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over the last decade. In the current climate, clients need to

Syed Abdul Wahab, Dr.Mohd Hamraj, Abuzar have the confidence to commit to a project and to help instill

Emamai this much needed assurance, the design team needs to be

able to demonstrate affordability and viability from the

Abstract: A design procedure implementing a simple genetic

outset.

algorithm (GA) has been developed for optimization of

It is fairly accepted fact that one of the most important

Reinforced Concrete multi-bay building frames which

human activities is decision making. It does not matter what

conforms to the IS 456:2000. Genetic algorithms are search

field of activity one belongs to. Whether it is political,

algorithms based on the mechanics of natural selection and

military, economic or technological, decisions have a far

natural genetics. Thus, the present work demonstrates an

reaching influence on our lives. Optimization techniques

application of the natural selection process to the design of

play an important role in structural design, the very purpose

structural members that how various chromosomes

of which is to find the best ways so that a designer or a

representing a design solution can be formulated.. For this

decision maker can derive a maximum benefit from the

purpose, a multi-paradigm numerical computing

available resources. The basic idea behind intuitive or

environment and fourth-generation programming language

indirect design in engineering is the memory of past

software called MATLAB was used. The required procedure

experiences, subconscious motives, incomplete logical

was converted in to functions for implementing genetic

processes, random selections or sometimes mere

algorithm in the software. The objective function is the total

superstition. This, in general, will not lead to the best

weight (or cost) of the structure subjected to constraints like

design. The shortcomings of the indirect design can be

Moment of resistance, Length-to-depth ratio, and Minimum

overcome by adopting a direct or optimal design procedure.

area of steel required for beams and columns, all these

The feature of the optimal design is that it consists of only

constraints were carefully coded in to constraints function.

logical decisions. In making a logical decision, one sets out

The prime focus of this procedure is to minimize the

the constraints and then minimizes or maximizes the

material and construction costs of reinforced concrete

objective function (which could be either cost, weight or

frames of a building subjected to strength and serviceability

merit function).

requirements described by the Indian Standard Code using

Structural optimum design methods can also be according to

genetic algorithm.

the design philosophy employed. Most civil engineering

In this research the dimensions and

structures are even to-day designed on the basis of

reinforcing steel were introduced as design variables, taking

permissible stress criterion. However, some of the recent

flexure in to account. The forces and moments needed in the

methods use a specified factor of safety against ultimate

GA constraints will be found automatically from the

failure of the structure. Presently, the approach is based on

ETABS, software.. Reinforced concrete frames of a 4x4

the design constraints expressing the maximum probability

bays, 5 storey building were considered and optimization

of various types of events such as local or ultimate failure.

and design were carried out. It is concluded that the

The objective function is obtained by calculating each event

proposed optimum design model yields rational, reliable,

and multiplies it by the corresponding probability. The sum

economic and practical designs. The total cost obtained was

of all such products will be the total objective function. The

found to be 15% less than the cost obtained by conventional

constraints may also be probabilistic. These are suitable in

method. It proves that the genetic algorithm is capable for

situations when the loads acting on the structure are

designing optimum structural elements despite complex

probabilistic or the material properties are random. During

constraints.

the early fifties there have been considerable advances in

`art` and economy of the structural design through the use of

Index Terms: Design, Optimization, MATLAB, Genetic

Algorithm better structural materials and refined knowledge of

structural design processes. Thus, the aim was to put

I. INTRODUCTION structural design on a scientific basis. The need for

innovation and optimization arose in the challenging

1.1 General problems faced by the aerospace industry, which gave a

Engineers are often assigned to design projects that require Philip to research activities in this area.

them to seek a solution that efficiently locates a design that The basic requirements for an efficient structural design is

meets the identified criteria within the given constraints. In that the response of the structure should be acceptable as per

Civil Engineering, the most important criteria is the cost of various specifications, i.e., it should at least be a feasible

the structure. The importance of cost in design has achieved design. There can be large number of feasible designs, but it

greater focus within the property and construction industry is desirable to choose the best from these several designs.

1

Revised Manuscript Received on December 22, 2018. The best design could be in terms of minimum cost,

Syed Abdul Wahab Muddasir, CYIENT-SMEC, Bangalore, India. minimum weight or maximum

Dr.Mohd Hamraj, Civil Engineering Department, Muffakham Jah College performance or a combination

of Engineering and Technology, Osmania University, Hyderabad of these. Many of the methods

Third Author name, His Department Name, University/ College/

Organization Name, City Name, Country Name. give rise to local

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minimum/maximum. Most of the methods, in general give The present work aims to determine the minimum possible

rise to local minimum. This, however, depends on the cost of the building as well as to determine the optimum

mathematical nature of the objective function and the sizes of the beams, interior columns and exterior columns,

constraints. with optimum reinforcement for the beams and columns.

The optimization problem is classified on the basis of nature The procedure adopted for the present work similar to and

of equations with respect to design variables. If the objective combination of studies of ‘H Nikzad, S Yoshitami, S.

function and the constraints involving the design variable Malasri, D.A Halijan and M.I. Keough,

are linear then the optimization is termed as linear And Salim T. Yousif , Rabi M Najem with use of

optimization problem. If even one of them is nonlinear it is optimization software MATLAB.

classified as the non-linear optimization problem. In general The code for the design in the MATLAB consists of an

the design variables are real but sometimes they could be objective function and a constraint function where the

integers for example, number of layers, orientation angle, number of floor of the building, breadth and depth of beams

etc. The behavior constraints could be equality constraints or ,columns ,etc.. can be altered for required building.

inequality constraints depending on the nature of the Both the functions will be called in MATLAB and solved

problem. for optimum results using GENETIC ALGORITHM as a

solver.

1.2 Importance of optimization in design 2.1 General

Since the investment cost, efficiency, energy savings, etc. Optimization of RC buildings using Genetic Algorithm has

are critical aspects. In particular, engineering disciplines been discussed in various papers and articles by many

need to develop mathematical and computational authors. The main aim of the discussions was to determine

optimization methods to improve the efficiency of the the optimum cost of the building elements subjected to all

processes. One of the simplest definitions for optimization is possible loading conditions. Some of the articles compared

“doing the most with the least” The optimization gives the the accuracy of the procedure and the time elapsed for the

“best” design relative to a set of prioritized criteria or program to give output with other civil engineering

constraints. These include maximizing factors such as softwares like ETABS and STAAD. Out of these journals

productivity, strength, reliability, longevity, efficiency, and and paper few advantages and importance of Genetic

utilization. Since Civil Engineering projects involve Algorithm are listed below:

investment of huge amount on the mark of the work, as the Genetic Algorithms are best suited for structural

materials (Concrete, Steel, Admixtures. Etc.) are very optimization since they handle the discrete variables

expensive and prone to wastage also for obvious reasons efficiently.

and the expenses increases as further it includes the Genetic Algorithms do not require gradient computations.

expenditure of labors, scaffolding and other expenses. Hence, problems where gradient computations are difficult

Hence Optimization plays a very important role in can very well be solved using genetic algorithm.

designing, some of which are discussed below. To a structural engineer, the design of a reinforced concrete

