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Inflation in India

Wholesale Price Index WPI

The Wholesale Price Index(WPI) is the price of a representative basket of wholesalegoods.

The Wholesale Price Index focuses on the price of goods traded between corporations, rather
than the goods bought by consumers, which is measured by the Consumer Price Index. The
purpose of the WPI is to monitor price movements that reflect supply and demand in industry,
manufacturing and construction.

This helps in analyzing both macroeconomicand microeconomic conditions.
Published by the Office of Economic Adviser, Ministry of Commerce and Industry.

The base year of All-India WPI has been revised from 2004-05 to 2011-12 in 2017.

Consumer Price Index CPI

A Consumer Price Indexmeasures changes in the price level of a weighted average market
basket of consumer goods and services purchased by households.

It measures changes over time in the level of retail prices of selected goods and services on

which consumers of a defined group spend their incomes.

Four types of CPI are as follows:


CPI for Industrial Workers (IW).


CPI for Agricultural Labourer (AL).

CPI for Rural Labourer (RL).
CPI (Rural/Urban/Combined).

Of these, the first three are compiled by the Labour Bureau in the Ministry of Labour and

Employment. Fourth is compiled by the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) in the Ministry
of Statistics and Programme Implementation.

Base Year for CPI is 2012.

Difference between CPI and WPI

WPI, tracks inflation at the producer level and CPI captures changes in prices levels at the
consumer level.
Both baskets measure inflationary trends (the movement of price signals) within the broader
economy, the two indices differ in which weightages are assigned to food, fuel and
manufactured items.
WPI does not capture changes in the prices of services, which CPI does.
In April 2014, the RBI had adopted the CPI as its key measure of inflation.

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Cost push inflation
Cost push inflation is inflation caused by an increase in prices of inputs like labour, raw
material, etc. The increased price of the factors of production leads to a decreased supply of
these goods.
While the demand remains constant, the prices of commodities increase causing a rise in the

overall price level. This is in essence cost push inflation.

Demand Pull Inflation

Demand Pull Inflation is mainly due to increase in Aggregate demand. The increase in
Aggregate demand mainly comes from either increase in Government Expenditure

(Expansionary Fiscal Policy) or by an increase in expenditure from Households and Firms.

The root cause of demand pull inflations is- Aggregate demand > Aggregate Supply. This
simply means that the firms in the economy are not capable of producing the goods and
services demanded by the households in the present time period. The shortages of goods and
services due to increase in demand fuels inflation.

Creeping inflation

Creeping inflation is defined as the circumstance where the inflation of a nation increases gradually,

but continually, over time. The relatively small effect of creeping inflation, when viewed long-term,
actually adds up to a pretty significant increase in the cost of living.

Galloping inflation

This is a ‘very high infation’ running in the range of double-digit or triple digit (i.e., 20 per cent,
100 per cent or 200 per cent in a year)


This form of inflation is ‘large and accelerating’which might have the annual rates in million or
even trillion.17 In such inflation not only the range of increase is very large, but the increase takes
place in a very short span of time, prices shoot up overnight.

What Is Core Inflation?

Inflation measure which excludes transitory or temporary price volatility as in the case of some
commodities such as food items, energy products etc. It reflects the inflation trend in an economy.

Core inflation is the change in the costs of goods and services but does not include those from the
food and energy sectors. This measure of inflation excludes these items because their prices are

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much more volatile. It is most often calculated using the consumer price index (CPI), which is a
measure of prices for goods and services.

Headline inflation
A measure of the total inflation within an economy, including commodities such
as food and energy prices (e.g., oil and gas), which tend to be much more volatile and prone
to inflationary spikes.

Headline inflation is a measure of the total inflation within an economy, including
commodities such as food and energy prices (e.g., oil and gas), which tend to be much more
volatile and prone to inflationary spikes.


In economics, stagflation, or recession-inflation, is a situation in which the inflation rate is high,
the economic growth rate slows, and unemployment remains steadily high. It presents a dilemma
for economic policy, since actions intended to lower inflation may exacerbate unemployment

Moore Law:

As per Moore’s law, the transistor numbers to be accommodated in same size chip double
every two years, and due to this most electronic systems get outdated in about three years

International Intellectual Property Index:


The International Intellectual Property Index ranks 50 economies based on 45 unique

indicatorsacross eight separate categories that are critical to an innovation-led economy
supported by robust patent, trademark, copyright, and trade secrets protection.

The Global Intellectual Property Centre of the USCC works around the world to examine

the Intellectual Property (IP) rights and their role in creating jobs, saving lives, advancing
global economic growth, etc.
It provides both an IP report card for the world and a blueprint for policymakers in various
The Index covers 50 economies, representing 90 percent of global GDP.

World Intellectual Property Organization

It had been established in 1893 to administer the Berne Convention for the Protection of
Literary and Artistic Worksand the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property.
World Intellectual Property Indicatorsis an annual report published by the WIPO,

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Intellectual Property Appellate Board (IPAB)
The Intellectual Property Appellate Board (IPAB) was constituted on September 15, 2003 by the
Indian Government to hear and resolve the appeals against the decisions of the registrar under the
Indian Trademarks Act, 1999 and the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and
Protection) Act, 1999.

