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INDEX
ENVIRONMENT & ECOLOGY
Weddell Gyre
What is FLR?
METHANOTROPHS

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BIOROCK
Dead Zone
The Keeling Curve

20
Kelps
Parameters and Criteria for declaring Eco sensitive zones
Torrefaction
sc
Arogyapacha
COP 25 as the 'Blue COP
Dracaena Cambodiana -
up

Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary:


India's Tiger Conservation Efforts:
Tx2 Programme
et

One-horned rhinoceros
What is red mud?
rg

What is plastic rust?


Karakoram Anomaly
Black soft shell turtle
ta

Small Island Developing States (SIDS)


Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS)
World Urban Forum (WUF 10)
Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats
Tiger range countries (TRCs)
Raptors MoU
Great Green Wall - SAHEL REGION AFRICA
GREEN WALL OF INDIA
Pangolin
Espoo Convention
United for Biodiversity' coalition

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BREATHELIFE
The Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (CCAC)
FORESTS FOR LIFE PARTNERSHIP
Renewable Energy Certificates (REC)
The Climate Action Network (CAN)
Peaty Soil
Endemism

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Species richness
The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention
The Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO)

20
UNESCO Global Geoparks
Enhancing Coastal and Ocean Resource Efficiency Program (ENCORE)
NCAP national clear air program
sc
Chambal sanctuary
Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)
Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems" (GIAHS)
up

Main reasons for desertification in India are:


Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF)
The BioCarbon Fund
et

Megadiversity Countries
Adaptation Fund
rg

Green GDP
CLEAN AIR INITIATIVE
FORESTS FOR LIFE PARTNERSHIP
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Sustainable Development Cell for Environmental Mitigation Measures


Green Corridor Project
India Renewable Idea Exchange (IRIX)
ANDREX PROJECT
EESL
Programmes implemented by EESL
India Smart Utility Week 2020
FRONTIERS REPORT
National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board (NAEB)
Bioventing
Biosparging

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Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (CPLC),
Sustainable Development Mechanism (SDM)
Honolulu Strategy
Pollution and Health Metrics
Wise Use
Chinkara gazelles
Global Biodiversity Information Facility

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Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) Agreement
What is Fly Ash?
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)

20
International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV)
Tropical Forest Alliance 2020
Chile-Madrid Time for Action declaration
sc
Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure (PIC)
Wealth Accounting and the Valuation of Ecosystem Services (WAVES)
Brown to Green Report
up

Biomining
The Global Snow Leopard and Ecosystem Protection Program (GSLEP):
GI Tag for 5 Indian Coffee varieties
et

Nirmal Tat Abhiyaan:


Yellow Rust
rg

Brown Rust
Sacred Groves
National Resource Efficiency Authority (NREA)
ta

The Hindu Kush and Himalayan Range (HKH)


Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS)
Umbrella Species
Zoological Survey of India (ZSI)
Red Mud
Emissions trading,
GREEN FIRECRACKER
ECOLOGICAL FISCAL TRANSFERS
Momentum for Change
Marine organisms
The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO)

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NATIONAL PLAN FOR CONSERVATION OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS (NPCA)
AIR QUALITY EARLY WARNING SYSTEM
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS)
The 'State of India's Birds 2020' report
NATIONAL ADAPTATION FUND FOR CLIMATE CHANGE (NAFCC)
Amazon Fund is a REDD+
The State of the World's Forests

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Standing crop
Operation 'clean Art'
Mongoose

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BHUNGROO
INTERNATIONAL PLATFORM ON SUSTAINABLE FINANCE
Eurythermal animals:
sc
Stenothermal animals:
Thermophilic animals:
Cryophilic animals:
up

Euryhaline organisms
The Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO)
EChO Network
et

Eco-Development Forces Scheme


ST. PETERSBURG DECLARATION
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Global Animal Protection Index


ANTHROPOGENIC MINERAL
Sargasso Sea
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National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research:


INCOIS SERVICES FOR MARINE-BASED USERS
The Faith for Earth Initiative
El Nino/La Nina
Madden-Julian Oscillation
Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)
Netherlands 'Room for the River' project.
Sennaspectabilis
GreenCo Rating
National Resource Efficiency Authority (NREA) :
Sustainable Livelihoods and Adaptation to Climate Change (SLACC)

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NIRDPR-National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj
'Samudrayaan' project
Flagship species
Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA).
Black-necked cranes
Northern European Enclosure Dam (NEED)
Ocean Deoxygenation

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Causes of deoxygenation
South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme (SACEP)
The Global Tiger Initiative (GTI)

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Global Assessment Report
Extinction Rebellion
What is Soil Organic Carbon?
sc
FRONTIERS REPORT
National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board (NAEB)
The UN-REDD Programme
up

Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (CPLC),


Pollution and Health Metrics: Global, Regional and Country Analysis
Chinkara gazelles
et

GBIF
IndAIR
rg

Under Kyoto Protocol


What is International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme?
The Nagoya Protocol
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Rotterdam Convention
The Asiatic Wild Water Buffalo
Syngas
Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary (PCWBS)
The Central Pollution Control Board
Mission Innovation
India's first e-waste clinic for segregating
Bactrian or double-humped camels
Forest PLUS 2.0
Shannon-Weiner Index
Society of Integrated Coastal Management (SICOM)

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Critical Wildlife Habitats
Incineration
Pyrolysis
International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
Report on illegal Global Trade in Tigers is compiled by TRAFFIC,
Peace Forest Initiative:
Don't Confuse !!

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International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR)
Hong Kong convention
Parameters and Criteria for declaring Eco sensitive zones

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Environment Pollution Control Authority (EPCA)
POLYCRACK
International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)
sc
The Shola forests
An Arribada
World's largest platform for air quality data was launched recently, at World Urban Forum (WUF
up

10)
Greater Adjutant Stork (Hargila)
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
et

Solar Risk Mitigation Initiative(SRMI)


The Green Growth Equity Fund (GGEF)
Greater Adjutant Stork (Hargila)
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Biodiversity coldspot
Carbon Disclosure Report:
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Greenpeace
Green Index (Greenex)
eDNA
National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture(NICRA)
24-degree Celsius
Green Good Deeds Campaign
GEF & GCF (Don't get confused anymore)
Global Environment Facility (GEF)
Green climate fund (GCF):
NCERT
Gandhi Solar Park

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A nutrient cycle
Carbon cycle
The sulfur cycle
BIODIVERSITY FINANCE INITIATIVE (BIOFIN)
Global Bio-India 2019:
The International Union for Conservation of Nature
What are Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs)?

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EnviStats-
What are Aichi Targets?
MIKE stands for Monitoring of Illegal Killing of Elephants

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Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary:
Pizol glacier:
DEEP CARBON OBSERVATORY PROJECT
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CAPACITY-BUILDING INITIATIVE FOR TRANSPARENCY (CBIT) FUND
CLIMATE TECHNOLOGY CENTRE AND NETWORK
The United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF)
up

Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE):


The Living Planet Index (LPI):
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP):
et

Phytoremediation:
1) Rhizosphere biodegradation:
rg

2) Phytostabilization:
3) Phyto-accumulation (also called phyto-extraction):
4) Hydroponic Systems for Treating Water Streams (Rhizofiltration):
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5) Phytovolatilization:
Malabar Civet
About Red Panda
Pangolin
ORANGUTAN
PURPLE FROG/ PIGNOSE FROG
GRIZZLED GIANT SQUIRREL
ASIATIC LION
GREAT INDIAN HORNBILL
WHITE TIGER/ BLEACHED TIGER
SUMATRAN RHINO

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KASHMIR STAG/ HANGUL (STATE ANIMAL OF J&K)
MONKEY
ASIATIC GOLDEN CAT/ TEMMINCK'S CAT
GREAT INDIAN BUSTARD
SAMBAR DEER
OLIVE RIDLEY TURTLE
PADDY FROG

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VESPERSAURUS PARANAENSIS
THE GREAT GREY OWL
WILD YAK

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ENOPLOTRUPES TAWANGENSIS
NILGIRI TAHR
INDIAN TIGER/ROYAL BENGAL TIGER (PANTHERA TIGRIS)
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CHRYSOMALLON SQUAMIFERUM
DUGONG
DRACAENA CAMBODIANA
up

TAMIL YEOMAN (CIRROCHROA THAIS)


GANGETIC DOLPHIN/ BLIND DOLPHIN/ SUSU
GHARIALS
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ONE-HORNED RHINO/ RHINOCEROS UNICORNIS


SAHIWAL CATTLE
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BLACKBUCK/ INDIAN ANTELOPE


CLOUDED LEOPARD
SPAHAEROTHECA MAGADHA/MAGADHA BURROWING FROG
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PEACOCK PARACHUTE SPIDER (GOOTY TARANTULA)


SMOOTH-COATED OTTER AND SMALL-CLAWED OTTER
INDIAN STAR TORTOISE
WEDGEFISH
TOKAY GECKO/ GEKKO GECKO
INDIAN ROSEWOOD
GLYPTOTHORAX GOPII & GARRA SIMBALBARAENSIS
MARMOSET/MICO MUNDURUKU
ADRATIKLIT BOULAHFA
ANANDAN'S DAY GECKO
COPROLITE

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KOMODO DRAGON
Himalayan_Ibex
Gaur (Indian Bison)
Rhododendron
NILGIRI TAHR
BLACKBUCK/ INDIAN ANTELOPE
SMOOTH-COATED OTTER AND SMALL-CLAWED OTTER

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INDIAN STAR TORTOISE
TOKAY GECKO/ GEKKO GECKO
INDIAN ROSEWOOD

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SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
EMISAT
sc
PARAS (PRL ADVANCED RADIAL VELOCITY ABU SKY SEARCH SPECTROGRAPH)
HYSIS: HYSPECTRAL IMAGING SATELLITE
up

What Is Dutch Disease?


Triage
DNA OF THINGS (DOT)
et

NEW FRONTIER'S PROGRAM


Genome India Project
'5G Hackathon'
rg

Circadian rhythm
K-4 missile
ta

ELASTOCALORIC EFFECT
NEAT (NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ALLIANCE FOR TECHNOLOGY) SCHEME
What is a spike protein?
RAIDER-X
TrueNat
Vyom MItra
Op-Blue Freedom
Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs)
National AYUSH Mission
Technology Development Board
Global Innovation & Technology Alliance (GITA)
Ploonets:
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Interferons
Technical Textiles
Bombay blood group
Various diseases
Project NETRA
NETRA (Network Traffic Analysis)
NASA's Artemis mission:

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ShodhShuddhi
TrueNat:
Herd immunity

20
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-Mark III (GSLV MK III)
Darknet
INDIGEN GENOME PROJECT
sc
BHABHA KAVACH
Microbial fuel cells
About Proton therapy
up

About RTS,S Vaccine


Kuiper Belt:
Nano-pharmaceuticals:
et

NANO MISSION
Deepfakes:
rg

Free Space Optical Communication (FSOC) technology


Edge Computing
What is quantum computing?
ta

Sycamore
MACS 4028.
Biosimilar medicines:
Difference between Biosimilar and Generic medicines:
PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction
Convalescent plasma therapy
What is biofortification?
Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID)
Samadhan challenge
bedaquiline, pretomanid andlinezolid
(KIRAN) Scheme

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Vaccine hesitancy
HYSIS: HYSPECTRAL IMAGING SATELLITE
National Science Day
Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)
National Institute of Virology
Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO)
National Pharmaceuticals Pricing Authority

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Quick Reaction Surface-to Air missiles (QRSAM)
Bioinformatics:
Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR)

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Ossification test
Schedule H drugs
Extra Neutral Alcohol (ENA)
sc
What is One Health concept?
What is an outbreak, epidemic and pandemic?
What's the difference between a cold, a flu and COVID- 19?
up

National Animal Disease Control Programme (NADCP)


Role of Cytokines
Blood plasma
et

Schedule H1
Reverse osmosis
rg

Anemia Mukt Bharat (AMB)


Types of cells
AGR
ta

Domain name Systems (dnS)


Centralised Access Control System (CACS) Project:
National Informatics Centre (NIC)
Central Equipment Identity Register
Muons
'Wings India 2020'
Haemophilia
Central Council for research in homeopathy (CCrh)
What is Autism?
Glass Fibre Reinforced Gypsum Concrete
Youth Co: Lab initiative

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Global Bio-India Summit, 2019
The VoWiFi technology:
A xerophyte
Genome India Initiative:
Gene Silencing:
Lithium Sulfur (Li-S) Battery
Green Propellants

20
Innate immunity
DIALYSIS :
1] Hemodialysis (HD):

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2] Peritoneal dialysis (PD):
PM NATIONAL DIALYSIS PROGRAM (PMNDP)
Human Space Flight Centre
sc
Hera Mission:
Blue Biotechnology:
Green Biotechnology:
up

Red Biotechnology:
White Biotechnology:
CAR-T
et

The AWaRe tool


Aarogya Setu
rg

Shri Shakti Challenge

INDIAN ECONOMY
ta

nancial Sector Development Council (FSDC)


Global Investment Trend Monitor Report:
UDAY BONDS
PANDA BONDS
SIMILAR BONDS
URIDASHI MASALA BONDS
MASALA BONDS
IMPACT BONDS
WOMEN LIVELIHOOD BONDS
UTKRISHT IMPACT BOND
GREEN BONDS
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Financial Intelligence Unit-India
Scheme for Trans-Disciplinary Research for India's Developing Economy (STRIDE)
Circular Trading
What is Essential Commodities Act?
Securities Appellate Tribunal (SAT)
Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)
What is bilateral netting?

20
India INX
Gender Social Norms Index
Fiscal Performance Index

20
MANI App
Enhanced Access and Service Excellence-EASE 3.
Formation and Promotion of Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) Scheme"
sc
Co-operative Banks
Rural Cooperatives
Liberalised Remittance Scheme
up

Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF)


L2PRO INDIA
Economic capital framework
et

eBkray
Disinvestment can be done in the following ways
rg

Shadow Banking
Tech Saksham
Fit and Proper Regime
ta

Time Release Study (TRS)


Debt Overhang:
Redacted Pricing
India VIX
Startup ranking framework for 2019
Ways and Means Advances
Ghosting
Greenfield and Brownfield projects
India Investment Grid
Recapitalisation bonds
A Pigovian tax

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The Tobin tax
Some Facts about startup in India:
Business Immunity Platform:
Credit Rating Agencies (CRAs) are regulated by SEBI.
Definition of NPA's
Power generation capacity as on October 2019
Invest India

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Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY)
Shell company
'Graded Surveillance Measure'

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SIDBI Make in India Soft Loan Fund for Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (SMILE) scheme
Rent seeking
Drug Price Control Orders (DPCOs)
sc
Infrastructure Status
Duty credit scrip
Various surveys
up

Jaivik-kheti portal
National gene fund
India's external liabilities
et

Income distance'
15th FC facts
rg

The parameters for distribution of taxes among the states (horizontal distribution) for FFC are
The Fifteenth Finance Commission (FFC) at glance
Public Finance Management System
ta

Pump priming
Inverted Duty Structure
Crowding in
Composition levy
All you wanted to know about compensation cess
Revenue neutral tax rate
Tax Planning
Partial Credit Guarantee scheme
Teaser Loans
A letter of credit
Supervisory Action Framework" (SAF)

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Stagflation
Accommodative Monetary Policy
National Centre for Financial Education (NCFE)
Merger
Bank run
Currencies and coins are fiat money
Income elasticity of demand

20
Important graphs representing various trends
FDI trend.
RBI surplus transfer to the GOI .

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Trend of real GDP growth rate from 2013 to 2019-2020
National Infrastructure on Pipeline (NIP) Task force
Stagflation
sc
Nidhi company
Bear Market
Bull Market
up

The Zamindari system


The Mahalwari system
The Ryotwari system
et

Index of Industrial Production


Paris Convention
rg

Herfindahl Index
BHARAT BILL PAYMENT SYSTEM (BBPS)
National Investment & Manufacturing Zones (NIMZs)
ta

GEM SAMVAAD
Shehri Samriddhi Utsav
The National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA)
Outcome budget
Zero based budgeting
Gender Budgeting
Domestic systemically important bank (D-SIB)
Infrastructure Investment Trust
Service Sector
Formation and Promotion of Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) Scheme"
Thalinomics

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Enhanced Access and Service Excellence-EASE 3.
P2P lending
The KhoyaPaya portal
Consumer Confidence Survey
Sovereign Wealth Fund (SWF)
Randomised controlled trial
Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (DICGC)

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Additional tier-1 bonds
NRE Savings Account
NRO Savings Account/Fixed Deposit Account

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FCNR Account
Types of goods
PM-CARES Fund:
sc
Most-Favoured-Nation (MFN)
Women's Livelihood Bonds (WLBs):
Enterprise Development Centres (EDCs)
up

Monetary Policy Committee (MPC)


Market Stabilization scheme (MSS)
Dividend Distribution Tax
et

MSME Pulse report:


The Off-Budget
rg

BOT:
BOO:
BOOT:
ta

BOLT:
DBFO:
LDO:
Hybrid Annuity Model (HAM)
The Bombay Plan:
Base erosion and profit shifting
A Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)
The Modified Special Incentive Package Scheme (M-SIP) scheme
Few terms which are circulating in light of the COVID-19 crisis regarding how to stimulate the
economy.
ADVANCE PRICING AGREEMENT :

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Indian Depository Receipt (IDR)

INDIAN POLITY
Local Area Development (MPLAD) Scheme
Borrowed Features
The departments/organisations/bodies headed by the Prime Minister of India include the following -

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Right to Adverse possession:
CONTROLLER GENERAL OF ACCOUNTS (CGA)
Know India Programme (KIP)

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Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana (RVY)
The Competition Commission of India (CCI)
Integrated Management of Public Distribution System" (IM-PDS) Scheme
Central Adverse List
sc
Tribunals
iGOT
up

Article 136(Special leave petition):


Section 144
Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat
et

PPRTMS-an online system


Central Adoption Resource Authority
Article 142
rg

National Social Assistance Programme


Limitation Law 1859
ta

Who is An Anglo-Indian?
University Grants Commission
Mandamus
National Health Stack is a digital infrastructure prepared by NITI Aayog.
E-SAMVAD
The Attorney General (AG)
Centralized Public Grievance Redressal and Monitoring System (CPGRAMS)
Mandamus
Gram Nyayalayas
Delimitation commission
The difference between Private & Government Bills in Parliament
Private members bill
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REGISTER OF INDIGENOUS INHABITANTS OF NAGALAND (RIIN)
Cabinet Secretariat
Civil Services Boards
Anticipatory Bail
What is contempt of Court?
Foreigners Tribunal (FT)
Electronically Transmitted Postal Ballot System (ETPBS)

20
Who are service voters?
Electoral Bonds:
Di?erences between the UID and NPR

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What is permanent resident certificate?
What is Ofcial Secrets Act?
The Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Bill, 2019, provides
sc
What is International Financial Services Centre?
International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFFSCA)
India Justice Report (IJR)
up

Concept of Review Petition and Curative Petition


Cabinet Committees
Right to be forgotten (RTF) in India
et

Shillong Declaration on E-Governance


Urban Local Governance is dealt with by the following 3 ministries:
rg

Whip Conference
Freedom in the World 2020 report
National E-Assessment Scheme
ta

Digital Communications Commission


Corruption Perception Index (CPI)
Transparency International.
SDG India Index 2019
Swachh Survekshan League
National Florence Nightingale Awards
Nari Shakti Puraskar
National Commission of Minorities (NCM)
DIKSHA (Digital Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing)
eSamikSha
District Development Coordination and Monitoring Committees (DISHAs)

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Different IPC sections against violators of prohibitory orders:
What is a Cantonment Board?
The Index of Economic Freedom:
PESA :
Major commodity groups UNDER ESSENTIAL COMMODITIES ACT
Guillotine:
Excess grant:

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Additional grant:
Token grant:
Vote of credit

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INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
MOTIHARI-AMLEKHGUNJ OIL PIPELINE
sc
India-UN Development Partnership Fund (UNDPF)
Free Movement Regime
up

South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation


BIMSTEC
BIMSTEC-DMEx 2020
et

ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific (AOIP)


India and Indo Pacific region
2+2 dialogue
rg

Indian Ocean Dialogue (IOD)


Future Investment Initiative (FII)
ta

Blue Dot Network (BDN)


UNHRC
Osaka trackIt is proposal by Japan that seeks the removal of prohibitions on data localisation and
urgesnations to negotiate rules on data flows, cloud computing among others. India, South Africa,
andIndonesia have boycotted the "Osaka Track" on the "digital economy".
Women's Business Alliance
Arctic Council
IAEA
INSTEX Barter Mechanism
Global Counter Terrorism Forum (GCTF)
'Dtrack
NEST

Page 22
AUSTRALIAN GROUP
WASSEGNAR ARRANGEMENT
MISSILE TECHNOLOGY CONTROL REGIME
MERA India
Innovation for Defence Excellence Initiative (iDEX)
'Peace Park'.
The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements,

20
Ashgabat Agreement
Raisina Dialogue
Oslo Accords

20
International Organisation for Migration's (IOM)
State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC):
sc
Bilateral investment Treaties (BITs) or Bilateral Investment Protection Agreements (BIPAs) :
Singapore Convention on Mediation
up

IMPORTANT BODIES & ORGANIZATIONS


The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR)
et

Small island developing states


Indian Ocean Commission
Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C)
rg

Association of World Election Bodies (A-WEB)


Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN)
ta

What is OPEC?
What is the Opec+?
National Statistical Office (NSO) -
Central Statistics Office (CSO)-
NSSO
World Health Organization
Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)
National Institute of Virology
Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO)
WORLD ANTI-DOPING AGENCY
The National Population Register (NPR)
World Resources Institute (WRI)
Page 23
National Resource Efficiency Authority
United Nations Population Fund
National Centre for Disease Control(NCDC)
United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR)
The Airports Economic Regulatory Authority (AERA)
Directorate General of Trade Remedies
WORLD ANTI-DOPING AGENCY

20
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Interpol
Amnesty International

20
Serious Fraud Investigation Office
World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF TRADE REMEDIES (DGTR)
sc
Central Ground Water Board
World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
Global Innovation & Technology Alliance (GITA)
up

Bank for International Settlements (BIS)


UN Women
The South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA)
et

Interpol
Indian Ocean Commission (IOC)
rg

World Food Programme (WFP)


National Productivity Council (NPC)
World Economic Situation Prospects (WESP)
ta

National Council of Science Museums (NCSM)


The International Whaling Commission (IWC)
WWF
The Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC):
The Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC):
Human Capital Index (HCI)
FIU-IND
The Appellate Body of the WTO
Biological Weapons Convention
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

Page 24
GOVERNMENT SCHEMES
Pradhan Mantri Yuva Udyamita VikasAbhiyan(YUVA) Yojana
Angikaar Campaign.
National Educational Alliance for Technology (NEAT) Scheme
Platform for Effective Enforcement for No Child Labour (PENCIL)
Mission Solar Charkha

20
ARTIS
Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY)
Pradhan Mantri Yuva Udyamita Vikas Abhiyaan (PM YUVA) Yojana.

20
Shehri Samriddhi Utsav
Methanol Economy Program.
PradhanMantriJanaushadhiPariyojana (PMBJP).
sc
National Health Stack is a digital infrastructure prepared by NITI Aayog.
Market Intervention Scheme
DeenDayal SPARSH Yojana
up

Khelo India
Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maan DhanYojana.
Ekalavya Model Schools
et

SOIL HEALTH CARD SCHEME


RashtriyaBalSwasthyaKaryakram (RBSK)
rg

NaiRoshni
NaiManzil
1000 Springs Initiatives:
ta

Skills Build Platform


Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana
Know India Programme (KIP)
National AYUSH Mission
Pradhan Mantri Laghu Vyapari Maan-Dhan Yojana (PMLVMY)
SAMVAY
SWAYAM PRABHA
Various approaches of development
Silk Samagra:
North East Rural Livelihood Project (NERLP):
Bharatiya Poshan Krishi Kosh:

Page 25
Special Central Assistance (SCA) to Scheduled Castes Sub-Plan (SCSP):
The Integrated Disease Surveillance Program (IDSP):
NSAP comprises the following schemes for Below Poverty Line (BPL) Households:
Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi (RAN)
Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana
Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana
Atal Pension Yojana

20
Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana
SAMVAY:
'Adopt a Heritage: Apni Dharohar, Apni Pehchaan'

20
Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay SanraksHan Abhiyan (PM-AASHA)
Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM)
Bharat Padhe Online' campaign
sc
Employees' Provident Funds Scheme

INTERNAL SECURITY
up

Nuclear Command Authority (NCA)


United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
et

GLOBAL CENTRE FOR NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP (GCNEP)


Central Bureau of Narcotics
Narcotics Control Bureau
rg

Defence Exercises between India and France


Project-75
ta

Mission RakshaGyan Shakti


Bharatiya Poshan Krishi Kosh (BPKK):
Crime Multi Agency Centre (Cri-MAC) and National Cybercrime Training Centre (NCTC).
'Operation Trance'
Budapest Convention
Strategic Forces Command
INS Arihant
'Operation Trance'
CYBER CRISIS MANAGEMENT PLAN
Area 51
The project BOLD-QIT
The Palermo Protocols
Page 26
ART & CULTURE
Jangubai cave temple
Rock paintings in Karikiyoor
Sajibu Cheiraoba
Bathukamma Festival
Thiruvalluvar

20
Thirukkural
Ajanta paintings
Thumri

20
Yakshagana
Dholavira
Statue of Unity
JAINA TEMPLES :
sc
Mughal Prince Dara Shikoh:
Tanjore Paintings:
up

Mysore Painting-
Madhubani painting (Mithila painting)
The Aranyakas
et

Mricchakatika
Yogyakarta Principles
rg

Kalhana
The Wanchuwa festival:
Madhushravani Festival or Madhu Sravani Puja:
ta

The Dosmoche festival


Chapchar Kut festival
Shondol Dance:
Chavang kuth
Shramana:
Bandi Chhor Divas
Veer Surendra Sai
Dhokra Sculpture
Dhokra Sculpture
Aadi Mahotsav
Reggae got UNESCO Heritage Status

Page 27
Brick Temple at Bhitargaon
Saharia Tribe
Paika Rebellion
The Sal Tree Theatre Festival
Ranipur - Jharial - Odisha
Petroglyphs
Ladakh's Dard Aryan Tribes

20
Sangrai Dance
Mithilakshar Script of Maithili Language
Maithili Language

20
Kawtchhuah Ropui Heritage Site, Mizoram
Attukal Pongala
Pattachitra Painting
sc
Konyak Dance
Konyak Tribe
Navroz
up

Azaadi Ke Diwane Museum


Chaitra Jatra Festival
Tara Tarini hill
et

Kondapalli Toys
Galo Community
rg

Sattriya
Lakshmi Narsimha Temple
Assamese Bhaona
ta

Petta Thullal
Suranga Bawadi
Karez System
Belum Caves Festival
Kalaripayattu

MISCELLANEOUS
India-WRIS (Water Resource Information System), a portal for providing information on water
resources was developed by Central Water Commission under National Water Mission.
Bureau of Civil Aviation Security
Air Sewa

Page 28
Annual Survey of Industries (ASI)
Facebook Pragati
DigiPivot
Operation Namaste
Global Electric Vehicle Outlook
Sub-Programmes under SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
Food Innovators Network (FINE)

20
Jan ShikshanSansthans (JSS)
COVID-19 Emergency Fund
Important Towns in News

20
Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD)
Project Indian Literature Abroad
Nationwide Artificial Insemination Programme (NAIP):
sc
Z-Morh Tunnel
IndARC
Bhashan Char Island
up

Digital Sky Platform


Demutualisation of a Stock Exchange
The Global Study on Homicide 2019
et

National Aquifer Mapping and Management Programm


Strait of Malacca
rg

Nature Risk Rising Report


Global Social Mobility Index
WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)
ta

Lac
UNESCO
World Happiness Report
WATERFALLS
ISLAND IN NEWS
Global Wealth Report.
'Grain by Grain' -
Internet Saathi
Paramarsh
Tech For Tribals program
Extradition

Page 29
Market Intelligence and Early Warning System (MIEWS) Portal
Island of Komodo
'Free Indian Legion'?:
mCessationprogramme
Microdots Technology:
Gurdwara Darbar Sahib Kartarpur
Jaivik Kheti portal

20
Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services
SwachhSurvekshan League 2020
Internet Saathi

20
SUTRA PIC (Scientific UtilisationThrough Research Augmentation-Prime Products from Indigenous
Cows)
Some Facts
sc
National Ganga Council (NGC)Hague Adoption Convention
The Shahpurkandi Dam project
Sowa-Rigpa
up

Island of Komodo
Silk Samagra:"Mission Reach Out":
World Economic Situation Prospects (WESP)
et

Colony Collapse Disorder


TRADITIONAL WATER-HARVESTING SYSTEMS OF INDIA
Project Arunank:
rg

Global Misery IndexIndelible Ink


Vahan
ta

Sarathi
World Water Development Report 2020
Operation Sahyog :
Operation Bandar (2019)
'Operation Vanilla'
Operation Insaniyat
GOAL (Going Online as Leaders) is a digitally enabled mentorship initiative of Facebook.
BIOMETRIC SEAFARER IDENTITY DOCUMENT (BSID)
Places associated with the life of Buddha:
"State of the World's Nursing" report
India Skills Report - 2020 - 7th editionBru Refugees:

Page 30
International Intellectual Property (IP) Index, 2020
Reports
Various types of notices
BhashaSangam
Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy (HELP)
DECCAN QUEEN:
Santusht Portal

20
Global Liveability Index
Cryptocurrencies and countries
Temasek model

20
Global Gender Gap Index 2020
Locusts
Harmonised System (HS) code
sc
Various revolutions
Florianopolis Declaration
Gogabeel
up

Global Microscope on Financial Inclusion Report


Important straits
Saddler University Commission (1917-19)
et

Hartog commission
Raleigh Commission
rg

Sergeant Plan of Education recommended-


National Aquifer Mapping and Management program (NAQUIM)
Polavaram Project -Andra pradesh on Godavari Pranhita River
ta

Exit Exam
Digital Village,
An electronic cigarette (or e-cig):
TraceNet
Goldschmidtite:
SITMEX-19
Freight village:
Project beehive
Galos Tribe
Adi Tribe
Nyishi community

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Kui tribals
Gaddi
The Chakma
The Bhutias
Marco Polo (1292-1294 AD):
Ibn Batuta (1333-1347 AD):
A- bdur Razzaq (1442-1445 AD):

20
IMF REPORT: MANAGING FISCAL COSTS OF NATURAL DISASTERS

MAP

20
National Parks of India:
Rivers of India
Tiger Reserves In India
sc
Ocean Currents
Tropical Evergreen forests
up

Types of Vegetation- india


Nuclear power plants and sites in India
North eastern states where Inner line permit is needed North eastern states under Sixth schedule
et

Golden Crescent and Golden triangle


Italy is very much in news
Imp vanilla countries in Indian Ocean
rg

Ramsar sites in India


India has added 10 more wetlands to the sites protected by the Ramsar Convention.
ta

Subic Bay
North to South -- Karakoram , Ladakh, Zaskar, Pirpanjal , Dhauladhar
Persian gulf and Gulf of Oman and surrounding countries
Caspian sea and surrounding countries
Countries bordering Black Sea
Important Mountain Ranges
Harappan sites
Major Oil Refineries in India
GCC
Kuril Island
Siwalik Hills
Dodabetta
Page 32
Aravalli Range (Hills)
Satpura Range
Blue Mountain
Girnar hills
Shillong Plateau
Dhauladhar Range
Kaimur Range

20
Cardamom Hills
Malayagiri
Javadi Hills

20
Origin place of river Narmada (Amarkantak)
Dalma Hills
Dafla hills
sc
Strait of hormuz
States through which tropic of cancer passes in india
Lake In news
up

Barail Range
Lake In news
BIMSTEC
et

SAARC
SCO
rg

MGC
Natuna Islands
Feni River
ta

Pench Tiger Reserve


Gogabeel lake
Tilicho lake
Kajin sara lake
Lake Titicaca
Burhi Dihing River
Danakil Depression
Waorai Tribe - Ecuador
Coral Triangle
Murray - Darling River
Gulf of Carpentaria

Page 33
Wollemi National Park
Maldives
Okhla Bird Sanctuary
Afghanistan
Melanesia
Bougainville
Kardak islets

20
White Island Volcano
Samjiyon
Surajkund

20
Tiger Hills
Aden Port:
Tarim Basin:
sc
Hong Kong:
Sudan
Good ozone:Bad Ozone:GRIZZLED GIANT SQUIRREL
up

Inner Line Permit (ILP)About Digital census 2021

ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY


et

Weddell Gyre
rg

The Weddell Gyre is one of the two gyres that exist within the Southern Ocean.
The gyre is formed by interactions between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the
Antarctic Continental Shelf.
ta

The gyre is located in the Weddell Sea, and rotates clockwise.

What is FLR?
Forest landscape restoration (FLR) is the on-going process of regaining ecological
functionality and enhancing human well-being across deforested or degraded forest
landscapes.
FLR is more than just planting trees – it is restoring a whole landscape to meet present and
future needs.
It is long-term because it requires a multi-year vision of the ecological functions.
The majority of restoration opportunities are found on or adjacent to agricultural or pastoral
land. In these situations, restoration must complement and not displace existing land uses

Page 34
METHANOTROPHS
Scientists at Agharkar Research Institute (ARI), Pune, an autonomous institute under the
Department of Science & Technology, have isolated 45 different strains of
methanotrophic bacteria which have been found to be capable of reducing methane
emissions from rice plants.

About:

20
Methanotrophsmetabolise and convert methane into carbon-di-oxide. In rice fields,
methanotrophs are active near the roots or soil-water interfaces.
They can effectively reduce the emission of methane, which is the second most important
greenhouse gas (GHG) and 26 times more potent as compared to carbon-di-oxide.

20
Rice fields are human-made wetlands and are waterlogged for a considerable period.
Anaerobic degradation of organic matter results in the generation of methane. Rice fields
contribute to nearly 10% of global methane emissions.
Bio-methane generated from waste can also be used by the methanotrophs and can be
sc
converted to value-added products such as single-cell proteins, carotenoids, biodiesel, and so
on.

BIOROCK
up

It is the name given to the substance formed by electro accumulation of minerals


dissolved in seawater on steel structures that are lowered onto the sea bed and are
connected to a power source, in this case solar panels that float on the surface.
et

The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), with help from Gujarat’s forest department, is
attempting for the first time a process to restore coral reefs using biorock or mineral accretion
technology in the Gulf of Kachchh.
rg

Dead Zone
ta

Unoxygenated “dead zones” appear in waterways wherever algae are overfed by runoff
from human activities such as urbanization and agriculture – a phenomenon called
eutrophication

The Keeling Curve


The Keeling Curve is a graph that shows the ongoing change in the concentration of carbon
dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere.

Kelps
Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds
Kelps have adapted to the severe conditions.
These cool water species have special strategies to survive freezing temperatures and long
periods of darkness, and even grow under sea ice.

Page 35
In regions with cold, nutrient-rich water, they can attain some of the highest rates of
primary production of any natural ecosystem on Earth.

Parameters and Criteria for declaring Eco sensitive zones


1. Species Based
2. Ecosystem Based
3. Geomorphologic feature based

20
Torrefaction
1. It is a thermal process used to produce high-grade solid biofuels from various
streams of woody biomass or agro residues.

20
2. Swedish Technology-Heating the biomass to temperatures between 250 and 300
degrees Celsius in a low-oxygen atmosphere.

Arogyapacha
sc
Scientists decoded the genetic make-up of Arogyapacha.
The plant is locally known as ‘Arogyapacha’, literally meaning ‘the green that gives strength’.
up

Used by the Kani tribal community to combat fatigue. It is indigenous to Western Ghats of
India.
The plant has a vast spectrum of pharmacological properties such as anti-oxidant,
aphrodisiac, anti- microbial, anti-inflammatory, immune modulatoryetc
et

COP 25 as the ‘Blue COP


rg

Chile has declared COP 25 as the ‘Blue COP,’ and is promoting the conference as an
opportunity to raise awareness on the importance of including an ocean component in climate
action.
The Platform for Science-Based Ocean Solutions will bring together key methodologies and
ta

tools to help incorporate oceans into countries’ NDCs.

Dracaena Cambodiana -
Recently, researchers have discovered Dracaena Cambodiana tree in the DongkaSarpo
area of West KarbiAnglong district of Assam.
It is a dragon tree species and is the only true dragon tree species in India.
Its sap turns bright red after coming in contact with air.
It is an important medicinal plant as well as an ornamental tree.
Several antifungal and antibacterial compounds, antioxidants,flavonoids, etc., have been
extracted from
various parts of the plant.
It is a major source of dragon’s blood, a precious traditional medicine in China.

Page 36
Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary:
It is a marine wildlife sanctuary located in Odisha.
It is one of the world’s most important nesting beach for turtles.
It extends from Dhamra River in the north to Mahanadi river in the south.

India’s Tiger Conservation Efforts:

20
Project Tiger: (Centrally Sponsored Scheme in 1973) For in-situ conservation of wild tigers in
designated tiger reserves.
National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) (A statutory body established in 2006)
Under- Union Ministry of Environment Performs functions as provided in the Wildlife
(Protection) Act, 1972.

20
M-STrIPES (Monitoring System for Tigers – Intensive Protection and Ecological Status): A
software based monitoring system launched by the NTCA
Global Tiger Initiatives: The Global Tiger Initiative (GTI) Backed by World Bank, was
launched in 2008.
sc
The initiative has institutionalised itself as a separate entity in the form of the Global Tiger
Initiative Council (GTIC), with its two arms – the Global Tiger Forum and the Global Snow
Leopard Ecosystem Protection Program.
up

Tx2 Programme
Launched by World Wildlife Foundation (WWF) at the 2010 St Petersburg Tiger
et

At summit, 13 tiger range countries (TRCs) had agreed to double the world tiger population by
2022,
13 Tiger range countries are Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao
rg

PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand and Vietnam.

One-horned rhinoceros
ta

It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. With at least half of the total population, India’s
Kaziranga National Park remains the key reserve for this species.

Rhino census:

The census is carried out every three years.


The census total given is an estimate, with authorities cautioning that the population could be
bigger than that counted because some animals were concealed by tall grasses and reeds.
In 2018, Kaziranga National Park has counted 2,413 one-horned rhinos - up 12 from 2015.

DNA Database of Indian Rhino

By 2021, the Indian rhino could be the first wild animal species in India to have all its
members DNA-sequenced.
The project’s proponents include the World Wildlife Fund for Nature-India (WWF-India)

Page 37
and the Centre-funded Wildlife Institute of India (WII).

Indian (One Horn) Rhino Vision 2020 -3000 by 2020 in Assam

Indian rhino vision 2020 implemented by the department of environment and forests, Assam.
The programme will be supported by WWF — India, the international rhino foundation (IRF),
and a number of local NGOs.
Translocations are the backbone of the IRV 2020 program.
The goal set was to populate the potential rhino habitat areas identified viz. Manas NP,

20
DibruSaikhowa WLS, Laokhowa - BuraChapori WLS with a viable population of rhino through
translocations from Kaziranga NP and Pobitora WLS.

National Rhino Conservation Strategy:

20
It calls for active engagement between India and Nepal to conserve the Greater one-horned
rhinoceros.
The plan said the single population of rhinos in Sukla-Phanta (Nepal), Valmiki Tiger
Reserve(India) and Chitwan National Park (Nepal) and Dudhwa (India) is separated by the
sc
political boundary between the two countries.

Special Rhino Protection Force:


up

Basically SRPF is a tiger protection force that was named after the rhino since threat of
poaching is more for one-horned herbivore.
This Special Force has been raised by initiative of both central as well as state governments so
as to control rhino poaching in tiger reserve.
et

The state government of Assam would be paying salaries of SRPF members and amount would
be reimbursed by National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA), which recommended setting
up of this special force.
rg

New Delhi Declaration -Protection of One Horn Rhino

What is red mud?


ta

Bauxite tailings, also known as bauxite residue, red mud, red sludge is a highly alkaline
waste product composed mainly of iron oxide that is generated in the industrial Production
of alumina.
It consists of impurities such as caustic soda and other minerals.
It is composed of a mixture of solid and metallic oxides.

Uses of Red mud

Used in Cement manufacturing


Raw material recovery of specific components present in the tailings/residue: iron, titanium,
steel and REE (rare-earth element) production

Page 38
What is plastic rust?
Plastic Rust is a layer of plastic encrusted onto ocean rocks.

Why in news?

Plastic rust,' a form of plastic pollution neve before-seen on Earth’s coastlines, was found on
shoreline rocks in Madeira, Portugal.

20
Karakoram Anomaly
In contrast to Himalayan glaciers, on average, glacier areas in the Karakoram region
have not change significantly according to the Kathmandu based International Centre for

20
integrated Mountain Development’s (ICIMOD)

Good ozone: sc
Found in stratosphere, it protects the Earth's surface from dangerous ultraviolet light.

Bad Ozone:
up

Found in the troposphere (also known as ground level ozone), it is manmade. The released
nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOC), (NOx, CO,
and VOCs are known as ozone precursors) combinechemically with oxygen to form ozone
during sunny days
et

Black soft shell turtle


rg

The black soft shell turtle or Bostami turtle is a species of freshwater turtle found in India and
Bangladesh.
It is the close relative of Indian peacock softshell turtle, but it is a distinct species.
As of 2002, the IUCN classified the species as Extinct in the Wild.
ta

The turtle is originally native to the lower Brahmaputra River

Small Island Developing States (SIDS)


Are maritime countries that tend to share similar sustainable development challenges. These
countries are across the globe in the Caribbean, the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and
the Mediterranean and South China Sea.
An estimated 60 million people live in Small Island developing States. The UN has never
established any criteria to determine an official list of SIDS" but it maintains a shorter,
unofficial list for analytical purposes.
The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs lists 57 small island developing
states. These are broken down into following three geographic regions, with each region
having its own regional cooperation body.
Caribbean: The Caribbean Community
Pacific: The Pacific Islands Forum
Page 39
Africa, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China Sea (AIMS): The Indian Ocean
Commission.

Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS)


Gujarat government has launched what is being described as the world’s first market
for trading in Particulate Matter (PM) emissions.
Launched in Surat, the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is a regulatory tool that is aimed at
reducing the pollution load in an area and at the same time minimising the cost of compliance

20
for the industry.
ETS is a market in which the traded commodity is particulate matter emissions. The Gujarat
Pollution Control Board (GPCB) sets a cap on the total emission load from all industries.
Various industries can buy and sell the ability to emit particulate matter, by trading permits (in

20
kilograms) under this cap. For this reason, ETS is also called a cap-and-trade market

World Urban Forum (WUF 10)


sc
World’s largest platform for air quality data was launched recently, at World Urban Forum
(WUF 10)
Launched by UNEP together with UN-Habitat and IQAir (US Company).
up

It bring together real-time air pollution data for particulate matter (PM2.5) from over 4,000
contributors, including citizens, communities, governments and the private sector to work
towards healthier, more sustainable cities.2

Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats


et

Centrally Sponsored Umbrella Scheme of Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats beyond


12th Plan.
rg

The Scheme consists of Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Project Tiger (CSS-PT), Development
of Wildlife Habitats (CSS-DWH) and Project Elephant (CSS-PE).
It will benefit to A total of 18 tiger range States, distributed in five landscapes of the country.
ta

Tiger range countries (TRCs)


Tiger range countries (TRCs) are those where the big cat roams freely.
The 13 tiger range countries include Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India,
Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Raptors MoU
The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa
and Eurasia(Raptors MoU) is an international, legally non-binding agreement to protect
migratory birds of prey

Page 40
Great Green Wall - SAHEL REGION AFRICA
The Great Green Wall is an African-led movement with an epic ambition to grow an 8,000km
natural wonder of the world across the entire width of Africa.
The Wall promises to be a compelling solution to the many urgent threats not only facing the
African Continent, but the global community as a whole – notably climate change, drought,
famine, conflict and migration.

GREEN WALL OF INDIA

20
It will be a 1,400km long and 5km wide green belt from Gujarat to the Delhi-Haryana border,
on the lines of the “Great Green Wall” running through the width of Africa, from Dakar
(Senegal) to Djibouti, to combat climate change and desertification.

20
If approved, this may turn out to be a legacy programme in India’s efforts to deal with land
degradation and the eastward march of the Thardesert.
India seeks replicate the idea as a national priority under its goal to restore 26 million
hectares of degraded land by 2030.
sc
The green belt may not be contiguous, but would roughly cover the entire degraded Aravali
range through a massive afforestation exercise.
up

Pangolin
The pangolin is the only scaly mammal on earth.
Habitat: There are a total of eight pangolin species across Africa and Asia.
et

Of the eight species of pangolin, two are found in India: Chinese pangolin mostly found in
northeast India and Indian pangolin is found in the rest of India.

Conservation Status:
rg

Chinese pangolin and Sunda pangolin – Critically Endangered


Indian pangolin and Philippine pangolin – Endangered
ta

For the first time, the Madhya Pradesh Forest department in collaboration with NGO Wildlife
Conservation Trust, has radio tagged Indian Pangolin

Espoo Convention
The Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Trans- boundary context is
informally known as Espoo Convention
it lays down general obligations vof states to notify and consult each other on all major
projects that are likely to have significant adverse environmental impacts across boundaries.

United for Biodiversity’ coalition


The European Commission (EC) has launched the ‘United for Biodiversity’ coalition.
The coalition is made up of zoos, aquariums, botanical gardens, national parks, and natural

Page 41
history and science museums from around the world.
The coalition offers the opportunity for all such institutions to “join forces and boost public
awareness about the nature crisis.
The coalition adopted a common pledge, citing the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity
and
Ecosystem Services (IPBES) Global Assessment finding that one million species were already
at risk of extinction, and appeals to visitors to each of their institutions to “raise their voice for
nature.

20
BREATHELIFE
It is a partnership of WHO, UN Environment and the Climate and Clean Air Coalition to
Reduce Short-lived Climate Pollutant.

20
It aims to increase awareness and action on air pollution by governments and individuals.

The Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived


Climate Pollutants (CCAC)
sc
It was launched by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and six
countries — Bangladesh, Canada, Ghana, Mexico, Sweden, and the United States —
up

The CCAC aims to catalyze rapid reductions in short-lived climate pollutants to protect human
health, agriculture and the environment.

FORESTS FOR LIFE PARTNERSHIP


et

It is an initiative launched by Global Wildlife Conservation, Rainforest Foundation Norway,


UNDP, Wildlife Conservation Society and World Resources Institute.
rg

AIM

To promote forests as a nature based solution to climate change and biodiversity protection.
ta

Halt and reverse forest degradation across one billion hectares of the most intact forests
worldwide.
The ‘State of India’s Birds 2020’ report, the first comprehensive assessment of range,
abundance and conservation status of birds in India, has underlined concerns about some bird
species and good news about a few others.
Released during CMS COP13, the international conference held recently in Gandhinagar, the
report was prepared as a partnership among 10 organisations including the World Wildlife
Fund, Wildlife Institute of India and Nature

Renewable Energy Certificates (REC)


Is a policy instrument to catalyze the development of renewable energy.
It is a market-based mechanism which will help the states meet their regulatory requirements
(such as Renewable Purchase Obligations (RPOs)) by overcoming the geographical constraints
on existing renewable potential in different states.
Page 42
Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), also known as green energy certificates or tradable
renewable certificates which are proof that energy has been generated from renewable
sources such as solar or wind power.
Each REC represents the environmental benefits of 1MWh of renewable energy generation.
When you purchase RECs, renewable energy is generated on your behalf.

The Climate Action Network (CAN)


It is a worldwide network of over 1300 Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in over 120

20
countries.
It is working to promote government and individual action to limit human-induced climate
change to ecologically sustainable levels. CAN members work to achieve this goal through
information exchange and the coordinated development of NGO strategy on international,

20
regional, and national climate issues.

Peaty Soil
sc
It is the soils with a large amount of organic matter (40-50%) and a considerable amount of soluble
salts. The most humid regions have this type of soil. They are black, heavy due to organic content
and are highly acidic.
up

Distribution of Peaty soil –

Kottayam and Alappuzha districts of Kerala where it is called Kari.


Coastal areas of Odisha and TN
et

Sundarbans of West Bengal,


In Bihar and along the foothills of Himalaya in Uttarakha
rg

Endemism
It is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an
island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to
ta

a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.

Species richness
It is the number of different species represented in an ecological community, landscape or
region. Species richness is simply a count of species, and it does not take into account the
abundances of the species or their relative abundance distributions.

The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention


On Biological Diversity is an international agreement which aims to ensure the safe handling,
transport and use of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology
that may have adverse effects on biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human
health.

Page 43
The Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO)
The Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO) is a periodic report that summarises the latest data on
the status and trends of global biodiversity.
It is the flagship publication of the Convention on Biological Diversity and summarises
progress made towards achieving the objectives of the Convention, such as the Aichi Targets
and identifies key actions to achieve these.

UNESCO Global Geoparks

20
Are single, unified geographical areas where sites and landscapes of international geological
significance are managed with a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable
development. Given for four years

20
Geological Survey of India has chosen heritage locations in Maharashtra and Karnataka for
UNESCO Global Geopark Network status.
The Geopark tag is akin to that of a ‘World Heritage Site’ for historical monuments that can
bring India’s famed geological features to the global stage.
sc
Lonar Lake in Maharashtra and St. Mary’s Island and Malpe beach in coastal Karnataka are
the GSI’s candidates for UNESCO Global Geopark Network status.
up

Enhancing Coastal and Ocean Resource Efficiency Program


(ENCORE)
It is a World Bank Funded Project.
et

It aims to strengthen integrated coastal zone management in all coastal States and Union
Territories of India.
It seeks to strengthen coastal resource efficiency and resilience, for adopting and
rg

implementing integrated coastal management approaches.

NCAP national clear air program


ta

The NCAP will be a mid-term, five-year action plan which started in 2019 TO 2024
The features of NCAP include increasing number of monitoring stations in the country
including rural monitoring stations, technology support, emphasis on awareness and capacity
building initiatives, setting up of certification agencies for monitoring equipment, source
apportionment studies, emphasis on enforcement, specific sectoral interventions etc.
National level target of 20%–30% reduction of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration by 2024 is
proposedunder the NCAP taking 2017 as the base year for the comparison of concentration

Chambal sanctuary
Chambal sanctuary spread across Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) has released a report titled
‘Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2018

Page 44
Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)
It is also referred to as the Indian Niño, is a condition when the SST of the western region
of Indian Ocean alternately becomes abnormally colder and then abnormally hotter than
the eastern region.
The Indian Niño can neutralise or worsen the impact of El Niño/La Niña depending on which
phase it is in.
A ‘positive’ IOD phase, which means higher-than-usual temperatures in the western Indian
Ocean, brings more rain to India than the ‘neutral’ or ‘negative’ (cooling) phase.

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Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems” (GIAHS)
Are outstanding landscapes of aesthetic beauty that combine agricultural biodiversity, resilient

20
ecosystems and a valuable cultural heritage.
Located in specific sites around the world, they sustainably provide multiple goods and
services, food and livelihood security for millions of small-scale farmers.
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It is accorded by FAO SITES

Saffron Heritage of Kashmir, India, 2011


Koraput Traditional Agriculture, India, 2012
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Kuttanad Below Sea Level Farming System, India, 2013

Main reasons for desertification in India are:


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Water erosion (10.98 per cent).


Wind erosion (5.55 per cent).
Human-made/settlements (0.69 per cent).
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Vegetation degradation (8.91 per cent).


Salinity (1.12 per cent).

Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF)


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The Environment Ministry has put forward draft Environmental and Social Management
Framework (ESMF) in public domain.
It has been prepared by SICOM.
It is a part of Enhancing Coastal and Ocean Resource Efficiency Program (ENCORE).
It aims to manage the social and environmental impacts through appropriate measures during
the planning, design, construction and operation of various sub-projects of ENCORE.

The BioCarbon Fund


It is a public-private sector initiative managed by the World Bank and supports projects that
generate multiple revenue streams.
It combines financial returns from the sale of emission reductions (i.e., carbon credits) which
increase local incomes and provide other indirect benefits from sustainable land management

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practices.
Generating multiple revenue streams is crucial to rural communities that otherwise have
limited sources of income.

Megadiversity Countries
It is a term used to refer to the world’s top biodiversity-rich countries.
To qualify as a Megadiverse Country, a country must:
Have at least 5000 of the world’s plants as endemics

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Have marine ecosystems within its borders

Adaptation Fund

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Date fund proposed: 2001, Date fund made operational 2009
It is a financial instrument under the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol (KP).
IT has been established to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in
developing country Parties to the KP, in an effort to reduce the adverse effects of climate
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change facing communities, countries and sectors.
The Fund is financed with a share of proceeds from Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
project activities as well as through voluntary pledges of donor governments.
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The World Bank is the Trustee of the Adaptation Fund on an interim basis.

Green GDP
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Green GDP is a term used generally for expressing GDP after adjusting for
environmental damage.
When information on economy’s use of the natural environment is integrated into the
system of national accounts, it becomes green national accounts or environmental accounting.
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CLEAN AIR INITIATIVE


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It is initiative launched by the United Nations, WHO, UNEP and Climate and Clean Air
Coalition.
It calls on national and subnational governments to commit to achieving air quality that is safe
for citizens, and to align climate change and air pollution policies by 2030.
Initiative will be led by the WHO with the support of the Clean Air and Climate Coalition
(CCAC).

FORESTS FOR LIFE PARTNERSHIP


It is an initiative launched by Global Wildlife Conservation, Rainforest Foundation Norway,
UNDP, Wildlife Conservation Society and World Resources Institute.

AIM

To promote forests as a nature based solution to climate change and biodiversity protection.

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Halt and reverse forest degradation across one billion hectares of the most intact forests
worldwide.
The ‘State of India’s Birds 2020’ report, the first comprehensive assessment of range,
abundance and conservation status of birds in India, has underlined concerns about some bird
species and good news about a few others.
Released during CMS COP13, the international conference held recently in Gandhinagar, the
report was prepared as a partnership among 10 organisations including the World Wildlife
Fund, Wildlife Institute of India and Nature

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Sustainable Development Cell for Environmental Mitigation
Measures

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The Ministry of Coal has decided to establish a ‘Sustainable Development Cell’.
To promote environmentally sustainable coal mining in the country and address environmental
concerns during the decommissioning or closure of mines.

Green Corridor Project


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Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
Objective: Evacuation of renewable energy from generation points to the load centres by
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creating intra-state and inter-state transmission infrastructure


The intra-state transmission component of the project is being implemented by the respective
states Power Grid Corporation of India is implementing inter-state transmission component
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India Renewable Idea Exchange (IRIX)


IRIX is a platform that promotes the exchange of ideas among energy conscious Indians and
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the Global community.


Initiated and moderated by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE),

ANDREX PROJECT
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The project seeks to assess the role of the Weddell gyre in driving the southern closure of the
meridional overturning circulation, in ventilating the deep global ocean, and in sequestering
carbon and nutrients in the global ocean abyss.

EESL
Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), under the Ministry of Power, Government of India,
is working towards mainstreaming energy efficiency and is implementing the world’slargest
energy efficiency portfolio in the country.
Driven by the mission of Enabling More – more efficiency, more innovation, EESL aims to
creating market access for efficient and future ready transformative solutions that creat a win-
win situation for every stakeholder.
Joint venture of four national Public-Sector Undertakings NTPC Limited,

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Power Finance Corporation Limited, Rural Electrification Corporation POWERGRID

Programmes implemented by EESL


Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for All (UJALA),
Street Lighting National Programme (SLNP): World’s largest street light replacement
programme
Agriculture Demand Side management (AgDSM): World’s largest Agricultural Demand Side
Management programme'

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Creating and Sustaining Markets for Energy Efficiency
Procure 10,000 electric vehicles from Tata Motors Limited.

India Smart Utility Week 2020

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India Smart Grid Forum (ISFG) has been organising its flagship annual event, India Smart Grid
Week (ISGW) since 2015.
It has been renamed as India Smart Utility Week (ISUW) in 2019.
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It is considered as one of the top five international events on Smart Grids and Smart Cities.
ISUW 2020 will be organised as an International Conference and Exhibition on Smart Energy
and Water for Smarter Cities.
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It will bring together the world’s leading smart energy experts and researchers to discuss
trends, share best practices and showcase next-generation technologies and products in smart
energy and smart cities domains.

FRONTIERS REPORT
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The UN Environment Programme has launched its latest Frontiers report 2018/19, which
explores five of the most significant emerging issues on the environment.
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National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board (NAEB)


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UNDER Ministry of Environment and Forests, set up in 1992 is responsible for promoting
afforestation , tree planting, ecological restoration and eco development activities in the country.

IMPLEMENTS 2 SCHEMES

GREEN INDIA
NATIONAL AFFORASTRATTION PROGAMME

Bioventing
It is a process of stimulating the natural in situ biodegradation of contaminants
in soil by providing air or oxygen to existing soil microorganisms.
Bioventing uses low air flow rates to provide only enough oxygen to sustain microbial activity
in the vadose zone

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Biosparging
It is an in-situ remediation technology that uses indigenous microorganisms to
biodegrade organic constituents in the saturated zone. In biosparging, air (or oxygen) and
nutrients (if needed) are injected into the saturated zone to increase the biological activity of
the indigenous microorganisms.
Bioaugmentation is the practice of adding cultured microorganisms into the subsurface for the
purpose of biodegrading specific soil and groundwater contaminants.