1.3 Need for the present study beam is a simple problem and many design aids are

Demand for high quality design remains paramount but the available. But for other more complex problems where

days of access to a bottomless pit of money have long gone. design aids are not available and a reasonable trial section is

Funding is still difficult to secure and the viability of any hard to guess, this evolution approach becomes very useful.

scheme remains risky. Thus optimization seeks to improve The methodology of the solution with the GAs provides a

performance towards some optimal points resulting in robust optimum design approach for the challenging

minimum cost of the building. Many other engineering problems especially with large constraints requirements, and

fields have been using optimization and genetic algorithm to achieving the design requirements with minimum time and

solve problems like optimization of machines, network effort.

analysis etc., and this technique had proved to be very 2.2 Literature Review

effective and efficient with their results. But civil 1.H.Nikazad, S.Yoshitomi (2017)[1] designed and

engineering works like design and analysis of huge optimized 3D Reinforced concrete structure building. In this

structures and minimization of their cost have never optimization problem, cross section of beams, columns and

explored with this technique, which is proving good for shear wall are considered as design variables and the

other engineering works. Limited research has been carried optimal cross section are derived to minimize the total cost

out on optimization of reinforced concrete structures using of the structure .As per the final design applications ,the

genetic algorithm. Thus this study demonstrates an most suitable section are selected to satisfy ACI 318-

application of natural selection to the design of structural 14 code provision based on linear static analysis. The

members. validity of the method is examined through numerical

1.4 Aims and Objectives of the present study example of 15 storied 3D RC building.

To perform the optimum design of reinforced concrete Reinforced concrete structures are very common and shear

frames using Genetic Algorithm. walls are widely used in tall building and high rise building.

To calculate the minimum cost of the building with Seismic design of such structures, however leading

optimum design and satisfying all the constraints subjected expensive structures, the

to it. optimization is required to

minimize the cost of the

1.5 Scope of the present study structures. The structural

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optimization method 3D RC dual-system is proposed, and involved when using genetic algorithm such as

MATLAB frame structures optimizer is utilized as representation, parameter tuning and genetic operators were

optimization solution. All design formulas are coded in also discussed and presented a methodology to deal with

MATLAB programming based on ACI 318-14 code them.

provision, and constraints consist is shear force, axial force According to the article, the normal method of design of

and reinforcement ratio. Optimal cross sections of member reinforced concrete elements involves a tedious, time taking

are generated considering initial sizes, and total cost of the and uneconomical procedure. In this paper, the concern was

structure is obtained for all steps of optimization. to fin the optimum cost of the reinforced concrete element

The research finding of this method of optimization is based on not only on the allowable stresses but also in the

expected to provide a useful reference ,and can be an cost of concrete, steel and formwork. To solve this

effective and powerful tool for optimization of RC dual optimization problem, simple genetic algorithm (SGA) was

system structures. used.

. 4., Yu ZHANG Caitlin MUELLER (June,2017)[4] in their

2. S. Malasri, D.A Halijan and M.I. Keough (1994)[2] journal “Shear Wall Layout Optimization for Conceptual

designed and optimized concrete beams using Genetic Design of Tall Buildings”, The work presented in this paper

Algorithm. This paper demonstrates an application of the intends to accelerate the process with an optimization

natural selection process to the design of structural system involving a ground structure program formulation, a

members. Reinforced concrete beam design is used as the modified evolutionary algorithm, and innovative

example to show how various chromosomes representing a computational techniques. Unlike existing work that focuses

design solution can be formulated. Fitter chromosomes (or either exclusively on structural performance or architectural

better solutions) have a better chance of being selected for layout, this research integrates both. An efficient

cross over; this in turn creates better generations. Random computational design methodology for shear wall layout in

mutation is used to enhance the diversity of the population. plan is introduced. The method minimizes structural weight

The evolution progresses through several generations, and with constraints on torsion, flexural strength, shear strength,

the best solution is then used in the design. The method drift, and openings and accessibility. It can be applied from

gives reasonable results, but sometimes a local (as opposed the very beginning of floor plan design or after generating

to the global) optimized solution is obtained. an architectural floor plan. This paper demonstrates the

The evolution process starts with a randomly created first potential of this approach through a variety of case studies.

generation. A generation consists of a constant population Key contributions include the novel application of ground

size, in which an individual in the population is represented structure, fast and robust modified evolutionary algorithm,

by a chromosome. Each chromosome, consisting of genes, and a simplified auto-calculation system for reinforced

represents a design solution. A fitness value is then concrete design.

evaluated for each chromosome. Fitter chromosomes are 5. Dr. Salim T. Yousif and Rabi’ M. Najem (2013)[5]

assigned greater probabilities to be selected as parents for designed reinforced concrete columns with all loading

the next generation. Some of these selected chromosomes conditions (axially, uniaxially and biaxially loaded) using

exchange genes with others during the crossover stage. the Genetic Algorithms Gas and also the optimum cost of

Some genes are also randomly mutated. The process repeats the columns.

through several generations. The fittest chromosome is then Each of the designed columns was handled by the GAs

used as the design solution. solver according to its loading condition specifications. The

This paper demonstrates that it is possible to automate the load contour method was used to design the biaxial sections

design process using the evolution process as seen in the with the adjustment of the plastic centroid. A long column

reinforced concrete beam design example. The cumulative constraint was introduced to limit the design procedure with

selection (as opposed to pure random selection) is a very the short columns only. The optimum results were compared

powerful mechanism in evolution. As shown in the example, with other published works, and a reduction in design cost

acceptable solutions are obtained quickly (within 20 of the biaxially loaded columns of about 26 % was achieved

generations). In this problem, the goal is to optimize the using the GAs design method while a small percent in the

bending capacity with the three constraints: Md is greater or cost reduction (1 – 3 %) was achieved for the uniaxially

equal to Mu, section proportion is around 0.5, and steel ratio designed sections, while 50% was the cost savings in the

should lie within the acceptable range. For a more complex axially loaded columns. It was proved that the genetic

problem with more constraints, more generations may be algorithm is capable for designing optimum columns

needed. sections despite the complex constraints that control the

3. Carlos Coello Coello and Franciso Alonso Ferrera (1995) designing procedure. Many design constraints were used to

[3] extended an optimization model for design of cover all the reliable design results, such as limiting the

rectangular RC beams subjected to a specified set of cross sectional dimensions, limiting the reinforcement ratio

constraints, subjected to different conditions of loading. This and even the behaviour of the optimally designed sections.

extended model is closer to concrete design regulations and Conducting the completely new optimization problem for

practical recipes used by experienced engineers. the long columns, with all of its designing constraints, and

To solve it, Genetic Algorithm was used and the results not only the special case for

obtained from genetic algorithm were compared with a the buckling factor, which

mathematical programming technique tht deals with the was used in this study. And

nonlinear equations of our model. Some of the issues for a better way optimizing

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the type of the used columns for the structure whether it was In mathematics and computer science, an

short or a long one, instead of using only one design

optimization problem is the problem of finding the

direction, such as the short column which was enforced in

this study. best solution from all feasible solutions.