Since April 2, 2007, IPAB has been authorized to hear and adjudicate upon the appeals from most of

the decisions, orders or directions made by the Patent Controller under the Patents Act. Therefore
all pending appeals of Indian High Courts under the Patents Act were transferred to IPAB.

Intellectual Property Rights

Intellectual property rights refer to the rights given to people over the creations of their minds. They

usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use for a certain period of time.

Patents gm
Patent is one of the most important IPR under which protection is granted for an exclusive right to
exploit an invention. The invention must be a product or a process that provides a novelty and must
have commercial application. The owner of a patent is usually granted 20 years of patent protection.

Patent Prosecution Highway

The Patent Prosecution Highway(PPH) is a set of initiatives for providing accelerated

patent prosecution procedures by sharing information between some patent offices.


National policy on electronics 2019 Create Sovereign Patent Fund (SPF) to promote
the developmentand acquisition of IPs in ESDM sector.

Product Patent
Article 28 of TRIPS confers on the owner of a product patent an exclusive right to prevent third
parties without his consent, from the acts of making, using, offering for sale, selling or importing
that product.

Process Patent
The TRIPs regulation provides for registration of both the product patent as well as a process patent

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under the new patent regime.

Copyrights include the right of the author of computer programs and cinematographic works apart
from the general work of art and literature. Article 12 provides for protection of copyrights for at
least fifty years.

Trade marks
It means any sign or any combination of signs capable of distinguishing the goods or services from

those of other undertakings. The term of protection is for seven years and is renewable indefinitely.

The owner of a registered trademark has the right to assign his trademark with or without the

transfer of his business.

Geographical Indications gm
‘Geographical Indications’ mean any indication that explains the goods having origin in country’s

territory or a region in the territory or say locality in territory, given aqualitative reputation or other
goods features is in essence attributed to its geographical root. This means that the geographical
indication has to indicate that a good of a particular origin has a stated quality or reputation or some

other characteristics, which in essence attributed to its geographical root.


Industrial Designs

Design broadly implies to the characteristics of shape, pattern, configuration, or composition of lines
or colours which is tested to any commodity by any industrial process or means, which is judged by


Trade Secret

Trade secrets with commercial value must be protected against breach of confidence, breach of
contract, inducements and other acts contrary to “honest commercial practices”. Furthermore,
reasonable steps must be taken to keep the information secret. Governments must protect against
unfair commercial use test data submitted to obtain marketing approval for new pharmaceutical or
agricultural chemicals.

What is a Utility Model?

A utility model is an exclusive right granted for an invention, which allows the right holder to
prevent others from commercially using the protected invention, without his authorization, for
a limited period of time.
In its basic definition, which may vary from one country (where such protection is available) to
another, a utility model is similar to a patent.
In fact, utility models are sometimes referred to as "petty patents" or "innovation patents."
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WTO Agreements:

Agreement on Agriculture (AoA):

Salient features under Agreement on Agriculture

There are three pillars to the Agreement on Agriculture (AOA), namely,

Domestic Support,

Export competitiveness and
Market Access.

There are other issues of multifunctionalities or non-trade concern or development issues.

Domestic Support
1. Domestic support implies various kinds of direct or indirect supports provided by the
government to agriculture in their home country. This involves subsidies on input in the form

of energy, irrigation, fertilizer, seeds or pesticides etc.

2. It may involve indirect support in the form of research and development work for agriculture
in general.

3. These domestic supports are subject to certain restrictions and commitments for reduction or

elimination of these subsidies.

4. These subsidies are exposed to limit called as aggregate measures of support.

General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS):


Salient features of (GATS):


GATS deal with agreement on trade in services i.e., services relating to banking, insurance,

information technology, telecom, health, education etc.

There are 12 sectors and 161 sub-sectors of services covered under GATS.
Provide four different modes of services across the borders from one country to another
amongst member countries under Article 1 of GATS Agreement.
Mode-1 Cross Border supply of services: popularly known as e-commerce or business
process outsourcing (BPO)
Mode-2 Consumption abroad: These types of services generally include tourism,
health, education etc.
Mode-3 Commercial presence: The examples under this category are Citi bank
operating in India through its various branch offices
Mode-4 Movement of natural persons: free movement of natural persons on
fulfillment of educational and other technical qualifications.


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WTO Agreements & Its Impact on Indian Economy?

1. All types of domestically given support allotments recognized for production &
commerce distortion incorporating some exceptions comes under this category of box.
2. It is included in Article six of the Agreement on agriculture as all domestically given aids

excluding those which are explained in the blue & green boxes.


1. These are furnished to farmers usually in developed nations to restrict production as the
domestic market is not large and is furnished as a type of allowance to the unemployed.
2. In a technical manner this is the “amber box with conditions” — conditions designed to reduce
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The green box is explained in Annex two of the Agreement on agriculture. For
qualification, green box subsidies mustn’t do trade distortion, or at the most be the reason

behind even a minimum distortion.