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Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (CPLC),
Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (CPLC), is a voluntary partnership launched by World
Bank of national and sub-national governments, businesses, and civil society organizations that

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agree to expand the use of effective carbon pricing policies that can maintain competitiveness,
create jobs, encourage innovation, and deliver meaningful emissions reductions.
Launched in 2015 at COP21 in Paris,
The CPLC Secretariat administered by the World Bank Group.
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From India, Delhi Metro Rail Corporation and lndian Railways are the government level
partners.
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Sustainable Development Mechanism (SDM)


Article 6 of the Paris Agreement established the Sustainable Development Mechanism (SDM)
as a new carbon market instrument for the period after 2020.
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Its purpose is inter alia to replace the existing mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol, the
Clean Development Mechanism with a more effective climate tool.

Honolulu Strategy
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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the United States and UNEP
created the Honolulu Strategy—a planning tool to reduce plastic pollution and its impacts.
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Pollution and Health Metrics


Pollution and Health Metrics: Global, Regional and Country Analysis report By the Global
Alliance on Health and Pollution (GAHP)
Provides a ranking of pollution deaths on global, regional and country levels.

Wise Use
Ramsar Convention defines the ‘wise use’ of wetlands as “the maintenance of their ecological
character, achieved through the implementation of ecosystem approaches, within the context
of sustainable development”

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Chinkara gazelles
Chinkara gazelles survives in the dry habitats and does not require much water for their
IUCN Status: Least Concern

Chinkara Wildlife Sanctuary

Karnataka’s State Board for Wild Life has notified Bukkapatna Chinkara Wildlife sanctuary in
Tamakuru District.

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Global Biodiversity Information Facility
GBIF—the Global Biodiversity Information Facility—is an international network and research

20
infrastructure funded by the world's governments and aimed at providing anyone, anywhere,
open access to data about all types of life on Earth.
Coordinated through its Secretariat in Copenhagen, the GBIF network of participating
countries and organizations, working through participant nodes, provides data-holding
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institutions around the world with common standards and open-source tools that enable them
to share information about where and when species have been recorded.

Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) Agreement


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It involves payments to the managers of land or other natural resources in exchange for the
provision of specified ecosystem services over-and-above what would otherwise be provided in the
absence of payment
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What is Fly Ash?


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Fly ash is a fine powder, which is the by-product of burning coal in thermal power plants.
Fly ash includes substantial amounts micron sized earth elements of oxides of silica, aluminum
and calcium. Element like Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, lead etc. are also found in trace
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concentrations.

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)


The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) is a global initiative focused on “making
nature’s values visible”.
Its principal objective is to mainstream the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services into
decision-making at all levels.
It aims to achieve this goal by following a structured approach to valuation that helps decision-
makers recognize the wide range of benefits provided by ecosystems and biodiversity,
demonstrate their values in economic terms and, where appropriate, suggest how to capture
those values in decision-making
TEEB Office Based in Geneva, Switzerland at the International Environment House, the TEEB
office is hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) under the Economics
and Trade Branch (ETB) of the Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE).

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International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of
Plants (UPOV)
The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) is an
intergovernmental organization based in Geneva, Switzerland.
UPOV was established in 1961 by the International Convention for the Protection of New
Varieties of Plants (the “UPOV Convention”)
The mission of UPOV is to provide and promote an effective system of plant variety protection,

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with the aim of encouraging the development of new varieties of plants, for the benefit of
society.India is not a member to UPOV.

Tropical Forest Alliance 2020

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Founded at Rio+20.
It is a global public-private partnership dedicated to collaborative action to realize sustainable
rural development and better growth opportunities based on reduced deforestation and
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sustainable land use management in tropical forest countries.
Aims to halve deforestation by 2020 and end it by 2030.
TFA is funded by the governments of Norway, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands
Secretariat is hosted at the World Economic Forum.
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Chile-Madrid Time for Action declaration


COP25 passed the declaration calling on countries to improve their current pledges to reduce
et

greenhouse gas emissions.


It also endorsed to help poor countries that are suffering the effects of climate change,
although any new funds were not allocated for the purpose.
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It called on the “ urgent need" to cut planet-heating greenhouse gases in line with the goals of
the 2015 Paris climate change accord.

Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent


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Procedure (PIC)
For Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade
It was adopted in September 1998 and entered into force in 2004.
It’s jointly administered by the United Nation &Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and
UN Environment (UNEP).
It creates legally binding obligations for the implementation of the Prior Informed Consent
(PIC) procedure. It built on the voluntary PIC procedure, initiated by UNEP and FAO in 1989.

Wealth Accounting and the Valuation of Ecosystem Services


(WAVES)
Wealth Accounting and the Valuation of Ecosystem Services (WAVES) is a World Bank-led

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global partnership that aims to promote sustainable development by ensuring that natural
resources are mainstreamed in development planning and national economic accounts.
WAVES is now part of the broader World Bank umbrella initiative, the Global Program for
Sustainability (GPS).

Brown to Green Report


The 2019 Brown to Green Report has been published by the Climate Transparency
partnership, an international research collaboration.

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The report is the most comprehensive review of G20 countries’ climate performance, mapping
achievements and drawbacks in their efforts to reduce emissions, adapt to climate impacts and
green the financial system.

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Findings of report

Carbon emissions from the world’s 20 biggest economies, including India, are rising.
None of the G20 countries have plans that will help them achieve the target.
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Many of the current 2030 climate targets under the Paris Agreement (Nationally Determined
Contributions or NDCs) are too weak, with about half of the G20 countries projected to meet
or overachieve their inadequate NDCs.
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Biomining
Biomining is the process of using microorganisms (microbes) to extract metals of economic
interest from rock ores or mine waste.
et

Biomining techniques may also be used to clean up sites that have been polluted with metals.
Bioremediation is the use of living micro organisms to degrade the environmental
contaminants into less toxic forms.
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It uses naturally occurring bacteria and fungi or plants to degrade or detoxify substances
hazardous to human health and/or the environment.

The Global Snow Leopard and Ecosystem Protection


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Program (GSLEP):
It seeks to address high-mountain development issues using the conservation of the
charismatic and endangered snow leopard as a flagship.
The GSLEP is a range-wide effort that unites range country governments, nongovernmental
and inter-governmental organizations, local communities, and the private sector .
The snow leopard countries namely, India, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan,
Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
It majorly focuses on the need for awareness and understanding of the value of Snow Leopard
for the ecosystem.
The GSLEP Program (2019) was organized by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate
Change at New Delhi.

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GI Tag for 5 Indian Coffee varieties
Coorg Arabica coffee ----Karnataka.
Wayanaad Robusta coffee ----- Kerala.
Chikmagalur Arabica coffee -----Karnataka.
Araku Valley Arabica coffee -It is coffee from the hilly tracks of Visakhapatnam district of
Andhra Pradesh and Odisha region at an elevation of 900-1100 Mt MSL.
Bababudangiris Arabica coffee ---Karnataka

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Coffee cultivation in India

Coffee cultivation is mainly done in the Southern States of India:

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Karnataka – 54%
Kerala – 19%
Tamil Nadu – 8%
Coffee is also grown in non-traditional areas like Andhra Pradesh and Odisha (17.2%) and
sc
North East States (1.8%).
The Monsooned Malabar Robusta Coffee, a unique specialty coffee from India, was given GI
certification earlier.
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Coffee E-market

Coffee Board of India has launched blockchain based coffee e-marketplace integrate the
farmers with markets in a transparent manner.
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India is the only country in the world where entire coffee is grown under shade, handpicked
and sun-dried Kodagu district -- Coffee land in Karnataka -- Kodava community

Nirmal Tat Abhiyaan:


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Launched by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC)


Aim: To make beaches clean and create awareness amongst citizens about the importance of
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coastal ecosystems – in Beaches across 10 states / UTs.


The campaign will be organized in the beaches after consultation with the state governments.
Environment Education Division and Society of Integrated Coastal Management (SICOM)
under the Environment Ministry will be responsible for its implementation.
At end of the drive, the best three beaches will be suitably awarded along with a certificate of
appreciation for all the participating eco-clubs.
The implementation of the drive will be monitored by the MoEF&CC officials.

Yellow Rust
This rust is caused by the fungus, Puccinia strciformis. Yellow spots develop mainly on the
leaves.
The spots are oval in shape and lemon-yellow in colour and are formed in long streaks or rows,
and smaller than those of brown rust.
Appearance of lemon-yellow pustules in rows is characteristic feature of yellow rust.

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Yellow rust is predominant in hills, foot-hills and north-western part of the country where the
temperatures are low. In plains it does not cause much damage.

Brown Rust
The small, round-oval spots (called pustules) of brown rust (caused by Puccinia recondita
tritici) develop mainly on the leaves but under severe attack, appear on sheath and stem as
well.
It spreads very fast on susceptible varieties during warm and humid environmental conditions.

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In case of severe attack, plants mature early with poor root development and produce light
and shriveled grains.
This rust is most widespread in the country and generally the most damaging in many areas.

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Sacred Groves
The Sacred Groves comprises of patches of forest or natural vegetation- from a few trees to
forests of several acres-that are usually dedicated to local folk deities.
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The sacred groves are important repositories of flora and fauna diversity that have conserved
by local communities in a sustainable manner.
Classified in 3 categories: Traditional Sacred Groves, Temple Groves and Groves around burial
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or cremation grounds.

National Resource Efficiency Authority (NREA)


et

It will be constituted under the Environment Protection Act, 1986. It will be based in the
MOEFCC. It will oversee, administer and review implementation of the NREP.
National Resource Efficiency Board: It is an inter ministerial body. It will provide necessary
guidelines on aspects critical to the implementation of resource efficiency across all sectors.
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The Hindu Kush and Himalayan Range (HKH)


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The Hindu Kush and Himalayan Range (HKH) is famously known as the earth’s “third pole” as
it forms the largest area of permanent ice cover outside of the North and South Poles.
The HKH region spans Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia,
Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
It is the source of ten major rivers, and is particularly sensitive to climate change.
According to Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment, 36% of the glaciers in the Hindu Kush and
Himalaya range (HKH) could melt by 2100 even if global temperature rise is limited to 1.5C
above pre-industrial levels.

Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS)


It was introduced in 1975 at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment.
It is a global operation that collects information to better understand and protect the Earth’s
environment.
This effort is made with the cooperation of other countries, who contribute data to the GEMS

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Umbrella Species
It is a Large animal or Species on which other Organism Depends
They are Similar to Keystone Species, but they are generally Migratory and need a Large
habitat
Tigers, Leopards, Boars, Monkeys etc

Zoological Survey of India (ZSI)

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The ZSI was established on 1st July, 1916.
Headquartered at Kolkata.
It functions under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
It acts as the premier Indian organisation in zoological research and studies to promote the

20
survey, exploration and research of the fauna in the country.

Red Mud
sc
Red Mud is a waste by-product of the Bayer process for producing Aluminium oxide from
bauxite ore.
It is an environmental concern due to the presence of impurities such as caustic soda and
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other minerals. It is highly alkaline in nature which makes it extremely corrosive and
damaging to soil and life forms, presenting a massive problem for disposal.

Emissions trading,
et

As set out in Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol, allows countries that have emission units to spare -
emissions permitted them but not "used" - to sell this excess capacity to countries that are over their
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targets.

GREEN FIRECRACKER
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Swas, Star, and Safal are less polluting green firecrackers that are developed by the National
Environmental and Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), a Council of Scientific and
Industrial Research (CSIR) lab
SWAS stands for safe water releaser, SAFAL stands for safe minimal aluminum and STAR
stands for safe thermite cracker.
These crackers are 15-20 percent cheaper than the conventional ones.
STAR eliminates usage of Potassium nitrate and sulphur.
SAFAL has less usage of aluminum as compared to commercial crackers.
The firecrackers have a unique property of releasing water vapour.

ECOLOGICAL FISCAL TRANSFERS


Ecological Fiscal Transfer is a type of conditional environmental payments which involves
conditional payments from higher levels of a country’s government to lower levels

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EFTs distribute a share of intergovernmental fiscal transfers and revenue sharing schemes
according to ecological indicators such as protected areas or watershed management areas
etc.

Momentum for Change


It is an initiative spearheaded by the UN Climate Change secretariat to shine a light on the
enormous groundswell of activities underway across the globe that are moving the world
toward a highly resilient, low-carbon future.

20
Momentum for Change recognizes innovative and transformative solutions that address both
climate change and wider economic, social and environmental challenges.

Marine organisms

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Neuston: Unattached organisms adapted to the habitat of the air-water interface.
Periphyton: These are freshwater organisms attached or clinging to plants and other objects
projecting above the bottom sediments. They are a mixture of autotrophic and heterotrophic
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microorganisms embedded in a matrix of organic detritus.
Benthos: Benthos is the community of organisms that live on, in, or near the seabed, river,
lake, or stream bottom, also known as the benthic zone.
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Nekton: Nekton refers to the aggregate of actively swimming aquatic organisms in a body of
water. Nekton are heterotrophic and have a large size range, with familiar examples such as
fish, squid, octopus, sharks, and marine mammals.

The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO)


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It is an intergovernmental organization promoting the sustainable management and


conservation of tropical forests and the expansion and diversification of international trade in
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tropical timber from sustainably managed and legally harvested forests.

NATIONAL PLAN FOR CONSERVATION OF AQUATIC


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ECOSYSTEMS (NPCA)
National Wetlands Conservation Programme' (NWCP) and 'National Lake Conservation Plan'
(NLCP)have been merged into one integrated scheme, National Plan for Conservation of
Aquatic Eco-systems (NPCA).
The scheme aims at holistic conservation and restoration of lakes and wetlands for achieving
the desired water quality enhancement, besides improvement in biodiversity and ecosystem
through an integrated and multidisciplinary approach and a common regulatory framework.

AIR QUALITY EARLY WARNING SYSTEM


The initiative comes under the Ministry of Earth Sciences and Environment.
Air Quality Early Warning System for Delhi has been announced by the Central government
that can alert, three days in advance, about the likelihood of extreme pollution events & dust

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storms.
The air pollution system has been developed jointly by: Indian Institute of Tropical
Meteorology (IITM), India Meteorological Department, National Centre for Medium Range
Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF).

TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS)


TDS refers to organic and inorganic materials, like minerals, salts, metals, cations or anions
dissolved in water. Usually expressed in units of mg per unit volume of water (mg/L).

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High TDS indicates hard water. Low TDS indicates purity of water.

The ‘State of India’s Birds 2020’ report

20
The first comprehensive assessment of range, abundance and conservation status of birds in
India, has underlined concerns about some bird species and good news about a few others.
Released during CMS COP13, the international conference held recently in Gandhinagar, the
report was prepared as a partnership among 10 organisations including the World Wildlife
sc
Fund, Wildlife Institute of India and Nature
Biodiversity Authority-India.
Much of its data is based on citizen science — information provided by birdwatchers through
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various platforms.

NATIONAL ADAPTATION FUND FOR CLIMATE CHANGE


(NAFCC)
et

NAFCC was operationalised in 2015-16.


The fund is meant to assist national and state level activities to meet the cost of adaptation
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measures in areas that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
This scheme has been taken as Central Sector Scheme with the National Bank for Agriculture
and Rural Development (NABARD) as National Implementing Entity (NIE).
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Amazon Fund is a REDD+


It initiative to raise donations for non reimbursable investments in efforts to prevent, monitor
and combat deforestation, as well as to promote the preservation and sustainable use in the
Brazilian Amazon.
Amazon Fund is managed by BNDES, the Brazilian Development Bank.

The State of the World's Forests


Published by Food and Agriculture organization and in reports on the status of forests, recent
major policy and institutional developments and key issues concerning the forest sector.

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Standing crop
Each trophic level has a certain mass of living material at a particular time called as the
standing crop. The standing crop is measured as the mass of living organisms (biomass) or the
number in a unit area

Operation 'clean Art'


Is the first pan India operation conceived by Wildlife crime control bureau to crackdown on the

20
smuggling of mongoose hair.
This operation was carried out to ensure that the mongoose hair brush trade should be closed
down across the country.

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Mongoose
There are six species of mongoose found in India are Indian grey mongoose, small Indian
mongoose, ruddy mongoose, crab-eating mongoose, stripe-necked mongoose and brown
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mongoose.
All mongoose species found in India are protected under Schedule II (Part II) of the Indian
Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, which prohibits all trade of animals listed in it.
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Its IUCN Status is the least concern.

BHUNGROO
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Bhungroo is a water harvesting system aimed to enhance water-use efficiency.


The model is to store rainwater underground, which can be recovered by pumping, and
recharging the ground water system.
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Its main benefit is farmers can use the water collected in times of need and avoid crop loss

INTERNATIONAL PLATFORM ON SUSTAINABLE FINANCE


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It is a multilateral forum launched in 2019 by public authorities Argentina, Canada, Chile,


India, Kenya, Morocco and EU. Representing 45% of global emissions, 40% of global
population and 40% of global GDP.
7 Observers including UNEP, OECD, EBRD etc.

AIMS

Promote best practices in environmentally sustainable finance.


Compare different initiatives and identify barriers and opportunities to scale up
environmentally sustainable finance.
Enhance international coordination on environmentally sustainable finance issues.
Scale up mobilisation of private capital towards environmental sustainable finance at global
level.
Promote integrated markets for environmentally sustainable finance.

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Eurythermal animals:
Are those who can tolerate a wide range of temperatures.
They are able to function at a wide range of body temperatures. Eurythermal animals show
less sensitivity to temperature or they show comparatively low temperature sensitivity.
Examples of eurythermal animals are desert pupfish, green crabs, tiger, man, cat, dog etc.

Stenothermal animals:

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Are those who are able to tolerate a narrow range of temperatures. Marine and soil organisms
are mostly stenothermal.
They are able to survive at certain temperatures.
And the temperature of the stenothermal animals varies from species to species. Stenothermal

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animals are main two types namely thermophilic animals and cryophilic animals.

Thermophilic animals:
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can live only in higher temperatures. Examples of thermophilic animals include reptiles, insect
species, etc.
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Cryophilic animals:
can live only at low temperatures. Seals can be considered as example for cryophilic animals.
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Euryhaline organisms
Are able to adapt to a wide range of salinities. An example of a euryhaline fish is the molly
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(Poeciliasphenops) which can live in fresh water, brackish water, or salt water.
The green crab (Carcinusmaenas) is an example of a euryhaline invertebrate that can live in
salt and brackish water.
Euryhaline organisms are commonly found in habitats such as estuaries and tide pools where
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the salinity changes regularly.


However, some organisms are euryhaline because their life cycle involves migration between
freshwater and marine environments, as is the case with salmon and eels.

The Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO)


The Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO) is a periodic report that summarises the latest data on
the status and trends of global biodiversity.
It is the flagship publication of the Convention on Biological Diversity and summarises
progress made towards achieving the objectives of the Convention, such as the Aichi Targets
and identifies key actions to achieve these.

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EChO Network
It is national program to provide a template for cross-disciplinary leadership in India with the
specific focus of increasing research, knowledge, and awareness of Indian ecology and the
environment.
The program is a partnership of Government, industry, and academia. Office of the Principal
Scientific Adviser to the Govt. of India leads the program.

Eco-Development Forces Scheme

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It was established in the 1980s as a scheme for ecological restoration of terrains, rendered
difficult either due to severe degradation or remote location or difficult law and order
situation.

20
It is based on twin objectives of ecological regeneration in difficult areas, and the promotion of
meaningful employment to ex-servicemen.
It is being implemented through the Ministry of Defence.
Under this scheme, the establishment and operational expenditure on the EcoTask Force
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(ETF) Battalions raised by Ministry of Defence are reimbursed by Ministry of Environment,
Forest and Climate Change while the inputs like a sapling, fencing, etc., and also the
professional and managerial guidance is provided by the state forest departments
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ST. PETERSBURG DECLARATION


For doubling tiger population (India was a party to this declaration) by 2022.
et

Global Animal Protection Index


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Released by World Animal Protection, an international animal welfare charity.


It aims to showcase where countries are doing well, and where they fall short on animal
welfare policy and legislation. The index ranks countries from A (being the highest score) to G
(being the weakest score) according to their policy and legislation.
ta

ANTHROPOGENIC MINERAL
They are mineral that have been made on Earth, of substances formed as a result ofhuman
activities such as mining and mineral processing
Example -Hydrotalcite are produced when asbestos tailings passively absorb atmospheric
carbon dioxide.

Sargasso Sea
The Sargasso Sea is a region in the gyre in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean.
It is the only sea on Earth which has no coastline.

It is bounded on the

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west by the Gulf Stream;
north, by the North Atlantic Current;
east, by the Canary Current; and
south, by the North Atlantic Equatorial Current.
This system of ocean currents forms the North Atlantic Gyre.
All the currents deposit the marine plants and refuse they carry into this sea.
Recently it was found that Sargasso seaweed algae belt is increasingly growing.
It is named for a genus of free-floating seaweed called Sargassum.

20
National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research:
National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR) , autonomous research and
development institution -by Ministry of Earth Sciences in 1998.

20
located in Goa.
It is responsible for research activities in the Polar and Southern Ocean realms.
Management and upkeep of the Indian Antarctic Research Bases “Maitri” and “Bharati”, and
the Indian Arctic base “Himadri”.
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Management of research vessel ORV SagarKanya .

INCOIS SERVICES FOR MARINE-BASED USERS


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Small Vessel Advisory and Forecast Services System (SVAS), to improve operations on the
numerous small marine vessels, particularly fishing vessels that ply the coastal waters of India.
The Swell Surge Forecast System was also launched, which will provide forewarnings for the
coastal population of India's vast shoreline, which experiences a slew of damages caused by
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the swell waves that actually originate from the distant southern Indian Ocean.
Algal Bloom Information Service (ABIS), providing timely information on harmful algal blooms,
which are detrimental to coastal fisheries and also tend to induce respiratory problems within
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the coastal population from time to time.

The Faith for Earth Initiative


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Following a series of initiatives and conventions organized in partnership with faith-based


organizations, UN Environment launched the Faith for Earth Initiative in November 2017.
The goal of Faith for Earth is to strategically engage with faith based organizations and
partner with them to collectively achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and fulfill
the objectives of the 2030 Agenda.

El Nino/La Nina
El Nino is the abnormal warming of sea surface temperature (SST) of the Pacific Ocean off the
coast of Peru in South America, while La Nina is the opposite, an abnormal cooling of SST.
While El Nino leads to deficit rainfall, La Nina brings an above-average monsoon.

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Madden-Julian Oscillation
It can modulate the timing and strength of monsoons, influence tropical cyclone numbers and
strength in nearly all ocean basins and result in jet stream changes that can lead to cold air
outbreaks, extreme heat events, and flooding rains over the United States and North America.

Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)


It is also referred to as the Indian Niño, is a condition when the SST of the western region of

20
Indian Ocean alternately becomes abnormally colder and then abnormally hotter than the
eastern region.

Netherlands ‘Room for the River’ project.

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The flagship project of the Dutch government is centered around protecting areas adjoining
rivers from routine flooding and improving water management systems in delta regions.
“Room of the river” is to be replicated in Kerala’s Kuttanad, which remained submerged for
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weeks during Kerala floods.

Sennaspectabilis
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It is a plant species of the legume family (Fabaceae) native to South and Central America.
The plant has become an invasive alien species in parts of Africa, India and other countries.
It is categorised as ‘Least Concern’ under IUCN Red List.
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Its a IAS in Nilgiri biosphere reserve.

GreenCo Rating
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It is the "first of its kind in the World" holistic framework that evaluates companies on the
environmental friendliness of their activities using life cycle approach.
Implementation of GreenCo rating provides leadership and guidance to companies on how to
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make products, services and operations greener.


Industry personnel are trained on the latest Green concepts and facilitated for implementing
better systems and implementing global best practices in green

National Resource Efficiency Authority (NREA) :


It will be constituted under the Environment Protection Act, 1986. It will be based in the
MOEFCC. It will oversee, administer and review implementation of the NREP.
National Resource Efficiency Board: It is an interministerial body. It will provide necessary
guidelines on aspects critical to the implementation of resource efficiency across all sectors

Sustainable Livelihoods and Adaptation to Climate Change

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(SLACC)
The SLACC project is funded by the Special Climate Change Fund, which was set up under the
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to finance global projects relating
to adaptation, technology transfer and capacity building, among other areas.
The SLACC project is being implemented in convergence with the
MahilaKisanSashaktikaranPariyojana, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment
Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) and other Centrally-sponsored schemes.
The programme aims to create a cadre of over 200 certified climate-smart' community

20
resource persons and over 100 young professionals in villages, who will combat the impact of
climate change and secure their livelihood through climate proof planning and adaptations.
The cadre will further disseminate the climate resilient technologies to farming communities
in their respective allocated villages, as assigned by the State Rural Livelihood Mission

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(SRLM) staff.

NIRDPR-National Institute of Rural Development and


Panchayati Raj
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It functions as an autonomous organisation supported by the Ministry of Rural Development.
It is the apex body for undertaking training, research, and action research and consultancy
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assignments in the rural development sector in India

‘Samudrayaan’ project
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It is an initiative of the National Institute of Ocean Technology


Similar to ISRO’s plan to carry persons on a space mission(Gaganyaan Mission), NIOT has
undertaken Samudrayaan.
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The project proposes to send a submersible vehicle with three persons to a depth of about
6000 metres to carry out deep underwater studies
The ‘Samudrayaan’ is a part of the Ministry of Earth Sciences’ pilot project for deep ocean
mining for rare minerals.
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Flagship species
A flagship species is a species selected to act as an ambassador, icon or symbol for a defined
habitat, issue, campaign or environmental cause.
By focusing on, and achieving conservation of that species, the status of many other species
which share its habitat – or are vulnerable to the same threats - may also be improved.
Flagship species are usually relatively large, and considered to be 'charismatic' in western
cultures. Flagship species may or may not be keystone species and may or may not be good
indicators of biological process.

Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International

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Aviation (CORSIA).
CORSIA is the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) resolution for a global market
based measure to address CO2 emissions from international aviation from 2021 to 2035.
All civilian international operations undertaken by operators are covered by CORSIA with
exceptions for humanitarian, medical and fire-fighting flights

Black-necked cranes

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Are found in the states of Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim as well as the Union Territories of
Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh.
It is classified as vulnerable in the IUCN red list.
The major threat to the successful breeding of black-necked cranes is the damage to the eggs

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and chicks, caused by feral dogs.

Northern European Enclosure Dam (NEED)


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Scientists have proposed the construction of the Northern European Enclosure Dam (NEED)
enclosing all of the North Sea to protect economic regions of 15 Northern European countries
from Sea-level Rise (SLR) as a result of climate change.
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The proposed NEED aims to construct two dams of a combined length of 637 km.
The first between northern Scotland and western Norway (476 km) and the second between
France and southwestern England (161 km).
The project intends to separate the North and Baltic Seas from the Atlantic Ocean to protect
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Northern Europe against SLR.

Ocean Deoxygenation
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Ocean deoxygenation refers to the loss of oxygen from the oceans.


The ocean gains oxygen in the upper layer due to photosynthesis by autotrophic organisms and
oxygen from the atmosphere dissolving in the under-saturated waters.
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The ocean loses oxygen throughout the whole water column:


at the surface- due to the outgassing of oxygen to the atmosphere in oversaturated
waters
from the surface to depths- due to the respiration of aerobic organisms and oxidation of
reduced chemical specie Ocean deoxygenation is one of the most pernicious, yet under-
reported side-effects of human-induced climate change.

Causes of deoxygenation
Eutrophication (increased nutrient run-off from land andsewage pollution)
Nitrogen deposition from the burning of fossil fuels, coupled with the widespread impacts from
ocean warming.
Oxygen loss from warming has alarming consequences for global oceanic oxygen reserves,
which have already been reduced by 2% over a period of just 50-years (from 1960 to 2010).

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South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme (SACEP)
Headquarter: Colombo
SACEP is an inter-governmental organization, established in 1982 by the governments of
South Asia.
The objective is to promote and support protection, management and enhancement of the
environment in the region
The member countries are Afghanistan , Bangladesh , Bhutan , India , Maldives , Nepal ,
Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

20
It also acts as the Secretariat for the South Asian Seas Programme, which comes under the
purview of UNEP’s Regional Seas Programme.

The Global Tiger Initiative (GTI)

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The Global Tiger Initiative (GTI) was launched in 2008 as a global alliance of governments,
international organizations, civil society, the conservation and scientific communities and the
private sector, with the aim of working together to save wild tigers from extinction.
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In 2013, the scope was broadened to include Snow Leopards.
The GTI’s founding partners included the World Bank, the Global Environment Facility (GEF),
the Smithsonian Institution, Save the Tiger Fund, and International Tiger Coalition
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(representing more than 40 non-government organizations).


The initiative is led by the 13 tiger range countries (TRCs).

Global Assessment Report


et

A Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR) by the United Nations Office for
Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) has warned of new and much larger threats due to extreme
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climate changes to economies, in particular the Asia Pacific.


The GAR was launched at the ‘Global Platform’ organised by the UNDRR.
The Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (GP) is a biennial multi-stakeholder forum,
critical component of the monitoring and implementation process of the Sendai Framework for
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Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030).

Extinction Rebellion
Extinction Rebellion is an international movement that uses non-violent civil disobedience in
an attempt to halt mass extinction and minimise the risk of social collapse.
It is a movement made up of people from all walks of life. It started in response to the IPCC
report that we only have 12 years to stop catastrophic climate change and our understanding
that we have entered the 6th mass extinction event.
It started small and was launched in the UK on October 31st 2018, it has grown very quickly
and there are now about 130 Extinction Rebellion groups across the UK and across the world.
The majority of people who work for Extinction Rebellion are volunteers; a small percentage is
receiving living expenses.
Decisions are made based on a model of organising called a “self-organising system” in which
people do what they can according to the skills and time they can off

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What is Soil Organic Carbon?
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon associated with soil organic matter
SOM comprises the remains of plants and animals in the soil at various stages of
decomposition, along with the microbial biomass and several by-products of complex biotic
metabolic processes.

FRONTIERS REPORT

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The UN Environment Programme has launched its latest Frontiers report 2018/19, which
explores five of the most significant emerging issues on the environment.

National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board (NAEB)

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UNDER Ministry of Environment and Forests, set up in 1992 is responsible for promoting
afforestation, tree planting, ecological restoration and ecodevelopment activities in the
country.
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IMPLEMENTS 2 SCHEMES
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GREEN INDIA
NATIONAL AFFORASTRATTION PROGAMME

The UN-REDD Programme


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It is the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation


and forest Degradation (REDD+) in developing countries
It is aimed at reducing forest emissions and enhancing carbon stocks in forests while
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contributing to national sustainable development.


Support to partner countries is delivered through:
Direct support to the design and implementation of National REDD+ Programmes;
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Complementary tailored support to national REDD+ actions;


Technical capacity building support through sharing of expertise, common approaches,
analyses, methodologies, tools, data, best practices and facilitated South-South knowledge
sharing.

Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (CPLC),


It is a voluntary partnership launched by World Bank of national and sub-national
governments, businesses, and civil society organizations that agree to expand the use of
effective carbon pricing policies that can maintain competitiveness, create jobs, encourage
innovation, and deliver
meaningful emissions reductions.
Launched in 2015 at COP21 in Paris,
The CPLC Secretariat administered by the World Bank Group.
From India, Delhi Metro Rail Corporation andlndian Railways are the government level

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partners

Pollution and Health Metrics: Global, Regional and Country


Analysis
It is report by the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution (GAHP) Provides a ranking of
pollution deaths on global, regional and country levels.

20
Chinkara gazelles
survives in the dry habitats and does not require much water for their survival.
IUCN Status: Least Concern

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Chinkara Wildlife Sanctuary- Karnataka’s State Board for Wild Life has notified
BukkapatnaChinkara Wildlife sanctuary in Tamakuru District.

GBIF
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the Global Biodiversity Information Facility—is an international network and research
infrastructure funded by the world's governments and aimed at providing anyone, anywhere,
open access to data about all types of life on Earth.
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Coordinated through its Secretariat in Copenhagen, the GBIF network of participating


countries and organizations, working through participant nodes, provides data-holding
institutions around the world with common standards and open-source tools that enable them
to share information about where and when species have been recorded.
et

IndAIR
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The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-National Environmental Engineering


Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI) has launched the country’s first interactive online repository,
called IndAIR or Indian Air quality Interactive Repository.
The repository is one of few such facilities in the world and has the maximum number of
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studies-262 concerning Delhi-NCR

Under Kyoto Protocol


A removal unit (RMU) on the basis of land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF)
activities such as reforestation
An emission reduction unit (ERU) generated by a joint implementation project
A certified emission reduction (CER) generated from a clean development mechanism project
activity
Transfers and acquisitions of these units are tracked and recorded through the registry
systems under the Kyoto Protocol.
An international transaction log ensures secure transfer of emission reduction units between
countries.

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What is International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme?
The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) is a research programme that
studies the phenomenon of global change.
This programme envisions coordinating international research on global-scale and regional-
scale interactions between Earth's biological, chemical and physical processes and their
interactions with human systems.
It was launched in 1987 by International Council of Scientific Union.
This programme envisions coordinating international research on global-scale and regional-

20
scale interactions between Earth's biological, chemical and physical processes and their
interactions with human systems.

The Nagoya Protocol

20
on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from
their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity, also known as the Nagoya Protocol
on Access and Benefit Sharing is a 2010 supplementary agreement to the 1992 Convention on
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Biological Diversity.

Rotterdam Convention
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Its on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure (PIC) For Certain Hazardous Chemicals and
Pesticides in International Trade It was adopted in September 1998 and entered into force in
2004.
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It’s jointly administered by the United Nation &Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
and UN Environment (UNEP).
It creates legally binding obligations for the implementation of the Prior Informed
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Consent (PIC) procedure. It built on the voluntary PIC procedure, initiated by UNEP and
FAO in 1989.

The Asiatic Wild Water Buffalo


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Scientifically known as BubalusArnee, is known to be found in the Central Indian Forests and
is mostly restricted to the states of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. It has
been recently found in the forests of Maharashtra .

Protection Status

It has been listed as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of
Nature (IUCN).
It is listed under Schedule-1 of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
It is included in CITES Appendix-III and is legally protected in Bhutan, India, Nepal, and
Thailand.

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Syngas
Syngas (Synthesis Gas) is currently made from a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide
and is used to produce fuels, pharmaceuticals, plastics, and fertilizers.
The syngas is produced by gasification of a carbon containing fuel to a gaseous product that
has some heating value.
The general raw materials used for gasification (creation of syngas) are coal, petroleum-based
materials, etc

20
Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary (PCWBS)
It is a protected area in Tamil Nadu, along the Palk Strait where it meets the Bay of Bengal at
Point Calimere .

20
The sanctuary was created in 1967 for the conservation of the near-threatened blackbuck
antelope, an endemic mammal species of India. It is famous for large congregations of
waterbirds, especially greater flamingos.
Blackb uck (AntilopeCervicapra) is the flagship species of the sanctuary.
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The Central Pollution Control Board
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CPCB is a statutory organisation which was constituted in September, 1974 under the Water
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
It was entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act, 1981.
et

It serves as a field formation and also provides technical services to the Ministry of
Environment and Forests of the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
Principal Functions of the CPCB, as spelt out in the Water (Prevention and Control of
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Pollution) Act, 1974, and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981to promote
cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States by prevention, control and
abatement of water pollution.
to improve the quality of air and to prevent, control or abate air pollution in the country
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Mission Innovation
Mission Innovation (MI) is a global initiative of 24 countries and the European Commission (on
behalf of the European Union) working to reinvigorate and accelerate global clean energy
innovation with the objective to make clean energy widely affordable.
MI was announced at COP21 on November 30, 2015, as world leaders came together in Paris
to commit to ambitious efforts to combat climate change.

India’s first e-waste clinic for segregating


It is processing and disposal of waste from household and commercial units will soon be set-up in
Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.

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Bactrian or double-humped camels
They are found in Central and East Asia’s rocky deserts. In India, theyare exclusively found in Nubra
Valley of Ladakh.

Forest PLUS 2.0


US Agency for International Development (USAID) and India’s Ministry of Environment, Forest
and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) officially launched Forest-PLUS 2.0

20
The programme’s first set focused on capacity building to help India participate in Reducing
Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+).

Shannon-Weiner Index

20
Shannon-Weiner Index is widely used for comparing diversity between various habitats .
It gives a measure of species abundance and richness to quantify diversity of the species. This
index takes both species abundance and species richness into account.
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KARNATAKA has highest tree diversity

Society of Integrated Coastal Management (SICOM)


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has been established under the aegis of the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate
Change .
SICOM is the national project management unit of India in strategic planning, management,
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execution, monitoring and successful implementation of the ICZMP-Phase-I

Critical Wildlife Habitats


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Critical wildlife habitats (CWH) are defined under the Forest Rights Act,2006, as the “areas of
national parks and sanctuaries where it has been specifically and clearly established,case by
case, on the basis of scientific and objective criteria, that such areas are required to be kept as
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inviolate for the purposes of wildlife conservation.

Incineration
The process of burning waste in large furnaces at high temperatures is known as incineration. In
these plants, the recyclable material is segregated and the rest of the material is burnt and ash is
produced.

Pyrolysis
It is a process of combustion in the absence of oxygen or the material burnt under a controlled
atmosphere of oxygen. It is an alternative to incineration.

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International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food
and Agriculture
It was adopted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations
It is also known as Seed Treaty as it is a comprehensive international agreement for ensuring
food security through the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of the world’s Plant
Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (PGRFA).
India is a signatory to the treaty.

20
Report on illegal Global Trade in Tigers is compiled by
TRAFFIC,

20
Its an NGO working in conservation and currently in partnership with the World Wildlife Fund
(WWF) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

Peace Forest Initiative:


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It is an initiative of South Korea to use ecological restoration as a peace-building process.
It aims at addressing the issue of land degradation in conflict-torn border areas and would go
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a long way in alleviating tensions and building trust between communities living there and
between enemy countries in particular

Don't Confuse !!
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Ganga Gram by Jal Shakti


Smart Gram by President Office
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Cyber Gram by Minority Affairs.


Nyaya Gram by Allhabad High Court

International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR)


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It is an intergovernmental organization established in 1997.


INBAR plays a unique role in finding and demonstrating innovative ways of using bamboo and
rattan to protect the environment and biodiversity, alleviate poverty, and facilitates fairer pro-
poor trade.
INBAR connects a global network of partners from the government, private, and nonfor-profit
sectors in over 50 countries to define and implement a global agenda for sustainable
development through bamboo and rattan

Hong Kong convention


The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of
Ships, 2009 (the Hong Kong Convention), was adopted at a diplomaticconference held in Hong
Kong, China in 2009.

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Parameters and Criteria for declaring Eco sensitive zones
Species Based
Ecosystem Based
Geomorphologic feature based

Environment Pollution Control Authority (EPCA)


EPCA is Supreme Court mandated body tasked with taking various measures to tackle air

20
pollution in the National Capital Region.
It was notified in 1998 by Environment Ministry under Environment Protection Act, 1986.
EPCA was constituted with the objective of ‘protecting and improving’ the quality of the
environment and ‘controlling environmental pollution’ in the National Capital Region.

20
The EPCA also assists the apex court in various environment-related matters in the region.

POLYCRACK
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It is first-of-its kind & the world's first patented heterogeneous catalytic process which
converts multiple feedstocks into hydrocarbon liquid fuels, gas, carbon and water.
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International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)


Ithas released a report titled ‘Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2018
et

The Shola forests


Of South India derive their name from the Tamil word solai, which means a ‘tropical
rg

rainforest’.
Classified Forest’ by ‘ Champion and Seth’, the Sholas are found in the upper reaches of the
Nilgiris, Anamalais, Palni hills, Kalakadu, Mundanthurai and Kanyakumari in the states of
Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
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These forests are found sheltered in valleys with sufficient moisture and proper drainage, at an
altitude of more than 1,500 metres.
The vegetation that grows in Shola forests is evergreen

An Arribada
It is a unique nesting phenomenon common to both the Olive ridley and the Kemp’s ridley sea
turtle. Each year, turtles lay eggs in large numbers at Gahirmatha beach in Odisha after two
weeks of the mass-nesting.

World’s largest platform for air quality data was launched

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recently, at World Urban Forum (WUF 10)
Launched by UNEP together with UN-Habitat and IQAir (US Company).
It bring together real-time air pollution data for particulate matter (PM2.5) from over 4,000
contributors, including citizens, communities, governments and the private sector to work
towards healthier, more sustainable cities.

Greater Adjutant Stork (Hargila)

20
It is found in a few isolated pockets in Assam and Bihar in India and PrekToal in Cambodia.
IUCN status: Endangered
It is listed under schedule IV of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

20
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
It is the first biosphere reserve in India established in the year 1986.
It is included in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves under the Man and Biosphere
sc
Reserve Programme of UNESCO
Location: It is located in the Western Ghats and spreads over parts of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and
Karnataka.
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Protected Areas within the Reserve: Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Wyanaad Wildlife
Sanctuary Bandipur National Park, Nagarhole National Park, Mukurthi National Park, Silent
Valley National Park, and Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary
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Solar Risk Mitigation Initiative(SRMI)


The World Bank– Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (WB-ESMAP), in
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partnership with, AgenceFrançaise de Développement (AFD), International Renewable Energy


Agency (IRENA) and International Solar Alliance (ISA) developed the Solar Risk Mitigation
Initiative (SRMI).
This unique approach offers technical assistance to help countries develop evidence-based
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solar targets, implement a sustainable solar program, and maintain robust procurement
processes with transaction advisors.
SRMI aims to support countries in developing sustainable solar programs that will attract
private investments and so reduce reliance on public finances.
It has three components to mitigate the risk of solar deployment:
Sustainable Solar Targets
Transparent Procurement
Viable Risk Mitigation Coverage

The Green Growth Equity Fund (GGEF)


It is a joint initiative by the Governments of India and the UK under India’s flagship National
Investment and Infrastructure Fund.
It will provide financing to the fast-growing Indian renewable energy sector. With a
commitment of £120 million from each side, the GGEF is expected to raise up to £500 million
Page 73
from institutional investors.
GGEF will help accelerate achieving India’s target of 175GW of renewable energy capacity by
2022 and also invest in other related sectors such as clean transportation, water and waste
management.

Greater Adjutant Stork (Hargila)


It is found in a few isolated pockets in Assam and Bihar in India and PrekToal in Cambodia.
IUCN status: Endangered

20
It is listed under schedule IV of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972

Biodiversity coldspot

20
is a region that does not have as high species richness as found in biological hotspots.
It is important to conserve them, as they may be the only location where a rare species is
found.
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Carbon Disclosure Report:
It was released by the Global Reporting Initiative, a non-profit organization, is an annual
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report on carbon reduction activities of different countries and their firms.

Greenpeace
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Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization established in 1971.It is


headquartered in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Its goal is to ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity and focuses its
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campaigning on global issues such as climate change, deforestation, anti-nuclear issues among
others.

Green Index (Greenex)


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The country’s premier stock exchange BSE Ltd has launched ‘BSE-Greenex’, the first
environmentally-friendly equity index, which will enable investors take more informed
decisions in the green theme of India.
The BSE in association with gTrade (supported by GIZ promoted by Germany, Observer
Research Foundation and IIM Ahmedabad) has constructed BSE-Greenex, designed
specifically to promote green investing, with emphasis on financial performance and long-term
viability of companies.
It is based upon purely quantitative and objective performance signals to assess carbon
performance

eDNA
DNA collected from the environmental sample like soil,seewater,or air rather then taking
directly from the particular organism.
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National Innovations in Climate Resilient
Agriculture(NICRA)
It was launched by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) in 2011.
Aim:To enhance resilience of Indian agriculture to climate change and climate vulnerability
through strategic research and technology demonstration.
The research on adaptation and mitigation covers crops, livestock, fisheries and natural
resource management.

20
It consists of four components namely a) Strategic Research b) Technology Demonstration c)
Capacity Building and d) Sponsored or Competitive Grants.

24-degree Celsius

20
The 24-degree Celsius default setting has been made mandatory from Jan 1, 2020 for all room
air conditioners (RAC) covered under the ambit of Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) star-
labelling program.
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Green Good Deeds Campaign
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The societal movement launched by the Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate
Change,to protect environment and promote good living in the country, has earnedworldwide
accolades.
Green Good Deeds” is an idea to take environmental awareness to the people and get
theminvolved.
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GEF & GCF (Don't get confused anymore)


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Global Environment Facility (GEF)

Green Climate Fund(GCF)


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Global Environment Facility (GEF)


It was established in 1992 during Rio Summit.
It is an umbrella type of funding mechanism which provides funding to following
conventions:Location -Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
UNFCCC
Stockholm Convention
UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
Minamata Convention on Mercury.
GEF has 18 implementing partners for this purpose, like World Bank, Asian development bank,
World wide fund(WWF), IUCN, FAO etc.
Today GEF has become an international partnership of 183 countries, international
institutions, civil society organizations, and private sector to address global environmental

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issues.

Green climate fund (GCF):


It is a fund within UNFCC,founded in 2010 to assist developing countries in adaptation and
mitigation practices to counter climate change.
It is based in the new Songdo district of South Korea.
GEF has set set itself a goal of raising $100 billion per year by 2020 for financing climate
actions.

20
This was also re-iterated in COP-21 held in paris last year.

So, the diffrence b/w GEF and GCF is:

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GEF is older
GEF has broader mandate, GCF deals with UNFCCC only.

NCERT
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Buried Sunshine -Coal
Black Gold - Petroleum.
Golden fibre-Jute
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Green Gold -Bamboo


Manchester of India-Ahmedabad
Manchester of Japan -Osaka
Silicon Valley- California
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Silicon plateau - Bangalore

Gandhi Solar Park


rg

At a contribution of about USD 1 million, India has gifted solar panels that have been installed
on the roof of the UN Headquarters, one panel each for every 193 UN member states.
The solar panels are powered up to reach the max of 50 KW of generation power.
ta

Energy generated in the park is equivalent to the energy that would have been created
through the use of 30,000 kilograms of coal.

A nutrient cycle
Refers to the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the
production of living matter.
The process is regulated by the food web pathways previously presented, which decompose
organic matter into inorganic nutrients.

Carbon cycle
Is a perfect cycle. In a perfect nutrient cycle, nutrients are replaced as fast as theyare utilized.
So all the gaseous cycles are usually considered as perfect cycles.

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The sulfur cycle
Is the collection of processes by which sulfur moves between rocks, waterways and living
systems.
The sulfur cycle contains both atmospheric and terrestrial processes.
Most of the Earth’s sulphur is tied up in rocks and salts or buried deep in the ocean in oceanic
sediments.
Sulphur can also be found in the atmosphere.
It enters the atmosphere through both natural and human sources. Natural resources can be

20
for instance volcanic eruptions, bacterial processes, evaporation from water, or decaying
organisms.
When sulphur enters the atmosphere through human activity, this is mainly a consequence of
industrial processes where sulphur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gases are

20
emitted on a wide scale.

BIODIVERSITY FINANCE INITIATIVE (BIOFIN)


sc
UNDP has launched BIOFIN initiativefor increased investment in the management of
ecosystems and biodiversity.
It is managed by the UNDP Ecosystems and Biodiversity Programme, in partnership with the
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European Union and the Governments of Germany and Switzerland.

Global Bio-India 2019:


et

The Global Bio-India 2019 is one of the largest biotechnology stakeholders conglomerate will
be held for the first time in India at New Delhi.
Ministry of Science & Technology along with its Public Sector Undertaking, Biotechnology
rg

Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC) is organizing this event.


It is to bring together stakeholders to strengthen the indigenous research capabilities, bio-
entrepreneurship, investments and last-mile-delivery of technology across rural India and
tier-2, 3 cities.
ta

The International Union for Conservation of Nature


IUCN is a membership union uniquely composed of both government and civil society
organisations. Created in 1948, it is the global authority on the status of the natural world and
the measures needed to safeguard it.
It is headquartered in Switzerland.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the
global conservation status of plant and animal species.
It uses a set of quantitative criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of species. These criteria are
relevant to most species and all regions of the world.
The IUCN Red List Categories define the extinction risk of species assessed.
Nine categories extend from NE (Not Evaluated) to EX (Extinct).
Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN) and Vulnerable (VU) species are considered to
be threatened with extinction.

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It is recognized as the most authoritative guide to the status of biological diversity.It is also a
key indicator for the SDGs and Aichi Targets

What are Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs)?


Eco-Sensitive Zones or Ecologically Fragile Areas are areas within 10 kms around Protected
Areas, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries.
ESZs are notified by MoEFCC, Government of India under Environment Protection Act 1986.
In case of places with sensitive corridors, connectivity and ecologically important patches,

20
crucial for landscape linkage, even area beyond 10 km width can also be included in the
ecosensitive zone.
The basic aim is to regulate certain activities around National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries
so as to minimise the negative impacts of such activities on the fragile ecosystem

20
encompassing the protected areas.
Activities Allowed in ESZs Prohibited activities: Commercial mining, saw mills, industries
causing pollution (air, water, soil, noise etc), establishment of major hydroelectric projects
(HEP), commercial use of wood, Tourism activities like hot-air balloons over the National Park,
sc
discharge of effluents or any solid waste or production of hazardous substances.
Regulated activities: Felling of trees, establishment of hotels and resorts, commercial use of
natural water, erection of electrical cables, drastic change of agriculture system, e.g. adoption
of heavy technology, pesticides etc, widening of roads.
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Permitted activities: Ongoing agricultural or horticultural practices, rainwater harvesting,


organic farming, use of renewable energy sources, adoption of green technology for all
activities
et

EnviStats-
India 2019 is released by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI).
rg

In the last 6 years, the rate of growth of forest stock has reduced bymore than 10% in almost
all states.

What are Aichi Targets?


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The ‘Aichi Targets’ were adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) at its
Nagoya
It is a short term plan provides a set of 20ambitious yet achievable targets, collectively

known as the Aichi Targets. They can be divided into:

Strategic Goal A: Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming


biodiversity across government and society.
Strategic Goal B: Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use.
Strategic Goal C: To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species
and genetic diversity.
Strategic Goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Strategic Goal E: Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge
management and capacity building.
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India recently submitted its Sixth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity
(CBD) India is among the first five countries in the world, the first in Asia and the first among
the biodiversity-rich megadiverse countries to have submitted the report.

MIKE stands for Monitoring of Illegal Killing of Elephants


Comes under CITES It was started in South Asia in 2003 with the following objective:

To measure levels and trends in illegal hunting of elephants.

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To determine changes in these trends overtime.
To determine the factors causing or associated with these changes and to try and assess in
particular to what extent observed trends are a result of any decisions taken by the
Conference of the Parties to CITES.

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In India, Project Elephant has been formally implementing MIKE Data are collected from all
sites on monthly basis in specified MIKE patrol form and submitted to Sub-Regional Support
Office for South Asia Programme in Delhi who are assisting Ministry in implementation of the
programme
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Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary:
Is located in Kaimur District of Bihar, near the town of Bhabhua.
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It is the largest sanctuary in the state and occupies an area of about 1342 km2.
This Sanctuary located in the Kaimur Range. In the valley portions there are several waterfalls
of which the finest are Karkat Waterfall and Telhar.
There are several lakes, including Anupam Lake in or near the sanctuary.
et

Pizol glacier:
rg

The glacier is located the Alps mountain range in northeastern Switzerland.


Scientists say the glacier has lost at least 80% of its volume just since 2006, a trend
accelerated by rising global temperatures.
ta

The glacier, which has been monitored since 1893, will be the first to be taken off the Swiss
glacier surveillance network.
In July, scientists had memorialized the demise of Okjökull, the first Icelandic glacier lost to
climate change, with a plaque.

DEEP CARBON OBSERVATORY PROJECT


Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) is a global community of more than 1000 scientists on a ten-
year quest to understand the quantities, movements, forms, and origins of carbon in Earth.
Deep carbon refers to the carbon found beneath the subsurface of the Earth, where ninety
percent of the Earth’s carbon resides.
Deep carbon science integrates the knowledge of chemists, physicists, geologists and
biologists who study carbon in Earth's deep interior.

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CAPACITY-BUILDING INITIATIVE FOR TRANSPARENCY
(CBIT) FUND
CBIT is an outcome of the UNFCCC's Paris agreement in 2015 and expected to address the
issue of transparency.

OBJECTIVES

To help developing countries monitor and report the progress on their climate actions.

20
Strengthening of national institutions of participating members in transparency related
activities with respect to the Nationally Determined Contributions.
To bring transparency in the financial help, technology transfer and capacity building support
by the developed countries to developing countries.

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CLIMATE TECHNOLOGY CENTRE AND NETWORK
The CTCN is the operational arm of the UNFCCC Technology Mechanism, hosted by the UN
sc
Environment Programme and the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).
The Centre promotes the accelerated transfer of environmentally sound technologies for low
carbon and climate resilient development at the request of developing countries.
up

The United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF)


Is a high-level intergovernmental policy forum.
et

The forum includes all United Nations Member States and Permanent Observers, the UNFF
Secretariat, the Collaborative Partnership on Forests, Regional Organizations and Processes
and Major Groups.
rg

Headquarters New York, USA


The Economic and Social Council of the United Nations (ECOSOC), established theUnited
Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) In October 2000, a subsidiary body with the main objective
to promote the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests
ta

and to strengthen long-term political commitment to this end" based on the Rio Declaration,
the Forest Principles, Chapter 11of Agenda 21 and the outcome of the Intergovernmental
Panel on Forests (IPF) / Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (IFF) Processes and other key
milestones of international forest policy.

Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment


(GLOBE):
It is an international environmental science and education programme that brings students,
teachers and scientists together to study the global environment.
GLOBE is sponsored by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with
support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA) and Department of State.
Internationally, GLOBE is implemented through government-to- government agreements with

Page 80
each country partner responsible for in-country activities.

The Living Planet Index (LPI):


It is an indicator of the state of global biological diversity, based on trends in vertebrate
populations of species from around the world.
The Zoological Society of London (ZSL) manages the index in cooperation with the World Wide
Fund for Nature (WWF).
The LPI has been adopted by the Convention of Biological Diversity as an indicator of progress

20
towards its 2011-2020 target to ‘take effective and urgent action to halt the loss of
biodiversity.

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP):

20
Is the United Nations global development network.
It was established in 22 November 1965, Headquartered in New York City, the status of
UNDP is that of an executive board within the United Nations General Assembly.
sc
UNDP works in about 170 countries and territories, helping to achieve the eradication of
poverty, and the reduction of inequalities and exclusion.
It helps countries to develop policies, leadership skills, partnering abilities, institutional
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capabilities and build resilience in order to sustain development results.

The reports released by UNDP:

Human Development Index


et

Gender Inequality Index


Sustainable development Goals
rg

Phytoremediation:
Is a bioremediation process that uses various types of plants to remove, transfer, stabilize,
and/or destroy contaminants in the soil and groundwater.
ta

There are several different types of phytoremediation mechanisms. These are:

1) Rhizosphere biodegradation:
In this process, the plant releases natural substances through its roots, supplying nutrients to
microorganisms in the soil.
The microorganisms enhance biological degradation.

2) Phytostabilization:
In this process, chemical compounds produced by the plant immobilize contaminants, rather
than degrade them.

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3) Phyto-accumulation (also called phyto-extraction):
In this process, plant roots absorb the contaminants along with other nutrients and water.

4) Hydroponic Systems for Treating Water Streams


(Rhizofiltration):
Rhizofiltration is similar to phytoaccumulation, but the plants used for cleanup are raised in

20
greenhouses with their roots in water.

5) Phytovolatilization:

20
In this process, plants take up water containing organic contaminants and release the contaminants
into the air through their leavy.

Important species in news


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Malabar Civet
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It is a nocturnal and elusive animal. It is endemic to Western Ghats of India.

IUCN Red List: Critically Endangered.


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Wildlife (Protection) Act,1972: Schedule I


CITES: Appendix III
Threats: Habitat destruction and Hunting.
rg

About Red Panda


The Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a mammal native to the eastern Himalayas and
ta

southwestern China.
In India, it is found in Sikkim, western Arunachal Pradesh, Darjeeling district of West Bengal
and parts of Meghalaya. It is also the state animal of Sikkim.
IUCN Red List: Endangered
Wildlife (Protection) Act,1972: Schedule I
CITES: Appendix I
Threats: a) Habitat loss and fragmentation b) Hunting for meat and Trade c) Natural disasters
among others

Pangolin
The pangolin is the only scaly mammal on earth.
Habitat: There are a total of eight pangolin species across Africa and Asia.
Of the eight species of pangolin, two are found in India: Chinese pangolin mostly found in
northeast India and Indian pangolin is found in the rest of India.

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Conservation Status:

Chinese pangolin and Sunda pangolin – Critically Endangered


Indian pangolin and Philippine pangolin – Endangered
For the first time, the Madhya Pradesh Forest department in collaboration with NGO Wildlife
Conservation Trust, has radio tagged Indian Pangolin

GRIZZLED GIANT SQUIRREL

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It is a chicken-sized bird, indigenous to Madagascar.
It is the only flightless bird known in the Indian Ocean area.
It belongs to Rallidae family, which are a large cosmopolitan family of small- to medium-sized,
ground-living birds.