2.3 Critical Appraisal Optimization problems can be divided into two

Optimization is relevant to every engineering work

categories depending on whether the variables are

and most of them depend on the total cost of the

continuous or discrete. An optimization problem with

project. Genetic Algorithm is the new and very easy

discrete variables is known as a combinatorial

technique to optimize a problem subject to

optimization problem. In a combinatorial

constraints. Many other engineering fields have been

optimization problem, we are looking for an object

using optimization and genetic algorithm to solve

such as an integer, permutation or graph from a finite

problems like optimization of machines, network

(or possibly countable infinite) set.

analysis etc., and this technique had proved to be

Continuous Optimization Problem :

very effective and efficient with their results. But

civil engineering works like design and analysis of The standard form of a (continuous) optimization

huge structures and minimization of their cost have problem is

never explored with this technique, which is proving

good for other engineering works. Hence the present

study is to exhibit the importance of optimization and

genetic algorithm. 3.1 General

Two major processes were used in this project. One

where

is OPTIMIZATION and the other is the phenomena

carrying out the optimization of the structural

elements by search algorithms based on the is the objective

mechanics of natural selection and natural genetics function to be minimized over the

called as GENETIC ALGORITHM. variable ,

3.2 Optimization:

are called inequality

The purpose of Optimization is to find an alternative

constraints, and

with the most cost effective or highest achievable

performance under the given constraints, by are called equality

undesired ones. In comparison, maximization means By convention, the standard form defines

trying to attain the highest or maximum result or a minimization problem. A maximization

outcome without regard to cost or expense. Practice problem can be treated by negating the objective

of optimization is restricted by the lack of full function.

information, and the lack of time to evaluate what

Combitorial Optimization Problem:

information is available. In computer simulation

(modelling) of business problems, optimization is Formally, a combinatorial optimization problem

techniques of operations research, in other words it is

an act, process, or methodology of making something is a set of instances;

(as a design, system, or decision) as fully perfect,

functional, or effective as possible.

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or auburn. These genes and their settings are usually

given an instance , is the set

referred to as an organism's genotype. The physical

of feasible solutions;

expression of the genotype - the organism itself - is

given an instance and a feasible

called the phenotype [6].

solution of , denotes the measure When two organisms mate they share their genes.

of , which is usually a positive real. The resultant offspring may end up having half the

is the goal function, and is either genes from one parent and half from the other. This

gene may be mutated. Normally this mutated gene

The goal is then to find for some instance

will not affect the development of the phenotype but

an optimal solution, that is, a feasible solution with

very occasionally it will be expressed in the

organism as a completely new trait. Life on earth has

evolved to be as it is through the processes of natural

For each combinatorial optimization problem, there

selection, recombination and mutation.

is a corresponding decision problem that asks

Genetic algorithm (GA) is a search heuristic that

whether there is a feasible solution for some

mimics the same process of natural selection as

particular measure . For example, if there is

discussed above. Genetic Algorithm belongs to the

a graph which contains vertices and , an

family of ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK .This

optimization problem might be "find a path from heuristic (also sometimes called a metaheuristic) is

to that uses the fewest edges". This problem might routinely used to generate useful solutions to

have an answer of, say, 4. A corresponding decision optimization and search problems. Genetic

problem would be "is there a path from to that Algorithms (GAs) are adaptive heuristic search

uses 10 or fewer edges?" This problem can be algorithm based on the evolutionary ideas of natural

answered with a simple 'yes' or 'no'. selection and genetics. As such they represent an

In the field of approximation algorithms, algorithms intelligent exploitation of a random search used to

are designed to find near-optimal solutions to hard solve optimization problems. Although randomized,

problems. The usual decision version is then an GAs are by no means random, instead they exploit

inadequate definition of the problem since it only historical information to direct the search into the

specifies acceptable solutions. Even though we could region of better performance within the search space.

introduce suitable decision problems, the problem is The basic techniques of the GAs are designed to

more naturally characterized as an optimization simulate processes in natural systems necessary for

problem. evolution, especially those follow the principles first

laid down by Charles Darwin of "survival of the

3.3 Genetic Algorithm:

fittest.". Since in nature, competition among

Every organism has a set of rules, a blueprint so to

individuals for scanty resources results in the fittest

speak, describing how that organism is built up from

individuals dominating over the weaker ones.

the tiny building blocks of life. These rules are

encoded in the genes of an organism, which in turn A typical genetic algorithm requires:

are connected together into long strings called

chromosomes. Each gene represents a specific trait 1. A genetic representation of the solution domain,

2.A fitness function to

has several different settings. For example, the

evaluate the solution domain.

settings for a hair colour gene may be blonde, black

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A standard representation of each candidate solution problem dependent. For instance, in the knapsack

is as an array of bits. Arrays of other types and problem one wants to maximize the total value of

structures can be used in essentially the same way. objects that can be put in a knapsack of some fixed

The main property that makes these genetic capacity. A representation of a solution might be an

representations convenient is that their parts are array of bits, where each bit represents a different

easily aligned due to their fixed size, which object, and the value of the bit (0 or 1) represents

facilitates simple crossover operations. Variable whether or not the object is in the knapsack. Not

length representations may also be used, but every such representation is valid, as the size of

crossover implementation is more complex in this objects may exceed the capacity of the knapsack.

case. Tree-like representations are explored in The fitness of the solution is the sum of values of all

genetic programming and graph-form representations objects in the knapsack if the representation is valid,

are explored in evolutionary programming; a mix of or 0 otherwise.

both linear chromosomes and trees is explored

Genetic Operators:

in gene expression programming.

The next step is to generate a second generation

Once the genetic representation and the fitness

population of solutions from those selected through a

function are defined, a GA proceeds to initialize a

combination of genetic operators: crossover (also

population of solutions and then to improve it

called recombination), and mutation.

through repetitive application of the mutation,

For each new solution to be produced, a pair of

crossover, inversion and selection operators.

"parent" solutions is selected for breeding from the

Initialization:

pool selected previously. By producing a "child"

The population size depends on the nature of the

solution using the above methods of crossover and

problem, but typically contains several hundreds or

mutation, a new solution is created which typically

thousands of possible solutions. Often, the initial

shares many of the characteristics of its "parents".

population is generated randomly, allowing the entire

New parents are selected for each new child, and the

range of possible solutions (the search space).

process continues until a new population of solutions

Occasionally, the solutions may be "seeded" in areas

of appropriate size is generated. Although

where optimal solutions are likely to be found.

reproduction methods that are based on the use of

Selection:

two parents are more "biology inspired", some

During each successive generation, a proportion of research suggests that more than two "parents"

the existing population is selected to breed a new generate higher quality chromosomes.

generation. Individual solutions are selected through

These processes ultimately result in the next

a fitness-based process, where fitter solutions (as

generation population of chromosomes that is

measured by a fitness function) are typically more

different from the initial generation. Generally the

likely to be selected. Certain selection methods rate

average fitness will have increased by this procedure

the fitness of each solution and preferentially select

for the population, since only the best organisms

the best solutions. Other methods rate only a random

from the first generation are selected for breeding,

sample of the population, as the former process may

along with a small proportion of less fit solutions.

be very time-consuming.