They have to receive funds from government (not by hiking prices) and not indulge in price-

These are the type of programmes which are not focused on products particularly, and may
have inclusion of direct revenue aids for farmers, not linked to production at current prices or

They also have inclusion of environment safeguarding and development programmes targeted

at particular regions.
Subsidies under “Green box” are permitted without restrictions, and are furnished. they
agree to criteria which is policy-specific set out in Annex two.

New IPR Policy

The Policy which is in compliance with WTO's (World Trade Organisation) agreement on TRIPS
(Trade Related aspects of IPRs), aims to sustain entrepreneurship and boost Prime Minister
Narendra Modi's pet scheme 'Make in India.'

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Here are the highlights:

The Policy aims to push IPRs as a marketable financial asset, promote innovation and
entrepreneurship, while protecting public interest.
The plan will be reviewed every five years.
The policy is entirely compliant with the WTO’s agreement on TRIPS.
Special thrust on awareness generation and effective enforcement of IPRs, besides
encouragement of IP commercialisation through various incentives.
It suggests making the department of industrial policy and promotion (DIPP) the nodal

agencyfor all IPR issues.
Copyrights related issues will also come under DIPP’s ambit from that of the Human
Resource Development (HRD) Ministry

The Policy also seeks to facilitate domestic IPR filings, for the entire value chain from IPR
generation to commercialisation.

It aims to promote research and development through tax benefits.
Proposal to create an effective loan guarantee scheme to encourage start-ups.
On compulsory licensing (CL), India has issued only CL for a cancer drug.
As per the WTO norms, a CL can be invoked by a government allowing a company to produce a
patented product without the consent of the patent owner in public interest.

Under the Indian Patents Act, a CL can be issued for a drug if the medicine is deemed
unaffordable, among other conditions, and the government grants permission to qualified
generic drug makers to manufacture it.

What is TRIPS Plus?

TRIPs Plus are higher level of protection norms demanded by the developed countries that are

not prescribed by the WTO’s TRIPs regime.

Although they are named as ‘TRIPS-Plus,’ they are not formally related to TRIPs. Rather, the

term is used to indicate that these requirements go beyond the minimum standards imposed
by TRIPs.
Many developing countries who are members of FTAs are under pressure to enact these

tougher conditions in their patent laws.

The developing countries have concerns over the higher level of protection demanded by the

developed world.
They fear that once such levels of protection are given multilaterally, it will reduce competition
and may led to price rise of medicines, affecting health security in poor countries.

What is Data Exclusivity?

Data exclusivity is the protection of clinical test data submitted to a regulatory agency to prove
safety, quality and efficacy of a new drug, and preventing the generic drug manufacturers
from relying on this data in their own applications.
Such a data exclusivity will stop generic drug manufactures of developing countries from using
these data while applying for licenses.

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The demand for protecting exclusive data that have high commercial value is a major demand
from the developed world which doesn’t usually come under TRIPs.

PMI or a Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI)

PMI or a Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) is an indicator of business activity — both in the
manufacturing and services sectors.
It is a survey-based measures that asks the respondents about changes in their

perception of some key business variables from the month before.
It is calculated separately for the manufacturing and services sectors and then a composite

index is constructed.
A figure above 50 denotes expansion in business activity. Anything below 50 denotes
contraction. gm
Higher the difference from this mid-point greater the expansion or contraction.

Delaram-Zaranj Highway - also known as Route 606.


Length about 200km

It connects Delaram (border city of Afghanistan) to Zaranj (Capital of Nimruz province of

India totally financed this project. (about 600 crore rupees).

Border Roads Organization (BRO) of India, has constructed this highway.

Construction started in 2005, and in 2009 the road was opened for public use.
During the construction of this highway,Taliban killed about 130 workers, including 4 Indians
from BRO.

Monetised deficit–

Borrowings made from RBIthrough printing fresh currency.

The printed money iscalled high power money.
FRBM act disallow RBI todo this under normal conditions

A deficit occurs when expenses exceed revenues,
Imports exceed exports, or liabilities exceed assets.
Revenue deficit (RD): It is the differencebetween the revenue receipts (RR) and the
revenueexpenditure (RE).RD- RR-RE.
Effective Revenue deficit (ERD):It is defined as thedifference between the revenue deficit
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and creationof capital assets.
Fiscal deficit (FD):It is the difference between whatgovernment earns and its total
expenditure (excludingnon-debt creating capital expenditure)

FD=(Revenue receipts+ non-debt creating capitalreceipts)- Total expenditure

Budget deficit: The difference between the totalbudgeted receipts and

expenditure.BD=Budgetary receipt – Budgetary expenditure
Primary deficit: It is the difference between fiscaldeficit and interest payments

PD=FD-interest payment

'Maharaja' bond:

The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a World Bank-backed development
institution, has sold the first tranche of its 'Maharaja' bond, a rupee-denominatedonshore
debt instrument.

1. Masala bond- offshore

2. Mharaja bond -onshore
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Healthy states , Progressive India:By NITI Aayog


Data management and analysis


NITI Aayog proposes to institute a Digital Transformation indexfor states. The index

includes parameters which can allow states to examine their progress towards digital
transformation and compare it to that of others, thus acting as a catalyst to reform.