20
Iterative evolution –It means the repeated evolution of similar or parallel structures from the
same ancestor but at different times.
IUCN Red List Status- Least Concern (LC)
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ORANGUTAN
India’s only orangutan dies in Nandan Kanan Zoo of Odisha of respiratory issues. They are not
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native to India.
They are three extant species of great apes native to Indonesia and Malaysia.
Three Extant species are 1. Bornean 2. Sumatran 3. Tapanuli
Geographic Range- Lowland forests on Borneo island and Sumatra island.
Characteristics- Their hair is reddish-brown, instead of the brown or black hair typical of
et

chimpanzees & gorillas.


They use a variety of sophisticated tools and construct elaborate sleeping nests each night
from branches and foliage.
rg

Threats- Habitat Destruction, Deforestation, Illegal pet trade and poaching.


IUCN Red List Status- All three orangutan species are considered to be Critically Endangered.

PURPLE FROG/ PIGNOSE FROG


ta

It believed to have co-existed with dinosaurs, set to be crowned Kerala’s state amphibian.
It was first discovered in 2003 in the Idukki, Kerala and is endemic to the Western Ghats in
India.
It is also known as Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis and has been acknowledged as one of
the rarest kinds and a ‘once in a century find’.
Once it lays its eggs, the bloated frogs characterised by a protruding snout and
powerful hind legs return to the earth’s deepest layers.
It has a bloated body with short stout limbs and is dark purple to greyish in colour.
Unlike other frogs, it has very short hind legs, which does not allow it to leap from one
spot to another.
IUCN Red List Status- Endangered.

Page 83
GRIZZLED GIANT SQUIRREL
For the first time, researchers have sighted nests of the grizzled giant squirrel at Pakkamalai
Reserve Forests near Gingee in the Eastern Ghats.
It is usually known to nest in the Western Ghats in Southern India ranging from Chinnar
Wildlife sanctuary in Kerala to Anamalai Tiger Reserve and Palani hills in Tamil Nadu.
CITES - Appendix II ▪ Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule I
IUCN Red List Status- Neat Threatened (NT).

20
ASIATIC LION
It is a Panthera leo population in India.
Its range is restricted to the Gir National Park &Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat.

20
Only male lions boast manes, the impressive fringe of long hair that encircles their heads.
Threats- Poaching and Habitat Fragmentation. Major roads and a railway track, Big temples
inside the GIR Protected Area, Genetic Inbreeding etc.
CITES - Appendix I ▪ Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule I
sc
IUCN Red List Status- Endangered (EN).
Recently the entire genome of Asiatic lion has been sequenced for the first time by scientists
from CSIRCentre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad.
up

GREAT INDIAN HORNBILL


It is one of the larger members of the hornbill family, distributed along Indian Subcontinent
et

and Southeast Asia.


It is an important bird in many tribal cultures and rituals owing to its size and unique colour.
The great hornbill is long-lived, living for nearly 50 years in captivity.
rg

Though predominantly frugivorous, it also preys on mammals, reptiles and birds.


Threats- Habitat loss and hunting are major threats. Tribal people hunt them for their parts for
rituals and making headgears and other decorations and even as delicacy.
CITES - Appendix I ▪ Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule I
ta

IUCN Red List Status- Neat Threatened (NT).


Recently a study carried out in Pakke Tiger Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh noted that hornbills,
one among the large-sized frugivores, are the top seed dispersers

WHITE TIGER/ BLEACHED TIGER


It is a pigmentation variant of the Bengal tiger.
The last white tiger reported in wild was captured in Rewa forest MP.
They were once found in Madhya Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal, Bihar.
Now there are no white tigers in the wild.
These tigers have white fur because of the lack of the pigment pheomelanin, which is found in
Bengal tigers with orange colour fur.
When compared to Bengal tigers, the white Bengal tigers tend to grow faster and heavier than
the orange Bengal tiger.
Recently an 18-year-old white tiger(Bajirao), the last one inhabiting the Sanjay Gandhi

Page 84
National Park in Mumbai, died due to age-related ailments.

SUMATRAN RHINO
They are the smallest of the living rhinoceroses, also known as hairy rhinoceros.
Features- They are the only Asian rhino with two horns. These are the hairiest species of
rhino. Its small size and hairy bodies that distinguish it from other rhino species, they also
have unique skin folds.
Location- Once found across parts of Southeast Asia, including the foothills of Bhutan and

20
northeast India, southern China, Cambodia and Thailand. Habitat- It lives in dense tropical
forest, in both the lowlands and highlands.
Threats- Climate Change, Habitat loss, Fragmentation, Poaching
CITES - Appendix I ▪ IUCN Red List Status- Critically Endangered (CR).

20
Recently Malaysia's last male Sumatran rhino dies. Only one female species remains in
the country.
Both African species and the Sumatran rhinoceros have two horns, while the Indian and
Javan rhinoceros have a single horn.
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KASHMIR STAG/ HANGUL (STATE ANIMAL OF J&K)
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It is restricted to the Dachigam National Park, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir.


Habitat- It was once widely distributed in the mountains of Kashmir and parts of Chamba
district in neighbouring Himachal Pradesh.
Threats- Habitat destruction, Over-grazing by domestic livestock, Poaching, Turmoil in
et

Kashmir.
CITES - Appendix I ▪ Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule I ▪ The J&K Wildlife
Protection Act, 1978.
IUCN Red List Status- Critically Endangered (CR). ▪ Also listed under the Species
rg

Recovery Programme

MONKEY
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Scientific Name- Trachypithecus geei.


Food Habit- They are both folivores and frugivores. Their diets consist of ripe and unripe
fruits, young and mature leaves, leaf buds, flower buds, seeds, twigs, and flowers. Although
they eat a variety of food, they mostly prefer to eat young leaves.
Distribution Range- It is found only in North-eastern India(Mainly Assam) and Bhutan,
limited to the foothills of the Black mountains.
Threats - Habitat loss due to deforestation, Electrocution from power lines, Hunting by
dogs, High juvenile mortality, inbreeding and local trade.
CITES - Appendix I ▪ IUCN Red List Status- Endangered (EN) ▪ Wildlife Protection Act,
1972- Schedule I
The Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary and Manas Wildlife Sanctuary in Assam are the two
protected habitats for this species in India.
For the first time since, MGNREGA act 2005 will have non-human beneficiaries, the rare
golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) in a reserve forest in western Assam’s Bongaigaon district

Page 85
ASIATIC GOLDEN CAT/ TEMMINCK’S CAT
It (Catopuma temminckii) is a medium-sized wild cat native.
Distribution- It is found across eastern Nepal through north-eastern India to Indonesia.
Bhutan and China were known to have two morphs of the golden cat.
Threats- Hunting, Habitat loss and Deforestation.
CITES - Appendix I ▪ IUCN Red List Status- Near Threatened (NT).
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule I
Recently Indian scientists from the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) have discovered six

20
colour morphs of the golden cat in Dibang Valley of Arunachal Pradesh.
Colour morphs are basically occurrence of two or more discrete colour forms of the
animal within a population, due to a genetic mutation.
The wide variation displayed in the cat’s coats enables them to occupy different habitats at

20
different elevations and provides camouflage while hunting different prey.
Distribution- They are small tortoises found in Burma, Thailand, Cambodia
Threats- They are killed for meat and their golden shells.
CITES - Appendix II IUCN Red List Status- Vulnerable (VU).
sc
Recently For the first time It was discovered in Arunachal Pradesh

GREAT INDIAN BUSTARD


up

Scientific Name- Ardeotis nigriceps. ▪ Found on the Indian subcontinent.


It is a large bird with a horizontal body and long bare legs, giving it an ostrich like
appearance.
et

It is one among the heaviest of the flying birds. These birds are often found associated in the
same habitat as blackbuck.
Found in India and the adjoining regions of Pakistan
Historical Habitats- PNJ, HRY, UP, MP, CG, OD, AP, RAJ, GUJ, MH, KRT, TN.
rg

Currently restricted- AP, GUJ, KRT, MH, MP and RAJ (known as Godavan).
Threats- Hunting, Poaching, Collisions with high tension electric wires, fast moving vehicles
and free-ranging dogs in villages. Habitat loss etc.
ta

CITES - Appendix I ▪ IUCN Red List Status- Critically Endangered (CR)


WLP Act, 1972- Schedule I ▪ Project Great Indian Bustard (Rajasthan)
The National Wildlife Action Plan (2002-2016) ▪ Included in Species for the recovery
programme.
Protected Areas- Desert National Park Sanctuary- RAJ, Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary- AP
Karera Wildlife Sanctuary– MP.

SAMBAR DEER
State animal of Odisha ▪ Nocturnal and solitary
Native range- Indian subcontinent, southern China, and Southeast Asia.
Habitat- Gentle slopes and the steeper parts of forested hillsides. They prefer to live near
cultivated areas like gardens and plantations, swamp forests, thick forests and open scrub.
Thorn and arid forests — Gujarat and Rajasthan
Moist and dry deciduous forests — peninsular India
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Pine and oak forests — Himalayan foothills ▪ Temperate-latitude and alpine-zone
woodlands – Taiwan
Evergreen and semi-evergreen forests- NE India and the Western Ghats
Diet : Sambar deer feeds on leaves, vegetation, herbs, fruit, bamboo buds and mushrooms.
Threat- Hunted for sport, Food, Medicinal products and other purpose, Industrial exploitation
of habitat.
IUCN Red List Status- Vulnerable (VU). ▪ Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule III
It is the brackish fish found in Kerala (official fish).
Found along the east and south-west coasts of Peninsular India.

20
IUCN Red List Status- Vulnerable (VU).
Recently the authorities have made reserves in Vembanad and Ashtamudi Lakes (Both From
Kerala) to save karimeen.

20
OLIVE RIDLEY TURTLE
Gets name from its olive colored carapace, which is heart-shaped.
They are mostly carnivorous, feeding on such creatures as jellyfish, snails, crabs, and
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shrimp. They will occasionally eat algae and seaweed.
They are best known for their unique mass nesting called Arribada,where thousands of
females come together on the same beach to lay eggs.
up

Habitat - Warm and tropical waters of primarily in the Pacific, Indian Ocean and Atlantic
ocean.
Threats- Poaching for their meat, shell and leather, and their eggs, Pet trading, Trawl nets,
Exploitation of nesting beaches for ports, and tourist centres, Light pollution, Ingestion of
marine debris .
et

CITES - Appendix I ▪ WLP Act, 1972- Schedule I


IUCN Red List Status- Vulnerable (VU).
rg

PADDY FROG
Researchers have discovered a new species of ‘Paddy Frog’ from Northeast India, primarily in
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Assam.
It has been named Aishani, (Sanskrit meaning Northeast).
It belongs to genus Micryletta, (a small genus of microhylid frogs).
The microhylid genus is a group of narrow-mouthed frogs that are more commonly known as
paddy frogs and are primarily and widely distributed in Southeast Asia (SEA).
As of now, there are only 4 recognised species in this group and newly discovered
Micryletta aishani becomes the 5th.
It is likely to be more widely distributed in N-E India, particularly Indo-Burma biodiversity
hotspot
IUCN Red List Status (Micryletta steinegeri)- Endangered (EN).

VESPERSAURUS PARANAENSIS
Recently fossil of this previously unknown dinosaur species was found (that lived 90
million years ago) in the Cruzeiro do Oeste municipality of Parana state in southern Brazil.

Page 87
The Vespersaurus was a theropod, a group of two-footed, meat-eating dinosaurs that included
the better known Tyrannosaurus and Velociraptor.
The Paraná River is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil,
Paraguay, and Argentina for some 4,880 kilometres. It is second in length only to the
Amazon River among South American rivers.

THE GREAT GREY OWL


It is documented as the world’s largest species of owl by length.

20
It is distributed across the Northern Hemisphere, and it is the only species in the genus
Strix found in both Eastern and Western Hemispheres.
In some areas it is also called Phantom of the North, cinereous owl, spectral owl, apland owl,
spruce owl, bearded owl, and sooty owl.

20
The Northern Spotted Owl requires unlogged, expansive, mature coniferous forest
stands with large trees & a complex array of vegetation types, sizes& ages.
CITES - Appendix II ▪ IUCN Red List Status- Least Concerned (LC)
Recently Biologists warn in a study that northern Spotted owls, long endangered by logging
sc
operations in the Pacific Northwest, face another threat, competition from the invasive barred
owl species.

WILD YAK
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It is the ancestor of the domestic yak (Bos grunniens) and endemic to the Tibetan
Plateau and the adjacent high-altitude regions.
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It belong to the Bovini tribe, which also includes bisons, buffaloes, cattle.
It can tolerate temperatures as low as -40 degrees Celsius
Threat- Casual and market hunting. It is hunted for its meat, horns etc
It is a reservoir for zoonotic diseases of both bacterial and viral origins.
rg

Such bacterial diseases include anthrax, botulism, tetanus, tuberculosis.


IUCN Red List Status- Vulnerable (VU). ▪ CITES - Appendix I
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule II
ta

ENOPLOTRUPES TAWANGENSIS
A new species of dung beetle has been discovered in Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh.
It is shining dark blue in colour, is relatively bigger than other dung beetles.
Dung beetles belong to the super family scarabaeoidea, having clubbed antennae and pro-
tibiae (pro-legs) modified for burrowing dung inside the soil.
This group of insects are considered beneficial to the environment as they help in nutrient
cycling of the soil. Often referred to as little recyclers, these scavenger beetles require
mammalian dung to survive.
Dung beetles are the one of the fascinating group of insects because of their ability to
bury dung deep in the soil and are indicators of the ecological health of an ecosystem.

Page 88
NILGIRI TAHR
It is state animal of Tamil Nadu.
Habitat: Endemic to the Nilgiri Hills and the southern portion of the Western Ghats in the
states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in Southern India (ex: Anamalai Hills, Palni Hills)
Adult males develop a light grey area or “saddle” on their backs and are hence called
“saddlebacks”.
Threat: Hunting, habitat loss (mainly from domestic livestock and spread of invasive plants),
climate change.

20
It inhabits the open montane grassland habitats at elevations from 1200 to 2600 m
(generally above 2000 m) of the south western ghats.
An estimated 700-800 Nilgiri Tahr inhabit Eravikulam National Park (Kerala), making it
the largest wild population in the world.

20
IUCN Red List Status- Endangered (EN). ▪ Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule I

INDIAN TIGER/ROYAL BENGAL TIGER (PANTHERA TIGRIS)


sc
Its population native to the Indian subcontinent. India is home to 80 per cent of global
tiger population.
There are some smaller groups in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan. It may also be in areas
up

of China, Burma.
Threats- Poaching, loss, and fragmentation of habitat, and Human–tiger conflict.
Habitat- Tropical moist evergreen forests, tropical dry forests, mangroves, subtropical and
temperate upland forests, and alluvial grasslands.
et

IUCN Red List Status- Endangered (EN). ▪ CITES - Appendix I


Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule I

CHRYSOMALLON SQUAMIFERUM
rg

It is a scaly- foot snail found at only three spots in the Indian Ocean.
It is found at three hydrothermal vents in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar.
ta

It was added by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to its updated
Red List of Endangered Species on July 18, 2019.
It has become the first species to be officially declared threatened due to deep-sea
mining.

DUGONG
It is a medium-sized marine mammal.
It is a species of sea cow found throughout the warm latitudes of the Indian and western
Pacific Oceans.
It is the only member of the Dugongidae family, and its closest living relatives are the
manatees.
The dugong is the only strictly herbivorous marine mammal.
Habitat- The dugong is largely dependent on seagrass communities for subsistence.
It can be found from East Africa to Australia, including the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and
Page 89
Pacific.
Threat- Hunting for their meat, oil, skin, bones, and teeth, Threats to sea grass, Climate
change etc.
IUCN Red List Status- Vulnerable (VU). ▪ Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule I
CITES - Appendix I
Recently it found stranded on Thai beach has been named by the Thailand’s princesses.

PASHMINA GOAT / CHANGTHANGI/ CHANGRA

20
It is a breed of goat inhabiting the plateaus in Tibet, Nepal, parts of Burma and neighbouring
areas of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir.
They are raised for ultra-fine cashmere wool, also known as pashmina once woven.
These goats are generally domesticated and are reared by nomadic communities called the

20
Changpa in the Changthang region of Greater Ladakh.
Recently Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has published an Indian Standard for
identification, marking and labelling of Pashmina products to certify its purity.
sc
DRACAENA CAMBODIANA
This plant yields dragon’s blood — a bright red resin used since ancient times as
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medicine, body oil, varnish, incense and


Sap of this plant turns bright red after coming in contact with air.
This is for the first time that a dragon tree species has been reported from India.
Belonging to the family Asparagaceae.
et

But Dracaena cambodiana is the only true dragon tree species.


Due to overexploitation it is listed in the inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of
China.
Recently researchers have discovered Dracaena cambodiana, a dragon tree species in the
rg

Dongka
Sarpo area of West Karbi Anglong in Assam.
ta

TAMIL YEOMAN (CIRROCHROA THAIS)


Tamil Nadu has declared the Tamil Yeoman butterfly species (endemic to western ghats)
as the state butterfly.
It is uniformly orange in colour with a dark brown outer ring.
Also known as tamil maravan which means warrior.
It moves in groups in large numbers, but at few places and are found mainly in hilly areas.
Butterflies are significant for environment as they play the main role in pollination and food
chain.
For many other species like birds and reptiles, butterflies become a prey.
Tamil Nadu is the fifth state in the country to announce its state butterfly and Maharashtra
was the first in the country to announce its state butterfly (Blue Mormon) followed by
Uttarakhand (Common Peacock), Karnataka (the Southern Birdwing) and Kerala
(Malabar banded peacock or buddha butterfly).

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GANGETIC DOLPHIN/ BLIND DOLPHIN/ SUSU
A freshwater or river dolphin found in the Indian subcontinent. It is also India’s National
Aquatic Animal.
It inhabits the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of
Nepal, India, and Bangladesh. Indus Dolphin is a subspecies and found in Indus River.
This dolphin is among the four “obligate” freshwater dolphins – the other three are the
baiji now likely extinct from the Yangtze river in China, the bhulan of the Indus in
Pakistan and the boto of the Amazon River in Latin America.

20
These four species live only in rivers and lakes.
It cannot breathe in the water and must surface every 30-120 seconds.
Because of the sound it produces when breathing, the animal is popularly referred to as the
‘Susu’.

20
Although its eye lacks a lens, the dolphin still uses its eye to locate itself.
They hunt by emitting ultrasonic sounds, which bounces off of fish and other prey,
enabling them to “see” an image in their mind.
It is the official animal of the Indian city of Guwahati.
sc
For the first time, a population of Gangetic River Dolphins has been found in the Mahananda
river, in Bihar’s Kishanganj district.
IUCN Red List Status- Endangered (EN). ▪ CITES - Appendix I
up

Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule I ▪ Convention on Migratory Species (CMS)-


Appendix II
They are also one among the 21 species identified under the centrally sponsored scheme,
“Development of Wildlife Habitat”.
et

GHARIALS
It is the longest and rarest Crocodile.
rg

Major population remains in three tributaries of the Chambal and the Girwa Rivers in
India, and the Rapti
The gharial reserves of India are located in - Uttar PradeshPradesh and
ta

National Gharial Wildlife Sanctuary is in Chambal.


IUCN Red List- Critically Endangered (CR)
Odisha is the only State in India having all three species of gharial, mugger and saltwater
crocodile.

ONE-HORNED RHINO/ RHINOCEROS UNICORNIS


It is the largest of the Asian Rhinos.
Assam is home to the largest population of one-horned rhinos.
Habitat- They preferred alluvial flood plains and areas containing tall grasslands along
the foothills of the Himalayas.
Formerly, extensively distributed in the Gangetic plains, today the species is restricted to
small habitats in IndoNepal terai and northern West Bengal and Assam.
Distribution In India- Rhinos are mainly found in Kaziranga NP, Pobitara WLS, Orang NP,
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Manas NP in Assam, Jaldapara NP and Garumara NP in West Bengal and Dudhwa TR in Uttar
Pradesh.
IUCN Red List Status- Vulnerable (VU). ▪ CITES - Appendix I
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule I

SAHIWAL CATTLE
Sahiwal is considered to be one of the best milch cattle breed of India.
The breed derives its name from Sahiwal area in Montgomery district of Punjab in Pakistan.

20
These animals are also known as “Lambi Bar”, “Lola”, “Montgomery”, “Multani” and
“Teli”.

BLACKBUCK/ INDIAN ANTELOPE

20
It is the state animal of Andhra Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab.
It is a diurnal antelope (active mainly during the day)
It is found in India (native), Nepal and Pakistan, Bangladesh (Extinct).
sc
India- Central- Western India (MP, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana,
Maharashtra & Odisha) and Southern India (Karnataka, AP, and Tamil Nadu).
Habitat- They inhabits grassy plains and slightly forested areas and prefer areas where
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water is perennially
Threats- Excessive hunting, deforestation and habitat degradation.
IUCN Red List Status- Least Concern (LC) ▪ CITES - Appendix III
WLP Act, 1972- Schedule I
et

CLOUDED LEOPARD
rg

State animal of Meghalaya


Named after the distinctive ‘clouds’ on its coat – ellipses partially edged in black, with the
nsides a darker colour than the background colour of the pelt.
Habitat- Tropical evergreen rainforests, dry tropical forests and mangrove swamps and
ta

at high altitudes in the Himalayas.


Range : Himalayan foothills through mainland Southeast Asia into China
India : Assam, northern West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya,
Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura.
Threats- Hunting, Trade in bones for medicines, meat, pet trade, Habitat fragmentation and
degradation, Human-leopard conflict
IUCN Red List Status- Vulnerable (VU). ▪ CITES - Appendix I
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule I

SPAHAEROTHECA MAGADHA/MAGADHA BURROWING


FROG
The frog was first discovered in 2015.
The frog is the newest species of the genus Spahaerotheca.

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It will be known by the common name of ‘Magadha Burrowing Frog’.
The frog is endemic to agricultural areas in Nawadih and Joungi village of Jharkhand’s
Koderma district.
Recently A new species of burrowing frog has been confirmed in Jharkhand’s Chhota Nagpur
Plateau.

PEACOCK PARACHUTE SPIDER (GOOTY TARANTULA)


Habitat- found in a degraded dry deciduous forest

20
Endemic to Andra Pradesh (Only known habitat)
Threats Habitat loss and degradation — for logging and firewood, Harvesting, collection by
international pet traders
They are genus Poecilotheria and They are biological pest controllers.

20
Recently it was spotted in the Pakkamalai Reserve Forests in Villupuram District,Tamil Nadu.
▪ IUCN
Red List Status- Critically Endangered (CR)
sc
SMOOTH-COATED OTTER AND SMALL-CLAWED OTTER
India is home to 3 of the 13 species of otters found worldwide. These are - Eurasian
up

Otter (Lutra lutra); Smoothcoated Otter (Lutra perspicillata) and Small-clawed otter
(Aonyx cinereus).
The Smooth-coated Otter is distributed throughout the country from the Himalayas
southward.
et

But the Common Otter and the Small-clawed Otter are restricted to the Himalayas, to the
north of the Ganges and to southern India.
Otters are found world over, except in Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, and other
oceanic islands.
rg

These otters have generally been described as fish specialist.


Threats- loss of wetland habitats due to hydroelectric projects, settlements and agriculture,
reduction in prey biomass, poaching and contamination of waterways by pesticides.
ta

IUCN Red List Status- Vulnerable (VU). ▪ CITES - Appendix I

INDIAN STAR TORTOISE


It is found across the Indian sub-continent, more specifically, in the Central and Southern
parts of India, in West Pakistan and in Sri Lanka.
The species faces two threats: loss of habitat to agriculture and illegal harvesting for the pet
trade.
India is among the parties proposing the re-listing of the star tortoise from CITES Appendix II
to Appendix I.
IUCN Red List Status- Vulnerable (VU) ▪ CITES - Appendix II
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule IV

Page 93
WEDGEFISH
They are shallow water coastal species, Alongwith giant guitarfishes, they are collectively
known as Rhino Rays because of their elongated snouts.
They have been listed as the ‘most imperilled marine fish families in the world’.
Found- in northern Indian Ocean and northwestern Pacific Ocean.
Threats- Loss of free flowing river, increasing agricultural & urban pollution.
IUCN Red List Status- Vulnerable (VU) ▪ CITES - Appendix II.

20
TOKAY GECKO/ GEKKO GECKO
It is one of the largest geckos (Lizard) in the country and the world.
This is a nocturnal arboreal gecko.

20
Found- in Northeast India, Nepal and Bangladesh, throughout Southeast Asia.
Occurring in the rainforests, it is primarily a tree-dweller.
It’s use as a traditional Asian medicine —everything from energy drinks to treatments
for diabetes, cancer, and HIV/AIDS (there is no proof of efficacy in any of these uses),
sc
make it prone to illegal trade across borders.
IUCN Red List Status- Least Concern (LC) ▪ CITES - Appendix II
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule III
up

INDIAN ROSEWOOD
It is deciduous rosewood tree native to the Indian subcontinent, also grown in Nigeria,
et

Kenya, Vietnam, the Philippines, and other parts of tropical Africa.


It is used for making furniture, plywood, and decorative wood products.
The species grows at a very fast rate and has the capacity to become naturalised outside
rg

its native range.


It is invasive in other parts of the world as well.
India has proposed to remove rosewood from Appendix II of CITES.
IUCN Red List Status- Vulnerable (VU)
ta

GLYPTOTHORAX GOPII & GARRA SIMBALBARAENSIS


Scientists of the Zoological Survey of India have discovered two new species of freshwater fish
from the north-eastern and northern parts of the country.
Glyptothorax gopii- is a new species of catfish. It was found in Mizoram’s Kaladan river.
It is dark brown on its dorsal surface, and its ventral surface is of a yellowish-light brown.
Garra simbalbaraensis- was found in Himachal Pradesh’s Simbalbara river. It has a
yellowish-grey colour fading ventrally.
Both fish, measuring less than seven centimetres, are hill stream fauna and are equipped with
special morphological features to suit rapid water flow.

Page 94
MARMOSET/MICO MUNDURUKU
New species of marmoset discovered in the Amazon.
The new marmoset was discovered by Rodrigo Costa Araújo of the National Institute of
mazonian Research in Brazil’s Pará state.
The new species is distinct from other marmosets in that it has white tails rather than
black, which the others have.
It also has white feet and hands, white forearms and a beigeyellow spot on the elbow.

20
ADRATIKLIT BOULAHFA
Scientists from the London’s Natural History Museum (NHM) have described Adratiklit
boulahfa, a new species of stegosaurus.

20
A new species of stegosaurus is dated to 168 million years ago, which makes it the oldest
known member of that group of dinosaurs ever known.
It is also the first stegosaurus to be found in North Africa. Its remains were discovered in
the Middle Atlas mountains of Morocco.
sc
The scientists believe it is not only a new species but also belongs to a new genus.
Adratiklit’s closest relatives is the European stegosaurus Dacentrurus.
The Adratiklit was armoured and herbivorous, and lived on the ancient supercontinent of
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Gondwana, which later split into Africa, South America, Australia and Antarctica.

ANANDAN’S DAY GECKO


et

The recently discovered Cnemaspis anandani (Anandan’s day gecko), is the most recent day
gecko found in the Nilgiris and is endemic to the Western Ghats.
The discovery is significant that this species of day gecko was not found in inaccessible
rg

forests, but near human habitations,


The Anandan’s day gecko, which is only around 42 mm in size, was found near roads
surrounding the reserve forests
Threats: From natural predators such as calotes (lizards), and birds, Anthropogenic
ta

COPROLITE
The scientists have found the oldest parasite DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) in the Coprolite of a
prehistoric Puma in Argentina.
Coprolites are fossilised faeces belonging to animals that lived millions of years ago.
Scientists can analyse and study the shape and size of coprolites and depending on the
location they were found in, scientists can figure out the animal from which they came as well
as uncover what those animals ate.
For instance, if there are bone fragments in the faeces, it tells scientists that the animal might
have been a carnivore. Tooth marks can reveal how the animal ate.

Page 95
KOMODO DRAGON
Recently, the Indonesian government ordered to relocate the residents of an island in
eastern Indonesia called the island of Komodo in a bid to conserve rare Komodo dragons.
This eviction has been ordered with a view for the recovery of the reptiles and the Komodo
National Park (the only habitat for the world’s largest lizard species).
The Komodo dragon is the largest living species of lizard.
They are listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN.
It hunt and prey including invertebrates, birds, and mammals.

20
It is claimed that Komodo's have a venomous bite, which has been shown to secrete an
anticoagulant.

Himalayan_Ibex

20
Siberian Ibex is a species of wild goat.
It is distributed in diverse habitats, ranging from cold deserts, rocky outcrops, steep terrain,
high-land flats and mountain ridges to low mountains and foothills.
sc
Himalayan Ibex is distributed in the trans-Himalayan ranges of Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh
and Himachal Pradesh.
IUCN status of Ibex – Least concern.
up

Gaur (Indian Bison)


The gaur also called the Indian bison is the largest extant bovine.
et

It is native to South Asia and Southeast Asia.


The local names of the Gaur are a) Seladang — Malaysia b) Pyoung — Myanmar and c) Gayal
or mithun— domesticated form of gaur.
rg

It is the State animal of Goa.


Listed as Vulnerable under IUCN Red List.
CITES- Appendix I
Threats: a) Hunting for consumption b) Loss of suitable habitat and c) contract diseases
ta

transmitted by domestic cattle.

Rhododendron
Rhododendron is a large genus of flowering plants and is found mainly in Eastern Himalayas,
Western Himalayas and Nilgiris.
Some plants of Rhododendron are evergreen and some are deciduous in nature.
The species is found in varied habitats from subtropical forest to alpine shrubs rhododendrons
range from dwarf shrubs to large trees.
It is a state symbol of Sikkim and Uttarakhand.
The flowering plants with variegated flowers are fast disappearing from this region because of
being ruthlessly felled down with dual purpose of obtaining fuel and construction of houses.

Page 96
NILGIRI TAHR
It is state animal of Tamil Nadu.
Habitat: Endemic to the Nilgiri Hills and the southern portion of the Western Ghats in the
states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in Southern India (ex: Anamalai Hills, Palni Hills)
Adult males develop a light grey area or “saddle” on their backs and are hence called
“saddlebacks”.
Threat: Hunting, habitat loss (mainly from domestic livestock and spread of invasive plants),
climate change.

20
It inhabits the open montane grassland habitats at elevations from 1200 to 2600 m (generally
above 2000 m) of the south western ghats.
An estimated 700-800 Nilgiri Tahr inhabit Eravikulam National Park (Kerala), making it the
largest wild population in the world.

20
IUCN Red List Status- Endangered (EN).
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule I

BLACKBUCK/ INDIAN ANTELOPE


sc
It is the state animal of Andhra Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab. it is a diurnal antelope (active
mainly during the day) It is found in India (native), Nepal and Pakistan, Bangladesh (Extinct).
up

India- Central- Western India (MP, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra &
Odisha) and Southern India (Karnataka, AP, and Tamil Nadu).
Habitat- They inhabits grassy plains and slightly forested areas and prefer areas where water
is perennially available.
et

Threats- Excessive hunting, deforestation and habitat degradation.


IUCN Red List Status- Least Concern (LC)
CITES - Appendix III
WLP Act, 1972- Schedule I
rg

SMOOTH-COATED OTTER AND SMALL-CLAWED OTTER


ta

India is home to 3 of the 13 species of otters found worldwide.


These are - Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra); Smoothcoated Otter (Lutra perspicillata) and Small-
clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus).
The Smooth-coated Otter is distributed throughout the country from the Himalayas southward.
But the Common Otter and the Small-clawed Otter are restricted to the Himalayas, to the
north of the Ganges and to southern India.
Otters are found world over, except in Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, and other oceanic
islands.
These otters have generally been described as fish specialist.
Threats- loss of wetland habitats due to hydroelectric projects, settlements and agriculture,
reduction in prey biomass, poaching and contamination of waterways by pesticides.
IUCN Red List Status- Vulnerable (VU).
CITES - Appendix

Page 97
INDIAN STAR TORTOISE
It is found across the Indian sub-continent, more specifically, in the Central and Southern
parts of India, in West Pakistan and in Sri Lanka.
The species faces two threats: loss of habitat to agriculture and illegal harvesting for the pet
trade.
India is among the parties proposing the re-listing of the star tortoise from CITES Appendix II
to Appendix I.
IUCN Red List Status- Vulnerable (VU)

20
CITES - Appendix II
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule IV

TOKAY GECKO/ GEKKO GECKO

20
It is one of the largest geckos (Lizard) in the country and the world.
This is a nocturnal arboreal gecko.
Found- in Northeast India, Nepal and Bangladesh, throughout Southeast Asia.
sc
Occurring in the rainforests, it is primarily a tree-dweller.
It’s use as a traditional Asian medicine —everything from energy drinks to treatments for
diabetes, cancer, and HIV/AIDS (there is no proof of efficacy in any of these uses), make it
up

prone to illegal trade across borders.


IUCN Red List Status- Least Concern (LC)
CITES - Appendix II
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule III
et

INDIAN ROSEWOOD
rg

It is deciduous rosewood tree native to the Indian subcontinent, also grown in Nigeria, Kenya,
Vietnam, the Philippines, and other parts of tropical Africa.
It is used for making furniture, plywood, and decorative wood products.
The species grows at a very fast rate and has the capacity to become naturalised outside its
ta

native range.
it is invasive in other parts of the world as well.
India has proposed to remove rosewood from Appendix II of CITES.
IUCN Red List Status- Vulnerable (VU)

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY


EMISAT
EMISAT is an advanced electronic intelligence (ELINT) satellite jointly developed by
ISRO-DRDO.
It is meant for electromagnetic spectrum measurements.
It is modelled after a famous Israeli spy satellite called SARAL (Satellite with ARgos and
ALtika). Both these satellites have the SSB-2 bus protocol — the core component for their
Page 98
sharp electronic surveillance capabilities across the length and width of a large country like
India.
The main capability of EMISAT is in signal intelligence — intercepting signals broadcasted by
communication systems, radars, and other electronic systems

PARAS (PRL ADVANCED RADIAL VELOCITY ABU SKY


SEARCH SPECTROGRAPH)

20
It is a spectrograph to find exo-planets.
It is designed and developed by PRL. (Physical Research Laboratory,Ahmedabad)
Main aim is to search for exo-planets around dwarf main- sequence stars using radial velocity
method.

20
HYSIS: HYSPECTRAL IMAGING SATELLITE
India’s first hyperspectral imaging satellite.
sc
Sun-synchronous polar orbit, 636 km above the surface of the earth.
It observes earth’s surface in 3 different ranges including visible, near infrared and shortwave
infrared regions in 55 spectral or colour bands
up

What Is Dutch Disease?


Dutch disease is an economic term for the negative consequences that can arise from a
spike in the value of a nation’s currency.
et

It is primarily associated with the new discovery or exploitation of a valuable natural resource
and the unexpected repercussions that such a discovery can have on the overall economy of a
nation.
rg

Triage
Triage is the process of determining the priority of patients' treatments based on the
ta

severity of their condition.


This rations patient treatment efficiently when resources are insufficient for all to be treated
immediately; influencing the order and priority of emergency treatment, emergency transport,
or transport destination for the patient.

DNA OF THINGS (DOT)


DoT encodes digital data into DNA molecules, which are then embedded into objects.
While Internet of things is a system of inter-connected computing devices, DoT creates objects
which are independent storage objects.

NEW FRONTIER’S PROGRAM


Aimed at exploring the solar system

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Various missions under New Frontiers Program are
New Horizons – Launched in 2006 to investigate distant solar system object including
Pluto and its moons and Kuiper Belt.
Juno – launched in 2016 to study Jupiter
OSIRIS-REx mission to collect samples from an asteroid(Bennu) and carry it to Earth for
further study
Dragonfly – To be launched in 2026 to study Saturn and its icy moons

Genome India Project

20
The Genome India Project, a collaboration of 20 institutions including the Indian Institute of
Science and some IITs, will enable new efficiencies in medicine, agriculture and the life
sciences.

20
Its aim is to ultimately build a grid of the Indian “reference genome”, to fully understand the
type and nature of diseases and traits that comprise the diverse Indian population.
The mega project hopes to form a grid after collecting 10,000 samples in the first phase from
across India, to arrive at a representative Indian genome.
sc
‘5G Hackathon’
up

Department of Telecommunications (DoT) has launched ‘5G Hackathon’ in association with the
Government, academia and Industry Stakeholders.
The 5GHackathon aims at shortlisting India’s cutting-edge ideas that can be converted into
workable 5G products and solutions.
It is open to developers, start-ups, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), academic
et

institutions & registered companies in India and NRIs.

Circadian rhythm
rg

All living organisms on Earth have an internal clock, known as the circadian rhythm, our
biological clock also helps regulate eating habits, hormone release, blood pressure and body
ta

temperature.
A person’s well-being is affected when there is a “temporary mismatch between our external
environment and this internal biological clock.” For example, disruption to our clocks when
someone travels across a number of time zones results in jet lag.
Research on the body clock has helped scientists improve health. Many drugs now on the
market work best when taken at the right time.

K-4 missile
K-4 is a nuclear-capable Intermediate-range submarine-launched ballistic missile -
The missile has been developed by India’sDefence Research and DevelopmentOrganisation
(DRDO).
The missile has a maximum range of about 3500km. -
It is powered by solid rocket propellants.
The missile is to be fitted into the indigenously built Arihant-class nuclear-powered submarines

Page 100
of the Indian Navy.
Only the US, Russia and China have submarine-launched ballistic missiles of 3,500- kilometre
range.

ELASTOCALORIC EFFECT
Refers to phase transformation when stress is applied on an object. This results in
heating/cooling of the material.
For example, when rubbers bands are twisted and untwisted, it produces a cooling effect.

20
Elastocaloric effect, if harnessed, may be able to do away with the need of fluid refrigerants
used in fridges and air-conditioners.

NEAT (NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ALLIANCE FOR

20
TECHNOLOGY) SCHEME
Ministry of Human Resource Development has announced a new PPP Scheme National
sc
Educational Alliance for Technology (NEAT) to use technology for better learning outcomes in
Higher Education.
The objective is to use Artificial Intelligence to make learning more personalised and
customised as per the requirements of the learner.
up

What is a spike protein?


A viral spike protein is like a key that “unlocks the door” to gain access to the cells of a
et

specific host — humans, in this case.


The researchers defined the structure of 2019-nCoV’s spike protein using a technique called
cryogenic electron microscopy, or “Cryo-EM”.
rg

This involves cooling the protein to below -150 degree Celsius so that it crystallises and then
its structure can be determined with near-atomic resolution.

RAIDER-X
ta

RaIDer-X, a new explosive detection device, was unveiled at the National Workshop on
Explosive Detection (NWED-2020) in Pune.
RaIDer-X has been co-developed by High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL)
Pune and Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

Key-features

RaIDer-X has the capability to detect explosives from a stand-off distance.


The data library can be built in the system to expand its capability to detect a number of
explosives in pure form as well as with the contaminants.
Bulk explosive in a concealed condition can also be detected by the device.

Page 101
TrueNat
The TrueNat is a new molecular test that can diagnose TB in one hour as well as testing for
resistance to the drug rifampicin.
The test has been developed by the Indian firm MolBio Diagnostics Pvt Ltd Goa.
The test works by rapid detection of TB bacteria using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
technique.

Vyom MItra

20
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) unveiled a human-robot, named Vyommitra,
that willbe sent to space as part of the Gaganyaan mission. -
Vyommitra is a half-humanoid who can mimic human actions

20
Prior to the Gaganyaan mission, the Vyommitra will go on unmanned journeys for testin

Op-Blue Freedom
sc
Is a nation-wide adaptive scuba diving programme for people with disabilities as well as the
able bodied.
This is an initiative in which a group of armed forces veterans train adventure enthusiasts in
up

Special Forces skills like survival techniques, emergency first response skills, unarmed
combat, endurance and fitness.

Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs)


et

APIs, also called bulk drugs, are significant ingredients in the manufacture of drugs. The
Hubei province of China is the hub of the API manufacturing industry.
rg

India is heavily import-dependent for APIs from China. India’s API imports stand at around
$3.5 billion per year, and around 70%, or $2.5 billion, come from China.

National AYUSH Mission


ta

Objectives:

To promote AYUSH medical systems through cost effective AYUSH services.


To strengthen the educational systems.
To facilitate the enforcement of quality control of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy
(ASU&H) drugs and sustainable availability of the raw-materials needed in them.
It envisages flexibility of implementation of the programmes which will lead to substantial
participation of the State Governments/U

Technology Development Board


It is a statutory body established by Technology Development Board Act, 1995.
Objective: To promote development and commercialization of indigenous technology and
adaptation of imported technology for much wider application.
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Roles and functions of the board:

Encourage enterprises to take up technology-oriented products.


Provide equity capital or loans to industrial concerns and financial assistance to research and
development institutions.

Global Innovation & Technology Alliance (GITA)


In order to stimulate private sector’s investment in R&D, TDB has established Global

20
Innovation & Technology Alliance (GITA).
It is a joint venture between Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and TDB(technology
development board) with an equity contribution of 51:49 respectively.
The GITA will assist Department of Science & Technology (DST) in implementing industrial

20
research and development programme with different countries under bilateral and multilateral
science and technology cooperation agreements.

Ploonets:
sc
Astronomers have defined a new class of celestial objects called "Ploonets," which are
orphaned moons that have escaped the bonds of their planetary parents.
The researchers explain that the angular momentum between the planet and its moon results
up

in the moon escaping the gravitational pull of its parent.

Interferons
et

Interferons are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to
the resence of several viruses. In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release
interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses.
rg

Technical Textiles
ta

Technical textiles are functional fabrics that have applications across various industries
including automobiles, civil engineering and construction, agriculture, healthcare, industrial
safety, personal protection etc
Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) has approved the setting up of a National
Technical Textiles Mission

Bombay blood group


The rare, Bombay blood group was first discovered in Mumbai (then Bombay) in 1952 by Dr Y
M Bhende. The Bombay blood group, also called hh, is deficient in expressing antigen H,
meaning the RBC has no antigen H. For instance, in the AB blood group, both antigens A and
B are found.
A will have A antigens; B will have B antigens. In hh, there are no A or B antigens. Often the
hh blood group is confused with the O group

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Various diseases
Measles is a highly contagious viral disease. It remains an important cause of death among
young children globally, despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine.
Measles is transmitted via droplets from the nose, mouth or throat of infected persons
Rubella is a contagious, generally mild viral infection that occurs most often in children and
young adults.
Rubella is the leading vaccine-preventable cause of birth defects. Rubella infection in
pregnant women may cause fetal death or congenital defects known as congenital

20
rubella syndrome.
There is no specific treatment for rubella but the disease is preventable by vaccination.
Chickenpox is a very contagious infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis

20
Project NETRA
It is an early warning system in space to detect debris and other hazards to Indian satellites.
sc
Under the project, the ISRO plans to put up many observational facilities: connected radars,
telescopes; data processing units and a control centre.
They can spot, track and catalogue objects as small as 10 cm up to a range of 3,400 km and
up

equal to a space orbit of around 2,000 km.


The IndianSpace Research Organization has signed a pact with Indian Institute of Astrophysics
to establish an optical telescope under Project NETRA.

NETRA (Network Traffic Analysis)


et

Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO) operates NETRA (Network Traffic


rg

Analysis).
It is a software network used to analyse internet traffic.
It is used by Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), Intelligence Bureau (IB) and other
intelligence agencies of the Government of India
ta

NASA’s Artemis mission:


NASA’s Artemis mission is the next chapter in the US agency’s space exploration program.
It aims to send first woman and next man on the Moon by 2024 and establish sustainable
exploration by 2028.
The mission will then act as the footstep for future missions like sending astronauts to Mars.

ShodhShuddhi
The union Ministry of HRD has launched the Plagiarism Detention Software (PDS)
“ShodhShuddhi”.
This service is being implemented by Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET), an Inter
University Centre (IUC) of UGC.
PDS will significantly help to improve the quality of research outcome by ensuring the
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originality of ideas and publication of the research scholars.
Initially, about 1000 Universities/ Institutions (Central Universities; Centrally Funded
Technical Institutions (CFTIs); State Public Universities; Deemed Universities; Private
Universities; Inter University Centre (IUCs) & Institutes of National Importance are being
provided with this service.

TrueNat:
The TrueNat is a new molecular test that can diagnose TB in one hour as well as testing for

20
resistance to the drug rifampicin.
The test has been developed by the Indian firm MolBio Diagnostics Pvt Ltd Goa.
The test works by rapid detection of TB bacteria using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
technique.

20
Herd immunity
(also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity, or social immunity) is a
sc
form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a
population has become immune to an infection, whether through previous infections or
vaccination, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune.
up

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-Mark III (GSLV


MK III)
et

It is the heaviest rocket ever made by India (ISRO) and capable of carrying large payloads. Some
important features are:
rg

It is capable of launching four-tonne satellites in Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).


The rocket is also capable of placing up to eight tonnes in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), enough to
carry a manned module
ta

Darknet
It is refers to the hidden internet platform used for narcotics sale, exchange of pornographic
content and other illegal activities by using the secret alleys of the onion router to stay away
from the surveillance of law enforcement agencies.

INDIGEN GENOME PROJECT


The Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) has conducted Whole Genome
Sequencing of 1,008 Indians from different populations across the country under the IndiGen
Genome project.
Implemented by the CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB), Delhi and
CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad.
This has enabled benchmarking the scalability of genome sequencing and computational

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analysis at population scale in a defined timeline. The ability to decode the genetic blueprint of
humans through whole genome sequencing will be a major driver for biomedical science.
The outcomes of the IndiGen will have applications in a number of areas including predictive
and preventive medicine with faster and efficient diagnosis of rare genetic disease

BHABHA KAVACH
Bhabhakavach,billed as “India’s lightest bullet –proof jacket was recently launched at the
International Police Expo 2019 in New Delhi.

20
Bodies involved: It has been developed jointly by the Ordnance Factories Board and the public
sector metals and metal alloys manufacturer MIDHANI.
Features: The jacket weighs 9.2 kg, is powered with nano technology from Bhabha Atomic
Research Centre, and has a five-year warranty.

20
Microbial fuel cells
A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a device that converts chemical energy to electrical energy by
sc
the action of microorganisms.
It is a bio-electrochemical system that uses bacteria as the catalyst to oxidize organic and
inorganic matter, and consequently, generate electric current out of it.
up

It has applications in various fields such as power generation systems, bio-recovery, waste-
water treatment, etc

About Proton therapy


et

Proton therapy is a type of Radiation therapy which is also called proton beam therapy.
It uses protons rather than x-rays to treat cancer. At high energy, protons can destroy cancer
cells.
rg

It can also be combined with x-ray radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, and/or
immunotherapy.
Like x-ray radiation, proton therapy is a type of external-beam radiation therapy.
ta

In India, Tata Memorial Centre (TMC), a grant-in-aid Institution under Department of Atomic
Energy, has initiated collaboration with Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Tata
Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) for research in proton therapy.

About RTS,S Vaccine


It is recombinant protein-based malaria vaccine. It is world’s first and only malaria vaccine. Its
trade name is Mosquirix.
It has been developed and manufactured by British drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) in
partnership with the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative.
It provides protection to only a third of children of less than 2 years age from severe malaria.

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Kuiper Belt:
The Kuiper belt occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in
the outer Solar
System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from
the Sun.
It consists of icy objects, which are remnants from the formation of the solar system.
Pluto is also a partof the Kuiper Belt.

20
Nano-pharmaceuticals:
Guidelines For Evaluation Of Nano-pharmaceuticals In India were launched by Ministry for
Science & Technology.

20
Guidelines are jointly developed by Department of Biotechnology (DBI), Ministry of Science
and Technology, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and Central Drugs Standard
Control Organization (CDSCO), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
A nano-pharmaceutical is defined as "a pharmaceutical preparation containing nanomaterials
sc
intended for internal use or external application on human for the purpose of therapeutics,
diagnostics and health benefits."
up

Significance:

1. a) Enhanced solubility and dissolution rate.


2. b) Enhanced oral bioavailability.
3. c) Improved dose proportionality.
et

4. d) Reduced food effects.


5. e) Suitability for administration by all routes and possibility of sterile filtration due to
decreased particle size range.
rg

NANO MISSION
ta

The Government of India launched a Mission on Nano Science and Technology (Nano
Mission) in May 2007.
This ‘nano-mission’ has been working to help scientists, institutions and the industry in terms
of promoting basic research, development of adequate manpower resources, international
collaborations, augmentation the infrastructure for research and generation of socially useful
products.
Nano Technology is a ‘knowledge-intensive & enabling technology’ which is expected to
influence a wide range of products and processes with far-reaching implications for the
national economy and development.

Deepfakes:
The word is made from “deep learning” and “fake”. It is Artificial intelligence software and AI-
powered algorithms that manipulate appearances and voices of people into real-looking
footage

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Free Space Optical Communication (FSOC) technology
FSOC is an optical communication technology that uses light to wirelessly transmit data to
telecommunication and internet applications.
The technology remained outside the commercial applications for long owing to distance,
speed, and efficiency related problems.
This technology uses a beam of light through FSOC boxes placed kilo-meters apart on roofs or
towers with the signal beamed directly between the boxes.
It doesn’t re-quire special cabling. Therefore, the government of Andhra Pradesh proposes to

20
use FSOC tech-nology to connect the areas that are cut-off by difficult terrain, forest areas,
river crossings, railway crossings etc.
Google X is ready to set up its Development Centre in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, which
will be its first development centre outside the United State of America.

20
Edge Computing
Edge computing is the practice of processing data near the edge of the network, where the
sc
data is being generated, instead of in a centralised data-processing warehouse. For internet
devices, the network edge is where the device, or the local network containing the device,
communicates with the Internet.
up

Key benefits of Edge computing:

Decreased latency and real-time or near real-time data analysis as the data is analyzed at the
local device level, not in a distant data centre or cloud;
et

Lower operating costs due to the smaller operational and data management expenses of local
devices vs.clouds and data centres;
rg

What is quantum computing?


Quantum computing is the area of study focused on developing computer technology based on
ta

the principles of quantum theory, which explains the nature and behaviour of energy and
matter on the quantum (atomic and subatomic) level.

Sycamore
Google’s quantum computer, named Sycamore, claimed ‘supremacy’ because it reportedly did
the task in 200 seconds that would have apparently taken a supercomputer 10,000 years to
complete.
Quantum supremacy refers to a problem-solving process by the quantum computer that cannot
be solved by a classical computer in its normal lifetime.

MACS 4028.
Recently, scientists from Agharkar Research Institute (ARI), Pune, have developed a
biofortified durum wheat variety MACS 4028.

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ARI Pune is an autonomous institute under the Department of Science & Technology,
Government of India.
Biofortified durum MACS 4028 wheat variety shows high protein content, better nutritional
quality and iron content .
MACS 4028, is a semi-dwarf variety, which matures in 102 days and has shown the superior
and stable yielding ability of 19.3 quintals per hectare.
It is resistant to stem rust, leaf rust, foliar aphids, root aphids, and brown wheat mite.

Biosimilar medicines:

20
Biosimilars are replicas of biologic drugs (original drugs) that are used to treat different types
of cancers and autoimmune diseases.
Biosimilar medicines are made from living organisms through highly complex manufacturing

20
processes and must be handled and administered under carefully monitored conditions.
They are officially approved versions of original products and can be manufactured when the
original product’s patent expires. Reference to the innovator product is an integral component
of the approval.
sc
Difference between Biosimilar and Generic medicines:
up

Biosimilars involve developing equivalent of biological entity while generics involve developing
equivalent of a chemical entity-the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient.
Generic medicines are synthesized from chemicals in a consistent process so that
manufacturers can be sure that each pill has the same effect every time.
On the other hand, Biosimilar medicines are produced from living organisms through highly
et

complex manufacturing processes.

PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction


rg

PCR or Polymerase Chain Reaction is a technique used in molecular biology to create several
copies of a certain DNA segment.
ta

This technique was developed in 1983 by Kary Mullis, an American biochemist.


PCR has made it possible to generate millions of copies of a small segment of DNA.
This tool is commonly used in the molecular biology and biotechnology lab.

Convalescent plasma therapy


It seeks to make use of the antibodies developed in the recovered patient against the
coronavirus.
The whole blood or plasma from such people is taken, and the plasma is then injected in
critically ill patients so that the antibodies are transferred and boost their fight against the
virus.

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What is biofortification?
Biofortification is the process of increasing nutritional value of food crops by increasing the
density of vitamins and minerals in a crop through either conventional plant breeding;
agronomic practices or biotechnology.
Examples of these vitamins and minerals that can be increased through biofortification include
provitamin A Carotenoids, zinc and iron.

How does Biofortification differ from food fortification?

20
Biofortification has the increased nutritional micronutrient content imbedded in the crop being
grown. Food fortification increases the nutritional value of foods by adding trace amounts of
micronutrients to foods during processing.

20
Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID)
Early in March, India became the fifth country in the world to sequence the genome of the
sc
novel Coronavirus, or Covid-19, and share its data with the international community.

What is GISAID?
up

It is a public platform started by the WHOin 2008 for countries to share genome
sequences.
Created as an alternative to the public domain sharing model, GISAID’s sharing mechanism
took into account the concerns of Member States by providing a publicly accessible database
et

designed by scientist for scientist, to improve the sharing of influenza data.

Samadhan challenge
rg

The Innovation Cell of the Ministry of Human Resources Development and All India Council for
Technical Education in collaboration with Forge and InnovatioCuris launched a mega online
challenge – SAMADHAN – to test the ability of students to innovate.
ta

The students participating in this challenge will search and develop such measures that can be
made available to the government agencies, health services, hospitals and other services for
quick solutions to the Coronavirus epidemic and other such calamities.

bedaquiline, pretomanid and linezolid


TB drugs

(KIRAN) Scheme
The Knowledge Involvement in Research Advancement through Nurturing (KIRAN) Scheme is
one of the several pioneering initiatives started by the Department of Science and
Technology (DST) for promoting women in science.
It is primarily aimed to bring gender parity in the Science & Technology sector by inducting

Page 110
more women talent in the research & development domain through various programmes.
It also provides fellowship support to women ranging in the age group 27 to 57 years for
continuing higher education in Science and Technology after a break in career.

Vaccine hesitancy
It means the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines. Vaccine
hesitancy threatens to reverse progress made in tackling vaccine-preventable diseases.
Measles, for example, has seen a 30% increase in cases globally in 2018.

20
The World Health Organization (WHO) has included ‘vaccine hesitancy’ as one of the 10
threats to global health for the year 2019.

HYSIS: HYSPECTRAL IMAGING SATELLITE

20
India’s first hyperspectral imaging satellite.
Sun-synchronous polar orbit, 636 km above the surface of the earth.
It observes earth’s surface in 3 different ranges including visible, near infrared and shortwave
sc
infrared regions in 55 spectral or colour bands.
In short HysIS enables us to do a ‘CATSCAN’ equivalent of Earth from space.
up

National Science Day


National Science Day was celebrated on 28 February to commemorate the discovery of the
‘Raman Effect’ by Dr CV Raman.
et

He was also awarded the Nobel Prize for this discovery in 1930.
The Government of India had first celebrated National Science Day in 1986.
National Council for Science & Technology Communication (NCSTC), Department of Science
and Technology (DST) acts as a nodal agency to celebrate the National Science Day.
rg

Theme for 2020: Women in Science

Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)


ta

Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) is the apex body in India for the formulation,
coordination and promotion of biomedical research.
It was founded in 1911 with the name of Indian Research Fund Association (IRFA) and
renamed as ICMR in 1949.
It is funded by the Government of India through the Department of Health Research, Ministry
of Health & Family Welfare.

National Institute of Virology


The National Institute of Virology is one of the major Institutes of the Indian Council of
Medical Research (ICMR).
It was established at Pune, Maharashtra in 1952 as Virus Research Centre (VRC) under the
auspices of the ICMR and the Rockefeller Foundation (RF), USA.

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Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO)
The CDSCO is the Central Drug Authority for discharging functions assigned to the Central
Government under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act,1940.

FUNCTION

Regulatory control over the import of drugs, approval of new drugs and clinical trials.
Approval of certain licences as Central Licence Approving Authority

20
National Pharmaceuticals Pricing Authority
Under Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers

20
Revise the prices of controlled bulk drugs and formulations and to enforce prices and
availability of the medicines in the country, under the Drugs (Prices Control) Order (DPCO),
1995.
The prices are now fixed/revised under Drugs (Prices Control) Order (DPCO), 2013.
sc
It also monitors the prices of decontrolled drugs in order to keep them at reasonable levels

Quick Reaction Surface-to Air missiles (QRSAM)


up

It has been developed to replace the ‘Akash’ missile defence system, and has 360-degree
coverage.
It uses solid fuel propellant and has a strike range of 25-30 km with capability of hitting
et

multiple targets.
It is capable of hitting the low flying objects
Developed by DRDO
rg

Bioinformatics:
Bioinformatics is the combination of computer and biotechnology.
ta

It helps in finding the analysis of data related to Biotechnology. It is used for various
purposes like drugs, for the development of medicines. It is also used to improve the fertility of
crops and plants and also for pest, drought and it is resistance to diseases.
It plays an important and vital role in areas like Functional genomics, structural genomics and
proteomics these areas contribute a lot and become a key contributor to Biotechnology and
pharma sector.

Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR)


Is being implemented by the BharatiyaNabhikiyaVidyut Nigam Limited (BHAVINI), a wholly
owned Enterprise of the Government of India under the administrative control of the
Department of Atomic Energy (DAE).

Page 112
Ossification test
Test for age determination.
Bone ossification, or osteogenesis, is the process of bone formation.
This process begins between the sixth and seventh weeks of embryonic development and
continues until about age twenty-five; although this varies slightly based on the individual.
Courts have held that medical opinion based upon ossification test is merely an expert opinion
under the Indian Evidence Act, 1872.

20
ISSSUES

This test only tells the ‘estimated’ age of a person and not the exact age.
The test is not useful when a person has crossed 25-27 years of age.

20
This is primarily because nearly all the bones are completely ossified and the skeletal growth
ceases by the age of 25 years.

Schedule H drugs
sc
Under the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 drugs under Schedule H shall have labels
displaying the texts "Rx" and "Schedule H” drug.
Drugs under this schedule are to be sold by retail on the prescription of a Registered Medical
up

practitioner only.

Extra Neutral Alcohol (ENA)


et

It is a byproduct of the sugar industry.


Formed from molasses that are a residue of sugarcane processing.
It is the primary raw material for making alcoholic beverages.
rg

What is One Health concept?


ta

One Health is the collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally, and
globally, to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, as defined by the
One Health Initiative Task Force.
One Health model facilitates interdisciplinary approach in disease control so as to control
emerging and existing zoonotic threats.

What is an outbreak, epidemic and pandemic?


An outbreak is understood to be a sudden rise in the cases of a disease in a particular place.
An epidemic is a large outbreak among a particular population or region (such as the current
situation in China).
A pandemic is “the worldwide spread of a new disease”. There is no specific number of
countries that a disease must touch for WHO to classify it as a pandemic.

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What’s the difference between a cold, a flu and COVID- 19?
All three are respiratory illnesses but each is caused by a different virus.
The cold is caused by the rhinovirus, the flu is caused by the influenza virus, and COVID-19 is
caused by the novel 2019 coronavirus.
All three can lead to pneumonia if complicated by other health issues or underlying conditions.

National Animal Disease Control Programme (NADCP)

20
The program is aimed at eradicating foot and mouth disease (FMD) and brucellosis in
livestock.
The NADCP aims to control these two diseases by 2025, and to eradicate them by 2030.
The programme aims to vaccinate over 500 million livestock heads, including cattle, buffalo,

20
sheep, goats and pigs, against FMD, and some 36 million female bovine calves annually
against brucellosis.
The programme has received 100% funding from the Centre.
sc
Role of Cytokines
Cytokines are inflammatory immunological proteins that are there to fight off infections and
up

ward off cancers.


The release of inflammatory mediators increases the blood flow to the area, which allows
larger numbers of immune system cells to be carried to the injured tissue, thereby aiding the
repairing process. Thus, inflammation has an important protective function.
et

However, if this inflammatory response is not regulated, very dangerous consequences can
follow. This is when a ‘cytokine storm’ can be triggered.

Cytokine Storm Syndrome :


rg

CSS is characterised by the overproduction of immune cells and the cytokines themselves
because of a dysregulation in the process.
ta

Reasons: A cytokine storm can occur due to an infection, auto-immune condition (when the
body's immune system attacks healthy cells as in case of coeliac disease- an immune disorder
that primarily affects the small intestine), or other diseases.
Signs and symptoms include high fever, inflammation (redness and swelling), severe fatigue,
and nausea.
In the case of any flu infection, a cytokine storm is associated with a surge of activated
immune cells into the lungs, which, instead of fighting off the antigen, leads to lung
inflammation and fluid build-up, and respiratory distress.

Blood plasma
Blood plasma is a yellowish liquid component of blood that holds the blood cells in whole blood
in suspension.
It is the liquid part of the blood that carries cells and proteins throughout the body. It makes
up about 55% of the body's total blood volume.

Page 114
Plasma also called Blood Plasma is the single largest component of human blood.

Functions:

Maintain blood pressure and volume


Supply critical proteins for blood clotting and immunity
Carries electrolytes such as sodium and potassium to our muscles and
Helps to maintain a proper pH balance in the body which supports cell function.

Schedule H1

20
Aims to check to check the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, anti-TB and some other drugs.
Cannot be sold without a valid prescription.

20
Package of the drugs has mandatory warning printed in a box with a red colour border.
Labels of any Schedule H drug must display the text "Rx" on the top left corner of the label
Schedule X
Includes narcotic and psychotropic substances-based drugs.
sc
Cannot be sold without a valid prescription.
Drug retailer has to preserve the copy of prescription for two years.

Reverse osmosis
up

RO is a type of filtration that uses a semi-permeable, thin membrane with pores small enough
to pass pure water through while rejecting larger molecules such as dissolved salts (ions) and
other impurities (bacteria, colloids, organics etc). A membrane rejects contaminants based on
et

their size and charge.


RO membranes do not remove gases like CO2 or O2 because these gases are not highly
ionized
rg

ISSUES

Demineralization: Besides impurities, RO water purifier (when TDS level in water is less than
ta

50) also removes essential natural mineral like sodium, iron, calcium, and magnesium that are
essential for our body.
Wastage of water (environmental concern): To avoid buildup of contaminants, crossflow
filtration allows water to sweep away contaminants.

Anemia Mukt Bharat (AMB)


Government of India has launched the Anemia Mukt Bharat (AMB) strategy under Holistic
Nourishment (POSHAN) Abhiyaan and the targets has been set to reduce anaemia by 3% per
year.
The 6x6x6 strategy under AMB implies six age groups, six interventions and six institutional
mechanisms.
The strategy focuses on ensuring supply chain, demand generation and strong monitoring
using for addressing anemia, both due to nutritional and non-nutritional causes.

Page 115
Types of cells
Somatic cells: They are any body cells that are not involved in reproduction. Most cells in body are
somatic cells. They include skin cells, bone cells, red blood cells, and many more.

Germ cells: They are cells that create reproductive cells called gametes. They are found only in the
reproductive glands

AGR

20
Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR) is the usage and licensing fee that telecom operators are
charged by the Department of Telecommunications (DoT).
It is divided into spectrum usage charges and licensing fees, pegged between 3-5 percent and

20
8 percent respectively.

Domain name Systems (dnS)


sc
It is the phonebook of the Internet.
Humans access information online through domain names.
Web browsers interact through Internet Protocol addresses.
up

DNS translates domain names to IP addresses so browsers can load Internet resources.
Each device connected to the Internet has a unique IP address which other machines use to
find the device.
DNS servers eliminate the need for humans to memorize IP addresses.
et

The process of DNS resolution involves converting a hostname into a computer friendly IP
address.

Centralised Access Control System (CACS) Project:


rg

It is aimed to digitize the employee movement process at the airports.


It covers 43 Airports of AAI (Airports Authority of India) and 5 Joint Venture (JV) airports.
ta

This multi-layered security system encompasses the uniqueness of the Airport Entry Permit
(AEP) users, biometric authentication in addition to PIN-based identity verification through
contactless smart card technology.
It will manage access of personnel along with RFID based automated vehicle access control
system according to the region, terminal, zone, and gate access privileges.
The cost of the card is Rs. 225, which shall be valid for three years.
Biometric ID (Biometric enabled Centralised Access Control System having chip-embedded
smart AEPs) thus issued, is non-duplicable.

National Informatics Centre (NIC)


Established in 1976 NIC has emerged as a promoter of digital opportunities for sustainable
development.
It functions under the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology.
NIC spearheaded “Informatics-Led Development” by implementing ICT applications in social
Page 116
and public administration and facilitates electronic delivery of services to the government
(G2G), business (G2B), citizen (G2C) and government employee (G2E).

Central Equipment Identity Register


It will be a central repository or database of all mobile phones connected to networks across
India.
Every mobile network provider in India has an Equipment Identity Register (EIR), or a
database of the phones connected to its network.

20
Department of Telecommunications (DoT) under the Ministry of Communications has initiated
a CEIR for mobile service providers.

Muons

20
Muons and other particles are produced when cosmic rays bombard air particles surrounding
the earth.
The muons produced can have positive or negative charge. When a positively charged muon
sc
falls through a cloud, it loses energy.
Wings India 2020, a flagship event of the Indian Civil Aviation industry will be held at
Begumpet Airport, Hyderabad from 12-15 March 2020. It is organized by the Ministry of Civil
up

Aviation, Govt. of India, AAI and FICCI.

‘Wings India 2020’


et

Its a four-day event themed: “Flying for All’’ is an international platform focused on the new
business acquisition, investments, policy formation and regional connectivity in the civil aviation
industry.
rg

Haemophilia
It is a medical condition, mostly inherited, in which the ability of blood to clot is severely
ta

reduced, so that even a minor injury can cause severe bleeding.


Because of the genetics involved in the way the sex of a child is determined, men are more
vulnerable to haemophilia than women.
Britain’s Queen Victoria (1819-1901) is the world’s most widely known carrier of haemophilia.
From her, the condition spread among a number of European royal families, which is why
haemophilia was once known as the “royal disease”. Victoria passed on a defective X
chromosome to three of her children. Her son Prince Leopold died at age 30 as a result of loss
of blood after injury.
Leopold’s daughter, Princess Alice of Albany, was a carrier whose son inherited haemophilia
and died at age 21.

Central Council for research in homeopathy (CCrh)


It is an apex research organization under Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India which undertakes,
coordinates, develops, disseminates and promotes scientific research in Homoeopathy. It was

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constituted in 1978.
The Headquarters of the Council are situated in New Delhi and multi-centric research is
conducted through a network of 26 institutes/units all over India.

What is Autism?
Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder is a lifelong developmental disability that manifests itself
during the first three years of life.
It results from a neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain, mostly

20
affecting children and adults in many countries irrespective of gender, race or socio-economic
status.
It is characterized by impairments in social interaction, problems with verbal and non-verbal
communication and restricted, repetitive behaviour, interests and activities.

20
Though there is no cure for it, therapeutic and behavioural guidance can considerably improve
quality of life.

Glass Fibre Reinforced Gypsum Concrete


sc
Glass Fibre Reinforced Gypsum (GFRG) Panel known as Rapidwall is a building panel made-up
of calcined gypsum plaster, reinforced with glass fibers.
up

The panel was originally developed by FRG Building System Australia and since 1990 is being
used for mass scale building construction.
Now, these panels are being produced in India.

Youth Co: Lab initiative


et

It is an innovative platform for young people to explore their ideas and potentials, and bring to
scale viable solutions, to accelerate India’s progress on the SDGs.
rg

Started in 2017 by UNDP and the Citi Foundation.


Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), NITI Aayog, UNDP India Jointly Launch Youth Co:Lab to
accelerate youth-led social entrepreneurship and innovation in India.
ta

Global Bio-India Summit, 2019


Global Bio-India Summit, 2019’ was held in Delhi. It was India’s first largest biotechnology
conference.
It was organised by The Department of Biotechnology (under Ministry of Science and
Technology) and Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC).
It showcased the potential of India’s biotech sector to the international community.
BIRAC is a not-for-profit, Public Sector Enterprise, set up by Department of Biotechnology
(DBT).
It acts as an Interface Agency to strengthen and empower the emerging Biotech enterprise to
undertake strategic research and innovation, addressing nationally relevant product
development needs.

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The VoWiFi technology:
Allows users to make outgoing calls to any mobile phone number and landline by connecting to
a public WiFi hotspot or any private home WiFi network.
The service enables no cost calling across operators and minimal data usage using a handset
which supports the technology.
VoWiFi will allow telcos to take on over-the-top players like WhatsApp and keep them from
eating into their revenue, even as voice calling rates rise, say analysts

20
A xerophyte
Is a species of plant that has adaptations to survive in an environmentwith little liquid water,
such as a desert or an ice- or snow-covered region in the Alps or the Arctic.

20
Popular examples of xerophytes are cacti, pineapple and some Gymnosperm plants.
An epiphyte is a plant that harmlessly grows upon another plant. They are not to be confused
with parasitic plants, however, because an epiphyte obtains all of its nutrients and water from
the atmosphere and uses the host plant merely as a way to support its weight.
sc
Epiphytes are often found in more temperate climates and are an important part of ecosystem
biodiversity. They provide a rich habitat for other organisms such as animals, insects, and
fungi.
up

An epiphyte informally known as an air plant. Mesophytes are terrestrial plants which are
neither adapted to particularly dry nor particularly wet environments.
An example of a mesophytic habitat would be a rural temperate meadow, which might contain
goldenrod, clover, oxeye daisy, and Rosa multiflora.
et

Genome India Initiative:


rg

It is an initiative of Department of Biotechology (DBT) to scan nearly 20,000 Indian genomes


over the next five years in a two-phase exercise, and develop diagnostic tests that can be used
to test for cancer.
ta

Significance:

The data generated would be accessible to researchers anywhere for analysis.


This would be through a proposed National Biological Data Centre envisaged in a policy called
the ‘Biological Data Storage, Access and Sharing Policy’, which is still in early stages of
discussion.

Gene Silencing:
It is a technique that aims to reduce or eliminate the production of a protein from its
corresponding gene.
It generally describes the ―switching off of a gene by a mechanism other than genetic
modification
It occurs when RNA is unable to make a protein during translation (gene expression).

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Lithium Sulfur (Li-S) Battery
Researchers from Australia have claimed that they have developed the world‘s most efficient
lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery.
It is capable of powering a smartphone for five continuous days, the equivalent of an electric
car being able to drive a distance of over 1,000 km.
Li-S battery has an ―ultra-high capacity and has better performance and less environmental
impact.
This means that they may be able to outperform the Li-ion batteries by more than four times.

20
With Li-ion batteries, some disadvantages include their susceptibility to overheating and their
being prone to damage at high voltages.
Such batteries also start losing their capacity over time — for instance, a laptop battery in use
for a few years does not function as well as a new one.

20
Li-S batteries are considered as the successors of the Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries because of
their lower cost of production, energy efficiency and improved safety.

Green Propellants
sc
ISRO is developing green propellants for use in future rocket & satellite propulsion systems.
It has made a beginning by developing an eco-friendly solid propellant to eliminate the
up

emission of chlorinated exhaust products from rocket.


The propellants are based on Glycidyl Azide Polymer (GAP) as fuel and Ammonium Di
Nitramide (ADN) as oxidizer.
It has successfully developed ISROSENE, which is a rocket grade version of kerosene as an
et

alternative to conventional hydrazine rocket fuel.


It has already used Liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen combination in cryogenic upper stage of
GSLV MK-III.
rg

Innate immunity
It is non-specific type of defence, which is present at the time of birth.
ta

This is accomplished by providing different types of barriers to the entry of the foreign agents
into our body.
Innate immunity consists of four types of barriers.

These are —

Physical barriers: Skin on our body is the main barrier which prevents entry of the
microorganisms. Mucus coating of the epithelium lining the respiratory, gastrointestinal and
urogenital tracts also help in trapping microbes entering our body.
Physiological barriers: Acid in the stomach, saliva in the mouth, tears from eyes–all prevent
microbial growth.
Cellular barriers: Certain types of leukocytes (WBC) of our body prevent microbial grow

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DIALYSIS :
Dialysis is a treatment that does some of the things done by healthy kidneys. It is needed when
one develops an end-stage kidney failure.

Dialysis maintains balance of body by:

Removing waste, salt and extra water to prevent them from building up in the body.
Keeping a safe level of certain chemicals in your blood, such as potassium, sodium and

20
bicarbonate.
Helping to control blood pressure.

There are two main types of dialysis which are :

20
1] Hemodialysis (HD):
It is commonly known as blood dialysis. In HD, the blood is filtered through a machine that
sc
acts like an artificial kidney and is returned back into the body.
HD needs to be performed in a designated dialysis center.
It is usually needed about 3 times per week with each episode talking about 3-4 hours.
up

2] Peritoneal dialysis (PD):


It is commonly known as water dialysis.
In PD, the blood is cleaned without being removed from the body.
et

The abdomen sac (lining) acts as a natural filter.


A solution (mainly made up of salts and sugars) is injected into the abdomen that encourages
filtration such that the waste is transferred from the blood to the solution.
rg

This process can be done at Home. Hence, it does away with the substantial costs of
infrastructure, maintenance and staffing, reduces the demand on the healthcare system and
offers patient autonomy.
Union Health Ministry has released guidelines for establishing PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
ta

services under the Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Program (PMNDP).

PM NATIONAL DIALYSIS PROGRAM (PMNDP)


The programme was announced by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare in 2016 under the
National Health Mission (NHM) in PPP (Public-Private Partnership) model.
It aims to provide free dialysis services to the poor.
The first phase of the programme envisaged setting up of hemodialysis centres in all districts
of the country.
Financing: For Below Poverty Line (BPL) economic group: 100% expenses are directly covered
under NHM by the government.
For non-BPL patients: They can get treated at the district hospitals by paying the same rates
as paid by the government for the BPL patient.

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Human Space Flight Centre
India’s world-class facility for training GAGANYAAN astronauts will be established in three
years at Challakere.
It is a shrubby, arid oilseeds town on the Bengaluru-Pune NH4 in Chitradurga district of
Karnataka.
The 400-acre ISRO land at Challakere will be the single-stop consolidating infrastructure and
activities related to space travellers.
Challakere will also host work related to crew and service modules of the spacecraft that

20
carries the astronauts and up to mission control.
Challakere, is called the Science City, it houses facilities of the ISRO, the Defence Research
&Development Organisation’s Advanced Aeronautical Test Range, the Bhabha Atomic
Research Centre and the Indian Institute of Science.

20
Hera Mission:
European Space Agency’s (ESA’s) Hera mission is set for a new record by becoming the first
sc
spacecraft to study a binary asteroid the Didymos pair.
A binary asteroid is a system of two asteroids orbiting a common center.
The second asteroid of the binary pair orbiting Didymos called ‘Didymoon’ —will be the
up

smallest asteroid ever explored.


However, Hera mission won’t be the first to reach Didymos.

Blue Biotechnology:
et

This branch of biotechnology helps to control the marine organisms and water borne
organisms.
rg

It is a process which has to do with marine or underwater environment. The use of this
biotechnology is very rare.
Blue biotechnology is used to protect the marine organisms from harmful diseases underwater.
ta

Green Biotechnology:
Green Biotechnology is the term used for the agricultural sector.
With the help of the process called the Micro propagation (a practice of producing larger
number of plants through the existing stock of plants) which helps in selecting the right
quality of plants and crops.
Also with the help of Transgenic plants (plants whose DNA is modified); this design of
transgenic plants helps to grow in a specified environment with the help of certain chemicals.

Red Biotechnology:
Red biotechnology is referred to as Medical Biotechnology. It is used for the production of
drugs and antibiotic medicines.
It also helps to create or design organisms.
Through the process of genetic manipulation it helps to cure genetic issues in organisms. It
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also helps in analyzing diseases in organisms. It also helps in developing new ways of
diagnosis by performing tests.
With the help of stem cell therapy, it helps the organs to grow and it also cures the damaged
issues in organisms.

White Biotechnology:
White Biotechnology is also called and known by the name Industry Biotechnology.
This kind of biotechnology is used and applied in industries and its processes. The various uses

20
of this Biotechnology includes; biopolymers (Plastics) Substitutes, new invention of vehicle
parts and fuels for the vehicles, invention of fibers for the clothing industry, it is also involved
in developing new chemicals and the production process.

20
CAR-T
CAR-T involves removing immune cells and modifying them in a laboratory so they can
recognize cancer cells.
sc
Immunotherapy is treatment that uses your body's own immune system to help fight cancer
First, the patient has blood removed and the white blood cells are separated out, with the rest
of the blood being returned to the patient.
up

A harmless virus is used to insert genes into T-cells, a special type of immune cell.
These genes cause the T-cells to add a hook on to their surface, known as a chimeric antigen
receptor (CAR).
These engineered CAR-T cells - programmed to recognize and destroy the patient's cancer
cells - are multiplied in huge numbers and then infused back into the patient CAR-T is a
et

personalized form of cancer treatment.

The AWaRe tool


rg

Was developed by the WHO Essential Medicines List to contain rising resistance and make
antibiotic use safer and more effective by providing guidelines (over the effective use of
ta

antibiotics) to the policy-makers and health workers.


AWaRe makes it easier for policy-makers, prescribers and health workers to select the right
antibiotic at the right time, and to protect endangered antibiotics.

It classifies antibiotics into three groups:

Access— antibiotics used to treat the most common and serious infections.
Watch— antibiotics available at all times in the healthcare system.
Reserve— antibiotics to be used sparingly or preserved and used only as a last resort.

Aarogya Setu
a mobile application BY GoI
To connect health services and the people in the fight against COVID-19.
Helps informing the users about the potential risk of infection, best practices and relevant

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medical advisories

Shri Shakti Challenge


By GoI on MyGOV platform
Solution Challenge for Startups, Entrepreneurs and individuals for proposing technology
solutions in the field Bioinformatics, datasets, Apps for diagnosis etc that can be leveraged for
strengthening the fight against Corona.
A total prize money of INR 22,50,000 has been committed by UN Women

20
INDIAN ECONOMY

20
Financial Sector Development Council (FSDC)
FSDC is an apex-level body constituted by the government of India in the year 2010, with
Union Finance Minister as its chairman.
sc
Its members include Governor of RBI, Finance Secretary, Chief Economic Advisor, Chairman
SEBI, Chairmam IRDA, Chairman PFRDA, Joint Secretary (capital market) etc.
FSDC is entrusted with the responsibility of inter-regulatory coordination and resolving their
up

disputes.
Apart from this, it envisages to strengthen and institutionalise the mechanism for maintaining
financial stability, financial sector development along with monitoring macro-prudential
regulation of economy.
et

Global Investment Trend Monitor Report:


rg

It is published by United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

UDAY BONDS
ta

Bonds issued by the state discoms to finance the debt accrued on account of distribution losses
and low tariffs of
They are issued to finance 25% of the debt and 75% of which will be taken up by the state
governments under the UDAY scheme.

PANDA BONDS
Yuan-denominated bond issued in the Chinese mainland market by an overseas entity.
Usually issued by foreign companies and Chinese companies operating overseas to raise
capital.
International Finance Corporation and Asian Development Bank have issued Panda Bonds in
2005.
Besides countries like Philippines and most recently Pakistan have issued Panda bonds.

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SIMILAR BONDS
Dim Sum Bonds: Yuan denominated bonds issued in Hong Kong.
Samurai Bonds: Yen-denominated bonds issued in Japan by a foreign company.
Yankee Bonds: Dollar denominated bonds issued in the S. by a foreign entity

URIDASHI MASALA BONDS


Special type of Masala Bonds issued in Japan bought by the Japanese retail investors.

20
They are used raise private sector capital in India.
Offer higher interest rates to Japanese investors compared to low interest rates due to
negative interest rate policy in Japanese economy

20
MASALA BONDS
Rupee-denominated bonds issued by Indian entities (both public and private) in overseas
market.
sc
Thus the investor is shielded from exchange rate fluctuations because interest and principal
are paid at the rates prevailing at the time of buying the bond.
up

IMPACT BONDS
Innovative way of financing development
Way to attract private capital to social projects
et

Unsecured bonds to raise funds towards a project with a social impact or development impact
The investors agree to pay on the condition that the money raised has led to pre-determined
verifiable
rg

WOMEN LIVELIHOOD BONDS


Unsecured, unlisted bonds jointly issued by World Bank, UN Women and SIDBI
ta

To enable individual women entrepreneurs in agriculture, food processing, services, and


manufacturing to borrow.
Aimed at graduating SHG women from group borrowing to individual borrowing.
Limit: Rs.1 lakh to Rs. 1.5 lakh at 13% per annum

UTKRISHT IMPACT BOND


Worlds 1st health impact bond
Launched to reduce number of maternal, neo-natal deaths in Rajasthan
Outcome payers are USAID and Merck for Mothers.
Outcome payers are intermediaries between investor and implementing agency

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GREEN BONDS
Proceeds of such Bonds are exclusively used for financing green projects such as renewable
energy projects, climate change, reducing fossil fuel emissions etc.
The Indian Railway Finance Corporation Ltd (IRFC) has established a Green Bond Framework
for fund raising to finance the Dedicated Freight Corridor project and electrification of the
railways.

Financial Intelligence Unit-India

20
Financial Intelligence Unit-India (FIU-IND) is the central national agency for receiving,
processing, analyzing and disseminating information relating to suspect financial transactions.
FIU-IND was established by the Government of India in 2004 for coordinating and

20
strengthening collection and sharing of financial intelligence through an effective national,
regional and global network to combat money laundering, related crimes and terrorist
financing.
It is an independent body reporting to the Economic Intelligence Council (EIC) headedby the
sc
Finance Minister.

Scheme for Trans-Disciplinary Research for India’s


up

Developing Economy (STRIDE)


The University Grants Commission (UGC) has approved a new initiative, Scheme for Trans-
Disciplinary Research for India’s Developing Economy (STRIDE),
et

To support socially relevant, local need-based, nationally important and globally significant
research projects.
rg

Circular Trading
It Refers to selling and buying of goods via shell corporations to artificially inflate turnover.
ta

There Is no Actual change in ownership or movement of goods.

What is Essential Commodities Act?


The ECA was enacted way back in 1955.
It has since been used by the Government to regulate the production, supply and distribution
of a whole host of commodities it declares ‘essential’ in order to make them available to
consumers at fair prices.
The list of items under the Act include drugs, fertilisers, pulses and edible oils, and petroleum
and petroleum products.
The Centre can include new commodities as and when the need arises, and take them off the
list once the situation improves.
Under the Act, the government can also fix the maximum retail price (MRP) of any packaged
product that it declares an “essential commodity”.

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Securities Appellate Tribunal (SAT)
SAT is a statutory body established under the provisions of the Securities and Exchange Board
of India Act, 1992.
It is to hear and dispose of appeals against orders passed by the Securities and Exchange
Board of India or by an adjudicating officer under the Act; and to exercise jurisdiction, powers
and authority conferred on the Tribunal by or under this Act or any other law for the time
being in force.
SAT hears and disposes of appeals against orders passed by the Pension Fund Regulatory and

20
Development Authority (PFRDA) under the PFRDA Act, 2013.

Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)

20
SEBI is a statutory body established on April 12, 1992 in accordance with the provisions of the
Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992.
The basic functions of the Securities and Exchange Board of India is to protect the interests of
investors in securities and to promote and regulate the securities market.
sc
What is bilateral netting?
up

A bilateral netting agreement enables two counterparties in a financial contract to offset


claims against each other to determine a single net payment obligation that is due from one
counterparty to the other, meaning that the payables and receivables are netted off.
Such a provision would allow companies, especially banks, to set aside far lesser capital based
et

on their net positions rather than gross settlements, where the entire amount due must be
covered

India INX
rg

It is India’s first International Exchange


It is in International Financial Service Centre (IFSC) of GIFT (Gujarat International Financial
ta

Tech) City Gandhinagar, Gujarat


India INX is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE).
It will enable Indian firms to compete on equal footing with offshore firms
India INX will initially trade in equity derivatives, currency derivatives, commodity derivatives
including index and Stocks. Subsequently, it will offer depository receipts and bonds once
required infrastructure is ready

Gender Social Norms Index


The first Gender Social Norms Index was recently released by the UN Development
Programmme (UNDP).

About the index

This index measures how social beliefs obstruct gender equality in areas like politics, work,

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and education, and contains data from 75 countries, covering over 80 percent of the world’s
population.
The index found new clues to the invisible barriers women face in achieving equality –
potentially forging a path forward to breaking through the so-called “glass ceiling”.

Fiscal Performance Index


By Confederation of Indian Industry(CII)
To assess the quality of budgets presented by the Centre and state governments.

20
The composite Fiscal Performance Index (FPI) developed by CII is an innovative tool using
multiple indicators to examine the quality of Budgets at the Central and State levels.
The index has been constructed using the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Human Development Index methodology, it comprises six components for holistic assessment

20
of the quality of government budgets.

MANI App
sc
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has launched a mobile app- Mobile Aided Note Identifier
(MANI) to help visually-impaired people to identify the denomination of currency notes.
The application can scan the currency notes using the camera of the mobile phone. However,
up

the app does not authenticate a note as either genuine or counterfeit.


It also gives audio output in Hindi and English.

Enhanced Access and Service Excellence-EASE 3.


et

EASE is a set of banking reforms which aims to incorporate technological aids for ensuring
better banking experience, wider financial inclusion and easier credit distribution.
EASE 3.0: aims to provide advanced solutions that will make the public sector banking smart
rg

and technology enabled.


It will include facilities like Palm Banking for End-to-end digital delivery of financial service,
Banking on Go via EASE banking outlets, digitalised branch experience, tech-enabled
ta

agriculture lending among others.

Formation and Promotion of Farmer Producer Organizations


(FPOs) Scheme”
It is a Central sector scheme.

The nodal Ministry of this scheme is Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare.
To form and promote 10,000 FPOs in five years period from 2019-20 to 2023-24 to ensure
economies of scale for farmers.
There will be three implementing Agencies for this purpose: Small Farmers Agri-business
Consortium (SFAC),National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) and National
Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD).
FPOs will be formed and promoted through Cluster Based Business Organizations (CBBOs)
engaged at the State/Cluster level by implementing agencies under “ One District One
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Product” cluster to promote specialization and better processing, marketing, branding &
export by FPOs.

Co-operative Banks
Co-operative Banks, which are distinct from commercial banks, were born out of the concept
of co-operative credit societies where members from a community group together to extend
loans to each other, at favourable terms.

20
Structure of Cooperative Banking in India

The structure of cooperative network in India can be divided into 2 broad segments-

1. Urban Cooperative Banks

20
2. Rural Cooperatives
3. Urban Cooperatives

Urban Cooperatives can be further divided into scheduled and non-scheduled. Both the
sc
categories are further divided into multi-state and single-state.
Majority of these banks fall in the non-scheduled and single-state category.
Banking activities of Urban Cooperative Banks are monitored by RBI.
Registration and Management activities are managed by Registrar of Cooperative Societies
up

(RCS). These RCS operate in single-state and Central RCS (CRCS) operate in multiple state.

Rural Cooperatives
et

The rural cooperatives are further divided into short-term and long-term structures.
The short-term cooperative banks are three tiered operating in different states. These are-
rg

1. State Cooperative Banks- They operate at the apex level in states


2. District Central Cooperative Banks-They operate at the district levels
3. Primary Agricultural Credit Societies-They operate at the village or grass-root level.
ta

Long-term structures are further divided into –


State Cooperative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks (SCARDS)- These operate at
state-level.
Primary Cooperative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks (PCARDBS)-They operate at
district/block level

Liberalised Remittance Scheme


Scheme of the Reserve Bank of India, introduced in the year 2004.
Under the scheme, all resident individuals, including minors, are allowed to freely remit up to
USD 2,50,000 per financial year (April – March) for any permissible current or capital account
transaction or a combination of both.
Not Eligible: The Scheme is not available to corporations, partnership firms, Hindu Undivided
Family (HUF), Trusts etc.
Though there are no restrictions on the frequency of remittances under LRS, once a

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remittance is made for an amount up to USD 2,50,000 during the financial year, a resident
individual would not be eligible to make any further remittances under this scheme.

Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF)


USOF ensures that there is universal non-discriminatory access to quality ICT services at
economically efficient prices to people in rural and remote areas.
Currently, it is charged at the rate of 5%, while the TSPs demand it to be reduced to 3%.
Created under the Department of Telecommunications in 2002.

20
It is a non-lapsable fund, i.e., the unspent amount under a targeted financial year does not
lapse and is accrued for next years’ spending.
All credits to this fund require parliamentary approval and it has a statutory support under
Indian Telegraph (Amendment) Act, 2003.

20
L2PRO INDIA
Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) launched the website and
sc
mobile application L2Pro India [Learn to Protect, Secure and Maximize Your Innovation] on
Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs).
up

Economic capital framework


It is refers to the risk capital required by the central bank while taking into account
different risks.
et

The economic capital framework reflects the capital that an institution requires or needs to
hold as a counter against unforeseen risks or events or losses in the future

eBkray
rg

It is a platform launched by the Ministry of Finance.


It enables online auction of assets attached by various state-run banks.
ta

It provides navigational links to all PSB e-auction sites, property search feature and presents
single-window access to information on properties up for e-auction.
It also provides facility for comparison of similar properties.
It seeks to bring in transparency in the sale of properties.

Disinvestment can be done in the following ways


Initial Public Offering (IPO): an offer of shares by an unlisted PSU to the public for the first
time.
Follow-on Public Offering (FPO): also known as Further Public Offering, it's an offer of
shares by a listed PSU.
Offer for sale (OFS): shares of a PSU are auctioned on the platform provided by the stock
exchange. This mode has been used extensively by the government since 2012.
Institutional Placement Programme (IPP): under this, only selected financial institutions
are allowed to participate and the government stake is offered to only such institutions. E.g.,
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mutual funds, insurance, and pension funds such as LIC etc.
CPSE Exchange Traded Fund (ETF): Through this route, the government can divest its
stake in various PSUs across diverse sectors through a single offering. This mechanism allows
the government to monetize its shareholding in those PSUs which form part of the ETF basket.
Cross-holdings: in this method, one listed PSU takes up the government stake in another
listed PSU.

Shadow Banking

20
Shadow banking is a term used to describe bank-like activities (mainly lending) that take place
outside the traditional banking sector.
It is also referred as non-bank financial intermediation or market-based finance.
It is not regulated in the same way as traditional bank lending.

20
The term ‘shadow bank’ was coined by Paul McCulley in 2007.
Examples of shadow lenders include Special Purpose Entities, Non Banking Financial
Companies (NBFCs), Hedge Funds etc
sc
Tech Saksham
Union Minister for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) has launched a project
up

named ‘Tech Saksham’ to accelerate MSME growth through technology enablement.


To bridge the gap in technology adoption for MSMEs so as to provide an impetus for them to
be competitive on a global scale, increase their contribution to country exports and leverage
cost efficiencies.
et

Fit and Proper Regime


Under Fit and Proper criteria, RBI has mandated all the banks to constitute a Nomination and
rg

Remuneration Committee (NRC) consisting of a minimum of three non-executive directors


from amongst the board of directors.
ta

Time Release Study (TRS)


The TRS is an internationally recognized tool advocated by World Customs Organization
(WCO) to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of international trade flows.
This initiative for accountable governance, will measure rule based and procedural bottlenecks
(including physical touchpoints) in the clearance of goods, from the time of arrival until the
physical release of cargo.
The aim is to identify and address bottlenecks in the trade flow process and take the
corresponding policy and operational measures required to improve the effectiveness and
efficiency of border procedures.

Debt Overhang:
This refers to a situation where all current income gets used up in repaying the accumulated
debt, leaving little incentives to invest either in physical or human capital.
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Redacted Pricing
It is a term used to describe the process of blanking out confidential or sensitive information
from a document before disclosure or publication.
As electronic filing of court documents is now standard practice, redaction is necessary to
restrict public access to personal data, given the large increase in identity theft and other
types of fraud.

India VIX

20
India Volatility Index (VIX) is released by National Stock Exchange (NSE).
It measures the degree of volatility or fluctuation that active traders expect in the Nifty50 over
the next 30 days.

20
It is a good indicator of whether participants in stocks are feeling fearful or satisfied about the
near future.
The NIFTY 50 index is NSE’s benchmark stock market index for Indian equity market.
NIFTY is owned and managed by India Index Services and Products (IISL), which is a wholly
sc
owned subsidiary of the NSE.

Startup ranking framework for 2019


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Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) has released the 2nd
edition
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of Startup Ranking framework for 2019.

The framework aims to rank the States/ UTs for establishing a robust ecosystem for supporting
Startups.
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It comprises of 7 pillars that evaluates States’/ UTs efforts across


Institutional support
Simplifying regulations
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Easing public procurement


Incubation support
Seed funding support
Venture funding support
Awareness and outreach related activities.

Ways and Means Advances


They are temporary loan facilities provided by RBI to the government to enable it to meet
temporary mismatches between revenue and expenditure.
The government makes an interest payment to the central bank when it borrows money.
The rate of interest is the same as the repo rate, while the tenure is three months.
The limits for WMA are mutually decided by the RBI and the Government of India.
When the WMA limit is crossed the government takes recourse to overdrafts, which are not
allowed beyond 10 consecutive working days.

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The interest rate on overdrafts would be 2 percent more than the repo rate.

Types of WMA:

There are two types of Ways and Means Advances — normal and special.
Special WMA or Special Drawing Facility is provided against the collateral of the government
securities held by the state. After the state has exhausted the limit of SDF, it gets normal
WMA. The interest rate for SDF is one percentage point less than the repo rate.
The number of loans under normal WMA is based on a three-year average of actual revenue

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and capital expenditure of the state.

Ghosting

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Ghosting is an illegal practice whereby two or more market makers collectively attempt to
influence a stock's price.
Corrupt companies use ghosting to affect stock prices so they can profit from the price
movement.
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The industry calls this ghosting because, like a spectral image or a ghost, this collusion among
market makers is difficult to detect.
The goal is mutually beneficial as those involved are looking to capitalize on the change in
price for personal gain.
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Greenfield and Brownfield projects


Greenfield and brownfield investments are two types of foreign direct investment.
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With greenfield investing, a company will build its own, brand new facilities from the ground
up.
Brownfield investment happens when a company purchases or leases an existing facility.
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In a greenfield investment, parent company opens a subsidiary in another country. Instead of


buying an existing facility in that country, the company begins a new venture by constructing
new facilities in that country.
Brownfield investments, an entity purchases or leases an existing facility to begin new
ta

production.
Companies may consider this approach a great time and money saver since there is no need to
go through the motions of building a brand-new building.

India Investment Grid


India Investment Grid (IIG) is an initiative of Department for Promotion of Industry & Internal
Trade (DPIIT) Ministry of Commerce, Government of India and Invest India, the National
Investment Promotion and Facilitation Agency.
The India Investment Grid (IIG) is a home for investment opportunities across India which
works on a single interactive platform.
This was formed as an initiative to enhance the business platform in India.

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Recapitalisation bonds
A government bond is an instrument to raise money from the market with a promise to pay to
repay the face value of the maturity date and a periodic interest.
A bond issued for the purpose of recapitalisation is called recapitalisation bonds.

A Pigovian tax
A Pigovian tax is a tax which is placed on any good which creates negative externalities.

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For example, Pollution, Alcohol etc. Externality means impact of one person’s action on the
well-being of an outsider. Carbon tax is one example of Pigovian Tax which discourages the
uses of fossils fuels and encourages renewable soures due to climate change threat.

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The Tobin tax
The Tobin tax was developed with the intention of penalizing short-term currency speculation, and to
place a tax on all spot conversions of currency. The aim is to check speculative flows. Long term
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investment e.g. FDI does not suffers from the imposition of tobin tax

Some Facts about startup in India:


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Economic Survey 2019 – 20, as on January 8, 2020, 27,084 startups were recognized across
551 districts.
55 per cent of which are from Tier I cities , 45 per cent from Tier II and Tier III cities.
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43 per cent of recognized startups have at least one woman director.


State wise Distribution Maharashtra>Karnataka>Delhi
Sector wise, about 14% of the startups are under IT services, followed by Health and
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Education.

Companies Fresh Start Scheme, 2020 and revised LLP


Settlement Scheme, 2020
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Ministry of Corporate Affairs introduces the “Companies Fresh Start Scheme, 2020”
and revised the “LLP Settlement Scheme, 2020” to provide relief to law
abiding companies and Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs)in the wake of COVID 19.

These schemes incentivise compliance and reduce compliance burden during the
unprecedented public health situation caused by COVID-19.

What is a LLP?
A Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) is a partnership in which some or all partners have
limited liability.It therefore exhibits elements of partnerships and corporations.
In an LLP, one partner is not responsible or liable for another partner’s misconduct or
negligence.

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Business Immunity Platform:
The platform is designed as a comprehensive resource to help businesses and investors get
real-time updates on India’s active response to COVID-19 (Coronavirus).

This dynamic and constantly updating platform keeps a regular track on developments with
respect to the virus, provides latest information on various central and state government
initiatives, gives access to special provisions, and answers and resolves queries through emails
and on WhatsApp.

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It is the active platform for business issue redressal, operating 24/7, with a team of dedicated
sector experts and responding to queries at the earliest.

Concessional Finance Scheme (CFS)

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of India supports Indian entitiesbidding for strategically important infrastructure projects
abroad.
The Scheme is presently being operated through the Export-Import (EXIM) Bank of
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India,which raises resources from the market to provide concessional finance to the
Indianentities abroad.
of India provides counter guarantee and interest equalization(subsidy) support of 2% to the
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EXIM Bank.
Under the Scheme, Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) selects the specific projects keepingin
view strategic interest of India and sends the same to Department of Economic Affairs (DEA).
et

Credit Rating Agencies (CRAs) are regulated by SEBI.


In light of the COVID-19 crisis, SEBI directed CRAs that, if the default by the companies (which are
rg

listed on the exchange and which has been provided Credit Rating by any of the CRAs) is because of
solely due to COVID-19 LOCKDOWN then the CRAs should not recognize it as a DEFAULT and
should not degrade their rating.
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Definition of NPA's
The definition of NPA is given by RBI for financial institutions regulated by RBI like banks
and NBFCs.
But some (financial institutions) like Mutual Funds, Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs), are also
regulated by SEBI for which NPA definition has been given by SEBI.

Power generation capacity as on October 2019:


Private = 46.5%

States = 28.4%

Central = 25.1%

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“Domestic Tariff Area” (DTA) means the whole of India (including the territorial waters and
continental shelf) but does not include the areas of the Special Economic Zones (SEZs).
“Special Economic Zone” (SEZ) is a specifically delineated duty-free enclave and shall be
deemed to be foreign territory for the purposes of trade operations and duties and tariffs.

"Invest India"
"Invest India" is the National Investment Promotion and Facilitation Agency of India and
acts as the first point of reference for investors in India.

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Invest India is set up as a nonprofit venture under the Department for Promotion of Industry
and Internal Trade (DPIIT),Ministry of Commerce and Industries, Government of India.

Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY)

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Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) is a scheme of the Ministry of Petroleum &
Natural Gas for providing LPG connections (and not the cylinder, as cylinders were
already subsidized before this scheme) to women from Below Poverty Line (BPL)
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LPG connection under this Scheme shall be in the name of the womenbelonging to the BPL
family.
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The scheme aims to safeguard the health of women &children by providing them with a clean
cooking fuel – LPG, so that they do not have tocompromise their health in smoky kitchens or
wander in unsafe areas collecting firewood.
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Till now there are more than 8 crore beneficiaries.

Shell company
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There is no clear definition of what a shell company is in the Companies Act, or any other
But typically, shell companies include multiple layers of companies that have beencreated for
the purpose of diverting money or for money laundering or tax avoidance.
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Mostshell companies do not have any active business operations and they do not
manufactureany product or deal in any product or render any service.
They are mostly used to makefinancial transactions.
These types of corporations are not necessarily illegal, but they aresometimes used
illegitimately such as to disguise business ownership from lawenforcement or the public.
Generally, these companies hold assets only on paper and notin reality.
These companies conduct almost no economic activity.

'Graded Surveillance Measure'


SEBI has introduced the 'Graded Surveillance Measure' to keep a tab on thesecurities/shares
of those companies which witness an abnormal price rise that is not
commensurate with the financial health and fundamentals of the company.
Theunderlying principle behind the graded surveillance framework is to alert and
protectinvestors trading in a security, which is seeing abnormal price movements.
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SEBI may putshares of companies under the measure for suspected price rigging

SIDBI Make in India Soft Loan Fund for Micro, Small &
Medium Enterprises (SMILE) scheme
The objective of the Scheme is to provide soft loan (mainly long-term loan) on relativelysoft
terms to MSMEs to meet the required debt-equity ratio for establishment of an MSMEas also
for pursuing opportunities for growth for existing MSMEs.

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The focus is on all theidentified 25 Make in India sectors or other sectors as may be added, in
the Make in India programme.

Emphasis will be on covering new enterprises in the manufacturing as well as services

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Existing enterprises will also be covered which are undertaking expansion, to takeadvantage
of new emerging opportunities, as also undertaking modernization, technologyupgradation or
other projects for growing their business.
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Rent seeking
Rent seeking means engaging in or involving in the manipulation of public policy oreconomic
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conditions as a strategy for increasing profits.


For example, lobbying forgovernment contracts by changing the terms and conditions of the
bidding contract.

Drug Price Control Orders (DPCOs)


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Drug Price Control Orders (DPCOs) are issued by the Government, in exercise of the
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powers conferred under section 3 of the Essential Commodities Act 1955 to ensure that the
medicines listed under National List of Essential Medicines (NELM) are available at a
reasonable price to the general public.
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The National List of Essential Medicines (NELM),prepared by Ministry of Health and Family
Welfare, is a list of medicines considered essential and high priority for India’s health needs. It
is based on aspects like prevalenceof disease in the population, safety and efficacy of the
medicine, and current affordability.

Infrastructure Status
"Department of Economic Affairs", Ministry of Finance grants "Infrastructure Status" tothe
various sectors.

Granting of infrastructure status enable the sectors to avail infrastructure lending at easier
terms with enhanced limits, access to larger volume of funds as External Commercial
Borrowings (ECB) and access to longer tenure funds from insurance

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Duty credit scrip
Duty credit scrip is an important export promotion incentive (under Foreign Trade
Policy2015-20) provided by the government to exporters in which government gives
taxincentives to the exporters.
The government gives a receipt/paper to the exporter worthsome percentage (2% to 5%) of the
export value.
This paper the exporter can use to adjustagainst tax payment for example import duty on raw
materials used for exports or othertaxes on manufacturing processes.

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Various surveys
Employment and Unemployment Surveys (EUS) conducted by Labour Bureau

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Economic Census is conducted by NSO, MoSPI and has no fixed periodicity and recently the
7th Economic Census was conducted (2019).
Periodic Labour Force Survey is conducted by National Statistics Office (NSO) to produce
annual statistics of employment and unemployment characteristics for both rural and rban
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areas, along with quarterly estimates for urban areas.
Census (of the population) is conducted by Registrar General and Census Commissionerunder
Ministry of Home Affairs after every 10 years. The 2020 census will be digital.
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Jaivik-kheti portal
Jaivik-kheti portal is a unique initiative of Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), Department
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ofAgriculture (DAC) along with Metal Scrap Trade Corporation (MSTC) to promote
organicfarming globally.
It is a one stop solution for facilitating organic farmers to sell theirorganic produce and
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promoting organic farming and its benefits.


Jaivik-kheti portal is an E-commerce as well as a knowledge platform.

National gene fund


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As per the Protection of Plant Variety and Farmers Rights Act, 2001 Section 45,
“National Gene Fund” has been constituted to receive (or give) contributions from:
The Breeder will have to pay royalty which will go to the National Gene Fund
The amount of the benefit sharing to a variety will have to be deposited by the breeder
of such variety to the National Gene Fund.
If someone gives a claim that the genetic material possessed by him was used in the
development of the seed variety by the breeder then the claimant will get benefit sharing from
the National Gene Fund.

India’s external liabilities


India’s external liabilities include all the investments made in India either in the form of
debt or equity.
So, it will include everything FDI, FPI (debt and equity both), External Commercial
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Borrowing, Govt. of India borrowings from abroad, NRI deposits in India.
Total external liabilities are around 41% of GDP, in which both debt and equity are around
equally distributed.

Income distance’
‘Income distance’ is calculated as the difference between the per capita gross state
domestic product (GSDP) of the state from that of the state with the highest per capita
This ensures that states with less income get a higher share in order to allow them

20
to provide services comparable to those provided by the richer ones.
The XV FC used the per capita GSDP of Haryana as the reference for calculating the
income distance, and has given it a weight of 45%, down from the 50% assigned by the
XIV FC.

20
th
15 FC facts
As per article 275 of the Constitution, the Finance Commission should recommend
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‘Grants-in-Aid’ for the states out of the Consolidated Fund of India. The Fifteenth Finance
Commission (FFC) has recommended the following six types of grants in aid:
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Revenue deficit grants: Post vertical devolution from centre to states, fourteen states faced
revenue deficit and they have been recommended for revenue deficit grants (also called post
tax devolution revenue deficit grants)
Grants to local bodies: The FFC has recommended Rs. 90,000 crores of grants for local
bodies in 28 States for the period 2020-21. The inter-se distribution for local bodies among the
et

States will be based on population and area in the ratio 90:10


Disaster management grants: The coverage of funds recommended by FFC goes beyond the
disaster response funds that already exist at national (NDRF) and state (State Disaster
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Response Funds, SDRF) levels. FFC has recommended the creation of funds for disaster
mitigation along with disaster response which will now together be called as National
Disaster Risk Management Fund (NDRMF) and State Disaster Risk Management Fund
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(SDRMF).
Sector specific grants: The FFC is considering recommending, in the final report (for
2021-22 to 2025-26), sector specific grants for nutrition, health, pre-primary education,
judiciary, rural connectivity, railways, statistics and police training and housing. However, to
augment the efforts of the States towards reducing and ultimately eliminating malnutrition,
FFC has recommended grants for nutrition even in 2020-21.
Performance grants: FFC will be recommending performance-based incentives to States for
the period 2021-22 to 2025-26 in their final report (and before that it wants that States
should do ground work to implement these reforms), in six areas if they implement reforms.
These are, Agriculture reforms, Development of Aspirational Districts and Aspirational Blocks,
Power sector reforms, enhancing trade including exports, Education, Promotion of domestic
and international tourism.
State-specific grants: FFC believed that because of its recommendations for 2020-21, no
State should, in absolute terms, get less than the total amount of devolution and revenue
deficit grants estimated to be received in 2019-20. Since, tax devolution and revenue deficit

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grants are projected to decline from 2019-20 to 2020-21 for three states, namely, Karnataka,
Mizoram and Telangana, so FFC has recommended State specific grants (special grants) to
these three states.

The parameters for distribution of taxes among the states


(horizontal distribution) for FFC are
Income Distance (45%),

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Population (2011 Census) (15%),
Demographic Performance (12.5%),
State Area (15%),
Forest Cover (10%),

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Tax effort (2.5%).

The Fifteenth Finance Commission (FFC) at glance


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The Finance Commission recommends for devolution of taxes (from the divisible pool)
from Centre to States only (called Vertical devolution) and is not meant for UTs, whether
they have their own assembly/legislature or not.
The Fifteenth Finance Commission (FFC) recommendations will be applicable for six
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years period from 2020-21 to 2025-26.


For the year 2020-21, the recommendations have been submitted and the final
recommendations for the five-year period 2021-22 to 2025- 26 will be submitted by October
2020.
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Since UTs are the responsibilities of the Union, they are within the purview of the
Union budget
Article 280 of the Constitution, along with the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act puts the
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newly-created UTs of Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir outside the purview of the Finance
Commission's award.
Since UTs are the responsibilities of the Union, they are within the purview of the
Union budget.
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FC recommend that aggregate share of States may be reduced by 1 percentage point


to 41 per cent of the divisible pool.”
So basically, FFC has not recommended transfer of taxes to Jammu & Kashmir and
Ladakh Union Territories for the period 2020-21.

Public Finance Management System


The Public Finance Management System (PFMS) comes under the office of Controller General
of Accounts, Ministry of Finance.
It is an end-to-end online solution for processing payments, tracking, monitoring, accounting,
reconciliation and reporting.
The Centre has integrated the treasuries of almost all states into the PFMS to track fund
utilization up to the last mile as well as transfer funds “just-in-time” for central schemes.
Integration of State treasuries has virtually wiped out indefinite parking of central funds at the
state level.
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Pump priming
Pump priming is the action taken to stimulate an economy, usually during a recessionary
period, through government spending and tax reductions.
The term pump priming is derived from the operation of older pumps - a suction valve had to
be primed with water so that the pump would function properly.

Inverted Duty Structure

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The term ‘Inverted Duty Structure’ refers to a situation where the rate of tax on inputs
purchased is more than the rate of tax on outward supplies (or finished products).

Crowding in

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Opposite of crowding out is "crowding in" where private investment increases as debt
financed government spending increases.
If the economy is in slowdown phase or the demand in the economy is less, then an increased
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government spending boosts the demand for goods which in turn increases the private sector
demand for new output sources such as factories, equipment.
Thus, the private sector crowds in to satisfy increasing consumer needs.
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Composition levy
Composition levy is an alternative method of levy of tax designed for small businesses
et

whose turnover is up to Rs. 1.5 crore (and above 40 lacs).


The objective of composition scheme is to bring simplicity and to reduce the compliance cost
for the small businesses.
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All you wanted to know about compensation cess


Compensation cess was introduced as relief for States for the loss of revenues arising from the
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implementation of GST. States, in lieu of giving up their powers to collect taxes on goods and
services after local levies were subsumed under the GST, were guaranteed a 14 per cent tax
revenue growth in the first five years after GST implementation by the Central government.
Compensation cess is levied on five products considered to be ‘sin’ or luxury goods. For
example, SUV vehicles (more than 4 metres) are charged 50 per cent GST, of which the GST
tax rate is 28 per cent and the compensation cess is 22 per cent.
The collected compensation cess flows into the Consolidated Fund of India, and then
transferred to the Public Account of India, where a GST compensation cess account has been
created.

Revenue neutral tax rate


Revenue neutral tax rate means that the average GST rate should be such that the indirect tax
revenues of the government after the implementation of GST should not be impacted as compared to

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before implementation of GST.

Tax Planning
Tax Planning is the art of reducing the tax liability of a person by making use of the
various provisions of law.
The government in many cases provides various deductions and exemptions which can be used
by a person to reduce his tax liability.
Tax planning is 100% legal and all tax payers are advised to make use of the same to reduce

20
their tax burden.
Department of Investment and Public Asset Management (DIPAM) under the Ministry of
Finance has been made the nodal department for the strategic disinvestment.
DIPAM and NITI Aayog will now jointly identify PSUs for strategic disinvestment and then it is

20
approved by CCEA.

Partial Credit Guarantee scheme


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Partial Credit Guarantee offered by Government of India (GoI) to Public Sector Banks
(PSBs) for purchasing high-rated pooled assets from financially sound Non-Banking
Financial Companies (NBFCs)/Housing Finance Companies (HFCs).
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Under the above scheme Public Sector Banks can purchase the loan papers of NBFCs
(only through Direct Assignment route and not through securitisation) to provide liquidity to
NBFCs and manage their asset liability mismatch issue.
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Central govt. will provide partial credit guarantee on these assets i.e. if in future these loan
papers turn NPA, then Govt. of India will pay to Public Sector Banks

Teaser Loans
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“Teaser Loans” is the unofficial term used to describe housing loans that carry ultra-low
fixed rates in the initial years, but charge market-linked rates thereafter.
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A letter of credit
A letter of credit is a letter from a bank guaranteeing that a buyer's payment to a seller
will be received on time and for the correct amount.
In the event that the buyer is unable to make payment on the purchase, the bank will be
required to cover the full or remaining amount of the purchase.

Supervisory Action Framework” (SAF)


Since a lot of urban-cooperative banks (UCBs) were also facing issues, RBI has brought
in “Supervisory Action Framework” (SAF) for UCBs in place of PCA for commercial banks.

The three parameters (NPA level, Return on Assets i.e. profit and Capital Adequacy Ratio),
based on which PCA is invoked, SAF is also invoked based on three similar parameters (NPA

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level, two consecutive years loss and capital adequacy ratio), but the level may be different at
which SAF is triggered.

SAF in UCB can also be initiated in case of serious governance issues. Once a UCB has been
put under SAF, various restrictions on dividend, donation, new loans, capital expenditure etc.
can be imposed, which are again similar to PCA restrictions.

Stagflation

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Stagflation is an economic anomaly where stagnation in the economy is accompanied by
high inflation (instead of low inflation due to falling demand).
Stagflation = Stagnation in the economy + Inflation
Generally, when economy stagnates (slows down) then inflation also comes down due to

20
lower demand in the economy. But stagflation is an exception where economy slows down but
the inflation is high.

Accommodative Monetary Policy


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When a central bank attempts to expand the overall money supply to boost the economy when
growth is slowing. This is done to encourage more spending from consumers and businesses
by making money less expensive to borrow by lowering the interest rate.
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A neutral monetary policy is also called "natural" or "equilibrium" rate where the policy
(repo) rate is such that neither it stimulates nor restrains economic growth.
When RBI is changing its stance from "accommodative" to "neutral", in any monetary policy
review, that means RBI is expecting that in future it may be required to change the repo
et

(policy) rate in any direction.


When RBI is having an accommodative monetary policy stance that means in future it expects
to lower the policy rate.
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National Centre for Financial Education (NCFE)


It is a Section 8 (Not for Profit) Company promoted (owned) by Reserve Bank of India (RBI),
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Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of
India (IRDAI) and Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA).