These less fit solutions ensure genetic diversity

The fitness function is defined over the genetic within the genetic pool of the parents and therefore

representation and measures the quality of the

represented solution. The fitness function is always

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ensure the genetic diversity of the subsequent mathematical expression describing a relationship of

generation of children. the optimization parameters or the result of an

operation (such as simulation) that uses the

Opinion is divided over the importance of crossover

optimization parameters as inputs. The optimization

versus mutation. There are many references

objective is the objective function plus optimization

in Fogel (2006) that support the importance of

criterion. The latter determines whether the goal of

mutation-based search.

the optimization is to minimize or maximize the

Although crossover and mutation are known as the

value of the objective function.

main genetic operators, it is possible to use other

Constraints: It is an equation, element, factor or an

operators such as regrouping, colonization-

threshold value that works as a bottleneck. It restricts

extinction, or migration in genetic algorithms.

or guides the entity or the problem to attain its

It is worth tuning parameters such as solution in the designed limits.

the mutation probability, crossover probability and Algorithm: A process or set of rules to be followed in

population size to find reasonable settings for the calculations or other problem-solving operations,

problem class being worked on. A very small especially by a computer.

mutation rate may lead to genetic drift (which is non- Gene: A potential solution to a problem may be

ergodic in nature). A recombination rate that is too represented as a set of parameters( for example width

high may lead to premature convergence of the of beam ). This parameter is known as gene.

genetic algorithm. A mutation rate that is too high Chromosome: Genes are joined together to form a

may lead to loss of good solutions, unless elitist string of values , often referred to as chromosome.

selection is employed. Individual: For a particular problem, chromosome is

represented as individual.

Termination:

Population: A set of individuals is called as

This generational process is repeated until a Population for a particular generation.

termination condition has been reached. Common Genotype: The set of parameters represented by a

terminating conditions are: particular chromosome is referred to as a genotype.

Phenotype: The genotype contains the information

A solution is found that satisfies minimum

required to construct an organism which is referred

criteria

to as phenotype.

Fixed number of generations reached

Violation Coefficient: It is the coefficient which

Allocated budget (computation time/money) represents the error or violation by an individual with

reached respect to constraints.

The highest ranking solution's fitness is Fitness Function: A fitness function is a particular

reaching or has reached a plateau such that type of function that is used to summarize, as a single

successive iterations no longer produce better results figure of merit, how close a given design solution is

Manual inspection to achieving the set aims. The fitness function must

Combinations of the above not only correlate closely with the designer's goal, it

General Terms

is very important, as a typical genetic algorithm must

Objective Function: The goal of the optimization be iterated many times in order to produce a usable

process is to find the parameter values that result in a result for a non-trivial

maximum or minimum of a function called the

objective function. Objective function is a

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problem. If properly defined, it converges to the most implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces,

appropriate solution. and interfacing with programs written in other languages,

Fitness Value: It is the value obtained from fitness including C, C++, Java, Fortran and Python.

function for a particular individual. It defines the Although MATLAB is intended primarily for numerical

fitness of the individual. When population converges, computing, an optional toolbox uses the MuPAD symbolic

the average fitness will approach that of the best engine, allowing access to symbolic computing capabilities.

individual. An additional package, Simulink, adds graphical multi-

Reproduction Operators: Operators used to decide domain simulation and model-based design for dynamic and

the survival of the individuals in the next generation embedded systems.

with the help of fitness values. In 2004, MATLAB had around one million users across

Actual Count: Rounding off of the values obtained industry and academia.[3] MATLAB users come from

from reproduction operators which represents the various backgrounds of engineering, science, and

existence and repetition of particular individual in economics. MATLAB is widely used in academic and

next generation research institutions as well as industrial enterprises.

Mating Pool: In mating pool, two parent individuals MATLAB is a high-level language and interactive

are selected and their chromosomes are recombined, environment for numerical computation, visualization, and

using the mechanisms of crossover and mutation. programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data,

Crossover: Crossover is a genetic operator used to develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The

vary the programming of a chromosome or language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to

chromosomes from one generation to the next. It is explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than

analogous to reproduction and biological crossover, with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages,

upon which genetic algorithms are based. Cross over such as C/C++ or Java. You can use MATLAB for a range

is a process of taking more than one parent solutions of applications, including signal processing and

and producing a child solution from them. There are communications, image and video processing, control

methods for selection of the chromosomes. systems, test and measurement, computational finance, and

Mutation: Mutation is a genetic operator used to computational biology. More than a million engineers and

maintain genetic diversity from one generation of a scientists in industry and academia use MATLAB, the

population of genetic algorithm chromosomes to the language of technical computing.

next. It is analogous to biological mutation. Mutation (A) Syntax:

alters one or more gene values in a chromosome The MATLAB application is built around the MATLAB

from its initial state. In mutation, the solution may scripting language. Common usage of the MATLAB

change entirely from the previous solution. application involves using the Command Window as an

Convergence: It is the progression towards interactive mathematical shell or executing text files

increasing uniformity. A gene is said to have containing MATLAB code.[7]

converged when 95% of the population share the (B) Variables:

same value. The population is said to be converged

Variables are defined using the assignment operator, =.

when all of the genes have converged.

MATLAB is a weakly typed programming language

3.5 MATrix LABoratory (MATLAB):

because types are implicitly converted. It is an inferred

MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm

typed language because variables can be assigned without

numerical computing environment and fourth-generation

declaring their type, except if they are to be treated as

programming language. A proprietary programming

symbolic objects and that

language developed by MathWorks, MATLAB allows

their type can change. Values

matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data,

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can come from constants, from computation involving "MEX-files" (for MATLAB executable). Since 2014

values of other variables, or from the output of a function. increasing two way interfacing with python is being added.

MATLAB has structure data types. Since all variables in directly called from MATLAB, and many MATLAB

MATLAB are arrays, a more adequate name is "structure libraries (for example XML or SQL support) are

array", where each element of the array has the same field implemented as wrappers around Java or ActiveX libraries.

names. In addition, MATLAB supports dynamic field names Calling MATLAB from Java is more complicated, but can

(field look-ups by name, field manipulations, etc.). be done with a MATLAB toolbox[29] which is sold

Unfortunately, MATLAB JIT does not support MATLAB separately by Math Works, or using an undocumented

structures, therefore just a simple bundling of various mechanism called JMI (Java-to-MATLAB

variables into a structure will come at a cost. Interface), (which should not be confused with the

When creating a MATLAB function, the name of the file As alternatives to the MuPAD based Symbolic Math

should match the name of the first function in the file. Valid Toolbox available from Math Works, MATLAB can be

function names begin with an alphabetic character, and can connected to Maple or Mathematica

contain letters, numbers, or underscores.