Composite Water Management Index


It has been developed in NITI Aayog with 28 Key Performance Indicators covering source
management, supply and demand side management - inter-alia covering irrigation, drinking water
(rural and urban), watershed development, and policy and governance. The index will rank the
States on the basis of verifiable data provided by them.

Food and Nutrition Security Analysis India 2019:

By MoSPI and World food programme.

Debt Transparency?
Idea of transparency is making sure that, all the data are out there.
The creditors themselves can see how much you can afford to borrow.

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The population and civil society organizations can see the type of debt you are getting.
Good for the country because you are going to get better terms.

Banking Stability Index.

It is calculated on the basis of: Efficiency of the bank,Profitability, Financial soundness,
Liquidity, Asset Quality.

Banking Stability Index is defined as the expectednumbers of banks that could become
distressed given thatat least one bank has become distressed.
As BSI score increases, it indicates that more banks areexpected to be distressed, if one

bank has becomedistressed

Jan dhan darshak gm
Department of Financial Services (DFS), Ministry ofFinance and National Informatics Centre

(NIC) has jointly developed a mobileapp called Jan Dhan Darshak as a part of financial
inclusion (FI) initiative.

‘Regulatory Sandbox’:

RBI recently proposed to relax the rules for Regulatory sandbox model, to enable innovations
in the financial technology space.

It is an infrastructure that helps financial technology (FinTech) players live test their
products or solutions before getting the necessary regulatory approvals for a mass launch
which saves startup time and cost.

Also Know

Forex swap?

Green bonds"
Green bonds are debt instruments like normal bonds. It is specifically earmarked to be
used for climate and environmental projects.
These bonds are typically asset-linked and backed by the issuer's balance sheet, and are also
referred to as climate bonds.
Intended to encourage sustainability and to support climate-related or other types of
special environmental projects.
Green bonds come with tax incentives such as tax exemption and tax credits, making
them a more attractive investment compared to a comparable taxable bond.
To qualify for green bond status, they are often verified by a third party such as the Climate
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Bond Standard Board, which certifies Bond.
Green bonds can be released by financial institutions like World Bank, IMF,
commercial banks, corporates and even governments.

Also Know

'Maharaja' bond?

CFS (Concessional Financing Scheme):

Government has extended the CFS for 5 more years till 2023. CFS was started in 2015-16 to
support Indian entities bidding for strategically important infrastructure projects abroad. It

will cover all the Indian entities regardless of shareholding.
The scheme envisages government of India to provide counter guarantee and interest
equalization of 2 percent to the EXIM Bank to offer concessional finance to any foreign
government or foreign government owned or controlled entity;
If any Indian Entity succeeds in getting contract for the execution of a project tendered by
such foreign entity and the project is considered strategically important EXIM Bank shall
extend credit at a rate not exceeding LIBOR.
While the US Dollar would be the normal currency in projects which are considered of greater

strategic interest by the Empowered Committee, finance in any acceptable freely convertible

currency or even in the Indian Rupee may be allowed by the Empowered Committee.
Ministry of External affairs propose the projects to be selected under CFS to an Empowered
committee on a case to case basis.

The Empowered Committee will also consider financing strategic projects through Public
Sector Banks other than EXIM Bank on the same terms.

Transfer Payments:

Governments typically redistribute a share of tax revenues back to specified groups of

individuals in the form of various social programs (such as welfare benefits, unemployment
insurance, public pensions, or child benefits).
These transfer paymentssupplement the market income of the households which receive them.

Peace clause
The term ‘peace clause’ has been a cause of disquiet ever since india dug in its heels on the
issue of domestic food security in the recent world trade organisation (WTO)
negotiations, leading to a deadlock.

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What is it?

The ‘peace clause’ said that no country would be legally barred from food security
programmes even if the subsidy breached the limits specified in the WTO agreement on

What are the issues India have w.r.t this ?

India’s worry is that if the clause expires before a permanent solution is in place, food

security programmes and policies to protect farmers, such as Minimum Support Prices, would
come under siege.
The limited window offered by the Western powers for the peace clause was seen by India as

insufficient assurance.
The clause also requires full disclosure of MSPs and annual procurement for food security

programmes, which the Government fears would leave India open to questioning by other
countries on domestic matters.

Why is it important? gm
The right to food is a basic human right. Therefore, Western misgivings about a country

like India − where a third of the 3 billion-population lives beneath the poverty line −
providing food subsidies seems hypocritical.

The developed nations see India as a huge market for foodgrains and other products, but
their produce is rendered uncompetitive when the government is willing to subsidise

farmers, purchase their produce for a minimum support price and then sell it at a loss
through the public distribution system and other channels.

Instruments of Monetary Policy:


Treasury Bills (TBs)


T bill is instrumentof the money market though presentsince Independence got organised only in
1986. Tey are used by the CentralGovernment to fulfl its short-termliquidity requirement upto the
period of364 days.