Merger
The merger is a process wherein two or more companies/entities are combined together to
form either a new company or an existing company absorbing the other target companies.
Basically, it’s a process to consolidate multiple businesses into one business entity.
Amalgamation is a type of merger process in which two or more companies combine their
businesses to form an entirely new entity/company.
An acquisition is when one company purchases most or all of another company's shares
to gain control of that company.
Consolidation is a general term which means the action or process of combining a
number of things into a single more effective or coherent whole. So, merger, amalgamation

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and acquisition all will come under consolidation.
Mergers and Acquisitions of commercial banks require the approval of Competition
Commission of India (CCI) and Reserve Bank of India (RBI) both.

Bank run
A bank run is a situation that occurs when a large number of bank's customers withdraw
their deposits simultaneously due to concerns about the bank's solvency.
As more and more people withdraw their funds, the probability of default increases, thereby

20
prompting more people to withdraw their deposits. In extreme cases, the bank's reserves may
not be sufficient to cover the withdrawals.

Currencies and coins are fiat money

20
Because they derive their value from government "fiat"/ order. If the coin is melted then it will
not fetch the same value in the market and the paper of which the currency note is made of
does not have any value in the market.
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Hence, Currency notes and coins are called fiat money and they do not have intrinsic

They are also called legal tenders as they cannot be refused by any citizen of the country
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for settlement of any kind of transaction.


Cheques drawn on savings or current accounts, however can be refused by anyone as a mode
of payment. Hence cheques are not legal tenders.

Income elasticity of demand


et

It is calculated as the ratio of the percentage change in quantity demanded to the percentage
change in income. It measures the responsiveness of the quantity demanded for a good or
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service to a change in income.


If income elasticity of demand of a commodity is less than 1 that means that with change
in income, demand is not changing much, that means, it is a necessity good.
ta

If the elasticity of demand is greater than 1, it is a luxury good or a superior good.

Important graphs representing various trends

FDI trend.

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20
20
sc
up

DPIIT is the nodal agency for FDI .


FIPB has been abolished .

Two ways of FDI


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1) Automatic route and

2) Approval route .
rg

Singapore is top investment country and mauritious is second in FDI.


Among sectors, telecommunications garnered the maximum FDI at $4.2 billion, followed by
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services sector ($2.8 billion)

FD ( fiscal deficit) targets trend .

Page 145
20
20
sc
up

FRBM act .
K Singh committee to review FD targets under FRBM .
Budget 2020 used Escape clause to deviate from FD .
et

RBI surplus transfer to the GOI .


rg
ta

Page 146
20
20
sc
up

Bimal jalan committee recommended Economic capital framework.

Trend of real GDP growth rate from 2013 to 2019-2020


et
rg
ta

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National Infrastructure on Pipeline (NIP) Task force
The Central Government had constituted a task force to draw up a National Infrastructure
Pipeline (NIP) from 2019-20 to 2024-25.
The Task Force has been chaired by the Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry
of Finance
National Infrastructure Pipeline (NIP) with projects worth ₹102-lakh crore.
The private companies will account for 22% of the investments and the balance will come from
the Centre and the states in equal proportions (i.e. 39% each).

20
Stagflation
The term Stagflation was first coined by Paul Samuelson who was the first American to win the

20
Nobel Prize in economics.
Stagflation is a condition of slow economic growth and relatively high unemployment, or
economic stagnation, accompanied by rising prices, or inflation.
It can also be defined as inflation and a decline in the gross domestic product (GDP).
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Nidhi company
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Under Nidhi Rules, 2014, Nidhi is a company which has been incorporated as a Nidhi with the
object of cultivating the habit of thrift and saving amongst its members, receiving
deposits from, and lending to, its members only, for their mutual benefit.
It is a company registered under the Companies Act, 2013.
et

It works on the principle of mutual benefits that are regulated by the Ministry of Corporate
Affairs.
Nidhi Company is a class of Non-Banking Financial Company(NBFC) and Reserve Bank
rg

of India(RBI) has powers to issue directives for them related to their deposit acceptance
activities.
However, since these Nidhis deal with their shareholder-members only, RBI has exempted
them from the core provisions of the RBI Act and other directions applicable to
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NBFCs.

Bear Market
A bear market refers to the market where share prices are continuously declining.

Its downward trend makes investors believe that the trend will continue, which, in turn,
perpetuates the downward spiral.
It is considered riskier to invest in a bear market, as many equities lose value. Thus,
most investors withdraw their money from the markets.
During a bear market, the economy slows down and unemployment rises as companies begin
laying off workers.

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Bull Market
A bull market refers to a market that experiences a sustained increase in market share
prices.
It ensures investors that the uptrend will continue over the long term.
It signifies that the country's economy is strong and employment levels are high.

The Zamindari system

20
Zamindari System (also known as Permanent Settlement System) was introduced by
Cornwallis in 1793 through Permanent Settlement Act.
It was introduced in provinces of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Varanasi. Zamindars were
recognized as owner of the lands.

20
Zamindars were given the rights to collect the rent from the peasants.
The realized amount would be divided into 11 parts. 1/11th of the share belonged to
Zamindars and 10/11th of the share belonged to East India Company
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The Mahalwari system
Mahalwari system was introduced in 1833 during the period of William Bentick.
up

It was introduced in Central Province, North-West Frontier, Agra, Punjab, Gangetic Valley, etc.
of British India.
The Mahalwari system included many provisions of both the Zamindari System and Ryotwari
System.
et

In this system, the land was divided into Mahals. Each Mahal comprises one or more villages.
Ownership rights were vested with the peasants.
The villages committee was held responsible for collection of the taxes.
rg

The Ryotwari system


Here, individual cultivator was supposed to pay the rent directly to the government without
ta

any intermediary. It was prevalent in parts of Madras, Bombay province and Assam.
In practice, however, all three types of system had taken the features of each other. .The
picture that emerged at independence was that of exploitation of agricultural labourers at the
hands of landlords, exorbitant rents, lack of incentive for technological progress and rigid
system of land transfer across the country.

Index of Industrial Production


The Index of Industrial Production (IIP) is an index that shows the growth rates in different
industry groups of the economy in a fixed period of time.
It is compiled and published monthly by the Central Statistical Organization (CSO), Ministry of
Statistics and Programme Implementation.
IIP is a composite indicator that measures the growth rate of industry groups classified under:
Broad sectors, namely, Mining, Manufacturing, and Electricity.
Use-based sectors, namely Basic Goods, Capital Goods, and Intermediate Goods. Base Year for
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IIP is 2011-2012.
The eight core industries of India represent about 40% of the weight of items that are included
in the IIP.

Significance of IIP :

IIP is the only measure on the physical volume of production.


It is used by government agencies including the Ministry of Finance, the Reserve Bank of
India, etc, for policy-making purposes.

20
IIP remains extremely relevant for the calculation of the quarterly and advance GDP estimates.

Paris Convention

20
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property is a multilateral treaty dealing with
the protection of industrial property in the widest sense.
It is administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

Herfindahl Index
sc
It is used to measure the degree of competition between two sectors.
It also measures the degree of concentration of a particular sector in the economy.
up

BHARAT BILL PAYMENT SYSTEM (BBPS)


BBPS, an interoperable platform for repetitive bill payments, functions under the aegis of
et

National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI).


BBPS currently covers bills of five segments viz. (1) Direct to Home (DTH), (2) Electricity, (3)
Gas, (4) Telecom and (5) Water.
rg

RBI has decided to expand the scope and coverage of BBPS to include all categories of billers
who raise recurring bills (except prepaid recharges) as eligible participants, on a voluntary
basis. This directive has been issued under the Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007.
With the expansion of the scope of the payment facility, other recurring payments such as
ta

school fees, municipal taxes, insurance premiums can also be paid via BBPS.

National Investment & Manufacturing Zones (NIMZs)


National Investment & Manufacturing Zones (NIMZs) are one of the important instruments of
National Manufacturing Policy, 2011.
NIMZs are envisaged as large areas of developed land with the requisite eco-system for
promoting world class manufacturing activity.
The NIMZs are envisaged as integrated industrial townships with state of the art
infrastructure, land use on the basis of zoning, clean and energy efficient technology,
necessary social infrastructure, skill development facilities etc.
to promote worldclass manufacturing activities.
At least 30% of the total land area proposed for the NIMZ will be utilized for location of
manufacturing units.

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GEM SAMVAAD
Ministry of Commerce & Industry has launched a national outreach Programme called GeM
Samvaad.
GeM Samvaad: The outreach programme aims to spread awareness about the Government e-
Marketplace(GeM)

Shehri Samriddhi Utsav

20
It is an initiative of the Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs (MoHUA). It aims to extend the
outreach of DAY-NULM, to the most vulnerable people.
It also seeks to showcase its initiatives and facilitate access of Self-Help Group (SHG)
members to the other government schemes.

20
The National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA)
has been constituted in 2018 by the Government of India under section 132 of the Companies
sc
Act,2013.
It Monitors and enforces compliance with accounting standards and auditing standards.
Due to the establishment of NFRA, India is also now eligible for the membership of the
up

International Forum of Independent Audit Regulators (IFIAR).

Outcome budget
et

It analyses the progress of each ministry and department and what the respected ministry has done
with its budget outlay. It was first introduced in the year 2005. It measures the development
outcomes of all government programs
rg

Zero based budgeting


It is a method of budgeting in which all expenses are evaluated each time a budget is made
ta

and expenses must be justified for each new period.


every budgeting cycle starts from scratch. Unlike the earlier systems where only incremental
changes were made in the allocation, under zero-based budgeting every activity is evaluated
each time a budget is made and only if it is established that the activity is necessary, are funds
allocated to it.
The basic purpose of ZBB is phasing out of programmes/activities, which do not have
relevance anymore.

Gender Budgeting
It ensures that the Government’s gender commitments are translated into budgetary
commitments.
The impact of government budgets on the most disadvantaged groups of women is a focus of
special attention.

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The rationale for gender budgeting arises from recognition of the fact that national budgets
impact men and women differently through the pattern of resource allocation.

Domestic systemically important bank (D-SIB)


It is based on the similar concept of universal bank. D-SIB means that the bank is too big to
fail.
According to the RBI, some banks become systemically important due to their size, cross-
jurisdictional activities, complexity and lack of substitute and interconnection.

20
Banks whose assets exceed 2% of GDP are considered part of this group. RBI designated such
banks as D-SIB status.
RBI classifies the banks under five buckets depending on order of importance. ICICI Bank and
HDFC Bank are in bucket one while SBI falls in bucket three

20
Infrastructure Investment Trust
National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) will set up the Infrastructure Investment Trust(s)
sc
(InvIT) as per InvIT Guidelines issued by SEBI.
Under InvIT, highway projects will be bundled to form a special purpose vehicle (SPV) to be
offered to investors.
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Service Sector
55% of the total size of the economy and GVA growth
et

Two-thirds of total FDI inflows into India


38% of total exports

Formation and Promotion of Farmer Producer Organizations


rg

(FPOs) Scheme”
Is a Central sector scheme. The nodal Ministry of this scheme is Ministry of Agriculture &
ta

Farmers Welfare.
To form and promote 10,000 FPOs in five years period from 2019-20 to 2023-24 to ensure
economies of scale for farmers.
There will be three implementing Agencies for this purpose: Small Farmers Agri-business
Consortium (SFAC),National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) and National
Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD).
FPOs will be formed and promoted through Cluster Based Business Organizations (CBBOs)
engaged at the State/Cluster level by implementing agencies under “ One District One
Product” cluster to promote specialization and better processing, marketing, branding &
export by FPOs.

Thalinomics
It is an attempt to quantify what a common person pays for a 'thali’ (plate of food) in India. It

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assesses whether 'thali' has become more or less affordable over the last few years

Enhanced Access and Service Excellence-EASE 3.


EASE is a set of banking reforms which aims to incorporate technological aids for ensuring
better banking experience, wider financial inclusion and easier credit distribution.
EASE 3.0: aims to provide advanced solutions that will make the public sector banking smart
and technology enabled.
It will include facilities like Palm Banking for End-to-end digital delivery of financial service,

20
Banking on Go via EASE banking outlets, digitalised branch experience, tech-enabled
agriculture lending among others.

P2P lending

20
Is also known as “social lending” or “crowd lending.” It has only existed since 2005, but the
crowd of competitors already includes Prosper, Lending Club, Peerform, Upstart, and Street
Shares.
sc
These platforms are categorised as NBFC-P2P and are accordingly regulated by the RBI. The
RBI has issued NBFCP 2P guidelines to regulate these platforms.
Peer-to-Peer Lending Platforms are not allowed to accept deposits. It is a mechanism which
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enables the people to borrow and lend money without the need for financial institutions such
as banks.
According to the RBI guidelines, ‘Peer to Peer Lending Platform means an intermediary
providing the services of loan facilitation via online medium or otherwise, to the participants.
et

The KhoyaPaya portal


Is a citizen based website to exchange information on missing and found children. It has been
rg

developed by the Ministry of Women and Child Development and the Department of
Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY)
ta

Consumer Confidence Survey


Recently, the Reserve Bank has released the results of the January 2020 round of its Consumer
Confidence Survey (CCS).
The Consumer Confidence survey is conducted by the RBI in 13 major cities of India and
covers almost over 5,000 respondents.
The survey measures consumer perception (current and future) on five economic variables -
economic situation, employment, the price level, income and spending.
The Consumer Confidence survey has two main indices - current situation index and future
expectations index.
The current situation index measures the change in consumer perception over an economic
issue in the last one year while the future expectations index measures what consumer thinks
about the same variables, one year ahead.
A consumer confidence Index above 100 gives optimistic perception of the consumers while
reading below 100 denotes pessimistic perception.

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Sovereign Wealth Fund (SWF)
A Sovereign Wealth Fund is an investment fund set up by some of the countries in order to
invest in global market in the form of shares, bonds, real estate projects etc.
This fund is mainly funded through the foreign exchange reserves held by the countries.
Further, the money is invested globally so as to make optimum profits through the SWF.

Randomised controlled trial

20
It is an experiment that is designed to isolate the influence that a certain intervention or variable has
on an outcome or event.

Why is randomised controlled trial so popular?

20
At any point in time, there are multiple factors that work in tandem to influence various social
events.
RCTs allow economists and other social science researchers to isolate the individual impact
sc
that a certain factor alone has on the overall event.
For instance, to measure the impact that hiring more teachers can have on children’s learning,
researchers must control for the effect that other factors such as intelligence, nutrition,
climate, economic and social status etc., which may also influence learning outcomes to
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various degrees, have on the final event.


Randomised controlled trials promise to overcome this problem through the use of randomly
picked samples.
et

Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation


(DICGC)
rg

Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (DICGC) is a wholly owned subsidiary of
Reserve Bank of India.
It was established on 15 July 1978 under the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee
ta

Corporation Act, 1961 for the purpose of providing insurance of deposits and guaranteeing of
credit facilities.
The DICGC insures all deposits such as savings, fixed, current, recurring, etc.

Additional tier-1 bonds


They are a type of unsecured, perpetual bonds i.e investors cannot return these bonds to the
issuing bank and get the money.
They are not used by the RBI as a tool for monetary policy.

NRE Savings Account


NRE Accounts are maintained in INR. This means that when you deposit the money in the NRE
Account, the foreign currency is converted to Indian rupees at the prevailing foreign exchange

Page 154
rates.
It is mainly used to house your savings from income that you have earned abroad.
The principal amount, as well as the interest, are fully repatriable, i.e., transferable.
The interest income earned on the amount in an NRE account is non-taxable in India.
You can have other NRIs or Resident Indians as joint account holders on NRO Accounts.

NRO Savings Account/Fixed Deposit Account


NRO Accounts are maintained in INR. This means that when you deposit the money in the

20
NRO Account, the foreign currency is converted to Indian rupees at the prevailing foreign
exchange rates.
It is used to house funds from your income that you have earned from India or abroad.
Income like rent, dividend, pension, etc. can be sent abroad through the NRO Account.

20
Interest income earned on the amount in an NRO Account is liable for TDS or Tax Deductible
at Source.
You can have other NRIs or resident Indians as joint account holders on NRO Accounts.
sc
FCNR Account
Foreign Currency Non -Resident Accounts have to be opened and maintained in foreign
up

currency.
Your principal amount and the interest in an FCNR Account are fully repatriable, i.e.,
transferable Interest income earned on your money in an FCNR account is non-taxable in
India.
et

Types of goods
Intermediate good: An item used by other producers as material input for production. Ex:
rg

Rubber used for


Final goods: An item that is meant for final use and will not pass through any more stages of
production or transformations. Ex: Car.
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Consumer goods: Goods that are consumed when purchased by their ultimate consumers.
Ex: Clothes Capital goods: Goods which are of durable character used in the production
process like tools, machines
Luxury good: As income increases, demand for certain goods increases.Ex: Gold
Complementary Goods. Goods which are used Ex: TV and DVD player, Pen and refill etc
Substitute goods: Goods which are alternatives. Ex: Tea and coffee
Veblen / Snob good:A good where an increase in price encourages people to buy more of it.
This is because they think more expensive goods are better. Ex: Diamonds, limited edition
cars etc
Giffen good: Demand goes up when prices increases. Symbol of status.
Public good: Non rival consumption(one’s consumption does not diminish them for
others)non-
Ex: park, defence etc
Private good: is both rival (ex: club membership) and excludable (if I own a house, others
cannot use it)

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Merit goods: have positive externalities Ex: health, education
Demerit goods: have negative externalities. Ex: Alcohol, cigarettes etc

PM-CARES Fund:
Prime Minister has announced the constitution of the PM's Citizen Assistance and Relief in
Emergency Situations(PM-CARES) fund.
It is a dedicated national fund with the primary objective of dealing with any kind of
emergency or distress situation like posed by the COVID-19 pandemic.

20
Chairman: Prime Minister
Members: Defence Minister, Home Minister and Finance Minister.
Exemption: The donations to this fund will be exempted from income tax under section 80(G).
The contributions by the corporates will qualify as part of Corporate Social

20
Responsibility(CSR) spending.

Most-Favoured-Nation (MFN)
sc
Under the World Trade Organisation (WTO) agreements, countries cannot normally
discriminate between their trading partners. If any country grants one country a special favour
such as a lowercustoms duty rate for one of their products the same would need to be
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extended to all other WTO members.


This principle is known as most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment
MFN is so important a principle that it is the first article of the General Agreement on Tariffs
and Trade (GATT), which governs trade in goods.
et

Women’s Livelihood Bonds (WLBs):


The World Bank, UN Women, and Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) have
rg

collaborated to launch a new social impact bonds exclusively for women, called Women’s
Livelihood Bonds (WLBs), with an initial corpus of Rs 300 crore.
The proposed bond will enable individual women entrepreneurs in sectors like food
ta

processing, agriculture, services and small units to borrow around Rs 50,000 to Rs 3 lakh at an
annual interest rate of around 13-14 per cent or less.
The bonds, which will have a tenure of five years.

Enterprise Development Centres (EDCs)


Union Ministry of micro, small and medium enterprises is planning to launch EDCs in every
district
Aims at developing a cadre of indigenous entrepreneurs in the MSMEs, the EDCs will be
similar to incubators for start-ups
will be run by special purpose vehicles in partnership with the private sector, business
management organisations, local industry associations
EDCs will offer credit facilitation and syndication, export promotion and supplier inclusion as
well.

Page 156
Monetary Policy Committee (MPC)
It is a 6 member committee formed after the amendment in the
RBI Act, 1934 through the Finance Act, 2016.
It will have three members from RBI. They are the governor, deputy governor and another
officer.
3 members will be decided by the centre based on the recommendations of a panel headed by
the Cabinet Secretary

20
Market Stabilization scheme (MSS)
It is a monetary policy intervention by the RBI to withdraw excess
liquidity (or money supply) by selling government securities in the economy. MSS is used

20
when
there is high liquidity in the system.

Dividend Distribution Tax


sc
Finance minister said that Dividend Distribution Tax has been shifted to individuals instead of
companies
up

It is a tax levied on dividends that a company pays to its shareholders out of its profits
It is taxable at source, and is deducted at the time of the company distributing dividends→Law
provides for the DDT to be levied at the hands of the company, and not at the hands of the
receiving shareholder
et

However, an additional tax is imposed on the shareholder, who receives over Rs. 10 lakh in
dividend income in a financial year.

MSME Pulse report:


rg

Has been released by joint endeavor of SIDBI and TransUnion CIBIL.


It is a Quarterly Report on MSME Sector, for providing the policy makers, regulators and
ta

industry with precise data-driven insights to support policy as well as business decisions.
The First Edition was released in the month of March, 2018.

The Off-Budget
Financing refers to the expenditure undertaken by the Public sector undertakings
(PSUs) through the market borrowings based upon guarantee of repayment of loans given by
Government.
For example, let’s say the government needs to invest in the Railways.
It may ask the Indian Railway Finance Corporation (IRFC) to borrow money from the market
and finance railway projects.
Off-budget Financing is undertaken for capital expenditure as well as for revenue
expenditure.

Page 157
BOT:
It is conventional PPP model in which private partner is responsible to design, build, operate
(during the contracted period) and transfer back the facility to the public sector.
Private sector partner has to bring the finance for the project and take the responsibility to
construct and maintain it.
The public sector will allow private sector partner to collect revenue from the users.
The national highway projects contracted out by NHAI under PPP mode is a major example for
the BOT model.

20
BOO:
In this model ownership of the newly built facility will rest with the private party.

20
On mutually agreed terms and conditions, public sector partner agrees to ‘purchase’ the goods
and services produced by the project.

BOOT:
sc
In this variant of BOT, after the negotiated period of time, the project is transferred to the
government or to the private operator.
up

BOOT model is used for the development of highways and ports.

BOLT:
et

In this approach, the government gives a concession to a private entity to build a facility (and
possibly design it as well), own the facility, lease the facility to the public sector and then at
the end of the lease period transfer the ownership of the facility to the government.
rg

DBFO:
In this model, the entire responsibility for the design, construction, finance, and operation of
ta

the project for the period of concession lies with the private party.

LDO:
In this type of investment model either the government or the public sector entity retains
ownership of the newly created infrastructure facility and receives payments in terms of a
lease agreement with the private promoter.
It is mostly followed in the development of airport facilities.

Hybrid Annuity Model (HAM)


The central government bears 40% of the project cost and the remaining amount is arranged
by the developer.

Page 158
The Bombay Plan:
Was the popular title of ‘A Plan of Economic Development for India’, which was prepared
by a cross-section of India’s (not Bombay) leading capitalists.
Plan wanted the state to play an active role in the economy through planning, controlling and
overseeing the different areas of the economy, i.e., trade, industry and banking, through state
ownership (public sector) (not private domination on Indian economy) or through direct and
extensive control over them.
Agreement on rapid industrialization for which the plan agreed upon an emphasis on heavy

20
capital goods and basic industries (the Bombay Plan had allocated 35 per cent of its total plan
outlay on basic industries).
Bombay plan agreed upon the importance of promoting the medium scale, small-scale and
cottage industries.

20
The eight capitalists involved in this plan were Purshotamdas Thakurdas, J.R.D. Tata,
G.D. Birla, Lala Shriram, Kasturbhai Lalbhai, A.D. Shroff, Avdeshir Dalal and John
Mathai.
sc
Base erosion and profit shifting
It is refers to the phenomenon where companies shift their profits to other tax jurisdictions,
up

which usually have lower rates, thereby eroding the tax base in India. The companies need not
invest via shell companies to be accused ofBEPS.
India ratified the international agreement to curb base erosion and profits shifting (BEPS)–
Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures.
et

The Convention is an outcome of the OECD / G20 BEPS Project to tackle base erosion and
profit shifting through tax planning strategies that exploit gaps and mismatches in tax rules to
artificially shift profits to low or no-tax locations where there is little or no economic activity,
resulting in little or no overall corporate tax being paid
rg

A Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)


ta

It is a partnership in which some or all partners have limited liability. It therefore exhibits
elements of partnerships and corporations.
In an LLP, one partner is not responsible or liable for another partner’s misconduct or
negligence.
Salient features of an LLP:
An LLP is a body corporate and legal entity separate from its partners. It has perpetual
succession.
Being the separate legislation (i.e. LLP Act, 2008), the provisions of Indian Partnership Act,
1932 are not applicable to an LLP and it is regulated by the contractual agreement between
the partners.
Every Limited Liability Partnership shall use the words “Limited Liability Partnership” or its
acronym “LLP” as the last words of its name

Page 159
The Modified Special Incentive Package Scheme (M-SIP)
scheme
Gives a special incentive package to promote large scale manufacturing in the Electronic
System Design and Manufacturing (ESDM) sector.
And also to create employment opportunities and reduce dependence on imports.
It tries to achieve the goal of ‘Net Zero imports’ in electronics by 2020.
Incentives to be provided under the scheme:

20
The incentive under the scheme is in the form of a subsidy for capital expenditure. The subsidy
is 20% for investments in Special Economic Zones (SEZs) and 25% in non-SEZs.
It also provides for reimbursements of CVD/ excise for capital equipment for the non-SEZ
units.

20
The incentives are limited to five years from the date of approval. After receiving the
incentives, the unit should undertake the production for a period of at least 3 years.

Few terms which are circulating in light of the COVID-19


sc
crisis regarding how to stimulate the economy.
Quantitative Easing: In light of the Global Financial Crisis of 2008, Federal Bank of US
up

purchased govt bonds from the market (pension funds, insurance funds) and created/printed
new currency notes in huge amount to increase liquidity/money in the economy. The purpose
of this type of expansionary monetary policy was to lower interest rates, increase money
supply and spur economic growth. And this was an unconventional policy...............which is
et

generally not used.


Helicopter money is the term used for a large sum of new money that is printed and
distributed among the public, to stimulate the economy during a recession or when interest
rates fall to zero. It is also referred to as a helicopter drop, in reference to a helicopter
rg

scattering supplies from the sky.


Interest rate falls to zero means that even if Central Bank has reduced the repo
rate/interest rates to almost zero, still businessmen are not willing to borrow and invest and
ta

money supply is not increasing in economy i.e. lending is not increasing (It is also a situation
of liquidity trap). In that case, Helicopter money (or Quantitative Easing) can be used to
increase money supply. This is an unconventional policy.

ADVANCE PRICING AGREEMENT :


The APA scheme endeavours to provide certainty to taxpayers in the domain of transfer
pricing by specifying the methods of pricing and setting the prices of international
transactions in advance
The APA provisions were introduced in the Income-tax Act in 2012 and the “Rollback”
provisions were introduced in 2014.
The APA scheme endeavours to provide certainty to taxpayers in the domain of transfer
pricing by specifying the methods of pricing and setting the prices of international
transactions in advance.
Since its inception, the APA scheme has been well-accepted by taxpayers and that has resulted

Page 160
in more than 800 applications (both Unilateral and Bilateral) being filed so far in five years.

Indian Depository Receipt (IDR):


Is a financial instrument denominated in Indian Rupees in the form of a depository receipt.
The IDR is a specific Indian version of the similar global depository receipts.
It is created by a Domestic Depository (custodian of securities registered with the Securities
and Exchange Board of India) against the underlying equity of issuing company to enable
foreign companies to raise funds from the Indian securities Markets.

20
The foreign company IDRs will deposit shares to an Indian depository. The depository would
issue receipts to Indian investors against these shares.
The benefit of the underlying shares (like bonus, dividends etc.) would accrue to the
depository receipt holders in India.

20
INDIAN POLITY sc
MP Local Area Development (MPLAD) Scheme
The Members of Parliament Local Area Development Division is entrusted with the
up

responsibility of implementation of MPLADS.


MPLADS allot Rs. 5 crore per year to each MPs to be spent on projects of their choice in their
constituency.
Under the scheme, each MP can suggest to the District Collector for work to be done under
et

the scheme.
Sanction of the eligible works & implementation of the sanctioned works are undertaken by
the District Authorities in accordance with State Govt’s financial, technical and administrative
rules.
rg

The scheme is funded and administered through the MoSPI.


Projects are to be recommended to and implemented by the district-level administration.
ta

Borrowed Features

Page 161
20
20
sc
up
et
rg

The departments/organisations/bodies headed by the Prime


Minister of India include the following -
ta

1. NITI Aayog
2. National Integration Council
3. National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)
4. National Development Council (NDC)
5. National Commission for Population Control
6. Department of Space (DoS)
7. Department of Atomic Energy
8. Nuclear Command Authority
9. Indian Board of Wild Life
10. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
11. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)

Transparency International

Page 162
It is an international non-governmental organization based in Berlin, Germany, since 1993.
IT works with partners in government, business and civil society to put effective measures in
place to tackle corruption.
Publishes Global Corruption Barometer, and Global Corruption Report, CORRUPTION
PERCEPTION INDEX

Right to Adverse possession:


The right to Adverse possession is a legal doctrine that allows a person who possesses or

20
resides on someone else’s land for an extended period of time to claim legal title to that land.
In India, the person who is not the original owner of the land becomes the owner because of
the fact that he has been in possession of the property for a minimum of 12-years within which
the real owner did not seek legal recourse to oust him

20
CONTROLLER GENERAL OF ACCOUNTS (CGA)
UNDER Department of Expenditure, Ministry of Finance.
sc
It is the Principal Accounting Adviser to Government of India and is responsible for
establishing and maintaining a technically sound Management Accounting System.
up

Functions:

The Office of CGA prepares monthly and annual analysis of expenditure, revenues, borrowings
and various fiscal indicators for the Union Government.
Under Article 150 of the Constitution, the Annual Appropriation Accounts (Civil) and Union
et

Finance Accounts are submitted to Parliament on the advice of Comptroller and Auditor
General of India
rg

Know India Programme (KIP)


Know India Programme (KIP) is a flagship initiative for Diaspora engagement which
familiarizes Indian-origin youth (18-30 years) with their Indian roots and contemporary India.
ta

In 2016, the scheme was revamped to increase duration from21 to 25 days, with a 10- day visit
to one or two States and preference given to PIOs from Girmitiya countries.
“Girmitiyas” or Indentured Laborers, is the name given the Indians who left Indian in the
middle and late 19th Century to serve as laborers in the British colonies, where the majority
eventually settled. Mauritius, Fiji, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago are known as
Girmitiya Countries.
It is organised by the Ministry of External Affairs.

Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana (RVY)


RashtriyaVayoshriYojana is the scheme of the Ministry of Social Justice and
Empowerment.
It was launched in 2017.
It is a central sector scheme funded from the Senior Citizens’ Welfare Fund.

Page 163
It aims to provide aids and assistive living devices to senior citizens belonging to Below
Poverty Line (BPL) category .
The scheme is being implemented by Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Corporation of India
(ALIMCO), CPSU under Min of Social Justice and Empowerment.

The Competition Commission of India (CCI)


The Competition Commission of India (CCI) was established under the Competition Act, 2002
for the administration, implementation and enforcement of the Act, and was duly constituted

20
in March 2009.
The following are the objectives of the Commission. It consists of a Chairperson and 6
Members appointed by the Central Government.
The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act, 1969 [MRTP Act] repealed and is

20
replaced by the Competition Act, 2002.

Integrated Management of Public Distribution System” (IM-


PDS) Scheme
sc
Under Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution.
up

AIM

1. Implementation of nation-wide portability in food grains distribution.


2. Creation of national level data repository for de-duplication of beneficiary data (Aadhaar
et

based).
3. Use of advanced data analytics techniques to bring about continuous improvements.

Central Adverse List


rg

1. Maintained by Ministry of Home Affairs, that contains


2. Names of individuals who supported the Khalistan movement in 1980s and 90s but left India to
ta

take asylum in foreign countries.


3. Names of those individuals who are suspected to have links with terrorist outfits or have
violated visa norms in their previous visit to India.
4. Names of those persons who have indulged in criminal activities or have been accused of
sexual crimes against children in their respective countries.

OBJECTIVE

To keep serious offenders outside India as somebody may commit a crime in his nativenation
and then apply for an Indian visa to escape prosecution.
List is maintained with inputs from all the state governments, central and state intelligence
agencies.

Page 164
Tribunals
A tribunal is a quasi-judicial body established in India by an Act of Parliament or State
Legislature under Article 323A or 323B to resolve disputes that are brought before it.
Articles 323-A and 323-B were inserted through the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 on
recommendation of Swaran Singh Committee.
Article 323A deals with administrative tribunals.
Article 323B deals with tribunals for other matters.
They do not have to follow any uniform procedure as laid down under the Civil Procedure Code

20
and the Indian Evidence Act but they have to follow the principles of Natural Justice.

iGOT

20
The Department of Personnel and Training launches online training platform- iGOT in the
fight against COVID-19. The platform is called iGOT — Integrated Government Online Training.

Key features of the platform:


sc
It is set to be hosted on the Human Resources Development Ministry’s DIKSHA platform.
The iGOT platform delivers curated, role-specific content, to each learner at their place of
up

work or home and to any device of their choice.

Article 136(Special leave petition):


Under Article 136 of the Constitution, the Supreme Court is authorised to grant in its
et

discretion special leave to appeal from (a) any judgment, decree determination, sentence or
order (b) in anycase or matter or (c) passed or made by any court or tribunal in the territory of
India.
rg

The only exception to this power of the Supreme Court is with regard to any judgment of any
court or tribunal constituted by or under any law relating to the armed forces.

Section 144
ta

Section 144 of the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) of 1973 authorizes the Executive
Magistrate of any state or territory to issue an order to prohibit the assembly of four or more
people in an area.
It is imposed in urgent cases of nuisance or apprehended danger of some event that has the
potential to cause trouble or damage to human life or property.

Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat


Aim: To promote engagement amongst the people of different states/UTs so as to enhance
mutual understanding and bonding between people of diverse cultures, thereby securing
stronger unity and integrity of India.
The Ministry of Human Resource Development has been designated Nodal Ministry for
coordination of the programme

Page 165
PPRTMS-an online system
Election Commission of India launched an online system that will allow political parties to
track their applications.
The system is called Political Parties Registration Tracking Management System (PPRTMS).
The system will track applications registered by political parties.
The status of the application shall be obtained through SMS or e-mail.
The system works on a real time basis

20
Central Adoption Resource Authority
Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) is a statutory body that functions as the nodal
body for adoption of Indian children and is mandated to monitor and regulate in-

20
country and inter-country adoptions.
CARA is designated as the central authority to deal with intercountry adoptions in accordance
with the provisions of the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption, 1993, ratified by
Government of India in 2003.
sc
The KhoyaPaya portal is a citizen based website to exchange information on missing
and found children. It has been developed by the Ministry of Women and Child Development
and the Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY)
up

Article 142
Article 142(1) states that “The Supreme Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction may pass such
et

decree or make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter
pending before it.

-This article has 2 provisions –


rg

1. Article 142(1): The Supreme Court may pass an order for doing complete justice.
2. Article 142(2): It confers three different powers on the Supreme Court.
ta

National Social Assistance Programme


The Government of India introduced National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) in 1995 as a
centrally sponsored scheme under which 100 per cent central assistance is extended to the
states/UTs

Presently NSAP comprises the following schemes for Below Poverty Line (BPL) Households:

Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS): Under the scheme,
assistance is provided to person of 60 years and above and belonging to family living below
poverty.
Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme (IGNWPS): Under the scheme central
assistance of ₹ 300/- per month is provided to widows in the age-group of 40-79 years and
belonging to family living below poverty.

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Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme (IGNDPS): Under the scheme central
assistance of ₹ 300/- per month is provided to persons aged 18-79 years with severe or
multiple disabilities and belonging to family living below poverty.
National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS): Under the scheme a BPL household is entitled to
lump sum amount of money on the death of primary breadwinner aged between 18 and 59
years. The amount of assistance is ₹ 20,000/-.
Annapurna: Under the scheme, 10 kg of foodgrains per month are provided free of cost to
those senior citizens who, though eligible under IGNOAPS, are not receiving pension under
IGNOAPS

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Limitation Law 1859
British passed this law in india

20
to check accumulation of interest over time
to improve condition of distressed ryots
act stated that the loan bonds signed between ryots and moneylenders would have validity
sc
only for 3years so that accumulation of interest can be checked.

President's Power with respect to different Bills


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ORDINARY BILL =

Assent
Withhold
et

Return

MONEY BILL = (+require prior permission for introduction)


rg

Assent
Withhold
Return
ta

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT BILL = ( Not require prior permission for introduction)

Assent
Withhold
Return

24th Constitutional amendment made president bind to give assent to constitutional amendment bill

Who is An Anglo-Indian?
According to Article 366(2), An Anglo-Indian means a person whose father or any of whose
other male progenitors in the male line is or was of European descent but who is domiciled
within the territory of India and is or was born within such territory of parents habitually
resident therein and not established there for temporary purposes only

Page 167
University Grants Commission
The University Grants Commission (UGC) came into existence in 1953 and became a statutory
organization of the Government of India by an Act of Parliament in 1956, for the coordination,
determination and maintenance of standards of teaching, examination and research in
university education.
The head office of the UGC is located in New Delhi.
On recommendation of S. Radhakrishnan committee

20
Mandamus
A Latin word which means We Command. It is a command issued by the court to a public
official asking him to perform his official duties that he has failed refused to perform.

20
It can also be issued against any public body, a corporation, an inferior court, tribunal or
government for the same purpose.

Limitations of Mandamus:
sc
Under Article 361, mandamus cannot be granted against the President or Governor of a State
for the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of his office or for any act done or
purporting to be done by him in the exercise and performance of those powers and duties.
up

It also cannot be issued against a private individual or body except where the State is in
collusion with the private party for contravening a provision of the Constitution or a statute

National Health Stack is a digital infrastructure prepared by


et

NITI Aayog.
rg

Its components are:-

Electronic National Health Registry as a single source of health data;


Coverage and claims platform;
ta

Personal health records;


National Health analytics platform; Unique digital health ID, health data dictionaries.

E-SAMVAD
e-SAMVAD is a platform for the NGOS and Civil Societies to interact with the MWCD. On this
portal, the NGOs can provide suggestions, feedbacks and also put up grievances among other
things.
It is believed to help in formulating effective policies for the welfare of women and children in
the nation.
Ministry of Women and child development

Page 168
The Attorney General (AG)
The Constitution under Article 76 has provided for the office of the Attorney General for India.
He is the highest law officer in the country
The Attorney General (AG) is appointed by the president.
The term of office of the AG is not fixed by the Constitution.
The Constitution does not contain the procedure and grounds for his removal. He holds office
during the pleasure of the preside
The Attorney General has the right to speak and to take part in the proceedings of both the

20
Houses of Parliament or their joint sitting and any committee of the Parliament of which he
may be named a member but without a right to vote.
He enjoys all the privileges and immunities that are available to a member of Parliament.
Attorney General is not a full-time counsel for the Government. He does not fall in the category

20
of government servants. He is not debarred from private legal practice

Centralized Public Grievance Redressal and Monitoring


System (CPGRAMS)
sc
It is an online web-enabled system developed by National Informatics Centre , in association
with Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions.
up

It aims to receive, redress and monitor the grievances of the public.


It provides the facility to lodge a grievance online from any location.
It enables the citizen to track online the grievance being followed up with Departments
concerned and also enables DARPG to monitor the grievance.
et

Mandamus
rg

A Latin word which means We Command. It is a command issued by the court to a public
Official asking him to perform his official duties that he has failed refused to perform.
It can also be issued against any public body, a corporation, an inferior court, tribunal or
government for the same purpose.
ta

Limitations of Mandamus:

Under Article 361, mandamus cannot be granted against the President or Governor of a State
for the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of his office or for any act done or
purporting to be done by him in the exercise and performance of those powers and duties.
It also cannot be issued against a private individual or body except where the State is in
collusion with the private party for contravening a provision of the Constitution or a statute

Gram Nyayalayas
Gram Nyayalayas: A court of Judicial Magistrate it was established under Gram Nyayalayas
Act, 2008 for
every Panchayat or a group of contiguous Panchayats at intermediate level
They are mobile courts which seek to make justice speedy, inexpensive and accessible.
Page 169
Presiding officer: known as Nyayadhikaris, are judicial officer with powers similar to first class
magistrate working under high courts. He will be appointed by the state government in
consultation with High Court.
Power: They will exercise the powers of both Criminal and Civil Courts subjected to limitations
underschedules of the Act.
They shall not be bound by the rules of evidence provided in the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 but
shall be guided by the principles of natural justice and subject to any rule made by the High
Court
Appeal against the Judgement: For criminal cases shall lie to the Court of Sessions and for civil

20
cases shall lie to the District Court.

Delimitation commission

20
It is appointed by the President of India and works in collaboration with the Election
Commission of India.
The commission is made up of a retired Supreme Court judge, the Chief Election
Commissioner and the respective State Election Commissioners.
sc
The commission is mandated to a) determine the number and boundaries of constituencies to
make thepopulation of all constituencies nearly equal and b) identify seats reserved for
Scheduled Castes andScheduled Tribes, wherever their population is relatively large.
The constitution mandates that the orders of commission are final and cannot be questioned
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before anycourt as it would hold up an election indefinitely.

The difference between Private & Government Bills in


et

Parliament

Private members bill


rg

A private member’s Bill is different from a government Bill and is piloted by an MP who is not
a minister.
Individual MPs may introduce private member’s Bill to draw the government’s attention to
ta

what they might see as issues requiring legislative intervention.


An MP who is not a minister is a private member and while both private members and
ministers take part in the lawmaking process, Bills introduced by private members are
referred to as private member’s Bills and those introduced by ministers are called government
Bills

Government bill

Government Bills are backed by the government and also reflect its legislative agenda
The admissibility of a private Bill is decided by the Chairman in the case of the Rajya Sabha
and the Speaker in the case of the Lok Sabha.
Before the Bill can be listed for introduction, the Member must give at least a month’s notice,
for the House Secretariat to examine it for compliance with constitutional provisions and rules
on legislation.
While a government Bill can be introduced and discussed on any day, a private member’s bill

Page 170
can only be introduced and discussed on Fridays.

REGISTER OF INDIGENOUS INHABITANTS OF NAGALAND


(RIIN)
The RIIN will be the frst ofcial master list of Nagaland’s indigenous inhabitants. It is seen as
a localised version of the National Register of Citizens (NRC) that Assam began updating four
years ago and is scheduled to complete by July 31.

20
Its objective is to prevent people from acquiring fake indigenous inhabitants’ certifcates.
The RIIN cannot grant nor deny citizenship to any person.
Nodal Agency: Registrar General and Census Commissioner India.

Inner Line Permit (ILP)

20
The Inner Line Permit concept comes from the colonial area. Under the Bengal Eastern
Frontier Regulation Act, 1873, the British framed regulations restricting the entry and
sc
regulating the stay of outsiders in designated
Inner Line Permit (ILP) is an official travel document issued by the Government of India
to allow inward travel of an Indian citizen into a protected area for a limited period.
It is obligatory for Indian citizens from outside those states to obtain a permit for entering
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into the protected state.


The document is an effort by the government to regulate movement to certain areas located
near the international border of India.
et

Cabinet Secretariat
Article 352 defines the term “cabinet” as the Council consisting of the Prime Minister and
rg

other Ministers of Cabinet rank under Article 75.


Cabinet Secretariat is the office which provides secretarial assistance to the Cabinet.
It functions directly under the Prime Minister.
The administrative head of the Secretariat is the Cabinet Secretary who is also the ex-offico
ta

Chairman of the Civil Services Board.

Civil Services Boards


The functions of the Civil Services Boards would be to make recommendations for all
appointments of the cadre officers and examine the cases of officers, who are proposed to be
transferred before completion of minimum period of service as specified under IAS, IPS and
IFS (Cadre) Rules.
These Boards may consider for transfer before the tenure fixed under these Rules and
recommend the competent authority the names of officers for transfer before completion of
minimum tenure with reasons to be recorded in writing.
Board shall ask for full details from concerned department heads the justification for
premature reshuffle.
Civil Services Boards as proposed by the Apex Court on the recommendations of Hota
Commission constituted 2004.
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It will not recommend of its own any transfer but will frame opinion on the basis of the report
from concerned departments about the justification of a particular transfer.
Generally, the Chief Secretary will be the Chairman of the Board and senior IAS/IPS/IFS
secretaries will be its members while the Secretary GAD would be the Member-General
Secretary. Boards will be according to different cadres to which officers belong.

About Digital census 2021


As all previous censuses in India have been paper-based. A mobile app will be used in Census

20
It will be a transformation from paper census to digital census.
The 2021 census is the 16th Indian census.
The government was set to spend `12,000 crore on the 2021 Census as well as for the
preparation of the National Population Register (NPR).

20
This mammoth nationwide exercise will be carried out in 16 languages.
The census will have its reference date as March 1, 2021, but for snow-bound Jammu and
Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand it will be October 1, 2020.
sc
Anticipatory Bail
Under Section 438 of the Cr.P.C., means that a person who apprehends arrest on a wrong
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accusation of ommitting a non-bailable offence, can apply before a competent court for a
direction to police to immediately release such a person on bail in the event of arrest.
However, the grant of anticipatory bail is discretionary and dependant on the nature and
gravity of accusations, the antecedents of the applicant and the possibility of the applicant
fleeing from justice.
et

What is contempt of Court?


rg

As per the Contempt of Courts Act 1971, contempt refers to the offence of showing disrespect
to the dignity or authority of a The Act divides contempt into civil and criminal contempt.
Civil contempt refers to the wilful disobedience of an order of any court.
ta

Criminal contempt includes any act or publication which: (i) ‘scandalises’ the court, or (ii)
prejudices any judicial proceeding, or (iii) interferes with the administration of justice in any
other manner.
‘Scandalising the Court’ broadly refers to statements or publications which have the effect of
undermining public confdence in the

Foreigners Tribunal (FT)


FT was set up in Assam in 1964 through the Foreigners Tribunal Order 1964. The tribunals are
mandated with identifying the legal status of suspected foreigners in Assam.
At present, there are 100 FTs in Assam; of these 64 were set up in 2015, to expedite the
exercise of determining illegal immigrants in the state through the NRC.

Page 172
Electronically Transmitted Postal Ballot System (ETPBS)
ETPBS is a flagship programme of Election Commission of India (ECI) developed with the
help of Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC).
By this, the service voters were sent postal ballots electronically in a one way to save
processing time, resources and avoid human errors.

Who are service voters?

20
In cases of close contests, service voters play crucial and decisive role. Service voter are those
who have service qualifcation.
They include member of Armed Forces of the Union of India, members of Armed Police forces
of the States serving outside that state and persons employed under Government of India on

20
posts outside India.
As per existing arrangements, members of India Army, Navy and Air force, Boarder Road
Organisation, BSF, ITBP, Assam Rifles, NSG, CRPF, CISF and SSB are eligible to be registered
as service voters.
sc
A Service Voter can cast his/her vote by proxy also. They may appoint (By applying to
returning officer in Form 13 F available at the website of ECI) any person as his/her proxy to
cast vote on his/her behalf in his/her at the polling station.
up

Proxy should be a registered voter of that constituency

Electoral Bonds:
et

It is like a promissory note that can be bought by any Indian citizen or company incorporated
in India from select branches of State Bank of India. The citizen can then donate the same to
any eligible political party of his/her choice.
rg

Differences between the UID and NPR


Voluntary vs. Mandatory: It is compulsory for all Indian residents to register with the NPR,
ta

while registration with the UIDAI is considered voluntary.


Statute vs. Bill: The enrolment of individuals for the NPR is legally backed by the Citizenship
Act, except in relation to the collection of biometrics, while the UID as proposed a bill which
has not been passed for the legal backing of the scheme.
Authentcaton vs. Identfcaton: The UID number will serve as an authenticator during
transactions. The National Resident Card will signify resident status and citizenship.
Door to door canvassing vs. centre enrolment: Individuals will have to go to an
enrolmentcentre and register for the UID, while the NPR will carry out part of the enrolment
of individuals through door to door canvassing. Note: Individuals will still have to go to centers
for enrolling their biometrics for the NPR scheme.

What is permanent resident certificate?


Permanent resident certifcate is a legal document issued to Indian citizens that serves as
evidence of residence and is required to be submitted as residential proof for ofcial
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It enables the citizens to avail various policies and claims made in their particular state.

What is Ofcial Secrets Act?


An ‘Ofcial Secrets Act’ is a generic term that is used to refer to a law designed to keep certain
kinds of information confdential, including, but not always limited to, information involving the
affairs of state, diplomacy, national security, espionage and other state secrets.
Across multiple countries, the Ofcial Secrets Acts follow a similar pattern: classifying certain
categories of information as “ofcial secrets,” and then providing stiff penalties for any sharing,

20
dissemination or publication of such information.

The Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Bill, 2019,


provides

20
That a person who has been a Judge of the Supreme Court is also made eligible to be
appointed as Chairperson of the Commission in addition to the person who has been the Chief
sc
Justice of India;
To increase the Members of the Commission from two to three of which, one shall be a woman;
To include Chairperson of the National Commission for Backward Classes, Chairperson
of the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights and the Chief Commissioner
up

for Persons with Disabilities as deemed Members of the Commission;


To reduce the term of the Chairperson and Members of the Commission and the State
Commissions from five to three years and shall be eligible for re-appointment;
To provide that a person who has been a Judge of a High Court is also made eligible to be
et

appointed as Chairperson of the State Commission in addition to the person who has been the
Chief Justice of the High Court; and,
To confer upon State Commissions, the functions relating to human rights being discharged by
rg

the Union territories, other than the Union territory of Delhi, which will be dealt with by the
Commission.

What is International Financial Services Centre?


ta

An international financial services centre caters to customers outside the jurisdiction of


domestic economy,
dealing with flows of finance, financial products and services across borders.
Gujarat International Finance Tec City Co. Ltd is being developed as the country’s first
international financial
services centre (IFSC)

International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFFSCA)


To regulate financial products (such as securities, deposits or contracts of insurance), financial
services, and financial institutions which have been previously approved by any appropriate
regulator (such as RBI or SEBI), in an IFSC.
It will follow all processes which are applicable to such financial products, financial services,
and financial institutions under their respective law.
Page 174
The appropriate regulators are listed in a Schedule to the Bill and include the RBI, SEBI,
IRDAI,
and PFRDA. The central government may amend this schedule through a notification.

India Justice Report (IJR)


Tata Trusts has released India Justice Report 2019.

Concept of Review Petition and Curative Petition

20
Review Petition

The Supreme Court has agreed to review its Sabarimala verdict. Constitutional Provision:

20
Under Article 137 of the Constitution, the Supreme Court has the power to review any of its
judgments or orders.
The Court has the power to review its rulings to correct a ―patent error‖ and not ―minor
mistakes of
sc
inconsequential import‖. A review is by no means an appeal in disguise.
A Review Petition has to be filed within 30 days of the date of judgment or order.

Curative Petition
up

Curative petitions have been filed in the Supreme Court by two convicts in the Nirbhaya case.
The petitions come just days after a Delhi sessions court scheduled the execution of the four
convicts at Tihar Jail on January 22.
et

It is the last judicial resort available for redressal of grievances in court which is normally
decided by judges inchamber. It is only in rare cases that such petitions are given an open-
court hearing.
rg

Cabinet Committees
Recently the central government has reconstituted eight key cabinet committees including creation
ta

of two new committees, one on investment and growth and another on employment and skill
development

Cabinet Committee on Investment

This Committee will identify key projects required to be implemented on a time-bound basis.
This applies to projects involving investments of Rs 1,000 crore or more, or any other critical
projects, as maybe specified by it, with regard to infrastructure and manufacturing.
It will prescribe time limits for giving requisite approvals and clearances by the ministries
concerned in identified sectors. It will also monitor the progress of such projects.

Cabinet Committee on Employment and Skill Development

This is supposed to provide direction to allpolicies, programmes, schemes and initiatives for
skill development.
Page 175
The objective is increasing the employabilityof the workforce for effectively meeting the
emerging requirements of the economy.
It facilitates mapping thebenefits of demographic dividend.
The committee is required to enhance workforce participation, fosteremployment growth and
identification.
It will work towards removal of gaps between requirement and availabilityof skills in various
sectors.
The panel will set targets for expeditious implementation of all skill developmentinitiatives and
to periodically review the progress in this regard.

20
Right to be forgotten (RTF) in India
The At present, the right to be forgotten is not well-established in India.

20
The draft Personal Data Protection Bill, 2018 provides a limited right to be forgotten. Unlike
the GDPR, the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2018 only provides for prevention of continuing
disclosure of personal data and not the deletion of personal data.
sc
About Right to be Forgotten (RTF)

It refers to the ability of individuals to limit, de-link, delete, or correct the disclosure of
personal information on the internet that is misleading, embarrassing, irrelevant, or outdated.
up

Such disclosure, may or may not be a consequence of unlawful processing by the data
fiduciary.

Shillong Declaration on E-Governance


et

22nd National Conference on e-Governance 2019 successfully concluded at Shillong with the
adoption of Shillong Declaration‘ on e-Governance.
rg

The Department of Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances (DAPRG), Ministry of


Personnel and Ministry ofElectronics & Information Technology (MeitY), in collaboration with
the Government of Meghalaya organized the22nd National Conference on eGovernance at
ta

Urban Local Governance is dealt with by the following 3


ministries:
Ministiy of Urban Development
Ministry of Defence -f cantonment boards.
Ministry of Home Affairs - in case of UTs

Whip Conference
The conference provides a platform to Whips of various political parties ruling as well as
opposition at the Centre as well as the States to exchange their views and experiences and
discuss the challenges facing them in discharge of their Parliamentary duties and evolve
norms for efficient working of parliamentary machinery.
The basic purpose of the Conference is to discuss various aspects of parliamentary democracy
Page 176
which is the best form of Government among the available alternatives and to come out with
some concrete resolutions so that the people of the country can be served in a better wa
Organizing the All India Whips Conference is one of the functions assigned to the Ministry of
Parliamentary affairs, under Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961 made
under article 77(3) of the Constitution

Freedom in the World 2020 report


It is released by Freedom House, a U.S.-based watchdog, which has been tracking global

20
political and civil liberties for almost half a century.
The Freedom in the World 2020 report ranks India at the 83rd position, along with Timor-
Leste and Senegal.
This is near the bottom of the pile among the countries categorised as “Free”, with only

20
Tunisia receiving a lower score.
As per the report, India has become one of the world’s least free democracies, according to a
global survey.
India’s score fell by four points to 71, the worst decline among the world’s 25 largest
sc
democracies this year.

National E-Assessment Scheme


up

launched to make income tax assessment faster, smoother and hassle – free.
It uses digital technology for risk management.
Artificial Intelligence, Automated examination tools and machine learning are predominantly
used in framing the system.
et

The system focuses on eliminating the middle men between the tax payer and the officer.
The chief commissioner of the Income Tax department will head the National e – Assessment
Center (NeAC) in New Delhi.
rg

Digital Communications Commission


ta

The Telecom Commission was set up by 1989 to deal with various aspects of
Telecommunications. In 2018, has re-designated the 'Telecom Commission' as the 'Digital
Communications Commission'.

The Digital Communications Commission consists of a Chairman, four full time members, who
are ex-officio Secretaries to the Government of India in the Department of
Telecommunications and four part time members who are the Secretaries to the Government
of India in the concerned Departments.
The Secretary to the Government of India in the Department of Telecommunications is the ex-
officio Chairman of the Digital Communications Commission.
The Digital Communications Commission (DCC), is the highest decision-making authority at
the department of telecommunication.

The Digital Communications Commission is responsible for:

Formulating the policy of Department of Telecommunications for approval of the Government;

Page 177
Preparing the budget for the Department of Telecommunications for each financial year and
getting it approved by the Government;
Implementation of Government's policy in all matters concerning telecommunication.

Corruption Perception Index (CPI)


CPI 2019 - India - 80/180
The main reason attributed has been the “Unfair and Opaque political funding”.
The Corruption Perceptions Index ranks 180 countries and territories by their perceived levels

20
of public sector corruption, according to experts and business people.
Who releases the report?

Transparency International.

20
The CPI 2019 is calculated using13 different data sources from 12 different institutions that
capture perceptions of corruption within the past two years.
This year’s analysis shows corruption is more pervasive in countries where big money can flow
sc
freely into electoral campaigns and where governments listen only to the voices of wealthy or
well-connected individuals.
In democracies such as India and Australia, unfair and opaque political financing, undue
up

influence in decision-making and lobbying by powerful corporate interest groups have resulted
in stagnation or a decline in the control of corruption.

SDG India Index 2019


et

NITI Aayog released the second edition of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) India
Index.
The SDG India Index has been developed in collaboration with MoSPI, UN in India, and Global
rg

Green Growth Institute.


India’s composite score has improved from 57 in 2018 to 60 in 2019, thereby showing
noticeable progress.
ta

The SDG India Index 2019 is more robust than the first edition on account of wider coverage
of goals, targets, and indicators with greater alignment with the NIF.
The Index spans 16 out of 17 SDGs with a qualitative assessment on Goal 17. This marks an
improvement over the 2018 Index, which covered only 13 goals.
Additionally, this year, the SDG India Index report has a new section on profiles of all 37
States and UTs, which will be very useful to analyse their performance on all goals in a lucid
manner.
A composite score was computed in the range of 0–100 for each State/UT based on its
aggregate performance across 16 SDGs, indicating the average performance of every State/UT
towards achieving 16 SDGs and their respective targets.
If a State/UT achieves a score of 100, it signifies it has achieved the 2030 national targets.
The higher the score of a State/UT, the closer it is towards achieving the targets.

