-69023.html

3. Use of Genetic Algorithm for Optimal Design of 13. http://in.mathworks.com/help/gads/how-the-


Reinforced Concrete Beams, Carlos Coello, Department of genetic-algorithm-works.html
computer science ,Tulane university ,New Orleans, LA
14. http://in.mathworks.com/help/gads/examples/constr
70118,USA. And Francisco Alonso Ferrera, Escnela de
ained-minimization-using-the-genetic-algorithm.html
Ingeniria Civil,UNACH, Apartado Postal
61,Tuxtla,Chiapas, Mexico. 15. http://in.mathworks.com/help/gads/gaoptimset.html

4. Shear Wall Layout Optimization for Conceptual AUTHORS PROFILE


Design of Tall Buildings , Yu ZHANG Caitlin MUELLER
Syed Abdul Wahab Muddasir with in Structural
Massachetusetts University, Department of Civil and Author-1 Engineering, of contains their education details, their
Photo publications, research work, membership, achievements,
Environmental Engineering, Cambridge MA 02139,United with photo that will be maximum 200-400 words.
States.

5. An Overview of Genetic Algorithms: Author- Second Author personal profile which contains their
2Photo education details, their publications, research work,
Fundamentals, David Beasley-University of
membership, achievements, with photo that will be
Cardiff,Cardiff,UK, David R.Bull-University of maximum 200-400 words.

Bristol,Bristol,UK, Ralph R Martin-University of Cardiff,


Author- Third Author personal profile which contains their
Cardiff, UK. 3Photo education details, their publications, research work,
membership, achievements, with photo that will be
maximum 200-400 words.
6. A Genetic Algorithm Tutorial, Darell Whitley,
Computer Science Department, Colordo State University
Fort Collins CO 80523.

7. Genetic Algorithms: Concepts, Design for


Optimization of Process Controllers Rahul Malhotra,
Narinder Singh & Yaduvir Singh Punjab Technical
University, Jalandhar, Punjab, India .

8. Teaching Genetic Algorithm using MATLAB,


Y.J.CAO, Intelligent computer systems centre, University of
the West of England, Bristol, UK and Q.H.WU, Department

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