There developed five types of

the TBs in due course of time:
(a) 14-day (Intermediate TBs)
(b) 14-day (Auctionable TBs)
(c) 91-day TBs
(d) 182-day TBs
(e) 364-day TBs
Out of the above five variants of the TBs,at present only the 91-day TBs, 182-dayTBs and the 364-day
TBs are issued bythe government. The other two variantswere discontinued in 2001.
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The TBs other than providingshort-term cushion to the government,also function as short-term
avenues for the banks and financialinstitutions, besides functioning asrequirements of the CRR and
SLR of the
banking institutions.

Certificate of Deposit (CD)

Organisedin 1989, the CD is used by banks andissued to the depositors for a specifiedperiod ranging

less than one year—theyare negotiable and tradable in the moneymarket. Since 1993 the RBI
allowed thefinancial institutions to operate in it—IFCI, IDBI, IRBI (IIBI since 1997) andthe Exim
Bank—they can issue CDs forthe maturity periods above one year andupto three years.

Commercial Paper (CP)

Organised in1990 it is used by the corporate houses inIndia (which should be a listed companywith a

working capital of not less than Rs.5 crore). The CP issuing companies need to obtain a specified
credit rating froman agency approved by the RBI (such asCRISIL, ICRA, etc).

Commercial Bill (CB):


Organised in1990, a CB is issued by the All IndiaFinancial Institutions (AIFIs), NonBanking Finance
Companies (NBFCs),Scheduled Commercial Banks,Merchant Banks, Co-operative Banksand the

Mutual Funds. It replaced theold Bill Market available since 1952 inthe country.

Call Money Market (CMM)


This isbasically an inter-bank money marketwhere funds are borrowed and lent,generally, for one
day—that is why thisis also known as over-night borrowingmarket (also called money at call).

Fundcan be borrowed/raised for a maximumperiod upto 14 days (called short notice).

Money Market Mutual Fund (MF)


Popular as Mutual Funds (MFs) this money market instrument wasintroduced/organised in 1992 to

provideshort-term investment opportunity toindividuals. The initial guidelines forthe MF have been
liberalised manytimes. Since March 2000, MFs havebeen brought under the preview of SEBI,besides
the RBI. At present, a whole lotof financial institutions and firms areallowed to set up MFs, viz.,
commercialbanks, public and private financialinstitutions and private sector companies.

Repos and Reverse Repos

In the era ofeconomic reforms there developed twonew instruments of money market—repo and
reverse repo. Considered themost dynamic instruments of the Indianmoney market they have
emerged themost favoured route to raise short-termfunds in India. ‘Repo’ is basically anacronym of
the rate of repurchase.

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Non-performing assets
A non-performing loan (NPL) is a loan that is in default or close to being in default. Many loans
become non-performing after being in default for 90 days, but this can depend on
the contract terms.

Stressed assets = NPAs + Restructured loans +Written Off Assets.

Classifications Of NPAs

Banks classify NPA’s into the following 3 categories based on how long they remain non-performing.

The three categories are – 1. Substandard Assets, 2.Doubtful Assets and 3.Loss Assets. Standard
Assets are those assets whose payment is received by due date.
Gross NPA consists of Substandard Assets, Doubtful Assets and Loss Assets.

1. Substandard Assets– If a loan account remains NPA for a period less than or equal to 12

2. Doubtful Assets– An asset is doubtful if it has remained in the sub-standard category for 12

3. Loss Asset– A loan account is declared as loss asset when the bank’s internal or external

auditors declare it so or RBI inspection declares it as one.


Gross Non-Performing Assets (GNPA)

Gross NPA is the summation of all loan assets that are classified as NPA as per RBI guidelines. When

the NPA occurs, it is not just an interest income loss to the bank, but a principal loss as well. That
means, if a bank has lent Rs.100 Crores to a company with an outstanding loan amount of 80 Crores,
then the bank would lose these 80 Crores along with the future interest payments as well when the

company does not repay back.


Provision Coverage Ratio

The key ratio in analyzing asset quality of the bank is between the total provision balances of the
bank as on a particular date to gross NPAs. It is a measure that indicates the extent to which the
bank has provided for the weaker part of its loan portfolio. A high ratio suggests that further
provisions to be made by the bank in the coming years would be relatively low as the provision
coverage is high(if gross non-performing assets do not rise at a faster rate).

Net non-performing assets = Gross NPAs – Provisions.

Gross NPA Ratio

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It is the ratio of total gross NPA to total advances (loans) of the bank.

Net NPA to Advances (loans) Ratio is the ratio of Net NPA to advances. It is used as a measure of the
overall quality of the bank’s loan book.

Provision Coverage Ratio = Total provisions / Gross NPAs.

Restructured loans:

Restructured asset or loan are those assets which got an extended repayment period, reduced
interest rate, converting a part of the loan into equity, providing additional financing, or some
combination of thesemeasures.

Written off assets:

When the lender does not count that money, borrower owes to him/it, then the asset is called
written off assets. However, in the balance sheet, the lender will compensate the written off
assets or the loans. At the same time, it does not mean that the borrower is pardoned or
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Regional Rural Bankss are jointly owned by GoI, the


concerned State

Government and Sponsor Banks (27 scheduledcommercial banks and one State Cooperative
Bank),theissued capital of a RRB is shared by the owners in theproportion of 50%, 15% and
35% respectively.