Classification criteria based on SDG India Index score is as follows:

Aspirant: 0–49
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Performer: 50–64
Front Runner: 65–99
Achiever: 100
Kerala achieved the first rank in the composite SDG Index with a score of 70, followed by
Himachal Pradesh at 69.
Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Tamil Nadu ranked at the third position with the score of 67.
The biggest improvers since 2018 are UP, Orissa, and Sikkim.

Swachh Survekshan League

20
It is an initiative of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
The process of ranking cities and town of India on the basis of cleanliness was first conducted
in 2016, which covered 73 cities.

20
The second and third round of the survey in 2017 and 2018 widened the coverage of the
assessment to 434 cities with a population of one lakh and above and 4,203 cities respectively.
Swachh Survekshan League is conducted in three quarters (April-June, July-September and
October-December) with the objective of sustaining the on-ground performance of cities along
sc
with monitoring when it comes to cleanliness.
Indore is the cleanest city in India according to Swachh Survekshan league 2020, while Bhopal
has been declared as the cleanest capital. Ujjain has bagged the award for being the clean
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National Florence Nightingale Awards


The President of India presents the National Florence Nightingale Awards to nursing personnel
(December 5) on the occasion of International Nurses Day.
et

HIGHLIGHTS
rg

The World Health Organisation has announced 2020 as the Year of the Nurse and Mid-wife.
The year 2020 also marks the 200th birth anniversary of Florence Nightingale, after whom the
awards have been named.
Nurse Lini Sajeesh from Kozhikode, who had passed away while caring for a NIPAH patient in
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Kerala, was honoured posthumously.


The 35 other awardees who were conferred the award from President of India, included
Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs), Lady Health Visitors (LHVs), and nurses, from different
States and UTs.

NATIONAL NIGHTINGALE AWARDS

The awards were instituted in 1973 by the Government of India as a mark of recognition for
meritorious services rendered by nurses to the society. It is named after Florence Nightingale
was also known as ‘The Lady With the Lamp’.
She was an English social reformer and the founder of modern nursing.
Nurses play a vital role in addressing multiple health challenges, delivering quality and cost
effective health care and responding to health needs of individuals, families and communities.

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Nari Shakti Puraskar
Every year, International Women‘s Day is celebrated on 8th March.
On this occasion, Nari Shakti Puraskars are given to individuals and institutions that have
rendered distinguished services to the cause of women empowerment.
20 Nari Shakti Puruskars shall be conferred every year
Instituted by WCD

National Commission of Minorities (NCM)

20
It is a statutory body set up under the National Commission for Minorities Act, 1992.

The commission is made up of :

20
a Chairperson,
a Vice Chairperson and
Five members.
sc
It works under the Ministry of Minority Affairs, and before the formation of this ministry
it came under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
It looks into complaints from members of five religious communities — Muslims,
Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and Zoroastrians (Parsis). Jain community was notified as a
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minority community in 2014.

DIKSHA (Digital Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing)


et

DIKSHA will accelerate and amplify solutions, experiments and innovations that are underway,
and is being attempted in the areas of teacher training and professional development. States
and TEIs have the autonomy and choice to repurpose and extend DIKSHA to suit their own
rg

needs and purposes.


DIKSHA is for the benefit of Teachers in Schools, Teacher Educators and Student Teachers in
Teacher Education Institutes (TEIs).
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eSamikSha
It is an online Monitoring and Compliance Mechanism.
It has been developed to fast track the compliance of pending action-
points/proposals/issues/projects/schemes/ targets, etc. of various implementing agencies such
as Ministries/Departments/Organizations of Government of India, State Governments,
Autonomous Bodies, PSUs, etc.
It is implemented by Cabinet Secretariat.
It automates the tracking of actionpoints/proposals/ issues/projects/schemes/targets, etc.
starting from online submission to its compliance.
The system also facilitates with customized digital Dashboard.

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District Development Coordination and Monitoring
Committees (DISHAs)
Have been formed to ensure better coordination among all the elected representatives in
Parliament, State Legislatures and Local Governments (Panchayati Raj Institutions/Municipal
Bodies) for efficient and time-bound development.
It is a government-wide initiative that seeks to promote participative governance and
deliberative democracy.

20
DISHA seeks to achieve this by facilitating a quarterly review of all development activity at the
district level.
The Chairperson of a DISHA committee is the senior-most Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha)
elected from the district and nominated by the Ministry of Rural Development.

20
DISHA committee meetings will be held on a quarterly basis, under the chairmanship of the
MP, and will be attended by all elected representatives and officials from the district.

Different IPC sections against violators of prohibitory


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orders:
Government has said that those violating the lockdown orders can face legal action under
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various sections of the Indian Penal Code,1860.

Facts:

Section 188: It states that any person who disobeys an order given by a public servant will be
et

punished with imprisonment upto 1 month and if that disobedience causes danger to human
life, the term may extend to six months.
Section 269: It states that anybody who does an unlawful or negligent act which is likely to
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spread an infectious disease dangerous to life can be punished with imprisonment upto 6
months. Besides, a fine can also be imposed on such a person.
Section 270: It states that anybody who does an act with a deliberate intention which he/she
knows is likely to spread an infectious disease dangerous to life can be punished with
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imprisonment upto two years or with a fine.


Section 271: It states that if anybody who knowingly disobeys any rule made with the object of
isolating places where an infectious disease prevails, then the person can be punishable with
six-month imprisonment

What is a Cantonment Board?


A Cantonment Board is a body corporate under the Cantonments Act, 2006 having perpetual
succession.
As per Section 10(2) of the Act, every Cantonment Board is deemed to be a municipality under
clause (e) of article 243P of the Constitution for the purpose of: Receiving grants and
allocations; or
Implementing the Central Government schemes of social sector, public health, hygiene, safety,
water supply, sanitation, urban renewal and education.

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How are they administered?

The overall municipal administration of the Cantt areas comes under Cantonment Boards
which are democratic bodies.

The Index of Economic Freedom:


Which is brought out by the Heritage Foundation, and the Global Economic
Freedom Index, which is brought out by the Fraser Institute, measure economic freedom as

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the freedom of choice enjoyed by individuals in acquiring and using economic goods and
resources.

PESA :

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Is a legislation which extends the provisions of Panchayats to the Fifth Schedule Areas.
These areas have preponderance of tribal population. This Act is called"The Provisions of the
Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996”.
sc
Total ten States are covered under PESA. These States are: Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh,
Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan and
Telangana.
All posts of Chairpersons of PRIs in the areas covered under PESA are reserved
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for tribal community and only persons belonging to tribal community can contest for these
posts.

What are the important powers provided to Gram Sabha under PESA?
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Developmental:
Dispute resolution
rg

Ownership and management of natural resources:

Major commodity groups UNDER ESSENTIAL


COMMODITIES ACT
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Petroleum and its products, including petrol, diesel, kerosene, Naphtha, solvents etc
Food stuff, including edible oil and seeds, vanaspati, pulses, sugarcane and its products
like,khandsari and sugar, rice paddy, Raw Jute and jute textiles
Drugs- prices of essential drugs are still controlled by the DPCO Fertilisers- the Fertiliser
Control Order prescribes restrictions on transfer and stock of fertilizersa part from prices,
Onion and Potato, Seeds of food crops, fruits and vegetables, cattle fodder, Jute seeds and
Cotton seed.

Guillotine:
It is the process in which the Speaker puts all the outstanding demands made by the Budget
directly to vote in the House—ending further discussions (intended to cut short the discussion
on the Budget).

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Through this, the Speaker may put the whole Budget to vote (i.e., allowing ‘no discussion’ on
the Budget by the House).
In recent years, this route was taken time and again by the Government of India, to avoid the
aggressive mood of the Opposition.

Excess grant:
it is granted when money on a service is spent in excess of amount authorized by the
parliament. First public account committee approves the excess demand for grant then it is

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voted in the Lok Sabha after the financial year, to approve this grant.

Additional grant:

20
Is granted for additional expenditure on a new service which might be created in current
financial year based on need but not contemplated in the budget of current financial year.

Token grant:
sc
Is given when funds for a new service can be provided by using reappropriation.
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Vote of credit:
Is like a blank cheque given to executive by Lok Sabha to meet any unforeseen situation
arising which can not be comprehensively stated or tackled by budgetary allocation.
et

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
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MOTIHARI-AMLEKHGUNJ OIL PIPELINE


India and Nepal have successfully concluded the ‘testing transfer’ of the Motihari-
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Amlekhgunj oil pipeline.


The 69-km long petroleum pipeline from Motihari in Bihar to Amelkhgunj in Nepal has
been constructed by India.
This is the first transnational petroleum pipeline from India, first South Asian oil
pipeline corridor and first oil pipeline in Nepal

India-UN Development Partnership Fund (UNDPF)


It is a dedicated facility within the United Nations Fund for South-South Cooperation
established in 2017.
It supports Southern-owned and led, demand-driven, and transformational sustainable
development projects across the developing world, with a focus on least developed
countries and small island developing states.

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Free Movement Regime
In order to facilitate free movement of the tribal people along the border of India and
Myanmar, the mechanism of the free movement regime was introduced.
Free Movement Regime (FMR) allows the tribes living along the border to travel 16 km across
the boundary without visa restrictions.
India, Myanmar have signed Land Border Crossing Agreement on May 11, 2018, which will
facilitate regulation and harmonization of already existing free movement rights for people.

20
BBIN MOTOR VEHICLES AGREEMENT

The BBIN project was conceived when SAARC at its 18th Summit in Kathmandu failed to sign
a SAARC Motor Vehicles Agreement –chiefly because of Pakistan.

20
The sub-regional Motor Vehicle Agreement (MVA) seeks regulation of passenger,
personnel and cargo vehicular traffic between the four BBIN countries.
India, Nepal and Bangladesh have ratified the Agreement while Bhutan failed to get its
Parliament’s nod to ratify the same. It has some reservations about its environmental impact
sc
owing to increased traffic of heavy duty vehicles.
Under South Asia Sub-regional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) programme, Asian
Development Bank (ADB) has been providing technical, advisory, and financial support to
this initiative.
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South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation


The South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC)Program, set up in 2001,
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brings together Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka in a
project-based partnership to promote regional prosperity by improving cross-border
connectivity, boosting trade among member countries, and strengthening regional economic
rg

cooperation.
The Manila, Philippines-based Asian Development Bank(ADB) serves as the Secretariat for the
SASEC member countries.
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BIMSTEC
Bay of Bengal Initiatives for Multi-sectoral, Technical and Economic Cooperation
(BIMSTEC) is a regional group of seven members: Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri
Lanka, Thailand, Bhutan, and Nepal, established in 1997 through Bangkok Declaration

BIMSTEC-DMEx 2020
The 2nd BIMSTEC Disaster Management Exercise (BIMSTEC-DMEx) 2020 is a 3-day
exercise that discussed standardization of protocol, formulation of policy and guidelines for
protection of heritage sites during disasters and their conservation post-disaster.
National Disaster Response Force hosted BIMSTEC- DMEx 2020.

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ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific (AOIP)
ASEAN recently has adopted the ‘ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific’.
An initiative that reinforces the ASEAN centered regional architecture which is not aimed
at creating new mechanisms or replacing existing ones; rather, intended to enhance
ASEAN’s Community building process and to strengthen and give new momentum for
existing ASEAN-led mechanisms.
It involves the further strengthening and optimization of ASEAN-led mechanisms, including
the East Asia Summit (EAS), the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) etc.

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India and Indo Pacific region
The Ministry of External Affairs established a new Division for the Indo-Pacific in April

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2019.
In November 2019, India launched an open global initiative Indo Pacific Oceans’ Initiative
(IPOI) at the East Asia Summit held in Bangkok, Thailand.
sc
2+2 dialogue
A ‘two plus two dialogue’ is a term — adopted in foreign parleys — used for installation of a
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dialogue mechanism between two countries’ defence and external affairs ministries.
India has 2+2 mechanism with all the Quad countries at some level.
Quad” countries (Australia, India, Japan, and the United States) .
et

Indian Ocean Dialogue (IOD)


The IOD is a flagship initiative of the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA).
rg

It is a Track 1.5 discussion, encouraging an open and free flowing dialogue by academia
and officials on strategic issues of the Indian Ocean Region.
Track 1.5 diplomacy involves both officials and non-officials (business leaders, business
organizations and all possible non diplomats).
ta

Track I governmental diplomacy


Track II backchannel diplomacy through non state actors.

Future Investment Initiative (FII)


It is an initiative by Saudi Arabia to diversify the kingdom’s economy and reduce its
dependence on petroleum products.
FII brings together policymakers, investors and global experts, to discuss the role of
investment in driving global prosperity and development.

Blue Dot Network (BDN)


India may join the US-led Blue Dot Network (BDN).
It is a multi-stakeholder initiativeto bring together governments, the private sector and civil

Page 185
society to promote high-quality, trusted standards for global infrastructure development.
It is expected to serve as a globally recognised evaluation and certification system for roads,
ports and bridges with a focus on the Indo-Pacific region.
Infrastructure projects would be graded on debt, environmental standards, labour standards
etc.
This system would apply to projects in any citizen-centric country where citizens would like to
evaluate such projects.

UNHRC

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It was created by the General Assembly in March 2006 as the principal United Nations
entity dealing with human rights.
Human Rights Council comprises 47 elected Member States.

20
On the basis of equitable geographical distribution, Council seats are allocated to the five
regional groups as African States, 13 seats; Asia-Pacific States, 13 seats; Eastern European
States, 6 seats; Latin American and Caribbean States, 8 seats; and Western European and
other States, 7 seats.
sc
The members were elected by the assembly through secret ballot, for a term of three
Currently, India is elected member of UNHRC. U.S. withdrew from UNHRC in 2018.

UN HABITAT
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India has been elected to the Executive Board of the first UN-Habitat Assembly.
The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN–Habitat) is the United Nations
programme for human settlements and sustainable urban development.
et

Mandate is to promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities.


It is the focal point for all urbanization and human settlement matters within the UN
It is a member of the United Nations Sustainable Development Group.
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Osaka track
It is proposal by Japan that seeks the removal of prohibitions on data localisation and urges
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nations to negotiate rules on data flows, cloud computing among others. India, South
Africa, and Indonesia have boycotted the “Osaka Track" on the “digital economy”.

Women’s Business Alliance


A Women’s Business Alliance was launched at Brasilia 2019, to bring a new perspective on
business issues.
The First Public-Private Dialogue "Women and Economy" took place within the framework of
the First International Women's Congress of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)
and the BRICS member states on July 3-4, 2017. As an outcome of the Dialogue, an initiative of
establishing the BRICS Business Women Alliance (WBA) for the purpose of support women's
entrepreneurship on a regular basis was introduced.
Goal is to reinforce involvement of women in the economy and to build personal capacity.

Page 186
Arctic Council
It was established by the eight Arctic States through the Ottawa Declaration of 1996.
These are— Canada, Denmark (including Greenland and the Faroe Islands), Finland,
Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States.
It is not a formalized treaty-based international legal entity and does not allocate
Six organisations representing the indigenous people of the Arctic region have also
been granted the status of permanent participants in the Council.
All decision-making happens through consensus between the permanent members.

20
The Council does not prohibit the commercial exploitation of resources in the Arctic.
India became observer for the first time in 2013

IAEA

20
It is the world's central intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical cooperation
in the nuclear field.
It is an autonomous international organization within the United Nations system set up in
sc
July 1957 through its own international treaty, the IAEA Statute.
The IAEA reports to both the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council.
It works for the safe, secure and peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, contributing
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to international peace and security and the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals.
It is headquartered in Vienna, Austria.
India is a member of IAEA.
The objective of IAEA Safeguards is to deter the spread of nuclear weapons by the early
et

detection of the misuse of nuclear material or technology.

INSTEX Barter Mechanism


rg

Recently, 6 European countries, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway


and Sweden have decided to join the Instrument in Support of Trade Exchanges
(INSTEX)
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INSTEX is a Paris based special purpose vehicle setup by Germany, France and the UK that
allows European businesses to trade with Iran, despite strict US sanctions.
It runs a barter arrangement which allows Iran to continue trade and import products or
services from member European countries in exchange for exports.

Global Counter Terrorism Forum (GCTF)


It is an informal, apolitical & multilateral CT platform, launched in 2011. It develops training
modules, good practices and ICT tools to strengthen CT civil capabilities and national
strategies.
India is a founding member of GCTF

Page 187
‘Dtrack
DTrack, as flagged by cyber-security firm Kaspersky, is used by hackers to attack financial
and research centres in India. It's earlier version ATMDtrack was designed to hack ATMs in
India.
"The malware was designed to be planted on the victim’s ATMs, where it could read and store
the data of cards that were inserted into the machines.
‘Dtrack’ is programmed to steal data and give the hacker or the ‘threat actor’ complete
control over all the infected devices by exposing its credentials and passwords.

20
NEST
Ministry of External Affairs has announced the setting up of a new division on New and

20
Emerging Strategic Technologies (NEST).

It will act as the nodal division within the ministry for issues pertaining to new and
emerging technologies
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AUSTRALIAN GROUP
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Established in 1985 during Chemical Weapon use in Iran- Iraq war in 1984
It is aimed at controlling exports of biological and chemical agents used as weapons.
Headquartered in Paris, its members include India, US, Canada, EU, Turkey, Argentina,
Australia, Japan etc.
et

WASSEGNAR ARRANGEMENT
rg

It is a multilateral export control treaty that aims to regulate the export of conventional
arms/munitions and dual-use goods and technology.
It includes not only arms but also technologies that can be used for military purposes including
computers, sensors, lasers, electronics, surveillance technologies etc.
ta

Currently, it has 42 members including India, US, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, Australia,
Japan, Russia, South Africa etc

MISSILE TECHNOLOGY CONTROL REGIME


Established in 1987, MTCR aims to regulate the export of weapon delivery systems signatories
to non-signatories.
It restricts export of weapon delivery system that delivers any type of weapon including
conventional weapons, chemical weapons, biological weapons and nuclear
Accordingly weapons delivery system carrying more than 500 kg payload for over 300 km is
restricted under MTCR.

Page 188
MERA India
The Indian Council of Medical Research has launched the ‘Malaria Elimination Research
Alliance (MERA) India’ – a conglomeration of partners working on malaria control – in order
to prioritise, plan and scale up research to eliminate the disease from India by 2030.
The principal activity of the alliance is to prioritise, plan, conduct, scale up and translate
relevant research in a coordinated and combinatorial way in order to have a tangible impact
on the population who are at risk of malaria.
The alliance will facilitate trans-institutional coordination and collaboration around a

20
shared research agenda which responds not only to programmatic challenges and addresses
gaps in available tools, but also proactively contributes to targeted research.
It aims to harness and reinforce research in coordinated and combinatorial ways in order
to achieve a tangible impact on malaria elimination

20
Innovation for Defence Excellence Initiative (iDEX)
iDEX is an initiative taken by the government to contribute towards modernization of the
sc
Defence Industry.
iDEX aims to promote innovation and technology development in Defence and Aerospace by
engaging Industries (which includes MSMEs, start-ups, individual innovators, R&D institutes
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& academia).
iDEX will provide the engaging industries with funding and other support to carry out
Research & Development.
iDEX will be funded and managed by Defence Innovation Organization (DIO), and will function
et

as the executive arm of DIO.


Its two founding members are Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) & Bharat Electronics
Limited (BEL) - Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs).HAL and BEL are navratna
companies.
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‘Peace Park’.
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India, Nepal and Bhutan have drafted a memorandum of understanding to create a


transboundary wildlife conservation ‘peace park’.
Manas National Park is a UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, Project tiger reserve and a
biosphere reserve.
The park shares a common border with the Royal Manas National Park of Bhutan.
The park is home to many endangered species like Assam roofed turtle, golden Langur, hispid
hare and pygmy hog.It is also famous for its wild water buffaloes
The park is located on the Manasriver which is a major tributary of Brahmaputra.
Other three are in Assam completely.

The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements,


collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System
(ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth’s only continent
without a native human population.
Page 189
For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all of the land and ice shelves
south of 60°S latitude.
The treaty entered into force in 1961.
The treaty sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, establishes freedom of scientific
investigation, and bans military activity on the continent.
The treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War.
The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat headquarters has been located in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Ashgabat Agreement

20
Ashgabat Agreement, an international transport and transit corridor facilitating transportation
of goods between Central Asia and the Persian Gulf.
The Ashgabat Agreement has Oman, Iran, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan as founding

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members.
Kazakhstan has also joined this arrangement subsequently.
India and Pakistan also joined the Agreement
Turkmenistan, as depository State of Ashgabat Agreement,
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Raisina Dialogue
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This is an annual geo-political event, organised by the Ministry of External Affairs and
Observer Research Foundation (ORF).
It is designed to explore prospects and opportunities for Asian integration as well as Asia’s
integration with the larger world.
It is predicated on India’s vital role in the Indian Ocean Region and how India along with its
et

partners can build a stable regional and world order.

Oslo Accords
rg

It is between Israel and Palestine (PLO) signed in 1993.


By this, Isreal formally recognised PLO & vice versa. PLO promised to give up terrorism.
ta

International Organisation for Migration’s (IOM)


International Organisation for Migration’s (IOM) latest report, ‘Global Migration Report 2020’,
India continues to be the largest country of origin of international migrants with a 17.5 million-
strong diaspora across the world.
India also received the highest remittance of $78.6 billion from Indians living abroad

State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World


It is issued annually by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), the International
Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food
Programme (WFP) and the World Health Organization (WHO).

Page 190
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC):
Is a regional economic forum established in 1989 to leverage the growing
interdependence of the Asia-Pacific.
APEC's 21 members aim to create greater prosperity for the people of the region by promoting
balanced, inclusive, sustainable, innovative and secure growth and by accelerating regional
economic integration.
APEC ensures that goods, services, investment, and people move easily across borders.
Members facilitate this trade through

20
faster customs procedures at borders; .
more favorable business climates behind the border;
aligning regulations and standards across the region.
The APEC process is supported by a permanent secretariat based in Singapore.

20
Bilateral investment Treaties (BITs) or Bilateral Investment
Protection Agreements (BIPAs) :
sc
Are agreements between two countries for the reciprocal promotion and protection of
investments in each other’s territories by individuals and companies situated in either State.
India has so far signed BIT with 75 states.
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Out of these 66 are already in force and 9 are yet to be entered into force.

Singapore Convention on
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Mediation
rg

The Singapore Convention on Mediation is a United Nations (UN) treaty named after the
country, will come into force on Sept 12 this year.
It is also known as the United Nations Convention on International Settlement Agreements
Resulting from Mediation.
ta

Qatar has ratified the international treaty, it is the third country to do so, following Singapore
and Fiji.
According to the convention's provisions, the treaty comes into force when at least three
countries have ratified it.
The convention makes it easier for commercial parties in a dispute to seek enforcement of
international mediated settlement agreements by applying directly to the courts of countries
that have ratified the treaty.

IMPORTANT BODIES & ORGANIZATIONS


The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights

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(NCPCR)
The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) has been constituted by the
Government of India, under the Commission for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005 to
exercise and performs the powers and functions assigned to it under CPCR Act, 2005.

The commission consist of a Chairperson who, is a person of eminence and has done an
outstanding work for promoting the welfare of children; and six members.
The Commission shall not enquire into any matter which is pending before a State Commission

20
or any other Commission duly constituted under any law for the time being in force.

Small island developing states

20
The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs lists 57 small island developing
states. These are broken down into following three geographic regions, with each region
having its own regional cooperation body.
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1. Caribbean: The Caribbean Community
2. Pacific: The Pacific Islands Forum
3. Africa, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China Sea (AIMS): The Indian Ocean
Commission.
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Indian Ocean Commission


The Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) is an intergovernmental body created in 1984 to protect
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the interests of the Western Indian Ocean islands.


It consists of Madagascar, Comoros, La Réunion (French overseas territory), Mauritius and
Seychelles.
rg

The Commission has five observers — India, China, European Union (EU), Malta and
International Organisation of La Francophonie (OIF).

Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C)


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It was approved in 2018 to combat cybercrime in India in a comprehensive and coordinated


manner.
It functions under the Ministry of Home Affairs. It is located in New Delhi
It has seven components such as the National Cybercrime Threat Analytics Unit, National
Cybercrime Reporting Portal and National Cybercrime Forensic Laboratory Ecosystem etc.

Association of World Election Bodies (A-WEB)


The Association of World Election Bodies(A-WEB) is the largest association of Election
Management Bodies (EMBs) worldwide.
The permanent secretariat of A-WEB is located in Seoul, South Korea.
It was founded with the shared vision among its members of achieving sustainable democracy
around the world.

Page 192
A-WEB also undertakes Election Visitor and Observation Programmes in various countries to
study various election management practices and share knowledge with other Member of
EMBs

Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN)


The Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN), launched in 2012, mobilizes global
scientific and technological expertise to promote practical problem solving for the Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Climate Agreement.

20
It was established under the auspices of the United Nations Secretary-General.
The SDSN and the Bertelsmann Stiftung have been publishing the annual SDG Index &
Dashboards Global Report since 2016.
SDSN has a small secretariat with offices in New York, New Delhi, and Paris.

20
World Happiness Report by SDSN

What is OPEC?
sc
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was founded in Baghdad, Iraq,
with the signing of an agreement in September 1960 by five countries namely Islamic Republic
of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. They were to become the Founder Members
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of the Organization.
It is a permanent, intergovernmental organization.
Currently, the Organization has a total of 13 Member Countries.
OPEC’s objective is to co-ordinate and unify petroleum policies among Member Countries, in
et

order to secure fair and stable prices for petroleum producers; an efficient, economic and
regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations; and a fair return on capital to those
investing in the industry.
rg

It is headquartered in Vienna, Austria.


OPEC membership is open to any country that is a substantial exporter of oil and which shares
the ideals of the organization.
ta

What is the Opec+?


Opec+ refers to the alliance of crude producers, who have been undertaking corrections in
supply in the oil markets since 2017.
OPEC plus countries include Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Brunei, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Mexico,
Oman, Russia, South Sudan and Sudan.

What are their goals?

The Opec and non-Opec producers first formed the alliance at a historic meeting in Algiers in
2016.
The aim was to undertake production restrictions to help resuscitate a flailing market.

Page 193
National Statistical Office (NSO) —
Through the merger of the NSSO and CSO under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme
Implementation (MoSPI).
The new NSO as an agency was envisaged firstly by Rangarajan Commission

Central Statistics Office (CSO)-


It coordinates the statistical activities in the country and evolves statistical standards

20
GDP, Index of Industrial Production, Energy Statistics, Infrastructure Statistics, National
Income Accounting, Conduct of Annual Survey of Industries, Consumer Price Indices for Urban
NonManual Employees, Human Development Statistics, Gender Statistics, Imparting training
in Official Statistics.

20
NSSO
It is headed by a Director General is responsible for conduct of large scale sample surveys in
sc
diverse fields on All India basis.
Primarily data are collected through nation-wide household surveys on various socio-economic
subjects, Annual Survey of Industries (ASI), etc.
up

World Health Organization


WHO is the first global health organization,replacing many regional and national health
et

bodies.
It has 194-member countries, and its secretariat is in Geneva, Switzerland.
It has the authority of directing and coordinating matters related to International health.
rg

World Health Assembly is the supreme decision-making body of WHO, attended by delegations
from all member states.
The Executive Board of WHO implements the decisions and policies of the World Health
Assembly.
ta

Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)


Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) is the apex body in India for the formulation,
coordination and promotion of biomedical research.
It was founded in 1911 with the name of Indian Research Fund Association (IRFA) and
renamed as ICMR in 1949.
It is funded by the Government of India through the Department of Health Research, Ministry
of Health & Family Welfare.

National Institute of Virology


The National Institute of Virology is one of the major Institutes of the Indian Council of
Medical Research (ICMR).

Page 194
It was established at Pune, Maharashtra in 1952 as Virus Research Centre (VRC) under the
auspices of the ICMR and the Rockefeller Foundation (RF), USA.

Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO)


The CDSCO is the Central Drug Authority for discharging functions assigned to the Central
Government under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act,1940.

FUNCTION

20
Regulatory control over the import of drugs, approval of new drugs and clinical trials.
Approval of certain licences as Central Licence Approving Authority

20
WORLD ANTI-DOPING AGENCY
HQ-Montreal, Canada
WADA was set up as a foundation under the initiative of the International Olympic Committee
in 1999.
sc
It seeks to promote and coordinate the fight against doping in sport internationally.
It monitors the World Anti-Doping Code.
UNESCO’s International Convention against Doping in Sport helps in ensuring the
up

effectiveness of the code.


India is a signatory to the convention.

The National Population Register (NPR)


et

Is a Register of usual residents of the country. It is being prepared at the local (Village/sub-
Town), sub-District, District, State and National level under provisions of the Citizenship Act
rg

1955 and the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and issue of National Identity Cards) Rules,
2003.
It is mandatory for every usual resident of India to register in the NPR.
A usual resident is defined for the purposes of NPR as a person who has resided in a local area
ta

for the past 6 months or more or a person who intends to reside in that area for the next 6
months or more.

World Resources Institute (WRI)


It is a global research non-profit organization which focuses on 7 areas:

food, forests, water, energy, cities, climate and ocean.Its mission is to move human society to
live in ways that protect Earth’s environment.
It partners with local and national governments, private companies, publicly held corporations,
and other non-profits organistations.

Page 195
National Resource Efficiency Authority
It draws its power from the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, to provide for the regulatory
provisions of this policy.
It would develop and implement resource efficient strategies for material recycling, reuse and
land-filling targets for various sectors and set standards for reuse of secondary raw materials
to ensure quality.

United Nations Population Fund

20
UNFPA is the United Nations sexual and reproductive health agency.
it was officially renamed the United Nations Population Fund. However, the original
abbreviation, UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities), was retained.

20
The mandate of UNFPA is established by the United Nations Economic and Social Council
(ECOSOC).
UNFPA is a subsidiary organ of the UN General Assembly.
UNFPA is entirely supported by voluntary contributions of donor governments,
sc
intergovernmental organizations, the private sector, and foundations and individuals, NOT by
the United Nations regular budget.
UNFPA works directly to tackle Sustainable Development Goal 3 on health, Goal 4 on
up

education and Goal 5 on gender equality

National Centre for Disease Control(NCDC)


et

It is an institute under the Indian Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health
and Family Welfare.
Functions: As a nodal agency for disease surveillance facilitating prevention and control of
rg

communicable diseases.

United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR)


ta

The UNISDR was established in 1999 as a dedicated secretariat to facilitate the


implementation of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR).
It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
It is mandated to serve as the focal point in the United Nations system for the coordination of
disaster reduction and to ensure synergies among the disaster reduction activities.
It is an organisational unit of the UN Secretariat and is led by the UN Special Representative
of the Secretary General for Disaster Risk Reduction (SRSG).
UNISDR's Strategic Framework 2016-2021 has a vision to substantially reduce disaster risk
and losses for a sustainable future with the mandate to act as the custodian of the Sendai
Framework, supporting countries and societies in its implementation, monitoring and review
of progress

Page 196
The Airports Economic Regulatory Authority (AERA)
Statutory body constituted under the Airports Economic Regulatory Authority of India Act,
2008
Head office at Delhi.

Functions

To determine the tariff for the aeronautical services.

20
To determine the amount of the Development Fees in respect of major airports.
To determine the amount of the Passengers Service Fee levied
To monitor the set Performance Standards relating to quality, continuity and reliability of
service.

20
Directorate General of Trade Remedies
The Directorate General of Trade Remedies (earlier known as Directorate General of Anti-
sc
dumping and Allied Duties) was named in May 2018 as an integrated single window agency for
providing comprehensive and swift trade defence mechanism in India.
Earlier, the Directorate General of Anti-dumping and Allied Duties (DGAD) dealt with anti-
dumping and CVD cases, Directorate General of Safeguards (DGS) dealt with safeguard
up

measures and DGFT dealt with quantitative restriction (QR) safeguards.


The DGTR brings DGAD, DGS and Safeguards (QR) functions of DGFT into its fold by merging
them into one single national entity
et

WORLD ANTI-DOPING AGENCY


HQ-Montreal, Canada
rg

WADA was set up as a foundation under the initiative of the International Olympic Committee
in 1999.
It seeks to promote and coordinate the fight against doping in sport internationally.
ta

It monitors the World Anti-Doping Code.


UNESCO’s International Convention against Doping in Sport helps in ensuring the
effectiveness of the code.
India is a signatory to the convention.

Asian Development Bank (ADB)


Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December
1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong,
Metro Manila, Philippines.
The company also maintains 31 field offices around the world to promote social and economic
development in Asia. The bank admits the members of the United
Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP, formerly the
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East or ECAFE) and nonregional developed
countries.

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From 31 members at its establishment, ADB now has 68 members, of which 49 are from within
Asia and the Pacific and 19 from outside

Interpol
The International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is an intergovernmental
organization established in 1923, headquartered at Lyon, France.
It facilitates worldwide police cooperation and crime control in around 194 countries.
Each of the member countries hosts an INTERPOL National Central Bureau (NCB). This

20
connects their national law enforcement with other countries and with the General Secretariat
of Interpol
The Central Bureau of Investigation, which is a Federal/Central investigating agency
functioning under the Central Government, Department of Personnel & Training is designated

20
as the National Central Bureau of India

Amnesty International
sc
AI is an international Non Governmental Organization (NGO) founded in London on May
28, 1961,
It seeks to publicize violations by governments and other entities of rights recognized
up

in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), especially freedom of speech and of
conscience and the right against torture.
It also works with intergovernmental human rights bodies to expand and enforce human
rights protections in international law.
In 1977 AI was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace.
et

Serious Fraud Investigation Office


rg

It is a multi-disciplinary organization under the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, consisting of


experts in the field of accountancy, forensic auditing, law, information technology,
investigation, company law, capital market and taxation for detecting and prosecuting or
ta

recommending for prosecution white-collar crimes/frauds.


It is headquartered in New Delhi.
SFIO was initially set up by the Government of India by way of a resolution dated 2nd July
2003. At that time SFIO did not enjoy a formal legal status.
Section 211 of the Companies Act, 2013 has accorded statutory status to the SFIO.

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)


The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations specialized agency
responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
Headquarters Madrid, Spain
The UNWTO World Tourism Barometer monitors short-term tourism trends on a regular basis
to provide global tourism stakeholders with up-to-date analysis on international tourism.
The World Tourism rankings are compiled by the United Nations World Tourism Organization
as part of their World Tourism Barometer publication, which is released three times annually.

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DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF TRADE REMEDIES (DGTR)
DGTR has been established inside the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
The recommendations of DGTR for imposition of Anti-dumping, countervailing and Safeguard
duties would be considered by Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance.
It is an Apex National Authority for administering all trade remedial measures including anti-
dumping, countervailing duties and safeguard measures.

Central Ground Water Board

20
The main aim of the board is to provide scientific inputs in exploration, management,
assessment augmentation and regulation of ground water in the country.
It is a statutory body constituted under the Environment (Protection) act, 1986.

20
World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations specialized agency
sc
responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
Headquarters Madrid, Spain
The UNWTO World Tourism Barometer monitors short-term tourism trends on a regular basis
up

to provide global tourism stakeholders with up-to-date analysis on international tourism.


The World Tourism rankings are compiled by the United Nations World Tourism Organization
as part of their World Tourism Barometer publication, which is released three times annually.
et

Global Innovation & Technology Alliance (GITA)


In order to stimulate private sector’s investment in R&D, TDB has established Global
rg

Innovation & Technology Alliance (GITA).


It is a joint venture between Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and TDB(technology
development board) with an equity contribution of 51:49 respectively.
The GITA will assist Department of Science & Technology (DST) in implementing industrial
ta

research and development programme with different countries under bilateral and multilateral
science and technology cooperation agreements.
The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation came into existence as an
Independent Ministry on 15.10.1999 after the merger of the Department of Statistics and the
Department of Programme Implementation.

The Ministry has two wings, one relating to Statistics and the other Programme
Implementation. The Statistics Wing called the National Statistical Office(NSO) consists of the
Central Statistical Office (CSO), the Computer center and the National Sample Survey Office
(NSSO).

The Programme Implementation Wing has three Divisions, namely,

Twenty Point Programme


Infrastructure Monitoring and Project Monitoring and
Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme.
Page 199
Besides these two wings, there is National Statistical Commission created through a
Resolution of Government of India (MOSPI) and one autonomous Institute, viz., Indian
Statistical Institute declared as an institute of National importance by an Act of Parliament.

Bank for International Settlements (BIS)


BIS is an international financial organisation owned by 60 member central banks, representing
countries from around the world including India.
It fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central

20
banks.
It carries out its work through its meetings, programmes and through the Basel Process –
hosting international groups pursuing global financial stability and facilitating their
interaction.

20
Headquarter is in Basel, Switzerland
Global Financial System Report - Bank for International Settlement (BIS)

UN Women
sc
UN Women is the United Nations entity dedicated to gender equality and the empowerment of
women.
up

A global champion for women and girls, UN Women was established to accelerate progress on
meeting their needs worldwide.
UN Women supports UN Member States as they set global standards for achieving gender
equality, and works with governments and civil society to design laws, policies, programmes
and services needed to ensure that the standards are effectively implemented and truly benefit
et

women and girls worldwide.


It works globally to make the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals a reality for women
and girls and stands behind women’s equal participation in all aspects of life
rg

The South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA)


ta

Is an agreement reached on January 6, 2004, at the 12th SAARC summit.


It created a free trade area of 1.6 billion people in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India,
Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka to reduce customs duties of all traded goods to zero
by the year 2016.
SAARC comprises 3% of the world's area, 21% of the world's population and 3.8% of the global
economy.

Interpol
The International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is an intergovernmental
organization established in 1923, headquartered at Lyon, France.
It facilitates worldwide police cooperation and crime control in around 194 countries.
Each of the member countries hosts an INTERPOL National Central Bureau (NCB). This
connects their national law enforcement with other countries and with the General Secretariat
of Interpol

Page 200
The Central Bureau of Investigation, which is a Federal/Central investigating agency
functioning under the Central Government, Department of Personnel & Training is designated
as the National Central Bureau of India

Indian Ocean Commission (IOC)


India has been approved as an observer state for Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) making India
the fifth observer.
The IOC was created in 1982 at Port Louis, Mauritius, and later institutionalised in 1984 under

20
the General Victoria Agreement.
It has five member nations- Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion (an overseas region of
France) and Seychelles.
The five islands share geographic proximity, historical and demographic relationships, natural

20
resources and common development issues.
The other four observers are China, Malta, European Union and International Organisation of
La Francophonie (OIF).
IOC's mission is to strengthen regional cooperation while defending the common interests of
sc
these countries.
In 2008 the IOC launched the Acclimate project, designed to strengthen climate-resilience and
build capacity of IOC's State members, focusing on adaptation and the promotion of a regional
climate governance.
up

World Food Programme (WFP)


It’s the food-assistance branch of the United Nations, setup in 1961, and the world's largest
et

humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.


Its headquarters is in Rome, Italy.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group and part of its Executive Committee
rg

The WFP operations are funded by voluntary donations from world governments, corporations
and private donors.

National Productivity Council (NPC)


ta

Is an autonomous, multipartite, non-profit organization with equal representation from employers’ &
workers’ organizations and Government, apart from technical & professional institutions and other
interests

To promote productivity culture in India


Established in 1958 by Ministry of Industry
Under the administrative control of the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal
Trade.
Also implements the productivity promotion schemes of the Government and carry out the
programmes of the Tokyo based Asian Productivity Organization (APO)

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World Economic Situation Prospects (WESP)
It is a joint product of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA),
the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the five United Nations
regional commissions.

National Council of Science Museums (NCSM)


National Council of Science Museums (NCSM), an autonomous body under the Ministry of

20
Culture, is the largest network of science centres/museums in the world functioning under
single administrative control.
It is primarily engaged in spreading the culture of science in the society especially among
students with a motto of ‘Communicating Science to Empower People’ through its network of

20
Science Centres spread across India.

The International Whaling Commission (IWC)


sc
It is an international body set up by the terms of the International Convention for the
Regulation of Whaling (ICRW) signed in Washington, D.C., United States, on 2 December
1946.
up

It seeks to "provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the
orderly development of the whaling industry"
In 1982 the IWC adopted a moratorium on commercial whaling.
Its Headquarters are located in Impington, United Kingdom.
et

WWF
rg

It is the world’s leading conservation organization and works in more than 100 countries.
It was established in 1961 and is headquartered at Gland, Switzerland
Its mission is to conserve nature and reduce the most pressing threats to the diversity of life
on Earth.
ta

WWF collaborates at every level with people around the world to develop and deliver
innovative solutions that protect communities, wildlife, and the places in which they live.

The Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC):


Is a statutory body established by an Act of Parliament.
In April 1957, it took over the work of former All India Khadi and Village Industries Board.
KVIC works under the overall guidance of Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises.
The KVIC is charged with the planning, promotion, organisation and implementation of
programs for the development of Khadi and other village industries in the rural areas in
coordination with other agencies engaged in rural development wherever necessary.
It also implements Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme.

Page 202
The Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC):
Is an intergovernmental body with over 180 members, within the framework of the Joint Food
Standards Programme established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), with the purpose of
protecting the health of consumers and ensuring fair practices in the food trade.
It was established in 1960’s. The Codex Alimentarius is recognized by the World Trade
Organization as an international reference point for the resolution of disputes concerning food
safety and consumer protection.

20
Human Capital Index (HCI)
The World Bank released its first report on the Human Capital Index (HCI) as part of the

20
World Development Report 2019.
The theme of the World Development Report (WDR) this year is “The Changing Nature of
Work”.
Human Capital Index (HCI) has placed India at the 115th position, lower than Nepal, Sri
sc
Lanka, Myanmar, and Bangladesh.

Parameters used in HCI The HCI has three components:


up

Survival, as measured by under-5 mortality rates.


Expected years of Quality-Adjusted School which combines information on the quantity and
quality of education:
quality is measured by harmonizing test scores from major international student achievement
et

testing programs quantity from the number of years of school that a child can expect to obtain
by age 18 given the prevailing pattern of enrolment rates across grades in respective countries
Health environment is measured by adult survival rates the rate of stunting for children under
rg

age 5.

FIU-IND
ta

It was established by the Government of India in 2004 for coordinating and strengthening the
collection and sharing of financial intelligence through an effective national, regional and
global network to combat money laundering, related crimes, and terrorist financing.
It is an independent body, headed by Director, reporting to the Economic Intelligence Council
(EIC) headed by the Finance Minister. For administrative purposes, FIU-IND is under the
Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance.
FIU-IND is established as an administrative FIU i.e., as an independent government body that
receives analyses and disseminates suspicious transactions to the appropriate law
enforcement or investigation agency.

The Appellate Body of the WTO


Was established in 1995 with its seat in Geneva, Switzerland. It is a standing body of seven
persons.

Page 203
It hears appeals from reports issued by panels in disputes brought by WTO Members.
The Appellate Body can uphold, modify or reverse the legal findings and conclusions of a
panel.
The Appellate Body Reports once adopted by the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) must be
accepted by the parties to the dispute.

Biological Weapons Convention


Biological Weapons Convention was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the

20
production of an entire category of weapons.
The Convention was the result of prolonged efforts by the international community to establish
a new instrument that would supplement the 1925 Geneva Protocol.
The Geneva Protocol prohibits use but not possession or development of chemical and

20
biological weapons.
It commits the 183 states which are party to it as of August 2019 to prohibit the development,
production, and stockpiling of biological and toxin weapons.
There is no formal verification regime to monitor compliance and effectiveness of the
Convention.
sc
45th anniversary of the Biological Weapons Convention's entry into force has commemorated
recently.
up

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers


(ICANN)
et

Is a non-profit body that administers domain names and Internet Protocol addresses (IPs)
globally.
It was formed in 1988 by the US Department of Commerce.
rg

It has become independent of US control since October 1st, 2016.


ICANN is a not-for-profit public-benefit corporation with participants from all over the world
dedicated to keeping the Internet secure, stable and interoperable.
ta

GOVERNMENT SCHEMES
Pradhan Mantri Yuva Udyamita VikasAbhiyan(YUVA) Yojana
The Scheme aims at creating an enabling ecosystem for entrepreneurship promotion
among youth through entrepreneurship education and training, advocacy, easy access to
entrepreneurship support network and promotion of social entrepreneurship
Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

Angikaar Campaign.
The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs has launched the Angikaar Campaign.
The campaign was officially rolled out in all cities with PMAY (U) on October 2, 2019.

Page 204
It has been launched for social behaviour change, focusing on issues such as water & energy
conservation, waste management, health, tree plantation, sanitation and hygiene.
The campaign will cover beneficiaries of completed houses under PMAY (U).
It will be implemented through community mobilisation and Information Education
Communication (IEC) activities.

National Educational Alliance for Technology (NEAT)


Scheme

20
Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) LUNCHED a new National
Educational Alliance for Technology (NEAT) to use technology for better learning outcomes in
Higher Education.

20
The scheme aims to use Artificial Intelligence to make learning more personalized and
customized as per the requirements of the learner.
MHRD aims to recognize the development of technologies in Adaptive Learning and bring
them under a common platform so that learners can access it easily.
It proposes to create a National Alliance with such technology developing EdTech Companies
sc
through a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model.

Platform for Effective Enforcement for No Child Labour


up

(PENCIL)
PENCIL: An online portal was launched for better monitoring & reporting system to ensure
effective implementation of the provisions of the amended Child Labour (Prohibition &
et

Regulation) Act, 1986 and National Child Labour Project (NCLP) Scheme

Mission Solar Charkha


rg

The Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) has launched the Mission Solar
Charkha in 2018-19 for implementation of 50 Solar Charkha Clusters across the country.
ta

The aims and objectives of Mission Solar Charkha are To ensure inclusive growth by
generation of employment, especially for women and youth and sustainable development
through solar charkha cluster in rural areas.

ARTIS
The commerce ministry's arm DGTR has launched an online system - ARTIS - for filing of anti-
dumping applications by domestic industry with an aim to facilitate speedy resolution of
dumping issues.

Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY)


Aims for integrated development of selected villages having more than 50% Scheduled Caste
(SC) population through implementation of existing scheme of Central and State Governments
in a convergent manner and by utilization of gap filling funds provided as Central
Page 205
Assistance.Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

Pradhan Mantri Yuva Udyamita Vikas Abhiyaan (PM YUVA)


Yojana.
PM YUVA is a centrally sponsored scheme launched in 2016. It aims to create an enabling
ecosystem by 2021 for entrepreneurship development through entrepreneurship education &
training, advocacy, and easy access to entrepreneurship network.

20
It will provide entrepreneurship education and training to over 7 lakh students in 5 years
(2016-17 to 2020-21) through 3050 Institutes.
It will also include easy access to information and mentor network, credit, incubator and
accelerator and advocacy to create a pathway for the youth.

20
Shehri Samriddhi Utsav
It is an initiative of the Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs (MoHUA). It aims to extend the
sc
outreach of DAY-NULM, to the most vulnerable people.
It also seeks to showcase its initiatives and facilitate access of Self-Help Group (SHG)
members to the other government schemes.
up

Methanol Economy Program.


Program has been initiated by NITI Aayog
It is aimed at:
et

reducing our oil import bill;


reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
converting Indian coal reserves and municipal solid waste into methanol
rg

PradhanMantriJanaushadhiPariyojana (PMBJP).
Bureau of Pharma PSUs of India (BPPI) is the implementing agency of PMBJP.
ta

BPPI (Bureau of Pharma Public Sector Undertakings of India) has been established under the
Department of Pharmaceuticals, Govt. of India, with the support of all the CPSU

National Health Stack is a digital infrastructure prepared by


NITI Aayog.
Its components are:-

Electronic National Health Registry as a single source of health data;


Coverage and claims platform;
Personal health records;
National Health analytics platform; Unique digital health ID, health data dictionaries.

Page 206
Market Intervention Scheme
The Department of Agriculture & Cooperation is implementing a scheme namely Market
Intervention Scheme (MIS) for procurement of agricultural and horticultural commodities
which are generally perishable in nature.

DeenDayal SPARSH Yojana


A philately scholarship scheme called DeenDayal SPARSH (Scholarship for Promotion of

20
Aptitude and Research in Stamps as a Hobby) Yojana was introduced in 2017-18 to promote
philately among children at a young age in a sustainable manner that can reinforce and
supplement the academic curriculum in addition to providing a hobby that can help them relax
and de-stress.

20
Khelo India
A new umbrella Scheme ―Khelo India‖ was launched during 2016-17 after merger of
sc
existing scheme Rajiv Gandhi KhelAbhiyan (RGKA), Urban Sports Infrastructure
Scheme (USIS) and National Sports Talent Search System Programme (NSTSSP).
up

Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maan DhanYojana.


PM-KMY is an old age pension scheme for all land holding Small and Marginal Farmers
(SMFs) in the country.
et

It is voluntary and contributory for farmers in the entry age group of 18 to 40 years and a
monthly pension of Rs. 3000/- will be provided to them on attaining the age of 60 years.
The Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) shall be the Pension Fund Manager and
rg

responsible for Pension pay out.


If the farmer dies after the retirement date, the spouse will receive 50% of the pension as
Family Pension. After the death of both the farmer and the spouse, the accumulated Corpus
shall be credited back to the Pension Fund.
ta

Ekalavya Model Schools


It is implemented by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs. The scheme of EMRSs was introduced in
the year 1997-98 to ensure tribal students get access to quality education in the remote tribal
areas.
EMRSs will be setup in every block with more than 50% ST population and at least 20,000
tribal persons.
The schools would focus to provide quality upper primary, secondary and senior secondary
level education to ST Students in these areas.
Apart from school building including hostels and staff quarters, provision for a playground,
students' computer lab, teacher resource room etc. are also included in the EMRSs.

Page 207
SOIL HEALTH CARD SCHEME
Soil Health Card (SHC) is a Government of India’s scheme promoted by the Department of
Agriculture & Co-operation under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare.
It is being implemented through the Department of Agriculture of all the State and Union
Territory Governments.
A SHC is meant to give each farmer soil nutrient status of his/her holding and advice him/her
on the dosage of fertilizers and also the needed soil amendments, that s/he should apply to
maintain soil health in the long run.

20
SHC is a printed report that a farmer will be handed over for each of his holdings.
It will contain the status of his soil with respect to 12 parameters, namely N,P,K (Macro-
nutrients); S (Secondary- nutrient); Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Bo (Micro - nutrients); and pH, EC, OC
(Physical parameters).

20
RashtriyaBalSwasthyaKaryakram (RBSK)
RashtriyaBalSwasthyaKaryakram (RBSK) was launched in 2013 under the National Health
sc
Mission (NHM), RBSK is focused on preventing disease and disability in children.
This initiative is aimed at screening children from 0 to 18 years for 4Ds - Defects at birth,
Diseases,Deficiencies and Development Delays including Disabilities.
up

Children diagnosed with illnesses shall receive follow up including surgeries at tertiary level,
free of cost under NHM.

NaiRoshni
et

The Ministry of Minority Affairs implementation of a scheme “ NaiRoshni” for Leadership


Development of Minority Women
rg

The scheme aims to empower and instil confidence among minority women by providing
knowledge, tools and techniques for interacting with Government systems, Banks and other
institutions at all levels.
The scheme is implemented through Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).
ta

NaiManzil
NaiManzil is a new initiative of the MINISTRY OF MINORITY
The Scheme aims to benefit the minority youths who do not have a formal school leaving
certificate, i.e those in the category of school- dropouts or educated in community education
institutions like Madarsas, in order to provide them formal education and skills, and enable
them to seek better employment and livelihoods in the organised sector.

1000 Springs Initiatives:


The ministry of tribal affairs has launched 1000 Springs Initiatives.
It aims to improve the accessibility of safe and adequate water for the tribal communities who
are living in difficult and inaccessible areas of rural India.
The initiative includes provision of infrastructure for piped water supply for drinking;
Page 208
irrigation; community-led total sanitation initiatives etc

Skills Build Platform


It is a digital platform developed by IBM enabling holistic learning and aligning it with Skills
India initiative by Government of India.
Launched by Directorate General of Training (DGT), under the aegis of Ministry of Skill
Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE).
As part of the programme, a two-year advanced diploma in IT, networking and cloud

20
computing, co-created and designed by IBM, will be offered at the Industrial Training
Institutes (ITIs) & National Skill Training Institutes (NSTIs)

Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana

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Senior Citizens, belonging to BPL category and suffering from any of the age-related
disability/infirmity Low vision, Hearing impairment, Loss of teeth and Locomotor disability.
Assisted-living devices which can restore near normalcy in their bodily functions, overcoming
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the disability/infirmity manifested. They are free-of cost
This is a Central Sector Scheme, fully funded by the Central Government.
The expenditure for implementation of the scheme will be met from the “Senior Citizens’
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Welfare Fund “.

Know India Programme (KIP)


et

Know India Programme (KIP) is a flagship initiative for Diaspora engagement which
familiarizes Indian-origin youth (18-30 years) with their Indian roots and contemporary India.
In 2016, the scheme was revamped to increase duration from21 to 25 days, with a 10- day visit
to one or two States and preference given to PIOs from Girmitiya countries.
rg

“Girmitiyas” or Indentured Laborers, is the name given the Indians who left Indian in the
middle and late 19th Century to serve as laborers in the British colonies, where the majority
eventually settled.Mauritius, Fiji, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago are known as
ta

Girmitiya Countries.
It is organised by the Ministry of External Affairs.

National AYUSH Mission


Objectives:

To promote AYUSH medical systems through cost effective AYUSH services.


To strengthen the educational systems.
To facilitate the enforcement of quality control of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy
(ASU&H) drugs and sustainable availability of the raw-materials needed in them.
It envisages flexibility of implementation of the programmes which will lead to substantial
participation of the State Governments/U

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Pradhan Mantri Laghu Vyapari Maan-Dhan Yojana
(PMLVMY)
It is a pension scheme for small traders under the Unorganised Workers’ Social Security Act,
2008.
Under this scheme all shopkeepers, retail traders and self-employed persons are assured a
minimum monthly pension of Rs. 3,000/ month after attaining the age of 60 years.
All small shopkeepers and self-employed persons as well as the retail traders with GST

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turnover below Rs. 1.5 crore based on self-declaration, who has a savings bank account in his
name and Aaadhar number.
Age between 18-40 years, can enroll for this scheme.
The government will make a matching contribution in the subscribers’ account, an amount

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that would depend on the age at which the applicant enters the scheme.

SAMVAY sc
MHRD had launched a scheme on Skill Assessment Matrix for Vocational Advancement of
Youth (SAMVAY) on 11th November 2014 for Credit Framework to support students mobility
Under National Skills Quality Framework (NSQF). SAMVAY was created to support mobility of
students between various levels of general education, community colleges and Bachelor of
up

Vocational Courses (B.Voc) courses run by polytechnics and colleges approved by UGC and
AICTE.
It allows vertical and lateral mobility within the vocational education system and between the
current education system.
et

SWAYAM PRABHA
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It is an initiative to provide 32 high quality educational channels through DTH (Direct to


Home) across the length and breadth of the country on 24X7 basis. This would enable to
deliver e-education in a most cost effective manner.
The Department of Space has allotted two Transponders of GSAT-15 for the same. The
ta

subscribers of free DTH service of Doordarshan (Free dish) would be able to view these
Educational channels using the same set Top Box and TV. No additional investment would be
required.

Various approaches of development


Income Approach: Human development is seen as being linked to income. The idea is that
the level of income reflects the level of freedom an individual enjoys. Higher the level of
income, the higher is the level of human development.
Welfare Approach: This approach looks at human beings as beneficiaries or targets of all
development activities. The approach argues for higher government expenditure on education,
health, social secondary amenities. People are not participants in development but only
passive recipients
Basic needs Approach: This approach was initially proposed by the International

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LabourOrganisation (ILO). Six basic needs i.e. health, education, food, water supply,
sanitation, and housing were identified. The question of human choices is ignored and the
emphasis is on the provision of basic needs of defined sections.
Capability Approach: This approach is associated with Prof. Amartya Sen. Building human
capabilities in the areas of health, education and access to resources is the key to increasing
human development

Silk Samagra:

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It is initiated by the Central Silk Board.
The scheme comprises four major components viz. (i) Research & Development, Training,
Transfer of Technology and Information Technology Initiatives, (ii) Seed Organizations, (iii)
Coordination and Market Development and (iv) Quality Certification Systems (QCS) / Export

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Brand Promotion and Technology Upgradation.
The main objective of the scheme is to maintain Breeders stock, Breed improvement through
R&D Projects, Development of mechanized practices, Technology translation through
Sericulture Information Linkages and Knowledge System (SILKS) Portal, Mobile Application
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for Stakeholders and for seed qualitymonitoring etc.

North East Rural Livelihood Project (NERLP):


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It is a World Bank aided project launched in 2012, was implemented by Ministry of


Development of North Eastern Region (MDoNER).
It aims to improve rural livelihoods especially that of women, unemployed youth and the most
disadvantaged people by building community based organizations and developing partnership
et

with Government and other institutions for knowledge, skill, credit, insurance, and market.

Bharatiya Poshan Krishi Kosh:


rg

Ministry of Women and Child Development is going to launch BharatiyaPoshan Krishi Kosh.
It is a repository of diverse crops across 128 agro-climatic zones in India.
ta

Its aim is to provide better nutritional outcomes and to fight malnutrition.


Harvard Chan School of Public Health and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation will be a
part of this initiative.
They will document and evaluate promising regional dietary practices and the messaging
around them and develop a food atlas on regional agro-food systems.
It will select around 12 high focus states, which are representative of the geographical, social,
economic, cultural and structural diversities of India.