Libraries also exist to import and export MathML

(E) Function handle:

(G) Alternatives:

MATLAB supports elements of lambda calculus by MATLAB has a number of competitors.[39] Commercial

introducing function handles, or function references, which competitors include Mathematica, TK Solver, Maple, and

are implemented either in .m files or anonymous/nested IDL. There are also free open source alternatives to

functions. MATLAB, in particular GNU Octave, Scilab, FreeMat,

(F) Classes and Object-Oriented Programming: Julia, and Sage which are intended to be mostly compatible

with the MATLAB language. Among other languages that

MATLAB's support for object-oriented

treat arrays as basic entities (array programming languages)

programming includes classes, inheritance, virtual dispatch,

are APL, Fortran 90 and higher, S-Lang, as well as the

packages, pass-by-value semantics, and pass-by-reference

statistical languages R and S. There are also libraries to add

semantics. However, the syntax and calling conventions are

similar functionality to existing languages, such as IT++ for

significantly different from other languages. MATLAB has

C++, Perl Data Language for Perl, ILNumerics for .NET,

value classes and reference classes, depending on whether

NumPy/SciPy for Python, and Numeric.js for JavaScript.

the class has handle as a super-class (for reference classes)

GNU Octave is unique from other alternatives because it

or not (for value classes).

treats incompatibility with MATLAB as a bug (see

can alter any member of object only if object is an instance MATLAB Compatibility of GNU Octave). Therefore, GNU

of a reference class. Octave attempts to provide a software clone of MATLAB.

(H) Key features:

Interfacing with other languages:

High-level language for numerical computation,

MATLAB can call functions and subroutines written in

visualization, and application development

the C programming language or FORTRAN.

Interactive environment for iterative exploration,

A wrapper function is created allowing MATLAB data design, and problem solving

types to be passed and returned. The dynamically loadable

object files created by compiling such functions are termed

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Mathematical functions for linear algebra, MATLAB includes a variety of tools for efficient algorithm

statistics, Fourier analysis, filtering, optimization, numerical development, including:

integration, and solving ordinary differential equations Command Window - Lets you interactively enter

Built-in graphics for visualizing data and tools for data, execute commands and programs, and display results

creating custom plots MATLAB Editor - Provides editing and debugging

Development tools for improving code quality and features, such as setting breakpoints and stepping through

maintainability and maximizing performance individual lines of code

Tools for building applications with custom Code Analyzer - Automatically checks code for

graphical interfaces problems and recommends modifications to maximize

Functions for integrating MATLAB based performance and maintainability

algorithms with external applications and languages such as MATLAB Profiler - Measures performance of

C, Java, .NET, and Microsoft Excel MATLAB programs and identifies areas of code to modify

for improvement

3.6 The MATLAB language:

Additional tools compare code and data files, and

The MATLAB language provides native support for the

provide reports showing file dependencies, annotated

vector and matrix operations that are fundamental to solving

reminders, and code coverage.

engineering and scientific problems, enabling fast

Performance:

development and execution.

MATLAB uses processor-optimized libraries for fast

With the MATLAB language, you can write programs and

execution of matrix and vector computations. For general-

develop algorithms faster than with traditional languages

purpose scalar computations, MATLAB uses its just-in-time

because you do not need to perform low-level administrative

tasks such as declaring variables, specifying data types, and (JIT) compilation technology to provide execution speeds

allocating memory. In many cases, the support for vector that rival those of traditional programming languages.

result, one line of MATLAB code can often replace several To take advantage of multicore and multiprocessor

MATLAB provides features of traditional programming algebra and numerical functions. These functions

languages, including flow control, error handling, and automatically execute on multiple computational threads in

object-oriented programming (OOP). You can use a single MATLAB session, enabling them to execute faster

fundamental data types or advanced data structures, or you on multicore computers.

can define custom data types.

You can produce immediate results by interactively You can take further advantage of multicore desktop and

executing commands one at a time. This approach lets you other high-performance computing resources such as GPUs

quickly explore multiple options and iterate to an optimal and clusters with add-on parallel computing products. These

solution. You can capture interactive steps as scripts and products provide high-level constructs that let you

functions to reuse and automate your work.

parallelize applications with only minor changes to

MATLAB add-on products provide built-in algorithms for

MATLAB code.

signal processing and communications, image and video

processing, control systems, and many other domains. By 3.7 Genetic Algorithm Procedure Using

combining these algorithms with your own, you can build MATLAB.

complex programs and applications.

The prime focus of the project

Development Tools:

is to analyze a string of

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buildings in a single program and select an optimum a) [Selection] Select two parent chromosomes from a

structure based upon many constraints like moments population according to their fitness. Better the

in the beams, base shear etc. and design the same fitness, the bigger chance to be selected to be the

economically using Genetic Algorithm which is parent.

quick and simple but some assumptions have to be b) [Crossover] with a crossover probability, cross

made therein. Few assumptions are listed below. over the parents to form new offspring, that is,

Design variables of structural elements are children. If no crossover was performed, offspring is

required to be considered as discrete for the exact copy of parents.

optimization. c) [Mutation] with a mutation probability, mutate

Quantity of steel in reinforced concrete new offspring at each locus.

elements in considered to be negligible when it d) [Accepting] Place new offspring in the new

Step IV [Replace] Use new generated population for

Fitness function need not necessary to be

a further run of the algorithm.

same for every problem.

Step V [Test] If the end condition is satisfied, stop,

Population Generation, Crossover, Mutation

and return the best solution in current population.

occurs randomly.

Step VI [Loop] Go to step 2.

The workability of genetic algorithms (GAs) is based Encoding Technique in Genetic Algorithm

on Darwinian’s theory of survival of the fittest. Encoding techniques in genetic algorithms (GAs) are

Genetic algorithms (GAs) may contain a problem specific, which transforms the problem

chromosome, a gene, set of population, fitness, solution into chromosomes. Various encoding

fitness function, breeding, mutation and selection. techniques used in genetic algorithms (GAs) are

Genetic algorithms (GAs) begin with a set of binary encoding, permutation encoding, value

solutions represented by chromosomes, called encoding and tree encoding.

population. Solutions from one population are taken a) Binary encoding

and used to form a new population, which is

It is the most common form of encoding in which the

motivated by the possibility that the new population

data value is converted into binary strings. Binary

will be better than the old one. Further, solutions are

encoding gives many possible chromosomes with a

selected according to their fitness to form new

small number of alleles.

solutions, that is, offspring. The above process is

b) Permutation encoding

repeated until some condition is satisfied.

Algorithmically, the basic genetic algorithm (GAs) is Permutation encoding is best suited for ordering or

outlined as below: queuing problems. Travelling salesman is a

Step I [Start] Generate random population of challenging problem in optimization, where

chromosomes, that is, suitable solutions for the permutation encoding is used.

problem. c) Value encoding

Step II [Fitness] Evaluate the fitness of each

chromosome in the population. Value encoding can be form number, real number on

Step III [New population] Create a new population characters to some complicated objects. Value

string of some values and is

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required.

This method replaces few individuals in each

d) Tree Encoding

generation, and is not a particular method for

It is best suited technique for evolving expressions or selecting the parents. Only a small number of newly

programs such as genetic programming. In tree created offsprings are put in place of least fit

encoding, every chromosome is a tree of some individual. The main idea of steady-state selection is

objects, functions or commands in programming that bigger part of chromosome should retain to

languages. successive population.