Fiscal drag:

Fiscal drag: It is a situation where inflation pushesincome into higher tax bracket. The

result is increasein income taxes but no increase in real purchasing power.

The World Bank launched bond-i (blockchain operated new debt instrument).
The world’s first bond to be created, allocated, transferred and managed through its life
cycle using distributed ledger technology.

What is FASTag, and how does it work?

National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) has developed the National Electronic Toll
Collection (NETC) programme to fulfil the electronic tolling requirements in India.
The programme has FASTag as its backbone as the RFID-powered technology is designed to
enable toll payments while the vehicle is in motion, directly debiting the linked prepaid or
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savings account.
A FASTag RFID tag is required to be affixed on the windscreen of the vehicle to initiate
payments once the driver passes through a NETC-supported toll plaza.
"FASTag offers the convenience of cashless payment along with benefits like - savings on
fuel and time as the customer does not has to stop at the toll plaza," NPCI notes on its

GDP deflator:

Nominal GDP is the value, which is calculated using the current prices in the economy.
Real GDP is the value calculated using a constant set of prices.

By affixing a base year for these constant prices, value of the GDP can be calculated to
ascertain the scale of change in the production levels.
The change in prices is calculated by an index of prices called the GDP deflator, which is

nothing but the ratio of the nominal GDP to the real GDP.
e., GDP Deflator = Nominal GDP/ Real GDP

Also Know!

Different ways to measure the change in prices?



There are six credit rating agencies registered under SEBI namely, CRISIL, ICRA, CARE, SMERA,
Fitch India and Brickwork Ratings.

Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister (EAC-PM)


Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister (EAC-PM) is a non-constitutional, non-statutory,

independent body constituted to give advice on economic and related issues to the Government of
India, specifically to the Prime Minister.

The Consumer Confidence Surveyis conducted by Reserve Bank of India.

What is a Gig Economy

In a gig economy, temporary, flexible jobs are commonplace and companies tend toward hiring
independent contractors and freelancers instead of full-time employees.
A gig economy undermines the traditional economy of full-time workers who rarely change
positions and instead focus on a lifetime career.

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National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd (NAFED)

National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd (NAFED) is an apex

organization of marketing cooperatives for agricultural produce in India, under Ministry of
Agriculture, Government of India.
NAFED is the nodal agency to implement price stabilization measures under "Operation

Greens" which aims to double the farmers' income by 2022.
NAFED along with FCI with proactive role of state governments also physically procures
oilseeds, pulses and copra under the Price Support Scheme (PSS) which in turn is under the

umbrella scheme of PM-AASHA.In 2008, it established, National Spot Exchange, a
Commodities exchange as a joint venture of Financial Technologies (India) Ltd. (FTIL).

Crops are procured by NAFED -

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Functionsof NABARD:
NABARD gives high priority to projects formed under the Integrated Rural

Development Programme (IRDP).

It provides finance to support poverty alleviationprograms run by IRDP.

It also makes the service area plan to provide backward and forward linkages and
infrastructural support.
It seeks to establish linkages between Self-help Group (SHG)that are organized by

voluntary agencies for poor and needy in rural areas and other official credit agencies.
It finances projects under the ‘National Watershed Development Programme‘and

the ‘National Mission of Wasteland Development‘.

It also supervises the cooperative banksand Regional Rural Banks to periodically
ensure the development of the rural financing and farmers’ welfare.

Climate Change Fund

“Climate Change Fund” was created out of the profit of NABARD during 2016-17 for
facilitating attempts to address impacts of climate change especially towards fostering
sustainable development. NABARD contributes annually from its profit towards the corpus of
the fund.

Institution of the “Climate Change Fund” is a unique initiative of NABARD as a Development

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Financial Institution to foster sustainable development and contribute meaningfully towards
national priorities.

To promote and support activities aimed towards addressing climate change impacts,
adaptation and mitigation measures, awareness generation, knowledge sharing and facilitate
sustainable development.

Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF)

Government of India created the Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF)

under NABARD in 1995-96, with an initial corpus of Rs.2,000 crore.
The eligible activities to be financed under RIDF as approved by Government of India are
classified under three broad categories:

Agriculture and related sector

Social sector

Rural connectivity

The main objective of the Fund is to provide loans to State Governments and State-owned

corporations to enable them to complete ongoing rural infrastructure projects


Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund


1. FIDF would provide concessional finance to State Governments / UTs and State entities,

cooperatives, individuals and entrepreneurs etc., for taking up of the identified investment
activities of fisheries development.
2. Under FIDF, loan lending will be over a period of five years from 2018-19 to 2022-23 and

maximum repayment will be over a period of 12 years inclusive of moratorium of two years on

repayment of principal.
3. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), National Cooperatives
Development Corporation (NCDC) and all scheduled Banks shall be the nodal Loaning Entities.