Special Central Assistance (SCA) to Scheduled Castes Sub-


Plan (SCSP):
It is a policy initiative for development of Scheduled Castes in which 100 % assistance is given
as an additive to SCSP of the States/ UTs on the basis of certain criteria such as SC population
of the States/UTs, relative backwardness of States/UTs, percentage of SC families in the
States/ UTs covered by composite economic development programmes in the State Plan to
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enable them to cross the poverty line, etc.
It is an umbrella strategy to ensure flow of targeted financial and physical benefits from all the
general sectors of development for the benefit of Scheduled Castes. Under this Scheme, the
States /UTs are required to formulate and implement Special Component Plan (SCP) for
Scheduled Castes as part of their annual plans by earmarking resource

The Integrated Disease Surveillance Program (IDSP):


It is an initiative by the Ministry of Health and Family Affairs that started in 2004 with the

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assistance of the World Bank.
Its main objective is to strengthen/maintain a decentralized laboratory based IT enabled
disease surveillance system for epidemic-prone diseases to monitor disease trends and to
detect and respond to outbreaks in the early rising phase through trained Rapid Response

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Team (RRTs).
Thus, it aims to strengthen disease surveillance for infectious diseases to detect and respond
to outbreaks immediately.
sc
NSAP comprises the following schemes for Below Poverty
Line (BPL) Households:
up

Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS): Under the scheme, assistance is
provided to person of 60 years and above and belonging to family living below poverty line as
per the criteria prescribed by the Government of India. Central assistance of ₹ 200/- per month
is provided to person in the age group of 60-79 years and ₹ 500/- per month to persons of 80
et

years and above.


Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme (IGNWPS): Under the scheme central
assistance of ₹ 300/- per month is provided to widows in the age-group of 40-79 years and
rg

belonging to family living below poverty line as per the criteria prescribed by Government of
India. After attaining the age of 80 years, the beneficiary would be shifted to IGNOAPS for
getting pension of ₹ 500/- per month.
Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme (IGNDPS): Under the scheme central
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assistance of ₹ 300/- per month is provided to persons aged 18- 79 years with severe or
multiple disabilities and belonging to family living below poverty line as per the criteria
prescribed by Government of India. After attaining the age of 80 years, the beneficiary would
be shifted to IGNOAPS for getting pension of ₹ 500/- per month.
National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS): Under the scheme a BPL household is entitled to
lump sum amount of money on the death of primary breadwinner aged between 18 and 59
years. The amount of assistance is ₹ 20,000/-.
Annapurna: Under the scheme, 10 kg of foodgrains per month are provided free of cost to
those senior citizens who, though eligible under IGNOAPS, are not receiving pension under
IGNOAPS.

Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi (RAN)


The RAN was set up in 1997 to provide financial assistance to patients suffering from major
life threatening diseases related to heart, liver, kidney and cancer cases, etc.
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It is provided to people living below poverty line
It is provided to receive medical treatment at any of the super-specialty Government
hospitals/institutes or other Government hospitals. No grant is released to patients seeking
treatment at private hospitals.
The financial assistance to such patients is released in the form of ‘one time grant’ to the
Medical Superintendent of the hospital in which the treatment is being received.
Budgetary provisions are made to fund the RAN Scheme by the Central Government
RAN is managed by a Management Committee consisting of the following members : Union
Health Minister – Chairman

20
Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana
It seeks to protect elderly persons aged 60 years and above to provide social security in old

20
age.
The Scheme is being implemented through the LIC of India.
It provides an assured return of 8 percent per annum payable monthly for 10 years.
The differential return i.e., the difference between the return generated by LIC and the
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assured return of 8 percent would be borne by the Government of India as subsidy on an
annual basis.

Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana


up

It is a highly subsidized insurance scheme administered through Life Insurance Corporation of


India.
It covers below the poverty line (BPL) and marginally above poverty line citizens involved
et

under 48 identified occupations. Hence, pair 2 is not correctly matched.


It provides insurance cover for death as well as accidental disabilities.
A nominal premium of ₹ 200/- per member per annum is charged, out of which ₹ 100/- is borne
rg

by the central government through Social Security Fund maintained through LIC of India.
In addition, there is an add on the benefit of scholarship at the rate of ₹ 1,200/- per annum per
childfor two children per family of the insured members studying from 9th to 12th standard
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(including ITIcourses).

Atal Pension Yojana


It seeks to address the longevity risks among the workers in the unorganised sector who are
not covered under any statutory social security scheme.
The APY is focussed on all citizens in the unorganized sector, who join the National Pension
System (NPS) administered by the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority
(PFRDA).
Any Indian citizen between 18-40 years of age can join through their savings bank
account/post office savings account.
Minimum pension of ₹ 1,000 or ₹ 2,000 or ₹ 3,000 or ₹ 4,000 or ₹ 5,000 is guaranteed by the
Government of India to the subscriber at the age of 60 years.

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Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana
It is a personal accident insurance scheme covering death/disability due to an accident.
It is available to people in the age group of 18 to 70 years having a bank account. Hence, pair
4 is not correctly matched.

SAMVAY:
MHRD had launched a scheme on Skill Assessment Matrix for Vocational Advancement of

20
Youth (SAMVAY) on 11th November 2014 for Credit Framework to support students mobility
under National Skills Quality Framework (NSQF).
SAMVAY was created to support mobility of students between various levels of general
education, community colleges and Bachelor of Vocational Courses (B.Voc) courses run by

20
polytechnics and colleges approved by UGC and AICTE.
It allows vertical and lateral mobility within the vocational education system and between the
current education system. Hence pair 2 is not correctly matched.
sc
‘Adopt a Heritage: Apni Dharohar, Apni Pehchaan’
It scheme is an initiative of the Ministry of Tourism, in collaboration with the Ministry of
up

Culture and the Archaeological Survey of India.


Under it, the government invites entities, including public sector companies, private
sector firms as wellas individuals, to develop selected monuments and heritage and
tourist sites across India.
et

Development of these tourist sites calls for providing and maintaining basic amenities,
including drinking water, ease of access for the differently-abled and senior citizens,
standardised signage, cleanliness, public conveniences and illumination, along with
rg

advanced amenities such as surveillance systems, nightviewing facilities and tourism


facilitation centres.
The sites/monument are selected on the basis of tourist footfall and visibility and can be
adopted by private and public sector companies and individuals — known as Monument
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Mitras — for an initial period of five years.

Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay SanraksHan Abhiyan (PM-


AASHA)
It is an umbrella scheme aimed at ensuring remunerative prices to the farmers for their
produce.

Components of PM-AASHA:

Price Support Scheme (PSS) - In Price Support Scheme (PSS), physical procurement of pulses,
oilseeds and Copra will be done by Central Nodal Agencies with proactive role of State
governments. It is also decided that in addition to NAFED, Food Cooperation of India (FCI) will
take up PSS operations in states /districts.
The procurement expenditure and losses due to procurement will be borne by Central
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Government as per norms.
Price Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS)- Under Price Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS), it
is proposed to cover all oilseeds for which MSP is notified. In this direct payment of the
differencebetween the MSP and the selling/modal price will be made to pre-registered farmers
selling hisproduce in the notified market yard through a transparent auction process.
All payment will be donedirectly into registered bank account of the farmer. This scheme does
not involve any physicalprocurement of crops as farmers are paid the difference between the
MSP price and Sale/modal priceon disposal in notified market. The support of central
government for PDPS will be given as pernorms.

20
Pilot of Private Procurement & Stockist Scheme (PPPS): Under the Private Procurement
StockistScheme (PPSS), the government is mulling to allow the entry of private players in the
procurement ofoilseeds on a pilot basis. The private players can procure oilseeds at the state-
mandated MSP forwhich they would be paid a service charge not exceeding 15 per cent of the

20
notified support price.

Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM)


sc
JJM aims at providing Functional Household Tap Connection (FHTC) to every rural household
(Har Ghar Nal Se Jal) (with service level at the rate of 55 litres per capita per day (lpcd)) by
2024.
FHTC means a tap connection to a rural household for providing drinking water in adequate
up

quantity of prescribed quality on regular basis.


Following works are to be taken up under JJM:
In-village water supply infrastructure for tap water connection to every household
Development of reliable drinking water sources and/or augmentation of existing sources
et

Technological intervention for treatment to make water potableGreywater (domestic non-faecal


wastewater) management Development of utilities, water quality laboratories, water quality testing
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& surveillance, R&D, knowledge.

Bharat Padhe Online’ campaign


ta

Union HRD Ministry has launched a week-long ‘Bharat Padhe Online’ campaign for
Crowdsourcing of Ideas for Improving Online Education ecosystem of India.

About :‘Bharat Padhe Online’ campaign

Students and teachers are the main target audience of this campaign.
Students who are currently studying in schools or higher educational institutions are the ones
engaging with the existing digital platforms offering various courses etc. on a daily basis.
They can share what is lacking in the existing online platforms and how it can be made more
engaging.
The educators across the country can also come forward to contribute with their expertise and
experience in the field of education.

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Employees’ Provident Funds Scheme
EPF is the main scheme under the Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Act, 1952.
This scheme offers the institution of provident funds for factory employees and other
establishments.
The employee and employer each contribute 12% of the employee’s basic salary and dearness
allowance towards EPF.
The Economic Survey 2016-17 had suggested that employees be allowed to choose whether or
not to save 12% of their salary into EPF or keep it as take home pay.

20
As per current laws, a person mandatorily becomes a member of EPF if his monthly salary
does not exceed Rs. 15,000.

INTERNAL SECURITY

20
Nuclear Command Authority (NCA)
sc
The Nuclear Command Authority (NCA) of India is the authority responsible for command,
control and operational decisions regarding India's nuclear weapons programme.
The Executive Council gives its opinion to the Political Council, which authorises a nuclear
up

attack when deemed necessary.


While the Executive Council is chaired by the National Security Advisor (NSA), the
Political Council is chaired by the Prime Minister.
et

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime


It acts as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United
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Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.
It was named the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in 2002.
UNODC also publishes World Drug Report.
ta

GLOBAL CENTRE FOR NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP


(GCNEP)
Government of India has approved the establishment of Global Centre for Nuclear Energy
Partnership (GCNEP) at village Jasaur Kheri & KheriJasaur, near Bahadurgarh,
District Jhajjar, Haryana
GCNEP will help in capacity building, in association with the interested countries and the
IAEA, involving technology, human resource development, education & training and giving a
momentum to R&D in enlisted areas.

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Central Bureau of Narcotics
The Central Bureau of Narcotics (CBN) headed by the Narcotics Commissioner is
headquartered at Gwalior.
The administrative control of the department lies with CBEC while its operational functions
are monitored by the Department of Revenue, the nodal Department entrusted with the task of
policydecisions over control over narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and precursor and
essential chemicals used in the manufacture of the NDPS.

20
Narcotics Control Bureau
Constituted in 1986 under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985.
It is the apex coordinating agency under the Ministry of Home Affairs.

20
The National Policy on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is based on Article 47 of
the Indian Constitution - prohibition of the consumption, except for medicinal purposes, of
intoxicating drugs injurious to health.
Drug abuse control is the responsibility of the central government.
sc
Defence Exercises between India and France
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Varuna – Naval exercise


Garuda – Air exercise
Shakti – Army exercise
et

Project-75
It is a programme by the Indian Navy that entails building six Scorpene-Class attack
rg

submarines.
The submarines are powered by the conventional diesel-electric propulsion system.
The first Scorpene submarine, Kalvari, was commissioned in 2017 .
Second ScorpeneKhanderi was inducted in September 2019.
ta

The remaining submarines

Vela,
Vagir, and
Vagsheer

Mission RakshaGyan Shakti


It was launched in 2018 by the Ministry of Defence with the objective of creating greater
Intellectual Property (IP) in Defence Production Ecosystem.
The Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) has been entrusted with the
responsibility of coordinating and implementing the programme.
It aims to achieve the goal of self-reliance in the defense sector to generate Intellectual
Property in India and marks a departure from the culture of seeking Transfer of Technology

Page 217
(ToT) from foreign sources.

Bharatiya Poshan Krishi Kosh (BPKK):


The Ministry of Women and Child Development has launched the Bharatiya Poshan Krishi Kosh
(BPKK) in New Delhi.
The BPKK will be a repository of diverse crops across agro-climatic zones in India for better
nutritional outcomes.
Under BPKK country has been broadly divided into fifteen agricultural regions based on agro

20
climatic features, particularly soil type, climate including temperature and rainfall and its
variation and water resources.

Crime Multi Agency Centre (Cri-MAC) and National

20
Cybercrime Training Centre (NCTC).
By HOME AFFAIRS
sc
The National Cybercrime Training Centre (NCTC) is meant for professional quality eLearning
services on cyber-crime investigation on a large scale to police officers, judges, prosecutors
and other stakeholders.
Crime Multi Agency Centre(Cri-MAC) aims to share information between various police forces
up

on heinous crimes and other issues related to inter-state coordination.

‘Operation Trance’
et

A joint intelligence-gathering action on international postal, express mail and courier


shipments containing psychotropic drugs that are abused as sedatives and painkillers
Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) pat of it.
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Budapest Convention
The Council of Europe’s (CoE) Cybercrime Convention is also known as the Budapest
ta

Convention. It was open for signature in 2001 and came into force in 2004.
The convention is the sole legally binding international multilateral treaty on cybercrime.
The convention coordinates cybercrime investigations between nation-states and
criminalizes certain cybercrime conduct.
It serves as a guideline for any country developing comprehensive national legislation against
Cybercrime.
The countries like India and Brazil have not adopted the convention on the grounds that they
did not participate in its drafting.

Strategic Forces Command


The directives of the NCA are to be operationalised by the Strategic Forces Command under
the control of a Commander-in-Chief of the rank of Air Marshal (or its equivalent) in
charge of the management and administration of the tactical and strategic nuclear forces.

Page 218
INS Arihant
It is powered by a nuclear reactor as a result they can remain submerged for months
without having to surface. This allows them to travel farther and with greater stealth.
India’s first indigenously-built nuclear propelled submarine ‘INS Arihant’ which was
commissioned in 2016.
By having INS Arihant India completed its nuclear triad.

‘Operation Trance’

20
A joint intelligence-gathering action on international postal, express mail and courier
shipments containing psychotropic drugs that are abused as sedatives and painkillers
Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) pat of iy

20
CYBER CRISIS MANAGEMENT PLAN
Prepared by CERT-In
sc
To establish the strategic framework and guide actions to prepare for, respond to, and begin
to coordinate recovery from a cyber-incident.
To ensure that interruption or manipulations of critical functions/services in critical sector
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organisations are brief, infrequent and manageable and cause least possible damage.
To fix responsibilities and accountabilities right down to individual level.

Area 51
et

A Facebook event titled “Storm Area 51, They Can’t Stop All of us”
rg

About Area 51:

Area 51 is the common name of a highly classified United States Air Force (USAF)
Area 51 is in US state of Nevada.
ta

The intense secrecy surrounding the base has made it the frequent subject of conspiracy
theories and a central component of unidentified flying object (UFO) folklore.

The project BOLD-QIT


(Border Electronically Dominated QRT Interception Technique) is under CIBMS
(Comprehensive Integrated Border Management system) on the international border in
Dhubri.
“The BOLD-QIT is a project to install technical systems (not for surgical strikes) under CIBMS
which enables the BSF to equip the border with sensors in the unfenced riverine area of the
Brahmaputra and its tributaries.
“The BOLD-QIT is a project to install technical systems under CIBMS which enables the BSF to
equip the border with sensors in the unfenced riverine area of the Brahmaputra and its
tributaries (Indo-Bangladesh).

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The Palermo Protocols
Are three protocols that were adopted by the United Nations to supplement the 2000
Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (the Palermo Convention).
These protocols and convention fall within the jurisdiction of the United Nations Office on
Drugs and Crime.

The three protocols are:

20
the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and
Children; and
the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air.
the Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and

20
Components and Ammunition.

ART & CULTURE


sc
Jangubai cave temple
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The Jangubai Cave Temple and the Kaplai Caves are considered as a pilgrimage site by
aboriginal tribes like Gond, Pradhan and Kolam.
These caves are located at Maharashtra -Telangana border.
The Kolam tribe (or in their own language, Kolavar) is a scheduled tribe of Maharashtra. They
also live in Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Madhya Pradesh.
et

Recently in 2018, the Government has identified Katkaria (Kathodia), Kolam and Maria Gond
as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs).
The Gonds tribe is spread over Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh,
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Karnataka, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Bihar, and West Bengal.


The Pardhan is a subgroup of the tribal Gond people who live in central India.
The large majority of the Pardhan live in the Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
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Rock paintings in Karikiyoor


The rock paintings in Karikiyoor contain analogous-Indus script, meaning they resemble the
script found in Indus civilization sites of northern India.
Members of the Irula tribal community have an ancestral link to the site. The rock paintings
serve both, as a “historical record,” detailing the hunting habits and ways of life of the local
communities, and also a ritualistic purpose.
Karikiyoor at KilKotagiri in the Nilgiri forests of Tamilnadu

Sajibu Cheiraoba
It is a ritual festival of Meiteis which is observed on the first day of Manipur lunar month
Shajibu, which falls in March/April every year.
On the day of the festival, people arrange a joint family feast in which traditional cuisines are

Page 220
offered to local deities at the entrance gates of the houses.

Bathukamma Festival
Bathukamma is a colourful floral festival of Telangana and is celebrated by womenfolk with
exotic flowers of the region.
‘Bathukamma’ means ‘Mother Goddess come Alive’ and the patron goddess of womanhood
Goddess Maha Gauri-‘Life Giver’ is worshipped in the form of Bathukamma. It is the festival
for feminine felicitation.

20
Bathukamma comes during the latter half of monsoon, before the onset of winter.
The most abundant of these are the ‘gunuka poolu’ and ‘tangedu poolu’. There are other
flowers too like the banti, chemanti, nandi-vardhanam etc.
Batukamma celebrates the inherent relationship between earth, water and the human beings.

20
During the entire preceding week, women make ‘boddemma’ (a deity of Gowri – mother Durga
– made with earthly mud) along with Batukamma and immerse it in the pond. This helps
reinforce the ponds and helps it retain more water.
Hence, Bathukamma is the icon of cultural identity of Telangana.
sc
Thiruvalluvar
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Thiruvalluvar, also known as Valluvar, was a celebrated Tamil poet and philosopher.
He is best known for Thirukkural a collection of couplets on ethics, politics, economics, and
love.
Thiruvalluvar is thought to have lived sometime between 33rd – 11st century BC.
et

Thirukkural
Thirukkural is one of the most revered ancient works in Tamil language. It is considered a
rg

‘common creed’, providing a guide for human morals and betterment in life.
It has been translated into several languages, including a translation into Latin by Constanzo
Beschi in 1730.
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Ajanta paintings
The greatest specimen of Buddhist art in Gupta times is the Ajanta cave paintings.
They were built from a period spanning from 1 cent to 7 cent AD. But most work was done in
Gupta age.
They depict various scenes from the life of Buddha and his previous births.
Ajanta paintings were dominated by buddha, bodhisattva, jataka stories, natural scenery,
animals etc. But it cannot be said that Guptas patronized these paintings.
Even though the theme is religious in most paintings, we also find a glimpse of the lives of the
princes, kings, common man etc.
Centrality is one of the main features of the composition so that attention is at once drawn to
the most important person in each scene.
Both the fresco and the tempera styles were used. The fresco style paintings are made on wet
plaster and the tempera style paintings are made on dry plaster.

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Thumri
Thumri is a vocal genre or style of Indian music.
Originated in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, mainly in Lucknow & Benares, around 18th century.
It is said to have begun in Uttar Pradesh with the court of Nawab Wajid Ali. A romantic &
erotic style of singing; also called “the lyric of Indian classical music”.
Lyrics are typically in Brij Bhasha and are usually romantic & religious. Compositions are
mostly on love, separation and devotion.
Various episodes of the lives of Lord Krishna & Radha is portrayed.

20
Three main gharanas of thumri — Benaras, Lucknow and Patiala.

Yakshagana

20
Yakshagana is a traditional theatre form that combines unique blending of music, extempore
dialogues, phenomenal dancing moves, rich make-up and intrinsically designed costumes.
This theatre style is mainly found in Tulunadu and some parts of Malenadu region of
Karnataka and Kerala. Yakshagana is traditionally presented from dusk to dawn.
sc
Its stories are drawn from Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavata and other Hindu epics.
Yakshagana evolved as a dance form during the Bhakti Movement. Narahari Tirtha, a disciple
of Madhvacharya, is said to be the first person to introduce Yakshagana in Udupi. He was also
up

the founder of Kuchipudi.


An inscription dating around 1556 CE has been evidence that Yakshagana existed from a long
time. This inscription has been the first written evidence to cite about this dance form.
Researches and Experts have placed the origin of the Yakshagana approximately in the period
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of 11th and 16th Century CE.


Yakshagana became an established art form during the time of Parthi Subba, who was a
Yakshagana poet.
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Dholavira
Dholavira, also known as Kotada (which means large fort), is located in Khadir island of the
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Rann of Kutchch, Gujarat.


It has two seasonal streams: Mansar in the north, and Manhar in the south.
It is one of the two largest Harappan sites in India, and 5th largest in the subcontinent.
It passed through all the stages of the Harappan culture from circa 2900 BC to 1500 BC.
Town Planning: It consisted of a bipartite ‘citadel’, a ‘middle town’ and a ‘lower town’, two
‘stadia’, an ‘annexe’, a series of reservoirs all set within a fortification running on all four sides

NOMINATED BY INDIA FOR WORLD HERITAGE SITE

Statue of Unity
It was included as 8th wonder of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.

The Wonders of SCO include archaeological and historical monuments of SCO.

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It includes:

Statue of Unity in India


Daming Palace in China
Navruz Palace in Tajikistan
Mughals Heritage in Pakistan
Tamgaly Gorge in Kazakhstan
Po-i-Kalan Complex in Uzbekistan
The Golden Ring of Russia

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Lahore, the Mughals heritage in Pakistan

JAINA TEMPLES :

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Gomateshvar in Shravanabelagola, Karnataka, built in 983 A.D. is the largest statue of
Jaina tirthankara Bahubali.
Dilwara temple, Mt. Abu built by Chalukyan ruler of Gujarat, Bhimadeva (1031 A.D.) is one of
the most significant.
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In Udayagiri-Khandagiri caves in Odisha lie 35 Jaina caves. Hathigumpha inscription of
Kharavela is found here.
Khajuraho temple complex also consists of Jaina temples dating from 10th and 11th century.
Of significance is Parshwanath temple.
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Ellora caves too consist of Jaina caves. Indrasabha cave is

Mughal Prince Dara Shikoh:


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The Union Ministry of Culture formed a seven-member committee to locate and conserve the
grave of Mughal Prince Dara Shikoh, which is believed to be inside the Humayun’s Tomb
complex in Nizamuddin.
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He is believed to be buried somewhere in the Humayun’s Tomb complex in Delhi, one of


around 140 graves of the Mughal clan.
The committee was headed by T. J. Alone, director-monuments at the Archaeological
Survey of India (ASI). The eldest son of Shah Jahan, Dara Shikoh was killed after losing the
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war of succession against his brother Aurangzeb.


Dara Shikoh is described as a “liberal Muslim” who tried to find commonalities between Hindu
and Islamic traditions.
He translated into Persian the Bhagavad Gita as well as 52 Upanishads.

Tanjore Paintings:
Tanjore Painting is one of the most popular forms of classical South Indian painting.
It is the native art form of Thanjavur (also known as Tanjore) city of Tamil Nadu.
Tanjore Painting of India originated during the 16th century, under the reign of the Cholas.
Maratha princes, Nayakas, Rajus communities of Tanjore and Trichy and Naidus of Madurai
also patronizedIndian Thanjavur Paintings from 16th to 18th century
The dense composition, surface richness and vibrant colors of Indian Thanjavur Paintings
distinguish them from the other types of paintings. There are embellishments of semi-precious

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stones, pearls and glass pieces that further add to their appeal.
The relief work gives them a three dimensional effect.
Most of these paintings revolve around the theme of Hindu Gods and Goddesses, along with
saints.
The main figure is always painted at the center of the painting.

Mysore Painting-
Mysore Painting is a form of classical South Indian painting, which evolved in the Mysore city

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of Karnataka.
During that time, Mysore was under the reign of the Wodeyars and it was under their
patronage that this school of painting reached its zenith.
Quite similar to the Tanjore Paintings, Mysore Paintings of India make use of thinner gold

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leaves and require much more hard work. The most popular themes of these paintings include
Hindu Gods and Goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology.
The grace, beauty and intricacy of Indian Mysore Paintings leave the onlookers mesmerized.
Company painting- Company painting, also called Patna painting, style of miniature painting
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that developed in India in the second half of the 18th century in response to the tastes of the
British serving with the EastIndia Company.
The style first emerged in Murshidabad, West Bengal, and then spread to other centres
ofBritish trade: Benares (Varanasi), Delhi, Lucknow, and Patna.
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Basohli painting, school of Pahari miniature painting that flourished in the Indian hill states
during the late 17th and 18th centuries, known for its bold vitality of colour and line.
Though the school takes its name from the small independent state of Basohli, the principal
centre of the style, examples are found throughout the region
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Madhubani painting (Mithila painting)


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Was traditionally created by the women of various communities in the Mithila region of the
Indian subcontinent. Traditionally, painting was one of the skills that were passed down from
generation to generation in the families of the Mithila Region, mainly by women.
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The paintings were traditionally done on freshly plastered mud walls and floors of huts, but
now they are also done on cloth, handmade paper and canvas. Madhubani paintings are made
from the paste of powdered rice.
These paintings are 2 dimensional.

The Aranyakas
This are also texts attached to the Vedas and they describe the rituals and sacrifices involved
in the Vedas from various perspectives.
They are said to be compilations of ritualistic information on the birth and death cycles as well
as the complexity of the soul.
It is argued that holy and learned men, called Munis, who preferred to dwell within the
limits of the forests, taught them.
Upanishad (u (at), pa (foot), ni (down) and s (h) ad (to sit) to sit down near the teacher),
describes the text completely.

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We have more than 200 known Upanishads and the teacher usually passed them down verbally
to his students in the forest while they sat in front of him.
This tradition was part of the guru-shishya parampara. These are treatises written in
Sanskrit and give an account of the Vedas in predominantly monastic and mystical terms.
As they are generally the last part of the Vedas, they are also known as Vedanta or ‘end (anta)
of the Veda’.
The Upanishads are said to have the ‘truth’ about human life and show the way towards
human salvation or moksha.

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Mricchakatika
It is a Sanskrit play composed by Sudraka, dated between second century BCE and the fifth
century CE. Mricchakatika means ‘The little clay cart’.

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It’s a Love affair of young brahmin Charudatta with a wealthy courtesan.
Malavikagnimitra is the love story of Malavika a maiden of Queen and Agnimitra the son
of Pushyamitra Shunga.
It is written by Kalidasa.
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Svapnavasavadattam is a Sanskrit play in six acts, written by the ancient Indian poet Bhasa.
The plot of the drama is drawn from the romantic narratives about the Vatsa king Udayana
and Vasavadatta, the daughter of Pradyota, the ruler of Avanti, which were current in the
poet's time and which seem to have captivated popular imagination.
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The main theme of the drama is the sorrow of Udayana for his queen Vasavadatta, believed by
him to have perished in a fire, which was actually a rumour spread by Yaugandharayana, a
minister of Udayana to compel his king to marry Padmavati, the daughter of the king of
Magadha.
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It forms, in context, a continuation of his other drama, Pratijnayaugandharayana.


Devi-Chandraguptam is an Indian Sanskrit-language political drama attributed to
Vishakhadeva, who is generally identified with Vishakhadatta. In the play, king Ramagupta
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decides to surrender his queen Dhruvadevi ("Devi") to a Shaka enemy when besieged.
Ramagupta's younger brother Chandragupta enters the enemy camp disguised as the queen,
and kills the enemy ruler
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Yogyakarta Principles
Recognize freedom of sexual orientation and gender identity as part of Human Rights.
They were outlined in 2006 in Yogyakarta, Indonesia by a distinguished group of International
Human Right experts.
Supreme Court in Navtej Singh Johar vs Union of India Case decriminalized homosexuality by
striking off parts of Section 377 of IPC which were held violative of Fundamental Rights of
LGBTQ Community

Kalhana
Wrote ‘Rajatarangini’ or ‘The Stream of Kings’ which is a string of biography of the Kings of
Kashmir.
Bilhana wrote ‘Vikramanakadevacharita’ which recounts the achievements of his patron,

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Vikramaditya VI,the Chalukya king Kalyan.
Atula wrote ‘Mushika Vamsa’ in the eleventh century. It gives an account of the dynasty of
Mushika, whichruled the northern Kerala.
Sandhyakara Nandi’s ‘Ramcharita’, written in the twelfth century, narrates the story of
conflict betweenKaivarta peasants and the Pala King, Rampala, in which the latter won.

The Wanchuwa festival:


Is one of the most important celebrations in the life of the Tiwa tribe of Assam — a community

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that centers itself around a traditional form of agriculture.
The Tiwas practice Jhum or shifting cultivation, where the land is first cleared of any
vegetation that is later set on fire (slash-and-burn).

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Madhushravani Festival or Madhu Sravani Puja:
Is a main festival observed in Mithilanchal part of Bihar. Madhushravani is celebrated in
Shravan Month (July – August) for consecutive 13 days and ends on Shravan Shukla Tritiya
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with elaborate pooja and feasting.

The Dosmoche festival


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Is celebrated in Jammu and Kashmir to purify the town by burning down evil spirits.
The ringing of bells signals ceremony and the drum announces the imminent ritual, the gongs
proclaim the forthcoming festival and the ‘wooden fish’ (wooden percussion instrument) keeps
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rhythm with the guttural chants of the Buddhist


monks that resonate from the Leh Palace.
It is a time to purge and purify the town, a time to lure all the evil spirits and burn them down.
It is the Buddhist festival of the 'scapegoat' that falls in the second half of February.
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It is a unique annual celebration by the Buddhists of the Vajrayana School.

Chapchar Kut festival


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At the end of February, when winter starts receding, the Mizos prepare the land for fresh
planting.
There are few days of relaxation before the serious business of sowing starts and that is when
the Chapchar Kut festival is celebrated with gaiety and fervour.
A spring festival, this is the most important festival and the only one regularly observed during
the first week of March in Mizoram.

Shondol Dance:
Shondol dan ce has created history at the 2019 Naropa festival by entering into the Guinness
Book of World Records as the largest Ladakhi dance.
Shondol Dance is known as the royal dance of Ladakh.
Women attired in traditional dresses and beautiful head gears perform the dance.

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Chavang kuth
Why in news?

Nagaland celebrated 12th anniversary-cum-Chavang Kut.

About Chavang kuth

Chavang Kut the post-harvest festival of the Kuki-Chin-Mizo communities is being celebrated

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across North-Eastern states with traditional gaiety and enthusiasm.
It is one of the most important festivals of Kuki-Chin-Mizo communities. It is a state holiday in
Manipur.
The festival marks the Anglo-Kuki war centenary year.

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Shramana:
The word Shramana means one who performs acts of austerity and ascetic. It refers to several
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Indian religious movements parallel to Vedic religion. The various Shramana schools include:
Jainism
Buddhism
Ajivikas
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Ajnanas
Charvakas
All above five belong to Nastika or Heterodox school of philosophy.
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Bandi Chhor Divas


Bandi Chhor Divas is celebrated a day after Deepavali to mark the arrival of the sixth Sikh
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Guru Hargobind (1595- 1644) in Amritsar after his release from Gwalior Fort. The Mughal
emperor Jahangir (1605-1627) viewed the buildup of Sikh power as a threat and jailed Guru
Hargobind in the Gwalior Fort.
Guru Hargobind developed a strong Sikh army and gave the Sikh religion its military
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character, in accord with the instructions of his father, Guru Arjan, the first Sikh martyr, who
had been executed on the order of the Mughal emperor Jahangir

Veer Surendra Sai


The Union Cabinet has approved renaming of Jharsuguda Airport, Odisha as “Veer Surendra
Sai Airport, Jharsuguda”.
Veer Surendra Sai was a well-known freedom fighter of Odisha. He played a significant role in
the first Indian struggle for freedom of 1857.
Though the great revolt of 1857 was suppressed elsewhere in India in 1858, it continued till
1862 in the district of Sambalpur in Orissa, largely due to efforts of Veer Surendra Sai.

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Dhokra Sculpture
Dhokra sculptures, a type of folk art, is an age-old wax-casting technique also known as Lost-
wax process.
Dhokra is an alloy of brass, nickel and zinc which gives an antique look.
The oldest specimen using such technique was during Harappan Period (famous Dancing Girl
of Mohenjo-daro).
Dhokra Tradition is practised in the following states: € Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh,
Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Nagaland (Konyak Naga Tribe).

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Its motifs are mostly drawn from folk culture which includes animal figures like elephant,
horse, gods and goddesses, containers with lids, lamp and lamp stands, intricate designs in
shape of trees and branches.

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Dhokra Sculpture
Dhokra sculptures, a type of folk art, is an age-old wax-casting technique also known as Lost-
wax process.
sc
Dhokra is an alloy of brass, nickel and zinc which gives an antique look.
The oldest specimen using such technique was during Harappan Period (famous Dancing Girl
of Mohenjo-daro).
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Dhokra Tradition is practised in the following states: Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh,
Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Nagaland (Konyak Naga Tribe).
Its motifs are mostly drawn from folk culture which includes animal figures like elephant,
horse, gods and goddesses, containers with lids, lamp and lamp stands, intricate designs in
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shape of trees and branches.

Aadi Mahotsav
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The 4th edition of annual “Aadi Mahotsav”, a National Tribal Festival organized by Ministry of
Tribal Affairs in association with TRIFED and Ministry of Culture was held from 16-30
November, 2018 at Dilli Haat.
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The theme of the festival: Celebration of the spirit of tribal culture, craft, cuisine and
commerce.
Article 46 of the Constitution of India lays down that the state shall promote with special care
the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people and in particular
of the scheduled tribes and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of
exploitation

Reggae got UNESCO Heritage Status


Reggae music, which got international fame because of artists like Bob Marley, secured its
place in United Nations’ list of intangible cultural heritage.
Reggae music genre originated in Jamaica (a Caribbean island nation).

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Brick Temple at Bhitargaon
The temple at Bhitargaon in Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) is one of the earliest surviving brick
temples of India.
It was built in the 5th century A.D. during the Gupta Empire.
It is the oldest remaining terracotta Hindu shrine with a roof and a high Shikhara (spire)
which paved the way for elaborate.
Nagara style of temple architecture in North India.

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Saharia Tribe
The Saharia Tribe, one of the most backward tribes in the country, resides in Rajasthan and
Madhya Pradesh.

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They worship many Hindu God and Goddesses and also celebrate various Hindu festivals.
They have been classified as a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG) because of low
development indices.
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Paika Rebellion
The Government has released a commemorative coin and postage stamp in memory of Paika
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Rebellion.
The decision to commemorate the bicentenary of the revolution was announced in the 2017-18
Budget Speech. ¾ Pre-dating what has been popularly regarded as the first war of
independence in 1857, the Paika Bidroha (Paika Rebellion) of 1817 in Odisha briefly shook the
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foundations of British rule in the eastern part of India.


Paikas were essentially the peasant militias of the Gajapati rulers of Odisha who rendered
military service to the king during times of war while taking up cultivation during times of
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peace.

The Sal Tree Theatre Festival


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‘Under the Sal Tree’ theatre festival is held every December inside the sal forest of Rampur
village in Goalpara district of Assam.
It is a three day theatre festival organised in the middle of a jungle with an aim to connect
human beings with nature.
The festival was initiated by the noted Assamese theatre personality Sukracharya Rabha.

Ranipur – Jharial – Odisha


Ranipur Jharial is known as “Soma Tirth” in scriptures.
It is a combination of religious faiths of Shaivism, Buddhism, Vaishnavism, and Tantrism.
The site is famous for Chausath (64) Yogini temples or the temples without roofs—known as
the hypaethral temples.

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Petroglyphs
Petroglyphs are rock carvings (rock paintings are called pictographs) made by pricking
directly on the rock surface using a stone chisel and a hammerstone.
These Petroglyphs mostly have images of bulls or bull-riding, in addition to human figures, an
elephant, tiger-like animals and cupules.
While Mekala Benchi has petroglyphs dating back from the Neolithic to the Megalithic period,
Kandanathi carvings range from the prehistoric to the historic period.
The petroglyphs at Kandanathi reveal the presence of the Boya community divided into many

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exogamous groups such as Mandla (herdsmen) and Yenubothula (buffalomen).
Andhra Pradesh’s second largest petroglyph site, containing about 80 petroglyphs, has been
discovered at Mekala Benchi in Kurnool district.
Kandanathi, with 200 petroglyphs, the biggest petroglyph site in Andhra Pradesh is also in

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Kurnool district.

Ladakh’s Dard Aryan Tribes


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Dard Aryan tribe of Ladakh has requested the central government intervention to protect their
culture and legacy.
Dard Aryans are believed to be the original descendants of ‘pure Aryan race’.
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The tribe is known for its liberal customs and ornate costumes. Many researchers believe that
the ‘Aryans of Ladakh’ or the ‘Brokpas’ were a part of Alexander’s army and had come to the
region over 2,000 years ago. ¾ They live in the villages of Dha and Hanu (commonly called as
Dhahanu), Darchik, and Gahanu - situated 163 kms southwest of Leh, the administrative
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capital of Ladakh.

Sangrai Dance
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Sangrai dance is performed by the Mog tribal community on the occasion of Sangrai festival
during the month of Chaitra (in April) of the Bengali calendar year.
The Mogs are one of the 19 tribes in Tripura.
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The Mogs are Arakanese descendants who migrated to Tripura through Chittagong Hill Tracts.

Mithilakshar Script of Maithili Language


Mithilakshar or Tirhuta is the script of broader cultural Mithila.
Mithilakshar, Bangla, Assamese, Nebari, Odia and Tibetan are a part of the same family of
scripts.
It is an ancient script and is one of the scripts of the broader North Eastern India.
Mithilakshar script emerged during 10th Century AD as its oldest form was found in Sahodara
stone inscriptions of 950 AD.
The script has been used throughout Mithila from Champaran to Deoghar.
The use of this script has been declining since the last 100 years, which is the primary reason
for the cultural decline.

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Maithili Language
Maithili is a language spoken in Bihar belonging to the eastern sub-group of the Indo-Aryan
branch.
Bhojpuri and Magadhi are closely related to the language.
The language is claimed to have developed from Magadhan Prakrit.
It was the literary language of all of eastern India during the medieval period.
This language was popularised in fourteenth century by poet Vidyapati and solidified the
importance of the language in literature.

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Maithili language has been accorded Constitutional status in 2003 and it became one of the 22
languages mentioned in the 8th Schedule.

Kawtchhuah Ropui Heritage Site, Mizoram

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Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has discovered traces of an ancient civilization in
Vangchhia, a village in Mizoram’s Champhai district bordering Myanmar.
The site has been named as the Kawtchhuah Ropui heritage site.
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Kawtchhuah Ropui means the Great Entranceway.
Kawtchhuah Ropuithe heritage site is Mizoram’s first site which is under the protected
monuments of Archaeological Survey of India’s (ASI).
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The site, measuring about 45 sq km has yielded pictographs etched on large stone slabs,
menhirs (large standing stones), a necropolis (a large cemetery), a water pavilion among other
artifacts.
The ancient people of Vangchhia also carved terraces on rocks for their settlement – the main
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excavated site consists of 15 such terraces.

Attukal Pongala
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The Attukal Pongala held in Attukal Temple, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala and is the largest
congregation of women for a festival in the world.
Pongala, which means ‘to boil over’, is the ritual in which women prepare sweet payasam (a
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pudding made from rice, jaggery, coconut and plantains cooked together) and offer it to the
Goddess or ‘Bhagavathy’.
The ritual can only be performed by women and the streets of the city are known to be jam-
packed with faithful devotees during the time of the festival.
The Goddess-fondly referred to as ‘Attukalamma’ is said to be appeased by this ritual.
The Attukal Pongala entered the Guinness Book of Records as the largest gathering of women
in 2009.

Apatani Tribes in Arunachal Pradesh

Aaptani are a tribal group of people living in the Ziro valley in Arunachal Pradesh.
They speak a local language called Tani and worship the sun and the moon.
They follow a sustainable social forestry system.
They celebrate major festivals – Dree with prayers for a bumper harvest and prosperity of all
humankind and Myoko to celebrate Friendship.

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The Apatanis practice aquaculture along with rice farming on their plots. Rice-fish culture in
the valley is a unique practice in the state, where two crops of rice (Mipya and Emoh) and one
crop of fish (Ngihi) are raised together.

Pattachitra Painting
Pattachitra style of painting is one of the oldest and most popular art forms of Odisha.
The name Pattachitra has evolved from the Sanskrit words Patta, meaning canvas, and Chitra,
meaning picture.

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Pattachitra is thus a painting done on canvas and is manifested by rich colourful application,
creative motifs and designs, and portrayal of simple themes, mostly mythological in depiction.
Some of the popular themes represented through this art form are Thia Badhia - depiction of
the temple of Jagannath; Krishna Lila - enactment of Jagannath as Lord Krishna displaying his

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powers as a child; Dasabatara Patti - the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu; Panchamukhi -
depiction of Lord Ganesh as a five-headed deity.
The Pattachitra, when painted on cloth, follows a traditional process of preparation of the
canvas. First, the base is prepared by coating the cloth with the soft, white, stone powder of
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chalk and glue made from tamarind seeds.
The artist does not use a pencil or charcoal for the preliminary drawings. It is a tradition to
complete the borders of the painting first.
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Konyak Dance
Around 4,700 Konyak Naga women, in their colourful traditional attire came together on April
5, 2019, in an attempt to set a Guinness World Record for the “Largest Traditional Konyak
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Dance”.
In their attempt, Konyak people danced to the beat of traditional instruments and sang a
ceremonial song for five minutes and one second.
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The programme was organised at Mon (Nagaland) during the Aoleang Monyu festival of the
Konyak tribe which is celebrated every year in the first week of April to welcome the spring.

Konyak Tribe
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This is one of the 16 Naga tribes and people of this community live mainly in the Mon district
of Nagaland, India.
They are recognized among other Naga by their tattoos, which they have all over their face
and hands.
The Konyak language belongs to the Northern Naga sub branch of the Sal subfamily of
SinoTibetan.

Navroz
Navroj was celebrated on March 21 to mark the beginning of spring and the day of the
equinox. Key Points
Navroz is New Year celebrations of Parsis, followers of Zoroastrianism and various sects of
Muslim, both Shias and Sunnis.

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In 1079 AD, a Persian (Iranian) king named Jalaluddin Malekshah introduced the Navroz (New
Year) festival to generate revenue and collect taxes from people.
It is inscribed in the list of UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity of India. In
India, it is known as Jamshed Navroz.

Azaadi Ke Diwane Museum


The Ministry of Culture inaugurated ‘Azaadi ke Diwane’ museum at Red Fort, Delhi.
The museum is fifth in the Kranti Mandir series of recently inaugurated museums in the Red

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Fort Complex – others being, Subhash Chandra Bose and INA museum, Yaad-e-Jallian museum,
Museum on 1857 – India’s first war of Independence and Drishyakala – Museum on Indian Art.

Chaitra Jatra Festival

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The Chaitra Jatra festival is celebrated in the month of Chaitra during Tuesdays
The festival is celebrated at Tara Tarini hill shrine.
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Tara Tarini hill
The shrine is located in the Tara Tarini hill on the banks of Rushikulya river.
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The Rushikulya river is one of the major rivers of the Odisha state.
The river originated from Daringabadi hills that is located in Eastern Ghats.

Kondapalli Toys
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Kondapalli toys, cultural icons of Andhra Pradesh, are one of the most sold handicrafts in
India and abroad, across online, wholesale, and retail platforms.
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The 'Tella Poniki' wood gives the toys a unique character. No other wood can be a
replacement to make these toys as Tella Poniki is malleable and can be easily chiselled into the
desired shape.
Kondapalli Toys have been granted the Geographical Indications (GI) tag.
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Galo Community
The Galos are one of the major communities which dominate Siang, Lepa Rada, Upper
Subansiri and Namsai districts of Arunachal Pradesh.
The Galos belong to the Tani group inhabiting Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, besides
Tibet.
Galo community has been recognized as a Scheduled Tribe in the Amendment to the
Constitution (ST), Order, 1950, Part-XVIII.
Mopin is the main festival among Galos which is celebrated for the prosperity of the villages
The Galos perform Popir dance.

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Sattriya
Origin Sattriya originated in Sattra, monastery, as a part of neo-Vaishnavite movement
started by Srimanta Sankardev in Assam, in the 15th Century. He propagated the “ek
sharan naama dharma” (chanting the name of one God devotedly).
Classical Dance: Sattriya was given the status of a classical dance in the year 2000 by the
Sangeet Natak Akademi.
Sattriya dances differ from other dance forms in its basic stance. For male it is known as
Purush Pak while for female, Prakriti Pak. The dance is based on mythological themes.

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They have special mnemonic bols, typical Assamese music known as Borgeet, musical
instruments like large cymbals, drums, colourful costumes, besides complicated choreographic
patterns using various talas for each stanza sung by the vocalist.

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Lakshmi Narsimha Temple
The temple was built during Hoysala rule in the early 13th century.
It is built in ‘Trikuta’ style, that is, having three shrines-dedicated to Lakshmi Narasimha,
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Venugopalaswamy and Purushothama.
The outer walls of the temple bear great detailed carvings in Hoysala style.
The concrete flooring on the platform, also called jagati, is used by devotees as
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pradakshina path (passageway for circumambulation).

Assamese Bhaona
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Recently, Bhaona performers from Assam made a foreign debut in Abu Dhabi.
Bhaona is a traditional form of entertainment. A Bhaona involves dialogues, songs, and
dances.
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It usually involves 40-50 performers wearing costumes and ornaments including those playing
heavy drums and cymbals.
The actors who perform it are known as Bhaoriya.
It was the creation of Sankardeva (a Vaishnava saint born in 1449 A.D in Nagaon district of
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Assam. He started the neo-Vaishnavite movement).

Petta Thullal
Petta Thullal is the ritualistic sacred dance to celebrate the victory of good over evil in the
legend of Lord Ayyappa who killed the demon princess Mahish.
It denotes the beginning of the last leg of the annual Sabarimala pilgrimage season in
Kerala.

Suranga Bawadi
Suranga Bawadi, situated in Bijapur, Karnataka, has been added to the World
Monuments Watch List. The monument has been selected under the ‘Ancient Water
System of the Deccan Plateau’ by World Monuments Fund.

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Suranga Bawadi is an integral part of the ancient Karez System of supplying water through
subterranean tunnels.
It was built by Adil Shah-I of Adilshahi dynasty of Bijapur in the 16th century to supply
water to the city of Bijapur in Karnataka

Karez System
Karez is a water harnessing technology in which groundwater is brought to the surface by a
tunnel.

20
In this system, no mechanical pump or lift is used. Gravity alone brings the water from the
underground source.
The technology originated in Persia/Iran and was widely used during the medieval period

20
Belum Caves Festival
Andhra Pradesh Government will be hosting the Belum Caves festival in January 2020 to
popularise the Belum caves.
sc
The name ‘Kandanavolu Sambaralu’ has been proposed for the festival. Kandanavolu was
the ancient name of Kurnool
up

Key Points

Location: Belum Caves, also known as Belum Guhalu in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh
is the second-longest cave in the Indian subcontinent open to the public. The longest
natural cave in the Indian subcontinent is Krem Liat Prah caves in Meghalaya.
et

Formation: The cave is more than a thousand year old, and was formed by the constant
flow of underground water over a period of time.
Geographical Features: These caves are renowned for their speleothem structures
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(Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits formed in a cave), such as stalactite and
stalagmite formations.

Kalaripayattu
ta

Kalaripayattu is a martial art based on the ancient knowledge of the human body.
It originated in Kerala during 3nd century BC to the 2nd century AD. It is now practised in
Kerala and in some parts of Tamil Nadu.
The place where this martial art is practised is called 'Kalari'. It is a Malayalam word that
signifies a kind of gymnasium. Kalari literally means 'threshing floor' or 'battlefield'. The
word Kalari first appears in the Tamil Sangam literature to describe both a battlefield and
combat arena.
It is considered to be one of the oldest fighting systems in existence.
It is also considered as the father of modern Kung - Fu.

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MISCELLANEOUS
India-WRIS (Water Resource Information System), a portal
for providing information on water resources was developed
by Central Water Commission under National Water
Mission.

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All the data pertaining to surface and ground water are available on this portal.

Bureau of Civil Aviation Security

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The Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS) was initially set up as a cell in the DGCA in
1978, to coordinate, monitor, inspect and train personnel in Civil Aviation Security matters.
It was reorganized into an independent Department in 1987.
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Air Sewa
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Air Sewa is an initiative of the Ministry of Civil Aviation launched 2016 to offer people a
convenient and hassle-free air travel experience.
It works through an interactive web portal or a mobile app that includes a mechanism for
grievance redressal.
et

Annual Survey of Industries (ASI)


Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) is the principal source of industrial statistics in India
rg

providing information on important characteristics of registered manufacturing sector.


ASI is considered as the most comprehensive and reliable source of organised manufacturing
sector data providing disaggregated industry specific details of production, investment,
ta

employment and costs.


It does not cover unorganised or unregistered or informal sector enterprises.
ASI is the main survey conducted by Central Statistics Office (CSO) Industrial Statistics (IS)
wing.
It ensures timely dissemination of statistical information to asses and evaluate the dynamics in
composition, growth and structure of organized manufacturing sector.

Facebook Pragati
Facebook India has launched its (corporate social responsibility) CSR initiative,
Facebook Pragati to promote women entrepreneurship in India.
The initiative will incubate and accelerate early-stage women-led non-profits that are working
to drive women entrepreneurship and to spread awareness and adoption of technology among
women in India

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DigiPivot
Google India has launched a skill programme for women called ‘DigiPivot’. The
programme designed for women who are looking to return to their corporate careers after a
break or simply planning to make mid-career shifts to digital marketing.

Operation Namaste
Operation Namasteis launched by Indian Army .

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This Operation is started to fight COVID-19.
Operation will cooperate in this operation and security forces have been started to avoid this
epidemic.

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Global Electric Vehicle Outlook
It is published annually by International Energy Agency.
It provides a comprehensive look at the state of Electric Vehicles, charging infrastructure and
sc
policies around the globe.

Sub-Programmes under SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN


up

The Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat (PBBB), a sub-programme of the SSA, in classes I and II
is focusing on foundational learning in early grades with an emphasis on reading, writing and
comprehension and mathematics.
et

The RashtriyaAavishkarAbhiyan (RAA), also under the SSA, aims to motivate and engage
children of the age group 6-18 years, in science, mathematics and technology by
observation, experimentation. Schools have been adopted for mentoring by institutions of
rg

higher education like IIT‘s, IISER‘s and NIT‘s.


Vidyanjali, another sub-programme under SSA, was with the aim to strengthen
implementation of co-scholastic activities in government schools through services of
volunteers.
ta

ShaGun portal - an Initiative to monitor the implementation of SSA: MHRD has developed a
web portal called ShaGun. ShaGun will help monitor progress by assessing performance of
states and UTs on key parameters. ShaGun, which has been coined from them words Shala‘
meaning schools and Gunvatta‘ meaning quality, has been developed with a twin track
approach.

Food Innovators Network (FINE)


The Food safety and Standards Authority of India (‘FSSAI’) has launched a programme known
as Food Innovators Network (‘FINE’) which aims to bring innovators & entrepreneurs together
to provide innovative solutions to transform India’s present food & safety structure.

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Jan ShikshanSansthans (JSS)
Formerly under the Ministry of Human Resources Development, Jan ShikshanSansthan
was transferred to the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship in 2018.
Jan ShikshanSansthans (JSS) were established to provide vocational training to non literate,
neo-literate, as well as school dropouts by identifying skills as would have a market in the
region of their establishment

COVID-19 Emergency Fund

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India has proposed to create a COVID-19 Emergency Fund which could be based on a
voluntary contribution from all SAARC members
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has also constituted the COVID-19 Solidarity

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Response Fund with the help of corporate bodies, foundations and the UN Foundation.

Important Towns in News


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Aqaba - Jordan
Fordow - Iran
Kalpani - Nepal
up

Aleppo - Syria
Mazar-i-sharif – Afghanistan
Kirkuk - Iraq
et

Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD)


It was formerly known as the Millennium Dam and sometimes referred to as Hidase
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Dam.
construction began in 2011 on the Blue Nile tributary in the northern Ethiopia highlands, from
where 85% of the Nile’s waters flow.
When complete, the Grand Renaissance Dam, which Ethiopia is building, will be Africa’s
ta

biggest hydroelectric power plant.

Why is it so contentious?

At the Centre of the dispute are plans to fill up the mega-dam as Egypt fears the project
will allow Ethiopia to control the flow of Africa’s longest river.

Project Indian Literature Abroad


Ministry of culture, sahityaakademi
To facilitate translation and promotion of literary heritage and contemporary literature from
Indian languages into major foreign languages

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Nationwide Artificial Insemination Programme (NAIP):
It was launched in September 2019 by the Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry &
It is a campaign mode genetic upgrading program covering all breeds of bovines to enhance
milk production using low cost breeding technology for improving genetic merit of milch
animals with high quality seed.
The aim of the program is to inseminate over 1 crore bovines in 6 months & ear-tag them with
‘PashuAadhaar’ which is a unique identifier provided to the animals so as to enable the
Government to identify and track the animals

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Z-Morh Tunnel
Z-Morh Tunnel is a long two-lane bi-directional road tunnel project constructed near

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Ganderbal district of Jammu and Kashmir providing all-weather connectivity between Srinagar
and Kargil in Ladakh region of India.
Further, along with Zoji-la Tunnel, the Z-Morh tunnel will ensure year-long road connectivity
between Srinagar and Kargil.
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IndARC
up

IndARC is India's first underwater moored observatory in the Arctic region.


It was deployed in 2014 at Kongsfjorden fjord, Svalbard, Norway which is midway between
Norway and the North Pole.
Its research goal is to study the Arctic climate and its influence on the monsoon.
et

Bhashan Char Island


rg

The Bhashan Char is an uninhabited island around 30-kilometre east of Hatiya island in the
South East Bangladesh.
The Bangladesh Government has planned to accommodate 100,000 Rohingya refugees in its
Bhasan Char Island.
ta

Digital Sky Platform


Digital Sky Platform is an online platform to register unmanned aerial vehicles or
Remotely Piloted Aerial Systems (RPAS) under Civil Aviation Regulations.
It provides the process for obtaining Unique Identification Number, Unmanned Aircraft
Operator Permit (UAOP) and other operational requirements.

The biennial “Travel and Tourism Competitive Report” is released by the World Economic
Forum (WEF). The report ranks travel &tourism competitiveness of 140 economies.

Demutualisation of a Stock Exchange


Demutualisation of a Stock Exchange means that the stock¬ brokers owned Stock Exchange is
made public owned Stock Exchange.
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Converting securities from paper format to electronic format is called Dematerialisation

The Global Study on Homicide 2019


Published by UNODC
Asia with around 60% of global population recorded less killings compared to America with
highest homicide rate as per the UN report.

National Aquifer Mapping and Management Programm

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Though water is a state subject, Centre has launched the programme to learn about the
available ground water in the country.
Centre aims to learn about ground water availability in the country to initiate artificial

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recharge of under ground water.
The Mission is being implemented by the CGEB (Central Ground Water Board) under
Ministry of Jal Shakti.
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Strait of Malacca
Significance of the Indo-Pacific lies with the Strait of Malacca being the commercial and
up

economic lifeline.
The strait acts as the choke point for the world trade and energy supplies.
The Strait of Malacca is of importance for the socioeconomic development in Singapore,
Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia.
et

The trading patterns across the Indo-Pacifi c places the region in the global highlight.

Worldwide Educating for the Future Index (WEFFI) 2019, a report published by The
Economist Intelligence Unit.
rg

Nature Risk Rising Report


ta

It was produced by WEF in collaboration with PwC and the first report in a series of New
Nature Economy (NNE) reports.
It explains how nature-related risks matter to business, why they must be urgently
mainstreamed into risk management strategies

Global Social Mobility Index


World Economic Forum has released its maiden Social Mobility Index
Social Mobility: It is a change in social status relative to one's current social position within a
given society.
WEF defines social mobility as the ability of a child to experience a better life than their
parents.
It measures 82 countries on five key dimensions:
health;
education (access, quality and equity);

Page 240
technology;
work (opportunities, wages, conditions); and
Protections and institutions (social protection and inclusive institutions).

WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)


Objective: To provide a framework for supply and demand reduction measures for tobacco
control at the national, regional and global levels.
India is a signatory.

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MPOWER: It is a package of selected demand reduction measures put forward by WHO.
Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies
Protect people from tobacco smoke
Offer help to quit tobacco use

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Warn about the dangers of tobacco
Enforce bans on tobacco advisement, promotion and sponsorships
Raise taxes on tobacco
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Lac
Lac cultivation in India is mainly confined to the states of Jharkhand which contribute 57% of
up

the total production, followed by Madhya Pradesh at 24% and the balance 19% is contributed
by Maharashtra, West Bengal.
Lac is mostly cultivated by poor tribals to supplement their agricultural income.