Selection Techniques in Genetic Algorithm Genetic Algorithms (GAs) Operators:

Selection is an important function in genetic 1. Crossover

algorithms (GAs), based on an evaluation criterion

It is the process in which genes are selected from the

that returns a measurement of worth for any

parent chromosomes and new offspring is created.

chromosome in the context of the problem. It is the

Crossover takes two individuals parent1, parent2,

stage of genetic algorithm in which individual

and produces two new individuals child1, child2.

genomes are chosen from the string of chromosomes.

Crossover can be performed with binary encoding,

The commonly used techniques for selection of

permutation encoding, value encoding and tree

chromosomes are Roulette wheel, rank selection and

encoding.

steady state selection.

a) Binary encoding crossover

at single point, two points, uniformly or

In this method the parents are selected according to

arithmetically. In single point crossover, a single

their fitness. Better chromosomes, are having more

crossover point is chosen and the data before this

chances to be selected as parents. It is the most

point are exactly copied from first parent and the data

common method for implementing fitness

after this point are exactly copied from the second

proportionate selection. Each individual is assigned a

parent to create new offspring’s. Two parents in this

slice of circular Roulette wheel, and the size of slice

method give two new offspring’s.

is proportional to the individual fitness of

b) Uniform Crossover

chromosomes, that is, bigger the value, larger the

size of slice is. In uniform crossover, data of the first parent

b) Rank selection method chromosome and second parent chromosome are

randomly copied.

The application of Roulette wheel selection method

c) Arithmetic Crossover

is not satisfactory in genetic algorithms (GAs), when

the fitness value of chromosomes differs very much. In arithmetic crossover, crossover of chromosomes is

It is a slower convergence technique, which ranks the performed by AND and OR operators to create new

population by certain criteria and then every offspring.

chromosome receives fitness value determined by d) Permutation encoding crossover

this ranking. This method prevents quick

convergence and the individuals in a population are In permutation encoding crossover, one crossover

ranked according to the fitness and the expected point is selected. The

value of each individual depends on its rank rather permutation is copied from

than its absolute fitness. first parent chromosome up to

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the point of crossover and the other parent In permutation encoding mutation, the orders of the

chromosome is exactly copied to ensure that no two numbers given in a sequence are exchanged.

number is left to be put in the offspring. Further, if c) Value encoding mutation

the number is not yet in the offspring, it is added to

In value encoding mutation, a small numerical value

the offspring chromosome.

is either added or subtracted from the selected values

e) Value encoding crossover

of chromosomes to create new offspring’s.

It can be performed at single point, two point, d) Tree encoding mutation

uniform and arithmetic representation as in binary

Tree encoding mutation, mutates the certain selected

encoding technique.

nodes of the tree to create new offspring.

f) Tree encoding crossover

3.8 Optimization of a building – calculations

In this type of crossover, one point of crossover is Many various structural elements of the building are

selected in both parent tree chromosomes, which are designed and optimized using genetic algorithm, both

divided at a point. The parts of tree below crossover manually and using MATLAB.

point are exactly exchanged to produce new Here is an example of a residential building is

offspring. The choice of the type of the crossover is analysed and designed using ETABS and optimized

strictly depends upon the problem. using Genetic Algorithm.

2. Mutation STRUCTURE:

A residential building frame of size 4 bays in both

An alternate operator, mutation, can search new areas

the directions is manually designed using ETABS.

in contrast to the crossover. Crossover is referred as

It consists of the same lengths of the beams in each

exploitation operator whereas the mutation is

bay of the building frame and the columns of the

exploration one. Like crossover, mutation can also be

same length and the size is assumed in each floor.

performed for all types of encoding techniques.

Mutation alters one individual, parent, to produce a

single new individual, child. Let pm be the

probability of mutation, then as in the crossover

routine, we ﬁrst determine whether we are going to

perform mutation on the current pair of parent

chromosomes. If a mutation operation is called for,

we select a mutating point m-point, and then change

a true to a false (1 to 0) or vice versa

a) Binary encoding mutation

Fig 3.2 Plan of 4x4 bay structural frame

creating new offsprings are inverted.

In binary encoding mutation, if the bit 1 is converted DATA COLLECTION:

into bit 0, it decreases the numerical value of the Table 3.1 Data for optimization of 4x4 structural

numerical value of the chromosome increases and is PROCEDURE:

referred as up mutation.

b) Permutation encoding mutation

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representing the cost of the beams , columns for b(2)*d(2))+Fy*AST2* b(2)*d(2))))-1 <=0

each floor -----------------4

7980))+ -----------------5

(nc*(L2/1000000)*(b(2)*d(2)*540+AST2*337980))

+ (AST2/0.01) <=0

(ni*(L2/1000000)*(b(2)*d(2)*540+AST2*337980))) -----------------6

+(4(L1*L2)*0.125*540); .

The fitness function is given as

y= cost of the building Fi= [M.F max +M.F min]- M.F ind.

N= number of floors Where Fi= fitness of ith individual

n1=number of beams The total fitness of the population is 966210258.4

nc=number of exterior columns and the average fitness of the population is given by

ni=number of interior columns 120776282.3.

L1= Length of beams The next step is to declare the fittest chromosome in

L2= Length of columns the present generation and to generate the next

b(1)=Breadth of beam generation which are the offspring of the current

b(2)=Breadth of column generation. Two genetic operators are used for this

d(1)=Depth of beam purpose, Reproduction Operator and Crossover.

d(2)= Depth of column As the number of individuals in the next generation

AST1=Area of steel in beam is also same, the worst fit individual dies off. The

AST2=Area of steel in column reproduction operator is implemented as follows

Fi/Favg

Now it is necessary to check for possible violation Where

of constraints. The building is analyzed for the given Fi= Fitness of an individual

loading conditions and the values of maximum Favg= Average fitness.

moments, maximum and minimum steel and their A mating pool represents a mate for an individual for

violation coefficient is calculated and represented in crossover.

columns Both the mates and cross over limits are randomly

created.

The constraints for beams are given as This Procedure is repeated for next generation till the

satisfactory results are developed

Mu-0.85*Fy*AST1*d(1)(1-(AST1*Fy)/ .

(b(1)*d(1)*Fck)) <=0 ----------- 1

ASTmin-AST1 <=0

----------------2

AST1-ASTmax <=0

----------------3

The constraints for columns are given as

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objective function, requires coding of two different

programs i.e., Objective function and Constraint

function.

Objective function is a function coded to obtain the

minimum value of the function.

Constraint function is a function coded with many

3.9 Programs in MATLAB functions controlling and restricting the objective

The programming structures presented below apply function under many limits.

to MATLAB. However, these structures look very These two functions will be called in GENETIC

similar in other computer languages, such as C, Java, ALGORITHM TOOL (gatool) provided with upper

Pascal, etc. When writing programs, you need to do and lower bonds of the variables to give minimum

this in a separate window, called the editor. In the value of the objective function as output[9].

editor one can now type in your code, similarly to 3.10 Coding for Optimization of reinforce concrete

how it would be, using a word processor. There are frames of n size

menus for editing the text, just like word processor. Two major parts of optimization using ga tool is

While typing the code in the editor, no commands creating a module and calling functions in ga tool.

will be performed. In order to run a program does the A code was written in MATLAB to analyze the

following: reinforced concrete frame using substitute frame

Save the code as <filename>.m, where <filename> is method, carrying out the calculation for area of steel

anything. It is important to add ".m" at the end of required in the beams and the columns. The code was

your filename. Otherwise MATLAB may not so written that any frame of any size and any number

understand the program. of floors can be analyzed and designed.