Long Term Irrigation Fund

The Long Term Irrigation Fund(LTIF) is a fund under the National Bank for Agriculture and
Rural Development (NABARD) for implementation of major and medium irrigation projects in

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Agri-Market Infrastructure Fund
The Agri-Market Infrastructure Fund wasannounced in 2018 Budget for developing and
upgrading agricultural marketing infrastructure in the 22,000 Gramin Agricultural
Markets (GrAMs) and 585 Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC).
At present, GrAMs are being developed fromMGNREGA fund.
The scheme being demand-driven,progress will depend on demand from states.

Standing Deposit Facility

Standing Deposit Facility, proposed by the RBI and under examination by the Centre, is viewed as a
strong tool

To suck out the surplus liquidity and alleviate the banking system’s problem of plenty.
This concept, first recommended by the Urjit Patel committee report in 2014, may soon become part
of the central bank’s toolkit to manage liquidity.

Swadhar Greh Scheme


Ministry of Women and Child Development is implementing the Swadhar Greh Scheme which

targets the women victims of difficult circumstances who are in need of institutional support
for rehabilitation so that they could lead their life with dignity.

The Scheme envisages providing shelter, food, clothing and health as well as economic and
social security for these women.
Swadhar Greh is a DBT compliant scheme.

Bharat Bond ETF

Bharat Bond ETF will be a basket of bonds issued by central public sector enterprises and Will
invest in a portfolio of bonds of CPSE, CPSU, CPFI or any other government organisation,
It will invest in a portfolio of bonds of state-run companies and other government entities
Bharat Bond ETF will have two maturity series - 3 and 10 years. Each series will have a
separate index of the same maturity series.
Bond ETF will provide safety (underlying bonds are issued by CPSEs and other government
owned entities), liquidity (tradability on exchange) and predictable tax efficient returns, the
government said in a statement

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Exchange Traded Fund:
An ETF is a type of fund that tracks the underlying assets and divides ownership of those
assets into shares.
The underlying assets can be shares of stock, bonds, oil futures, gold bars, foreign currency,
Shareholders do not directly own or have any direct claim to the underlying investments in the
fund, rather they indirectly own these assets.

ETF shareholders are entitled to a proportion of the profits, such as earned interest or
dividends paid, and they may get a residual value in case the fund is liquidated.

Also Know!

Difference Between ETF & MF?

ETF Vs Mutual Fund:

ETF Vs Mutual Fund - The transaction of stocks and bonds under the Mutual Fund is with the
company that manages the fund.
Whereas in ETF, the ownership of the fund can easily be bought, sold or transferred in the

same way as shares of stock, since ETF shares are traded on public stock exchanges.

Model Concession Agreement (MCA)


The MCA spells out the policy and regulatory framework for implementation of a PPP project.
It addresses a gamut of critical issues pertaining to a PPP framework like mitigation and
unbundling of risks; allocation of risks and returns; symmetry of obligations between the

principal parties; precision and predictability of costs & obligations; reduction of transaction
costs and termination.

The MCA allocates risk to parties best suited to manage them.

The Model Concession Agreements for various sectors like National Highways, State
Highways, Urban Rail Transit System and Ports are available.

What is ration card portability or one nation one ration card

India runs the world’s largest food security programme, distributing more than 600 lakh
tonnes of subsidised food grain to more than 81 crore beneficiaries every year.
This is done through a vast network of more than five lakh ration or fair price shops. Under the
National Food Security Act (NFSA), each beneficiary is eligible for five kg of subsidised

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grains per month at the rate of ₹3/kg for rice, ₹2/kg for wheat and ₹1/kg of coarse
However, until recently, this has been a location-linked benefit, leaving crores of migrant
workers and families out of the food safety net.
Each household’s ration card is linked to a specific fair price shop and can only be used to buy
rations in that particular shop. Over the last few years, 10 States (partially in one) have
implemented the Integrated Management of Public Distribution System, which allows
beneficiaries to buy rations from any fair price shop within that State.
The Centre is now in the process of expanding these efforts into a nationwide portability

network which is called the ‘One Nation One Ration Card’ scheme.
It is scheduled to come into full effect by June 2020, after which a ration card holder can buy
subsidised grain at any fair price shop in the country.

“Integrated Management of Public Distribution System (IM-PDS)”—one nation one

National Committee on Trade Facilitation (NCTF)

India constituted an NCTF with the Cabinet Secretary of India as the

NCTF has played an important role in reducing the high cost of imports and exports so as to
integrate our cross-border trade with the global value chain.

Whats is Sabka Vishwas (Legacy Dispute Resolution)


Scheme 2019?

The Sabka Vishwas (Legacy Dispute Resolution) Scheme is a one-time measure for liquidation
of past disputes of Central Excise and Service Tax as well as to ensure disclosure of unpaid
taxes by a person eligible to make a declaration.

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Who is a Fugitive economic offender (FEO)
A person to be declared as a fugitive economic offender (FEO) if:
an arrest warrant has been issued against him for any specified offences where the value
involved is over Rs 100 crore, and
he has left the country and refuses to return to face prosecution.

To declare a person an FEO, an application will be filed in a Special Court (designated under
the Prevention of Money-Laundering Act, 2002) containing details of the properties to be
confiscated, and any information about the person’s whereabouts.

The Special Court will require the person to appear at a specified place at least six weeks from
issue of notice. Proceedings will be terminated if the person appears.