UNESCO
et

UN Educational Scientific and Cultural Organizationis responsible for promoting peace, social
justice, human rights and international security through International cooperation on
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educational, science and cultural programs.


Based in Paris, France.
It accorded recognition in 2011 to Palestine as its 195thmember.
ta

It is a global development agency with missions that include promoting sex education, literacy,
clean water and equality for women.
It is responsible for promoting peace, social justice, human rights and international security
through International cooperation on educational, science and cultural programs.
World Heritage Mission which encourages world countries to protect Natural andCultural
Heritage sites.
publishestheGlobal Education Monitoring report and Gender Parity Index.
leads the Man and Biosphere Programme for protecting Biosphere reserves across the world.
UNESCO Creative City

World Happiness Report


The World Happiness Report ranks 156 countries by how happy their citizens perceive
themselves to be.
The rankings are based on polling (Gallup World Poll) which looks at six variables: GDP per

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capita, social support, healthy life expectancy, freedom, generosity, and absence of corruption.
The 2020 Report for the first time ranked cities around the world by their subjective well-
being and looked into how the social, urban and natural environments combine to affect
happiness.by Sustainable Development Solutions Network
India, previously ranked at 140 dropped to 144.

WATERFALLS
Dudhsagar Waterfall: On Mandaviriver in state of Goa.

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Duduma waterfall: On Machhkundriver in Koraput, Odisha.
Jog Falls: On Sharavatiriver in Karnataka.
Sivasamudram: On Kaveri river near Mysore

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ISLAND IN NEWS
Sagarisland and New Moore island are formed due to deposition of silt and sediments brought
by rivers. They are present near the coast of West Bengal.
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Sriharikota island is located in Pulicat Lake near Andhra-Tamil Nadu border and Wheeler
island is located near Odisha coast
Andaman and Nicobar islands are of tectonic origin formed due to continent-continent
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collision. They are actually the extension of Himalayan mountain chains.


Bhasan Char also known as Char Piya, is an island in HatiyaUpazila, Bangladesh. It is located
inthe Bay of Bengal, 37 miles from the coast. The island was formed with Himalayan silt in
2006.
et

Global Wealth Report.


The Credit Suisse Group which is a Switzerland-based multinational investment bank, has
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released the 10th edition of its annual Global Wealth Report.

‘Grain by Grain’ –
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As the report is titled –is the complete assessment of the environmental performance of the
fertilizer industry in India.

Internet Saathi
It is joint initiative of Google India and Tata Trusts.
It aims to facilitate digital literacy among women in rural India.
The programme aims to train Saathis in villages that can in turn help educate other women
from their village in the use of the internet.

Paramarsh
Program by University Grants Commission (UGC)
Objective: To mentor National Accreditation and Assessment Council (NAAC) accreditation
Page 242
aspirant institutions for promoting quality assurance in higher education.

Tech For Tribals program


TRIFED Launches transformational “Tech ForTribals” program in partnership with Institutes of
National Importance (INIs) to develop Tribal entrepreneurship.

Key features of the program:

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Aim: To transform 5 crore Tribal Entrepreneurs.
It is supported by Ministry of MSME.
It also aims at capacity building and imparting entrepreneurship skills to tribal forest produce
gatherers enrolled under the PradhanMantriVanDhanYojana (PMVDY).

20
The trainees will undergo a 30 days program over six weeks comprising 120 sessions.
The Partners will develop course contents relevant to Entrepreneurship in Value Addition and
Processing of Forest Produces.
The course curriculum will include Achievement Motivation and positive psychology,
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Entrepreneurial Competencies, Identification of locally available NTFP based Business
Opportunities.

Extradition
up

It is the formal process of one state surrendering an individual to another state for prosecution
or punishment for crimes committed in the requesting country's jurisdiction.
This is generally enabled through a bilateral or multilateral treaty.
et

The legal basis for extradition with countries with whom India does not have an Extradition
treaty is provided by Section 3 (4) of the Indian Extradition Act, 1962.
rg

Market Intelligence and Early Warning System (MIEWS)


Portal
ta

Ministry of Food Processing Industries, launched the– Market Intelligence and Early Warning
System (MIEWS) Web Portal.
The MIEWS Dashboard and Portal is a ‘first-of-its-kind’ platform for ‘real time monitoring’ of
prices of tomato, onion and potato (TOP) and for simultaneously generating alerts for
intervention under the terms of the Operation Greens(OG) scheme.

Island of Komodo
The Indonesian government ordered the relocation of the residents of an island in eastern
Indonesia called the island of Komodo in a bid to conserve rare Komodo dragons.
The Komodo dragon is the largest living species of lizard.
Vulnerable by the IUCN.
The dragon has venom glands, which are loaded with toxins .

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‘Free Indian Legion’?:
Infantry regiment formed by Indian volunteers.
The legion was made up of Indian prisoners of war and expatriates in Europe.
NetajiSubhash Chandra Bose formed this legion with the help of the German Government.
The legion is also known as “Tiger Legion“.

mCessationprogramme

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mCessationprogramme of India for helping smokers quit.
India launched mCessation using text messages in 2016 as part of the government’s Digital
India initiative.
It uses two-way messaging between the individual seeking to quit tobacco use and programme

20
specialists providing them with dynamic support.
The National Tobacco Control Programme and the Union Ministry of Health and Family
Welfare, with support from the WHO and the International Telecommunication Union’s ‘Be
He@lthy, Be mobile’ initiative, implemented the programme.
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Microdots Technology:
up

Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has issued a draft notification to make microdots
mandatory in vehicles.
It ensure originality in spare parts of machines and components, including in the automobile
sector.
et

The microdot technology involves spraying thousands of microscopic dots onto vehicles or
other assets to form a unique identification.

Gurdwara Darbar Sahib Kartarpur


rg

The Shrine is located by the Ravi River


The gurdwara was built to commemorate the site where Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism,
ta

settled after his missionary work.


He assembled a Sikh community there, and lived for 18 until his death in 1539. The gurdwara
is built where Guru Nanak is to have died

Jaivik Kheti portal


Has also been created for promotion and sale of organic produce to connect farmers involved
in organic farming with consumers directly for better prices.
It is a unique initiative of Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), Department of Agriculture (DAC)
along with MSTC to promote organic farming globally. It is a one stop solution for facilitating
organic farmers to sell their organic produce and promoting organic farming and its benefits.

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Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services
Under the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES).
It is located in Hyderabad & was established in 1999 under the MoES and is a unit of the
Earth System Science Organization (ESSO).
It is mandated to provide the best possible ocean information and advisory services to society,
industry, government agencies and the scientific community

SwachhSurvekshan League 2020

20
SwachhSurvekshan 2020 League was launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs
in 2019.
The aim of the survey is to sustain the on-ground performance of cities along with continuous

20
monitoring of service level performance in cleanliness.

Internet Saathi
sc
It is joint initiative of Google India and Tata Trusts.
It aims to facilitate digital literacy among women in rural India.
The programme aims to train Saathis in villages that can in turn help educate other women
up

from their village in the use of the internet.

SUTRA PIC (Scientific UtilisationThrough Research


Augmentation-Prime Products from Indigenous Cows)
et

It aims for scientific research on the complete characterisation of milk and milk products
derived from Indian indigenous cows. It seeks development of standards for traditionally
rg

processed dairy products of Indian-origin cows among others.


It is implemented by the department of the Science for Equity, Empowerment and
Development(SEED) under the Ministry of Science and Technology is in charge of the
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programme

Some Facts
Buried Sunshine -Coal
Black Gold - Petroleum.
Golden fibre-Jute
Green Gold -Bamboo
Manchester of India-Ahmedabad
Manchester of Japan -Osaka
Silicon Valley- California
Silicon plateau - Bangalore

Page 245
National Ganga Council (NGC)
Created in October 2016 under the River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection and Management)
Authorities Order, 2016, dissolving the National Ganga River Basin Authority.
The council consists of chief ministers from five states along the Ganga — Uttar Pradesh, West
Bengal, Uttarakhand, Bihar and Jharkhand along with nine Union ministers and NITI Aayog
vice-chairman
The central objective of the council is to work on the “protection, prevention, control and
abatement of environmental pollution in River Ganga and its rejuvenation to its natural and

20
pristine condition and to ensure continuous adequate flow of water”.
The council is supposed to meet every year HEADED BY PM

Hague Adoption Convention

20
The convention aims to ensure that inter country adoption only occurs when it is in the best
interests of the child.
The guiding principle of the convention is that, whenever possible, a child should be raised by
sc
his or her birth family or extended family. If this is not possible, other forms of permanent
family care in the child’s country of birth should be considered. Only after local solutions have
been exhausted, should inter country adoption be considered – and then only if it is in the
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child’s best interests.


The convention focuses on the need for countries to work together to prevent the abduction,
sale, or trafficking of children.
India is a member of the Hague Convention on Inter country Adoption.
et

The Shahpurkandi Dam project


rg

It is located on the Ravi River in Pathankot district, Punjab, India.

Sowa-Rigpa
ta

It is a Traditional Medical system of the Himalayan belt in India.


It has been popularly practiced in Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Darjeeling (West Bengal),
Himachal Pradesh, Union Territory of Ladakh and now all over India.
In 2015, the Ministry of Ayush had also included Sowa Rigpa to the AYUSH system. Thus,
Sowa Rigpa is formally recognized and promoted as traditional medical system by the
Government of India

Island of Komodo
The Indonesian government ordered the relocation of the residents of an island in eastern
Indonesia called the island of Komodo in a bid to conserve rare Komodo dragons.
The Komodo dragon is the largest living species of lizard.
Vulnerable by the IUCN.
The dragon has venom glands, which are loaded with toxins.

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Silk Samagra:
It is initiated by the Central Silk Board.
The scheme comprises four major components viz. (i) Research & Development, Training,
Transfer of Technology and Information Technology Initiatives, (ii) Seed Organizations, (iii)
Coordination and Market Development and (iv) Quality Certification Systems (QCS) / Export
Brand Promotion and Technology Upgradation.
The main objective of the scheme is to maintain Breeders stock, Breed improvement through
R&D Projects, Development of mechanized practices, Technology translation through

20
Sericulture Information Linkages and Knowledge System (SILKS) Portal, Mobile Application
for Stakeholders and for seed qualitymonitoring etc.

“Mission Reach Out":

20
The Army has launched “Mission Reach Out” in Jammu to ensure basic necessities and
essential services are available in the region post the abrogation of the provisions of Article
370 and reorganisation of Jammu and Kashmir.
sc
It is launched in light of recent re-organisation of Jammu and Kashmir.

World Economic Situation Prospects (WESP)


up

It is a joint product of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN
DESA), the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the five
United Nations regional commissions
et

Colony Collapse Disorder


rg

Is the phenomenon that occurs when the majority of worker bees in a colony disappear and
leave behind a queen, plenty of food and a few nurse bees to care for the remaining immature
bees and the queen.
ta

TRADITIONAL WATER-HARVESTING SYSTEMS OF INDIA


Paar System/ Rejwani system : Water Pits: Western Rajasthan including Jaisalmer
Talab/Bandi: Pond: Bundelkhand
Johad: Checkdams: Alwar, Rajasthan
Pat: Diversion bunds: Jhabua, MP
Temple tanks: Jhalaras is Gujrat and Rajasthan, Kalyani in South India
Bawari: Stepwells: Rajasthan
Tanka: Rain water harvesting systems in Gujarat and Rajasthan
Khadin/Dhora: Checkdams in Rajasthan
Khuls: Channels in Spiti Valley
Neeruganti: Karnataka

Page 247
Project Arunank:
The project aims to reconstruct the Daporijo Bridge across Subansiri river in Arunachal
Pradesh.
It is being implemented by Border Roads Organization (BRO) in Arunachal Pradesh.
It aims to link remote regions of the borders with well-developed strategic roads.

Global Misery Index

20
American economist Steve Hanke of Johns Hopkins University, who is an applied economist
has popularised the GMI concept.
He has ranked India a measly 44 out of 95 countries on GMI.
The higher the index, the more is the misery felt by average citizens.

20
Global Misery Index is based on the three parameters namely,

Indelible Ink
sc
It is known as Voters' Ink developed by Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).
It is a purple-coloured ink which is applied on the left-hand index finger of the voter in a
polling booth.
up

Once applied, the ink cannot be removed by any chemical, detergent, soap or oil for several
months.
Its main constituent is silver nitrate, which reacts with the skin protein and makes a strong
bond.
et

Mysore Paints, which was founded in 1937 by Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV, is the sole
supplier of indelible ink for civic body, Assembly and Parliamentary polls.
It also supplies ink to about 25 countries.
rg

Unemployment rate
Inflation rate
ending rate
ta

Vahan
Vahan consolidates vehicle registration, taxation, permit, fitness and associated services
across the country.

Sarathi
Sarathi looks after the driving license, learner licence, driving schools and related activities.

World Water Development Report 2020


MADE annually by the UNESCO World Water Assessment Programme(WWAP) and released by
UN-Water.
Title: Water and climate Change

Page 248
Operation Sahyog :
Operation Sahyog of Indian Army launched Operation Sahyog to rescue people in flood-hit
Kerala.

Operation Bandar (2019)


Operation Bandar (2019) An airstrike carried out by Indian Air
Forec(IAF) in response to the Pulwama terror attack on 14 February 2019 by a suicide

20
bomber, killing 40 Indian soldiers.

'Operation Vanilla'

20
The Indian Navy has launched the 'Operation Vanilla' to assist the population of Madagascar
affected by Cyclone Diane.
Indian Navy also diverted a large amphibious ship viz. INS Airavat carrying clothing,
medicines, and other relief material to provide assistance and support in the relief operations.
sc
Operation Insaniyat
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Operation Insaniyat (2017) an Humanitarian assistance aimed to supply relief packages to


Bangladesh for migrant Rohingya Muslims.

GOAL (Going Online as Leaders) is a digitally enabled


et

mentorship initiative of Facebook.


The initiative connects underprivileged young women from tribal areas with senior expert
rg

mentors in the areas of business, fashion and arts to learn digital and life skills.
One mentor is identified and attached to four tribal youth.
It will include weekly one-to-one mentoring sessions, focused on a range of skills such as
ta

digital literacy, entrepreneurship, and online safety.


Ministry of Tribal Affairs, NITI Aayog and Facebook together will digitally mentor 5000 young
women in India’s tribal-dominated districts.

BIOMETRIC SEAFARER IDENTITY DOCUMENT (BSID)


India has become the first country in the world to issue a Biometric Seafarer Identity
Document (BSID) to its seafarers.
The project has been undertaken by Ministry of Shipping in collaboration with the Centre for
Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC), Mumbai.
The project is being implemented under the Merchant Shipping (Seafarers Biometric
Identification Document) Rules in 2016

Page 249
Places associated with the life of Buddha:
Lumbini in Nepal is believed to be the birthplace of Gautama Buddha
Bodhgaya is a very special place for Buddhists as it is Bodhgaya which transformed Prince
Siddhartha into Gautam Buddha as he attained enlightenment here with eternal knowledge
under the Peepal tree which is today known as Bodhi Tree.
Sarnath is the site where Lord Buddha – the great sage delivered his first sermon after
attaining enlightenment.
Kushinagar is another principal centre of Buddhism. It is this place that the Buddha had

20
chosen to free himself from the cycles of death and life and attained Parinibbana.
Rajgir means the abode of Gods, is a town in Nalanda district. Both Lord Buddha and Lord
Mahavira have said to spend time here giving it huge spiritual and religious importance.
Shravasti is placed on the banks of the river Rapti. It was the capital of ancient Kosala

20
kingdom and is sacred to the Buddhists because it is here that Lord Buddha performed the
greatest of his miracles to confound the Tirthika heretics

“State of the World’s Nursing” report


sc
WHO, along with the International Council of Nurses (ICN) and the Nursing Now
campaign,has released a report titled, “State of the World’s Nursing”.
up

India Skills Report - 2020 - 7th edition


Employability of India's youth = 46% (stagnant)
et

Bru Refugees:
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Bru or Reang is a community indigenous to Northeast India living mostly across Assam,
Mizoram and Tripura. In Tripura, they are recognised as a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal
Group.
Brus speak the Reang dialect of Bru language which is Tibeto Burmese origin and is locally
ta

referred to as KauBru.
The Hojagiri folk dance of the Reangsubtribe

CONFLICT

In Mizoram, the Bru community has been targeted by groups (such as Young Mizo Association)
that do not consider them indigenous to the state.
In 1997, ethnic clashes erupted and Brus fled from Mizoram and were accommodated in relief
camps in Tripura. Since then, thousands of Bru refugees are living in the six relief camps in
North Tripura.

International Intellectual Property (IP) Index, 2020


It is released by the US Chamber of Commerce’s Global Innovation Policy Center
India has slipped to 40th position, from the 36th position in 2019.

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Reports
Global financial system report-BIS
GLOBAL Financial stability Report- IMF
Financial stability Report- RBI

Various types of notices


Black Notice is a request to seek information on unidentified bodies in member nations.

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Red Notice is issued to seek the location and arrest of wanted persons wanted for prosecution
or toserve a sentence.
Yellow Notice: To help locate missing persons, often minors, or to help identify persons who
are unableto identify themselves.

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Blue Notice: To collect additional information about a person’s identity, location or activities in
relation to a crime.
Green Notice: To provide warning about a person’s criminal activities, where the person is
considered to be a possible threat to public safety.
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Orange Notice: To warn of an event, a person, an object or a process representing a serious
and imminent threat to public safety.
Purple Notice: To seek or provide information on modus operandi, objects, devices and
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concealmentmethods used by criminals.

BhashaSangam
et

Bhasha Sangam has been initiated to familiarise students with 22 Indian languages.
BhashaSangam is a programme for schools and educational institutions to provide multilingual
exposure to students in Indian languages listed in Schedule VIII of the Constitution of India.
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This programme has been initiated to enhance linguistic tolerance and respect, and promote
national integration.
This is an initiative of MHRD
This will be run by the State/UT Department of School Education. It is under Ek Bharat
ta

Shrestha Bharat

Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy (HELP)


Single License for both conventional and unconventional Hydrocarbons
Full Marketing & Pricing Freedom
Low regulatory burden
Fiscal incentives provided to investors Implementing Agency: Directorate General of
Hydrocarbons (DGH), Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas.

DECCAN QUEEN:
Indian Railways’ Deccan Queen, which has been running between Mumbai and Pune since
1930, is the country’s first superfast train.
Deccan Queen is the first long-distance electric-hauled train, first vestibuled train, the
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first train to have a ‘ladies only’ car and the first train to feature a dining car.
The 90-year-old Train will finally be upgraded to German design Linke Hofmann Busch (LHB)
coaches.
The train currently runs on ICF coaches with a unique existing livery of blue and white colour
witha red band

Santusht Portal
It has been constituted under the Office of Minister of State for Labour and Employment.

20
To promote transparency, accountability, effective delivery of public services and
implementation of policies, schemes of Ministry of Labour and Employment at grassroot level
through constant monitoring.

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Global Liveability Index
The Economic Intelligence Unit considered 140 cities for rankings.
The ranking is based on a particular country’s scores in five broad categories,
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Stability
Healthcare
Culture and Environment
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Education
Infrastructure
Each factor in a city is rated as acceptable, tolerable, comfortable, undesirable or intolerable.
New Delhi with 118th rank has registered the biggest decline in Asia whereas Mumbai also fell
two places since last year to rank 119th.
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Cryptocurrencies and countries


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Dubai (UAE) == Emcash


== Petro
Estonia == Estcoin
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Russia .== Cryptoruble


Sweden == E-krona
== J-coin

Temasek model
The Economic Survey 2019-20 has proposed a new structure of disinvestment called Temasek-
like model to maximise returns from public sector enterprise.
Temasek like model is based on the experience of Singapore's Temasek Holdings Company

Global Gender Gap Index 2020


The Gender Gap Index is an annual index published by World Economic Forum since 2006.
The Report highlights gaps in gender parity in four dimensions namely;
Economic Participation and Opportunity– Wage gap, labour force participation and access
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to high-skilled employment
Educational attainment –Access to basic and higher level education
Political empowerment –Representation in decision-making structures
Health and survival –Life expectancy and sex ratio
India has slipped to 112th/153 position from its 108th position last year. It is below on China
(106th), Sri Lanka (102nd), Nepal (101st), Brazil (92nd), Indonesia (85th) and Bangladesh
(50th).
India’s low ranking is on account of bad performance in Economic Participation – 149; Health
and survival - 150.

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The top performers include Iceland, Norway, and Finland. Yemen is ranked the worst (153rd),
behind Iraq (152nd) and Pakistan (151st).

Locusts

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Locusts are a species of short-horned grasshoppers.
They are polyphagous that feeds on large variety of plants, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, bark
and growing points, and also destroy plants by their sheer weight as they descend on them in
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massive numbers.
A small swarm of the desert locust eats on average “as much food in one day as about 10
elephants, 25 camels or 2500 people”.
The desert locust activity peaks between May and Nov which coincides with the monsoon
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season in Rajasthan and Gujarat.


The swarms usually orginate in the Arabian Peninsula and the Horn of Africa and travel
through Saudi Arabia and Iran to enter Pakistan, where they invade the Sindh province and
from there they move into Rajasthan and Gujarat.
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Regions: Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab.


Now the locust swarms is feared to destroy the mustard, cumin, wheat, jatropha, cotton, and
potato, and fodder grass.
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Harmonised System (HS) code


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The Harmonised System, or simply ‘HS’, is a six-digit identification code. Of the six digits, the
first two denote the HS Chapter, the next two give the HS heading, and the last two give the
HS subheading.
Developed by the World Customs Organization (WCO).
knownas the “universal economic language” for goods.
It is a multipurpose international product nomenclature.

Various revolutions
Revolution Related with

Green Food grain production

Golden Fruit Production

Grey Fertilizer Production


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Blue Fish production

Black Petroleum production

Pink Prawn Production

Round Potato Production

Red Meat/Tomato Production

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Silver Egg/Poultry Production

White Milk Production

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Yellow Oil Seeds Production

"Florianopolis Declaration"
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It was concluded that the purpose of the INTERNATIONAL WHALING COMMISSION is the
conservation of whales and that they would now safeguard the marine mammals in perpetuity and
would allow the recovery of all whale populations to pre-industrial whaling levels.
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Gogabeel
Its an ox-bow lake in Bihar’s Katihar district, has been declared as the state’s
firstn‘Community Reserve'. Grabeel is formed from the flow of the rivers Mahananda and
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Kankhar in the north and the Ganga in the south and east.
In 2004, Gogabeel, including the neighbouring Baghar Beel and Baldia Chair, were given the
status of an IBA (Important Bird Area of India) by the Indian Bird Conservation Network
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(IBCN)
In august 2019, Gogabeel has been notified as a 57 hectare Community Reserve and a 30
hectare ‘Conservation Reserve’.
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Global Microscope on Financial Inclusion Report


Produced by Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), the research and analysis division of The Economist
Group Report was first published in 2007 and was originally developed for countries in Latin
American and Caribbean regions but in 2009 it was expanded into a global study it is a
benchmarking index that assesses enabling environment for financial access in 55 countries across
5 categories

Five parameters

Across which countries are assessed Government and Policy Support, Products and Outlets,
Stability and Integrity, Consumer Protection Infrastructure.

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Important straits
1. Sunda Strait -- Java Sea & Indian Ocean Indonesia
2. Palk Strait -- Palk Bay & Bay of Bengal India-Sri Lanka
3. Malacca Strait -- Andaman Sea & South China Sea Indonesia –Malaysia
4. Yucatan Strait --- Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea Mexico-Cuba
5. Mesina Strait --- Mediterranean Sea Italy-Sicily
6. Otranto Strait -- Adriatic Sea & Ionian Sea Italy-Albania
7. Bab-el-Mandeb Strait --Red Sea & Gulf of Ade Yemen-Djibouti

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8. Cook Strait -- South Pacific Ocean New Zealand (North & South Islands
9. Mozambique Strait -- Indian Ocean Mozambique -Malagasy
10. North Channel --- Irish Sea & Atlantic Ocean Ireland-England
11. Hormuz Strait --Gulf of Persia & Gulf of Oman Oman-Iran

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12. Hudson strait --- Gulf of Hudson & Atlantic Ocean Canada
13. Gibraltar Strait -- Mediterranean Sea & Atlantic Ocean Spain-Morocco
14. Magellan strait --- Pacific and South Atlantic Ocean Chile
15. Makkassar Strait --- Java Sea & Celebeze Sea Indonesia
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16. Tsungaru Strait -- Japan Sea and Pacific Ocea Japan (Hokkaido-Honshu Island)
17. Tatar Strait ---- Japan Sea & Okhotsk Sea Russia (East Russia-Sakhalin Islands)
18. Fovex Strait ----South Pacific Ocean New Zealand (South Island- Stewart Island)
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19. Formosa Strait -- South China Sea & East China Sea China-Taiwan
20. Taurus Strait ----- Arafura Sea & Gulf of Papua Papua New Guinea — Australia
21. Bass Strait ----- Tasman Sea & South Sea Australia
22. Bering Strait--- Bering Sea & Chuksi Sea Alaska-Russia
23. Bonne-Fasio Strait --- Mediterranean Sea Corsika — Sardinia
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24. Bosporous Strait ---- Black Sea and Marmara Sea Turkey
25. Dardenleez Strait --- Marmara Sea and Agean Sea Turkey
26. Davis Strait --- Baffin Bay & Atlantic Ocean Greenland-Canada
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27. Denmark Strait -- North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean Greenland-Iceland


28. Dover strait -------English Channel & North Sea England-France
29. Florida Strait ---- Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean USA-Cuba.
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Saddler University Commission (1917-19)


It was set up to study and report on problems of Calcutta University but its recommendations
were applicable more or less to other universities also.
It reviewed the entire field from school education to university education. It held the view that,
for the improvement of university education, improvement of secondary education was a
necessary precondition.

Hartog commission
Recommended that emphasis should be given to primary education but there need be no hasty
expansion or compulsion in education.
Only deserving students should go in for high school and intermediate stage, while average
students should be diverted to vocational courses after VIII standard.

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For improvements in standards of university education, admissions should be restricted.

Raleigh Commission
In 1902, was set up to go into conditions and prospects of universities in India and to suggest
measures for improvement in their constitution and working.

Sergeant Plan of Education recommended—

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Pre-primary education for 3-6 years age group; free, universal and compulsory elementary
education for 6-11 years age group; high school education for 11- 17 years age group for
selected children, and a university course of 3 years after higher secondary

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National Aquifer Mapping and Management program
(NAQUIM) sc
It is implemented by Central Ground Water Board (CGWB). It envisages mapping of aquifers
and development of Aquifer Management Plans to facilitate sustainable management of
Ground Water Resources
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Polavaram Project -Andra pradesh on Godavari Pranhita


River
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Pattisema and Purushoghampatnam Lift irrigation Projects -Godavari- Krishna river.


Balimela reservoir and Jalapat dam-Sileru river, Andra pradesh border
Pancheswar dam - Uttrakhand
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Panshet Dam / Tananj sagar dam -On Ambi river, Pune


Ramgarh Dam - Near jaipur Rajasthan
Srisailam Dam -Krishna river, Andra Pradesh
Khadakwasla Dam -Mula/Mutha river, Pune
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Exit Exam
It has been proposal to adapt the final MBBS examination into a National Exit Test (NEXT), in
order to ensure a standardised potency for practice.
The present MBBS curriculum is said to be more theoretical in its approach to learning and
assessment, and breeds memory based studying.
As there is little attention is paid to testing conceptual soundness and problem solving ability -
a standardised exit exam might help in overcoming these.
While the exact structure of the proposed NEXT isn’t clear, it is expected to be a mix of “
descriptive and multiple choice questions” .
Such standardised and quality testing is likely to nudge universities to improve their quality of
teaching and assessment.

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Digital Village,
Which was conceptualised by the Common Service Centre (CSC) SPV under the Ministry of
Electronics and IT, is a village where citizens can avail various e-services of the central and
the State governments, as well as of private players.
These include banking, insurance, tele-medicine, pension and e-governance services.
Such villages are also equipped with LED bulb assembly units, sanitary napkin units, and
rural-Wifi infrastructure.

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An electronic cigarette (or e-cig):
Is a battery-powered vaporizer that mimics tobacco smoking.
It works by heating up a nicotine liquid, called “juice. Nicotine juice (or e-juice) comes in

20
various flavors and nicotine levels.
e-liquid is composed of five ingredients: vegetable glycerin (a material used in all types of food
and personal care products, like toothpaste) and propylene glycol.
Propylene glycol is the ingredient that produces thicker clouds of vapor.
sc
Proponents of e-cigs argue that the practice is healthier than traditional cigarettes because
users are only inhaling water vapor and nicotine.
Recently, the Union Cabinet has approved the promulgation of the Prohibition of Electronic
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Cigarettes (production, manufacture, import, export, transport, sale, distribution, storage and
advertisement) Ordinance, 2019 with immediate effect.

TraceNet
et

Is an internet based electronic service offered by Agricultural and Processed Food Products
Export Development Authority (APEDA) to the stakeholders for facilitating process
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certification for export of organic products from Indiawhich comply with the NPOP or NOP
standards.
TraceNet collects, stores and reports - forward and backward traces and quality assurance
data entered by the operators / producer groups and certification bodies within the organic
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supply chain in India.


(APEDA) was established by the Government of India under the Agricultural and Processed
Food Products Export Development Authority Act passed by the Parliament in December,
1985.

Goldschmidtite:
It is a new mineral recently discovered from a rock inside a diamond from South Africa.
Goldschmidtite has high concentrations of niobium, potassium, and the rare earth elements
lanthanum and cerium.
The chemical composition of the mineral is different from the usual chemical composition of
earth’s mantle which is dominated by magnesium and Iron.

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SITMEX-19
SITMEX-19 is being organized between Indian Navy, Royal Thai Navy (RTN) and Republic of
Singapore Navy (RSN).
This is the first year of the maritime exercise.
The exercise had been announced by Prime Minister Modi at the Shangri-La Dialogue in 2018.
A fourth country Malaysia has expressed its interest in being a part of the exercise.

Freight village:

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A freight village developed in Sahibganj in Jharkand has been inaugurated recently.
It is a multi-modal transport hub.
The Sahibganj freight village was developed by the Inland Waterways Authority of India

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(IWAI).
The first freight village in India was inaugurated at Varanasi.

Project beehive
sc
For better operations, army developing real-time equipment database. About Project beehive
The program ‘Project Beehive’ will be a centralized and automated system based in Delhi
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under the army’s Electronics and Mechanical Engineers (EME) corps.


Its operations ranging from countering terrorists in Jammu and Kashmir to moving
deployments along the frontiers with Pakistan and China,
This automated program will provide real time information to it about the life and present
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conditions of its tanks, vehicles, guns and air assets and their upcoming problems.
The Army is collaborating with the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology on this.

Galos Tribe
rg

The Galos, which are one of the 26 major tribes of Arunachal Pradesh that dominate West
Siang district practised the Arr-Rinam ritual.
ta

The Galo community has been recognized as a Scheduled Tribe in the Amendment to the
Constitution (ST), Order, 1950, Part-XVIII.
Mopin is the main festival in Galos which is celebrated for the prosperity of the villages.
The Galos perform Popir dance.
Arr-Rinam is the Galo equivalent of lockdown imposed by consensus for 48 hours whenever an
epidemic strikes.
The Arr-Rinam follows the Ali-Ternam (the word Ali means epidemic and Ternam means
forestall) ritual to ward off an epidemic.
The Bos or deputy priests performed the Ali-Ternam under the guidance of a Nyibo (shaman).

Adi Tribe
The Adi community also performed a similar ritual called the motor or pator system in the Adi
(tribe) dialect.
This is a customary self-restriction, where the locals lock down several villages by erecting
Page 258
barricades to prevent the entry of outsiders. No person is allowed to enter or leave the
villages.
They believe that this ritual lets shamans with legendary powers to locate wild herbs to
combat an epidemic.

Nyishi community
In districts such as Papum Pare and East Kameng, the dominant Nyishi community observed
Arrue involving self-quarantine.

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Nyishi Tribes also called Bangni are the tribal people of eastern Bhutan and Arunachal
Pradesh (formerly North East Frontier Agency).
Nyishi is a Scheduled Tribe. It is the single largest tribe of Arunachal Pradesh.
They speak the Tibeto-Burman language of the Sino-Tibetan family.

20
The Nyishi support themselves with slash-and-burn agriculture and with hunting and fishing.
Their religion involves belief in spirits associated with nature.

Kui tribals
sc
Mostly live in southern Odisha.The Kui/ Kondhs constitute one of the major tribes of Odisha.
The word Kondh means ‘mountaineer’ derived from the Telugu word ko or ku, signifying a hill
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or mountain.
These tribals still continue to call themselves as ‘Kui people’ and their hills as ‘kui country’.

Gaddi
et

Is a tribe living in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. These tribes mainly dwell around
Dhauladhar mountain range, Chamba, Bharmaur and the areas near Dharmashala.
rg

The Chakma
People are the largest ethnic group in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in southeastern
ta

Bangladesh, second largest in Mizoram and fourth largest in Tripura of North East India.
Their ethnicity is closely linked with the peoples of East Asia. Most Chakma people are
adherents of Therevada Buddhism.

The Bhutias
Are a community of people of Tibetan ancestry, who speak Lhopo or Sikkimese. In India, they
are found in the Sikkim region

Marco Polo (1292-1294 AD):


Marco Polo was a Foreign Envoy and Venetian traveler. In 1294 A.D. he visited South India.
Marco Polo visited Rudramadevi's Kakatiya dynasty.
He wrote about his experiences in his book 'The Book of Sir Marco Polo'. This book explains
the economic history of India.
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He also visited Kerala in 13th century, and wrote an account on the Chola Empire.

Ibn Batuta (1333-1347 AD):


Ibn Batuta was a Morracan traveller, he wrote the book 'Rihla' (The Travelogue).
In his book he explained the dynasty of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq and also the economic, social
and geographical situation of his time.

A- bdur Razzaq (1442-1445 AD):

20
Ambassador of Shahrukh of Timurid Dynasty.
He came during the rule of Devaraya II of Vijaynagar Empire and is known for his description
of Vijayanagar Empire.

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IMF REPORT: MANAGING FISCAL COSTS OF NATURAL
DISASTERS
sc
IMF has released a report on “How To Manage The Fiscal Costs Of Natural Disasters”.

MAP
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National Parks of India:


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Rivers of India

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20
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Tiger Reserves In India

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Ocean Currents

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Tropical Evergreen forests

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rg
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Types of Vegetation- india

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Nuclear power plants and sites in India

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North eastern states where Inner line permit is needed
North eastern states under Sixth schedule

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Golden Crescent and Golden triangle

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Italy is very much in news


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Imp vanilla countries in Indian Ocean
1. Maldives
2. sychles
3. Comoros
4. Mayotte +Madagascar
5. Mauritius
6. Reunion island

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Ramsar sites in India

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Ramsar Sites in India (updated - total 37 in number)

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India has added 10 more wetlands to the sites protected by
the Ramsar Convention.
These are:

1. Maharashtra: Nandur (state’s first).


2. Punjab: Keshopur-Miani, Beas Conservation Reserveand
3. Uttar Pradesh: Nawabganj, Parvati Agra, Saman, Samaspur, Sandi andSarsai Nawar.

20
The other 27 Ramsar sitesare in Rajasthan, Kerala, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Himachal
Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Manipur, Gujarat, Tamil
Nadu and Tripura.

20
Subic Bay
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North to South -- Karakoram , Ladakh, Zaskar, Pirpanjal ,


Dhauladhar

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Persian gulf and Gulf of Oman and surrounding countries


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Caspian sea and surrounding countries

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Countries bordering Black Sea


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Important Mountain Ranges


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Harappan sites

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Major Oil Refineries in India

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GCC
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The GCC is a political and economic alliance of countries in the Arabian Peninsula.
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It was established in 1981 to foster socioeconomic, security, and cultural cooperation.


Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE are its members.

Kuril Island
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Part of Pacific ring of fire


Bone of contention between Russia and japan
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Siwalik Hills
Also known as Churia Hills
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In some Sanskrit texts, the region is called Manak Parbat.


Sivalik region is home to the Soanian archaeological culture
People of the Lepcha tribe inhabit the Sikkim and Darjeeling areas.
The Indian Navy's Shivalik-class frigate is named after these ranges.
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Dodabetta
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Doddabetta is the highest mountain in the Nilgiri Mountains at 2,637 metres (8,652 feet)
It is the fourth highest peak in South India next to Anamudi, Mannamalai and Meesapulimala.
Location : Udagamandalam, Nilgiri District, Tamilnadu
Parent range : Nilgiri Hills
The area surrounding Doddabetta is mostly forested. Sholas cover the hollows of its slopes

Aravalli Range (Hills)


The Aravalli Range is a mountain range in Northwestern India, running approximately 692 km
in a south-west direction, starting near Delhi, passing through southern Haryana and
Rajasthan, and ending in Gujarat.
The highest peak is Guru Shikhar (Mount Abu) at 1,722 metres (5,650 ft).
Rivers passing : Banas, Luni, Sakhi and Sabarmati
"The Great Green Wall of Aravalli" is a 1,600 km long and 5 km wide green ecological corridor
along Aravalli range from Gujarat to Delhi
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Satpura Range
The range rises in eastern Gujarat state running east through the border of Maharashtra and
Madhya Pradesh to the east till Chhattisgarh
Highest peak: Dhupgarh (4,430 ft) Madhya pradesh
Rivers: Narmada, Tapti and Mahanadi
It is a Horst mountain flanked by Narmada Graben and Tapi Graben

Blue Mountain
Phawngpui, also known as Blue Mountain is the highest mountain peak in the Mizoram
It is located in Lawngtlai district, in the southeastern region of Mizoram near the Myanmar
border.

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Highest point : Phunpi klang 7077 ft
Phawngpui is the highest peak of the Lushai Hills
Natural home of mountain goats.
Since 1992 the mountain has been included in the protected area of the Phawngpui National
Park, one of only two national parks of India in Mizoram
The area is encircled by matted bamboo groves and other alluring vegetations. There are
varieties of butterflies, including some rare species found in this region.

Girnar hills

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Girnar, also known as Girinagar ('city-on-the-hill') or Revatak Parvata, is a group of mountains
in the Junagadh District of Gujarat, India.
It is an important pilgrimage site for Hindus and Jains , who gather here during the Girnar

20
Parikrama festival.
It is also a holy mountain to Buddhists
Girnar is one of the six major 'tirthas' attributed to the 'panchkalyanakas' of various '
tirthankaras
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Mount Girnar is a major igneous plutonic complex
It is the Nirvan bhumi of 22nd Tirthankara Lord Neminatha
Ashoka's rock cut edicts are present in Girnar
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Shillong Plateau
Highland in Eastern Meghalaya and is an outlier of plateau of Peninsular India
Plateau's western, northern and southern end are Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills respectively
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Composed of ancient rocks and contains reserves of Coal, Iron ore, Limestone, etc.
Shillong Peak is the highest point
Important Facts about Meghalaya
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World's Largest cave fish discovered from Um Ladaw cave in Meghalaya's Jaintia Hills
World's longest Sandstone cave (around 24.5 Km) named Krem Puri is in Khasi hills
Further India's longest caves are present in Meghalaya
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Meghalayan Age refers to 4200 years ago to present. It comes under Holocene Epoch. This
was discovered after studying Stalagmites of Mawmluh caves in Meghalaya
Living Root Bridges are also a paradise to watch
Important places: Mawsynram, Cherrapunji (wettest place) in Khasi hills
In 2018 Mahabaleshwar of Maharashtra received more rainfall than Cherrapunji

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Dhauladhar Range
Also called White Range
part of Lesser Himalayas or Outer Himalayas or Himachal or Mahabharat Range
Highest peak is Hanuman Tibba
Start from Dalhousie and near Badrinath. Lie almost entirely in Himachal Pradesh and Jk
prominent pass across the range is Indrahar pass
To the south lies the famous Kangra valley

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Kaimur Range
Eastern portion of Vindhya range (an extension of it)
Passes through Rewa division of MP, Mirzapur division of UP and Rohtas district of Bihar
Forms watershed or divide between Son river and Tamsa river
The range is continuous and no gorges or wind gaps are present
Protected areas in the Kaimur Range include:
Kaimoor wildlife sanctuary in Uttar Pradesh
Chandra prabha wildlife sanctuary in Uttar Pradesh

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Cardamom Hills
Also called Yela Mala hills

20
Famous for crops like Cardamom, Pepper and Coffee
States : Kerala and Tamilnadu
Western Ghats along with Cardamom Hills are UNESCO World Heritage Site
Includes Idukki Dam and Mullaperiyar Dam
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Surrounded by Annamalai hills to North west, Palani hills to North east and Agasthyamalai
hills to South
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Malayagiri
Malayagiri, is a mountain peak in the Malayagiri hills subrange of the Garhjat Range
It is located near Pal Lahara town near in the district Anugul of Odisha State
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Javadi Hills
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The Javadhi Hills (also Jawadhi, Jawadhu Hills) are an extension of the Eastern Ghats spread
across parts of Vellore and Tiruvannamalai districts in the northern part of the state of Tamil
Nadu in southeastern India.
During the British colonisation of India, the Javadhu Hills appeared occasionally in government
ta

gazetteers and manuals, ethnographies, and travelers' accounts. Henry le Fanu, writing in
1883, admired the beauty of the Jawadhi hills.
The Indian astronomer Vainu Bappu selected the hills as the site of the Kavalur Observatory
(VBO), which began operations in 1967.

Origin place of river Narmada (Amarkantak)


Amarkantak is the place from where the Narmada river originates. It rises from the Maikal
ranges.
Amarkantak is in shahdol District, Madhya Pradesh.
River mainly flows in Central MP
The river flows from the eastward direction to the westward into the Arabian sea. It merges
into the ocean at the point called 'Bharonch'
The Narmada finds mention in ancient texts of India as one of the seven most sacred rivers in
India. The river is considered as the Goddess and is worshiped in India. There are numerous
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thirthas on the banks of the river, the most important among them are Mahewswar and
Omkareshwar tempes.
Large population of India including the tribal population such as Gonds, Bhils, Santhals,
Kurkus are heavily dependent on its water.
Narmada Valley project on this river

Dalma Hills
Location : Jamshedpur District, jharkhand

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River nearby : subarnrekha
Dalma wildlife sanctuary : Important species - Barking dear, leopard, sloth bear, elephants,
porcupines , and tigers.

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Dafla hills
Location : Daphla (or Dafla) Hills is a tract of hilly country on the border of western Arunachal
and Assam
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It is occupied by an independent tribe called Daphla.
It lies to the north of the Tezpur and North Lakhimpur subdivisions, and is bounded on the
west by the Aka Hills and on the east by the Abor Range.
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Caspian Sea = TARIK (Turkmenistan , Azerbaizan, Russia, Iran ,Kazakhstan)


Black Sea = GURR BuT ( Georgia, Ukraine ,Russia , Romania , Bulgaria , Turkey)
RED SEA = DESSEY ( Djibouti ,Eriteria , Saudi Arabia ,Sudan, Egypt, Yemen )
ARAL SEA = UK ( UZBEKISTAN AND KAZAKHSTAN)
SEA OF AZOV = UR ( UKRAIN AND RUSSIA)
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BALTIC SEA = RuDe Germany SELL Poland and Finland. (Russia , Denmark , Germany ,
Sweden, Estonia , Latvia , Lithuvania , Poland and Finland)

Strait of hormuz
When a body of water such as a strait is capable of being blocked or even closed in order to
control transportation routes, the body is called a “choke point.”
The Strait of Hormuz has become an important choke point in recent years because of
increasing Middle East tensions.

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States through which tropic of cancer passes in india
Gujarat

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Rajasthan
Madhya Pradesh
Chattisgarh
Jharkhand
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West Bengal
Tripura
Mizoram
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Lake In news
Oussudu lake - Puduchery
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Kondajji lake - Karnataka


Kundavala lake - Karnataka
Akkulam lake - Kerala
Ulsoor lake, bellandur lake, kudlu chikka kere lake, sarakki lake - All are in Banglore,
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Karnataka
Jaisamand lake - Udaipur, Rajasthan
Sambhar lake – Rajasthan
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Barail Range
It is the highest hill range in Assam
It is the watershed between Brahmaputra and Barak rivers
Climate is tropical monsoon
Vegetation is tropical evergreen
Annual rainfall ranges from 2000 mm to 6000 mm

Lake In news
Bum - Rukn - ud - dowla heritage water body - Hyderabad
Ranakala lake - kolhapur, Maharashtra
Neela Hauz Khas - New Delhi
Agara lake, varthur lake- Banglore

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Chelikunta tank - Telangana
Note - All were in news related to NGT orders, SC orders and Question Raised in LS

BIMSTEC
Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation
Formed in 1997, (Bangkok Declaration)
HQ: Dhaka, Bangladesh
7 member countries (Maldives is not a member)

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2018 summit held at Kathmandu, next summit will be at Colombo

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SAARC
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
Formed in 1985
HQ: kathmandu, Nepal
8 member countries (Myanmar is not a member)
South Asian University is located at New Delhi for SAARC students
India launched South Asia Communication Satellite (GSAT-9) in 2017

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SCO
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Shanghai Cooperation Organisation


Formed in 2001
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HQ: Beijing, China (not Shanghai)


8 member countries (Turkmenistan is not a member)
Both India and Pakistan are its members
Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) of SCO is headquartered at Tashkent, Uzbekistan
SCO conducted Joint Exercise on Urban Earthquake Search & Rescue (SCOJtEx-2019) in New
Delhi

MGC
Mekong- Ganga Cooperation
Formed in 2000
India + 5 ASEAN countries (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam)
Mekong river flows through Cambodia, China (but not a member of MCG), Laos, Myanmar,
Thailand and Vietnam
For cooperation in tourism, culture, education, transport, communications

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1. Tambirabarani river - Tamil Nadu
2. Gundlakamma river - Andra Pradesh
3. Swarnamukhi river - Andra Pradesh
4. Perumba river - Kerala
5. Jojari river - Jodhpur. rajasthan
6. Ayad river - Udaipur, Rajasthan
7. Badal river - Himachal Pradesh
8. Kapali river – odissa
9. Feni river - Tripura

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10. Burhi dihing river - pataki hills, Arunachal Pradesh
11. Khoh river – Uttarakhand

Natuna Islands

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The Natuna Regency is an archipelago of 272 islands located in the south part of the South
China Sea in the Natuna Sea.
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Why Natuna islands in news?

China has sparked a major maritime confrontation with Indonesia near the South China Sea
with dozens of Chinese fishing vessels, along with a coast guard escort, entering waters off the
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Natuna Islands, which are within Indonesia’s exclusive economic zone but are also claimed by
China.
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Feni River
The Feni river forms part of the India-Bangladesh border.
It originates in the South Tripura district
The river passes through Sabroom town on the Indian side, and meets the Bay of Bengal after
it flows into Bangladesh.
The dispute over the sharing of the river water has been long-standing.
The Union Cabinet has approved a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between India and

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Bangladesh to withdraw 1.82 cusec water for Sabroom district in Tripura

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Pench Tiger Reserve


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Pench Tiger Reserve, Seoni (Madhya Pradesh) is one of the major Protected Areas of Satpura-
Maikal ranges of the Central Highlands
Pench Tiger is among the sites notified as IMPORTANT BIRD AREAS of India. (By Birdlife
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International)
To the south of the tiger reserve lies the Pench Tiger Reserve of Maharashtra, the first inter-
state project tiger area of the country.
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Gogabeel lake
Gogabeel, an ox-bow lake in Bihar’s Katihar district, has been declared as the state’s first
‘Community Reserve’ of Bihar.
Gogabeel is formed from the flow of the rivers Mahananda and Kankhar in the north and the
Ganga in the south and east.
It is the fifteenth Protected Area (PA) in Bihar

Tilicho lake
Tilicho Lake holds the title of the world’s highest lake.
It is situated at an altitude of 4,919 metres in Nepal

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Kajin sara lake
Kajin Sara lake, a newly-discovered lake in Nepal is likely to set a new record of being the
world’s highest lake.
The Kajin Sara lake is located at Singarkharka area of Chame rural municipality in Manang
district of Nepal.
As per the measurement of the lake taken by the team, it is located at an altitude of 5,200
metres, which is yet to be officially verified
The lake would be the world’s highest lake if its altitude of 5000-plus metres is officially

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verified,”

Lake Titicaca

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Lake in Andes on the border of Bolivia and Peru
Highest Navigable Lake in the world
Largest Lake in South America
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Burhi Dihing River
Left Bank tributary of Brahmaputra in Upper and eastern Assam
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A section of river was on fire due to an oil leak

Danakil Depression
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Belongs to northern part of Afar Triangle or Afar Depression in Ethiopia


It is a geological depression formed as a result of divergence of three tectonic plates in Horn
of Africa region
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It is the hottest place on Earth in terms of year-round average temperatures


Fossils of ancient Hominis like that of Lucy (Australopithecus), etc. were found here
The area is also famous for Salt Mining
Magnesium-dominated brines (that cause cells to break down) and an environment with
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simultaneously very low pH and high salt makes the area uninhabitable to any life form

Waorai Tribe - Ecuador


East lake - wuhan, china
Port of Murmansk - Siberia
Sattahip Naval base - Thailand
Martyr lake - Tehran, Iran
Al - noor & linwood mosque - New Zealand
Pothamala hills - kerala
Niyanchal hills - Assam
Niyamgiri hills – Odissa
Gonur - TURKMENISTAN
Sahr-i-sokhta - IRAN
Kunduz - AFGHANISTAN
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A'zaz, Rojava, Al -Hasakah, Dier - ez - zur, Raqqah, Aleppo, Idlib Manjib, Homs, Baghuz,
Palmyra – SYRIA
Tikrit, kirkuk, Fallujah, Baghdad – IRAQ

Coral Triangle
It is a roughly triangular area of the tropical marine waters of Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New
Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste
It contain at least 500 species of reef-building corals

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It is recognized as the global centre of marine biodiversity
It is also called the "Amazon of the seas"
Its biological resources sustain the lives of over 120 million people.
The center of biodiversity in the Triangle is the Verde Island Passage in the Philippines

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Murray - Darling River
Location : South Wales, Australia
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The Darling River is the third longest river in Australia
The Darling is in poor health, suffering from over-allocation of its waters, pollution from
pesticide runoff and prolonged drought
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The waters of the Murray River and the Darling River in NSW have joined for the first time in
two years, in a milestone for drought-stricken communities in New South Wales.

Gulf of Carpentaria
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Location : enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the
eastern Arafura Sea (the body of water that lies between Australia and New Guinea)
Large nets, tangles of fishing line, and tonnes of plastic debris were discovered in a recent
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aerial survey of the Gulf of Carpentaria (Ghost nets killing turtles and other marine life)
A cascade of impacts including rising sea (levels, heatwaves and back-to-back tropical cyclones
has created 400km of dead and badly damaged mangroves in the Gulf of Carpentaria
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Wollemi National Park


Location : The Wollemi National Park is a protected national park and wilderness area that is
located in the northern Blue Mountains and Lower Hunter regions of New South Wales, in
eastern Australia
The only known living wild specimens of the Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis) were discovered
in 1994
Firefighters have saved the only known natural stand of Wollemi pines, so-called “dinosaur
trees” that fossil records show existed up to 200m years ago, from the bushfires that have
devastated Australia

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Maldives
The Maldives, officially the Republic of Maldives, is a small island nation in South Asia, located
in the Arabian Sea of the Indian Ocean.
Capital city : Male
The Maldives became a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional
Cooperation (SAARC). It is also a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of
Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and the Non-Aligned Movement

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Okhla Bird Sanctuary
It is located close to New Delhi and is one of the 467 Important Bird Areas (IBA) of the country
and is home to a large number of resident, as well as migratory birds like grey-headed fish

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eagle, Baikal teal, Baer’s pochard and Sarus crane.
It is home to 32 species of reptiles, 7 species of amphibians and 186 plant species.
Okhla Bird Sanctuary, belonging to the State of Uttar Pradesh, has an area of 400 ha, out of
which 120 ha falls within the National Capital Region of Delhi.
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Afghanistan
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Afganistan is a fully landlocked country.


bordered by countries Iran, Pakistan, India, China, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and
Turkmenistan
Important cities of Afganistan are
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Mazhar e Sharif
Kandhaar, Herat
Kabul
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Kunduz
The population composed of ethnic Hazaras , Pashtuns, Tajiks, Uzbeks etc.

Melanesia
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Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern
Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Tonga.
The region includes the five independent countries of Fiji, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Papua
New Guinea, East Timor as well as the French special collectivity of New Caledonia, and parts
of Indonesia

Bougainville
It is a chain of islands that lie 959 kilometres northwest of Papua New Guinea’s (PNG) capital,
Port Moresby, has voted unequivocally for independence from Papua New Guinea
Capital city is Buka
Liest East to the Solomon sea in the pacific ocean

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Kardak islets
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Imia or Kardak is a pair of small uninhabited islets in the Aegean Sea, situated between the
Greek island chain of the Dodecanese and the southwestern mainland coast of Turkey.
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Imia/Kardak was the object of a military crisis and subsequent dispute over sovereignty
between Greece and Turkey in 1996. The Imia/Kardak dispute is part of the larger Aegean
dispute, which also comprises disputes over the continental shelf, the territorial waters, the air
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space, the Flight Information Regions (FIR) and the demilitarization of the

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White Island Volcano


Whakaari/White Island is an active andesite stratovolcano, situated 48 km from the east coast
of the North Island of New Zealand, in the Bay of Plenty.
It is New Zealand's most-active cone volcano, and has been built up by continuous volcanic

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activity over the past 150,000 years.
New Zealand is located in one of the world's most tectonically-volatile regions (Pacific Ring of
fire).
The volcano erupted on Monday when dozens of tourists were on the island.

Samjiyon
The large-scale demolition and reconstruction of the North Korean mountain town of Samjiyon
has been completed.

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It was called an “example of a mountainous modern town” and “an epitome of modern
civilization.”
Samjiyon was also created as a “model of successfully realizing the Party’s idea of local
construction” — indicating intentions to carry out modernization and reconstruction in other

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small towns, possibly on a larger scale than is already underway nationwide.

Surajkund
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Surajkund is an ancient reservoir of the 10th century located on Southern Delhi Ridge of
Aravalli range in Faridabad city of Haryana state.
Surajkund (literal meaning is 'Lake of the Sun') is an artificial Kund ('Kund' means "lake" or
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reservoir) built in the backdrop of the Aravalli hills with an amphitheatre shaped embankment
constructed in semicircular form.

Tiger Hills
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Tiger Hill (also called Point 5062) is a mountain in the Drass-Kargil areaof Jammu &
Kashmir, India.
It is one of the highest peaks in the area and was the subject of a battle during the 1999 India-
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Pakistan Kargil War.


Its recapture was one of the most important objectives for Indian forces during the Kargil War.
Tiger Hill overlooks the National Highway 1D(India), a strategic route to Siachen Glacier
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and connects Srinagar to Leh in Ladakh

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Aden Port:
Aden is a port city and the temporary capital of Yemen, located by the eastern
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approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some 170 km (110 mi) east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
Its population is approximately 800,000 people.
Aden's natural harbour lies in the crater of a dormant volcano, which now forms a peninsula
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joined
to the mainland by a low isthmus.
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Xinjiang Map study


Xinjiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is a provincial-level autonomous
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region of China in the northwest of China.


It borders the countries of Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan,
Pakistan and India.
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The rugged Karakoram, Kunlun, and Tian Shan mountain ranges occupy much of Xinjiang's
borders.
Xinjiang also borders Tibet AutonomousRegionin China.
It is home to a number of ethnic groups, including theUyghur, Han, Kazakhs, Tibetans, Hui,
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Tajiks, Kyrgyz, Mongols and Russians.

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Tarim Basin:
Tarim Basin is an endorheic basininnorthwest China locatedin Xinjiang◼ An endorheic basin
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is a closed drainage that retains water and does not allow for overflow to other external bodies
such as the rivers and or oceans.
Its northern boundary is the Tian Shan mountain rangeandits southern boundary is the
Kunlun Mountains onthe edge of the Tibetan Plateau.
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The Taklamakan Desertdominates much of the basin.

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Hong Kong:
Hong Kong officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of
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China, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in
southern China.
With over 7.4 million people of various nationalitiesin a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi)
territory, Hong Kong is one ofthe most densely populated places in the world.
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Hong Kong is on China's southern coast, 60 km east of Macau, on the east side of the mouth
of the Pearl River estuary.
It is surrounded by the South China Sea on all sides except the north, which neighborsthe
Guangdong city of Shenzhen along the Sham Chun River.
The territory's2,755 km2 area consists of Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula, the New
Territories, Lantau Island, and over 200 other islands.

Sudan
Sudan or the Sudan officially the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Northeast Africa.
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east,
Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to
the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest.
The capital is Khartoum, located at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile.

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Since 2011, Sudan is the scene of ongoing military conflict in its regions South Kordofan and
the Blue Nile.

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