Go to the command window. If necessary, change The program was guided to determine the total cost

directories to the directory containing the file. For of steel required in the building frame and will be

example, if the saved file in the directory is clubbed with the total cost of the concrete required

"C:\mymatlab", it is needed to change the current for the building frame (objective function) later to

directory of MATLAB to this directory. This can be get the optimum cost of the building.

accomplished using the cd command common to As stated earlier two different programmes have to

UNIX and DOS. Or, alternatively, select the button be written, namely, Objective function and

labeled "..." on the "Current Directory" window, and Constraint function as give below

change directories graphically. Current directory can Objective function

be viewed by typing the pwd command. This is the governing function the problem which

In order to run the program, type the name of the file returns a value that is minimized.

containing the program at the prompt. When typing

the filename in the command window do not include Constraint function.

".m". By pressing enter, MATLAB will run the This function controls and regulates the objective

program and perform all the commands given in the function using different constraints provided in this

file. function.

In case the code has errors, MATLAB will complain 3.11 Genetic Algorithm Toolbox

when the program runs in the command window. The Genetic Algorithm Toolbox for MATLAB ®

Since the optimization of any complex function (cost was developed at the

of building let us say) is constrained by many other Department of Automatic

functions, the coding for MATLAB for such type of Control and Systems

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Engineering of The University of Sheffield, UK, in Custom data type support in genetic algorithm, multi

order to make GA's accessible to the control engineer objective genetic algorithm, and simulated annealing

within the framework of a existing computer-aided solvers

control system design package. The toolbox was

written with the support of a UK SERC grant, and Genetic Algorithm Solver

the final version (v1.2) was completed in 1994. The genetic algorithm solves optimization problems

Global Optimization Toolbox provides methods that by mimicking the principles of biological evolution,

search for global solutions to problems that contain repeatedly modifying a population of individual

multiple maxima or minima. It includes global points using rules modeled on gene combinations in

search, multistart, pattern search, genetic algorithm, biological reproduction. Due to its random nature,

and simulated annealing solvers. You can use these the genetic algorithm improves your chances of

solvers to solve optimization problems where the finding a global solution. It enables you to solve

objective or constraint function is continuous, unconstrained, bound-constrained, and general

discontinuous, stochastic, does not possess optimization problems, and it does not require the

derivatives, or includes simulations or black-box functions to be differentiable or continuous.

functions with undefined values for some parameter The toolbox includes a number of plotting functions

settings. for visualizing an optimization. These visualizations

Genetic algorithm and pattern search solvers support give you live feedback about optimization progress,

algorithmic customization. You can create a custom enabling you to make decisions to modify some

genetic algorithm variant by modifying initial solver options or stop the solver. The toolbox

population and fitness scaling options or by defining provides custom plotting functions for both the

parent selection, crossover, and mutation functions. genetic algorithm and pattern search algorithms.

You can customize pattern search by defining They include objective function value, constraint

polling, searching, and other functions[8]. violation, score histogram, genealogy, mesh size, and

Key Features function evaluations. You can show multiple plots

Interactive tools for defining and solving together, open specific plots in a new window for

optimization problems and monitoring solution closer examination, or add your own plotting

progress functions.

Global search and multi start solvers for finding Using the output function, you can write results to

single or multiple global optima files, create your own stopping criteria, and write

Genetic algorithm solver that supports linear, your own apps to run toolbox solvers. When working

nonlinear, and bound constraints from the Optimization app, you can export the

Multi objective genetic algorithm with Pareto-front problem and algorithm options to the MATLAB

identification, including linear and bound constraints workspace, save your work and reuse it at a later

Pattern search solver that supports linear, nonlinear, time, or generate MATLAB code that captures the

and bound constraints work you’ve done [10].

Simulated annealing tools that implement a random A picture of Genetic Algorithm Tool in MATALB is

search method, with options for defining annealing given below.

process, temperature schedule, and acceptance

criteria

Parallel computing support in multi start, genetic

algorithm, and pattern search solvers

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The assumed sectional and material properties of the

considered structure are given below along with the

4.1 General

loads to which the structure was subjected

The main aim is to make a MATLAB program which

will minimize a function which gives the cost of the

STRUCTURE:

building for a building of any shape (regular and

irregular), this can be achieved by declaring the

number of bays in both the directions in the program.

An irregular building can be represented by the

different number of bays in both directions. The

compiled program would take the input values as

number of bays, number of floors, length of beams

and columns and weight on the structural elements.

The ETABS program will analyse the building sizes

of beams and columns from wide range of options

provided .

Fig 4.1 3-D View of Building

Hence there were two major studies to be conducted,

one is the analysis using ETAB and MATLAB to

find the optimum design of the reinforced concrete

frames in a building.

frame using Genetic Algorithm in MATLAB

4.2 Assumptions in the ETAB As discussed earlier, to optimize the multi-bay ,

Self-weight of the slab along with reinforcement is multi-storey reinforced concrete structural frames ,

incorporated in the objective function of the MATLAB programmes have been coded and written

program. perfectly, as its authenticity have been proved above,

All the beams in a single bay are assumed to be of thus the same was used to optimize of a 4x4 bay, 5

same size and length. storey structural frame using Genetic Algorithm in

All the columns in each floor are assumed to be of MATLAB .The structural and material properties of

same size and length. the assumed structured is substituted in the program.

The frames of the building are analysed using The procedure is briefly discussed below

substitute frame method. A 4x4 bay, 5 storey building was considered and its

The base of the building is assumed to be rigid. structural and material properties taken as input in

4.3 Assumed preliminary data used in ETABS and the MATLAB program and

MATLAB are given below

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L2=3; %Length of column As discussed earlier Optimization of reinforced

n=4; %Number of bays concrete multi-bay, multi-storey building frames

N=5; %Number of floors gives the total cost of the building including the cost

T=0.12; %Thicnkess of slab of the steel used. This cost doesn’t include the cost of

cc=30; %clear cover plastering, scaffolding, labor charges and other small

expenditures. This cost only represents the cost of the

fck=20; material used in the structure as a whole. As

fy=415; mentioned earlier, the result will include the

b=x(1)/1000; optimum sizes of the beam and columns along with

d=x(2)/1000; the reinforcements required and the total cost of the

bi=x(3)/1000; building.

di=x(4)/1000; SUBJECT OF RESEARCH:

B=x(5)/1000; A symmetrical 4x4 bay building of 5floors were

H=x(6)/1000; considered and subjected to constraints and its

dc=(d-(cc/1000)); optimum design and cost were determined using

dic=(di-(cc/1000)); genetic algorithm in MATLAB.

5.2 Results and discussions

Note: The depth of both beams and the columns were As an example, a 4x4 bay, 5 storey building frames

taken as variables, and to get optimized in were considered and is to be designed for a set of

MATLAB. loading discussed below, using the concrete strength

(fc) of 25 MPa and the steel yield strength 415

MPa . Other input parameters including the

The other input arguments are the inputs of upper population size, the crossover probability, the

bound and lower bounds, population type, population mutation probability, and the number of generations

size, creation function, initial population, fitness were also supplied to the genetic algorithm toolbox.

scaling, selection, reproduction, mutation, crossover, 5.4: Comparison of Optimized Beam Results

migration, stopping criteria etc., all these genetic Breadth Optimization: In this the data of beam such

algorithm settings are effective , hence alteration in as width are compared to determine the percentage

theses setting may change the result of the algorithm of optimization.

and the best setting may lead to best answer . Thus Table 5.2 Beam breadth

numbers of runs were made with all distinct genetic optimization data

algorithm settings and best of these results were

taken as the most optimum

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NAME (MM) BREADTH REDUCTION NAME (MM) BREADTH REDUCTION

(MM) (%) (MM) (%)

B1 350 290 17.41 B1 600 510 17.41

Thickness(mm)

400

Thickness (mm)

300 800

Breadth(mm)

200 600 Depth(mm)

Optimized

100 Breadth(mm) 400 Optimized

200 Depth(mm)

0

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 0

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5

Beams

Beams

Figure 5.5 Optimized depth

beams for whose the optimization was carried out the It was found that for

sizes various beams for whose the optimization was

along the breadth was carried out the sizes

optimized up to certain 15% average satisfying the IS along the breadth was

456-2000 optimized up to certain 15% average satisfying the IS

code provision as 456-2000

shown in the figure 5.4 code provision as shown in

Depth Optimization: In this the data of beam such as the figure 5.4

depths are compared to determine the percentage of

optimization. 5.5 Discussions:

Table 5.3 Beam depth

This implies the population size should be as greater

optimization data

as possible to ensure the perfect and complete search

space for the genetic algorithm.We tried to keep the

structural elements as square as possible; hence the

third run can also be ruled out because it’s very bad

ration of width to depth of columns and beams.

This combination all genetic

algorithm options arguments

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gave the highest cost of the frame. Hence effective technique of quickly finding a reasonable

uneconomical. solution to a complex problem.

The following suitable genetic algorithm adjustments 4. The Genetic Algorithm proved that it a

can be concluded. sufficient method for finding the optimum solution

Population size should be large to ensure the genetic smoothly and flawless, especially for cases that

algorithm has a larger search space (As out of the handling many complicate constraints such as

eight runs conducted the run with least populations

reinforced concrete buildings subjected to many

gave uneconomical results).

loads as moments and shear with torsion, considering

Crossover Probability with value less than 0.3 yields

the limits of the design code.

the best results

(B) Specific:

Mutation Probability with value less than 0.1 gives

Based on the study conducted, as discussed above it

the best results for the search.

is concluded that

1. The optimum design of the reinforced

There are no easy ways to find the optimal cost concrete building was determined using genetic

design for the shear and torsion stirrups with their algorithm in MATLAB and it demonstrates that it is

distribution through the span because they changed possible to optimize the design process using the

distance from the support, hence the stirrups are not evolution process.

considered. 2. The total cost obtained was found to be 15%

less than the cost obtained by conventional method

The total cost obtained from the genetic

6.2 Scope for further study

algorithm was found to be 15 %( on average) less

As genetic algorithm is being used as search engine

than the cost obtained by conventional method.

in various engineering disciplines to optimal

6.1 Conclusion

solutions to more critical problem, it is possible to

(A) General: explore even more in civil engineering field

1. The above work can be carry forward for

1. To a structural engineer, the design of a

earthquake and wind analysis using genetic

reinforced concrete building is a simple problem and

algorithm , as the earthquake and wind design

many design aids are available. But for other more

includes heavy materials, cost plays a significant

complex problems where design aids are not

role.

available and a reasonable trial section is hard to

2. Present work is confined for a particular

guess, this evolution approach

number of floors and if the structure needs to be

(Genetic Algorithm) becomes very useful.

extended in number of floor, a new program need to

2. Using genetic algorithm, huge number of

be written.

models can be analysed in very less time.

3. Optimization of asymmetrical structure

3. Genetic algorithms can be applied to

could be the most advisable and beneficial scope.

domains in which insufficient knowledge of the

4. Design of slabs can be taken in to

system and/or high complexity is there. It can find

consideration and can be design optimally.

optimal solutions among the search space with the

5. Use and comparison

operators like crossover and mutation. It is a very

on some other heuristic

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International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE)

st

ISSN: 2277-3878, Volume-X, Issue-X, don’t delete Top & Bottom Header, & Fill up Manuscript details (I Page, Bottom, Left Side)

searches for design of reinforced concrete building is of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of

recommended. Liverpool, Liverpool,UK

10. MATLAB code, Practical Genetic Algorithm

wall,H.Nikzard,S.Yoshitimi ,Department of Civil

Second Edition by Randi L Haupt and Sec Ellen Haupt

Engineering Ritsumekan University,Shiga,Japan

11. http://in.mathworks.com/help/gads/genetic-

2. Concrete Beam Design Optimization with Genetic

algorithm.html

Algorithm, S. Malasri, D.A.Halijan and M.L.Keough

Department of Civil Engineering Christian Brothers 12. http://in.mathworks.com/videos/writing-a-matlab-

University Memphis, TN38104. program-69023.html

Reinforced Concrete Beams, Carlos Coello, Department of genetic-algorithm-works.html

computer science ,Tulane university ,New Orleans, LA

14. http://in.mathworks.com/help/gads/examples/constr

70118,USA. And Francisco Alonso Ferrera, Escnela de

ained-minimization-using-the-genetic-algorithm.html

Ingeniria Civil,UNACH, Apartado Postal

61,Tuxtla,Chiapas, Mexico. 15. http://in.mathworks.com/help/gads/gaoptimset.html

Design of Tall Buildings , Yu ZHANG Caitlin MUELLER

Syed Abdul Wahab Muddasir with in Structural

Massachetusetts University, Department of Civil and Author-1 Engineering, of contains their education details, their

Photo publications, research work, membership, achievements,

Environmental Engineering, Cambridge MA 02139,United with photo that will be maximum 200-400 words.

States.

5. An Overview of Genetic Algorithms: Author- Second Author personal profile which contains their

2Photo education details, their publications, research work,

Fundamentals, David Beasley-University of

membership, achievements, with photo that will be

Cardiff,Cardiff,UK, David R.Bull-University of maximum 200-400 words.

Author- Third Author personal profile which contains their

Cardiff, UK. 3Photo education details, their publications, research work,

membership, achievements, with photo that will be

maximum 200-400 words.

6. A Genetic Algorithm Tutorial, Darell Whitley,

Computer Science Department, Colordo State University

Fort Collins CO 80523.

Optimization of Process Controllers Rahul Malhotra,

Narinder Singh & Yaduvir Singh Punjab Technical

University, Jalandhar, Punjab, India .

Y.J.CAO, Intelligent computer systems centre, University of

the West of England, Bristol, UK and Q.H.WU, Department

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