Databank of independent directors
The government launched a databank of independent directors which will be a "comprehensive
repository" of existing as well as those eligible to be independent directors

1. under the Companies Act, 2013, independent directors are required to register themselves
with the databank , as per rules notified by the corporate affairs ministry.
2. The Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs (IICA), under the ministry, would be maintaining the

databank portal.

3. Independent directors are also required to pass a basic online proficiency self-assessment test
which would be available from March 2020.

4. Under the Companies Act, 2013, there are provisions that a company can choose an
independent director from a data bank of persons who are eligible and willing to act as
independent directors.



Human Development Report:

India was ranked 129 out of 189 countries on the 2019 Human Development Index (HDI)
improving from the 130th position in 2018.

The Human Development Index (HDI)

HDI is a statistical tool used to measure a country's overall achievement in its social and
economic dimensions.
Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq created HDI in 1990 which was further used to measure
the country's development by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).
Calculation of the index combines four major indicators

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life expectancy for health
Expected years of schooling,
Mean of years of schooling for education and
Gross National Income per capita for standard of living.

India's Performance

India's HDI value increased by 50% (from 0.431 to 0.647), which places it above the average
for other South Asian countries (0.642)
In India, between 1990 and 2018, life expectancy at birth increased by 11.6 years, mean years

of schooling increased by 3.5 years and expected years of schooling increased by 4.7 years.
Per capita incomes rose by over 250%.

What is an IFSC? gm
An IFSC enables bringing back the financial services and transactions that are currently
carried out in offshore financial centers by Indian corporate entities and overseas branches /
subsidiaries of financial institutions (FIs) to India by offering business and regulatory

environment that is comparable to other leading international financial centers in the world
like London and Singapore.

It would provide Indian corporates easier access to global financial markets


The International Financial Services Centres Authority.

Management of the Authority: Consisting of a Chairperson, one Member each to be nominated


by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI), the
Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) and the Pension Fund
Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA), two members to be dominated by the Central

Government and two other whole-time or full-time or part-time members.


What is GIFT City?

Gujarat International Finance Tec-City or GIFT is an under-construction central business
district between Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Its main purpose is to provide high quality physical infrastructure (electricity, water, gas,
district cooling, roads, telecoms and broadband), so that finance and tech firms can relocate
their operations there from Mumbai, Bangalore, Gurgaon etc. where infrastructure is either
inadequate or very expensive.
It will have a special economic zone (SEZ), international education zone, integrated townships,
an entertainment zone, hotels, a convention center, an international techno park, Software
Technology Parks of India (STPI) units, shopping malls, stock exchanges and service units

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Salient Features of International Financial Services Centres Authority Bill,

Composition: The Authority shall consist of a Chairperson, one Member each to be

nominated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the Securities Exchange Board of India
(SEBI), the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) and
the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority(PFRDA), two members to be
dominated by the Central Government and two other whole-time or full-time or part-time

Functions:The Authority shall regulate all such financial services, financial products and
Financial Institutions in an IFSC. It may also recommend to the Central Government such
other financial products, financial services and financial institutions which may be permitted in

the IFSCs.
Powers:All powers exercisable by the respective financial sector regulatory (viz. RBI, SEBI,

IRDAI, and PFRDA etc.) under the respective Acts shall be solely exercised by the Authority
in the IFSCs in so far as the regulation of financial products, financial services and FIs that
are permitted in the IFSC are concerned. gm

"Public Goods , Non-rival good, Rival bad, Non-rival bad"


The basic nature of public goods, non-rival and non-excludable, make them different from

private goods.
Explanation: A good is a rival if the consumption of the good by a person prevents other
possible consumers to consume it and it is non rival if the consumption by one person does not

prevent other possible consumers to consume it.

A Beautiful flower garden, if two people ‘A’ and ‘B’ want to enjoy the beauty of the garden and

‘A’ is enjoying the beauty of the garden before ‘B’ then there is no change in the availability of
garden for ‘B’.
Like rival and non-rival goods there are also rival and non-rival bad.

Pollution is a non-rival bad because inhaling of polluted air by one person will not reduce the
pollution level for others.

Garbage is a rival bad as the consumption of garbage by one person will reduce the availability
of garbage for others.

Special Economic Zones

The Union Cabinet has approved promulgation of an Ordinance to amend the definition of “person”,
as defined in sub-section (v) of section 2 of the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005:

1. To include a trust.
2. To enable the setting up of a unit in a Special Economic Zone by a trust.
3. To provide flexibility to the Central Government to include in this definition of a person, any
entity that the Central Government may notify from time to time.

What are SEZs?

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Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are geographically delineated ‘enclaves’ in which regulations
and practices related to business and trade differ from the rest of the country and therefore all
the units therein enjoy special privileges.
The basic idea of SEZs emerges from the fact that, while it might be very difficult to
dramatically improve infrastructure and business environment of the overall economy
‘overnight’, SEZs can be built in a much shorter time, and they can work as efficient enclaves
to solve these problems.
The SEZ Act, 2005, provides the legal framework for establishment of SEZs and also for units
operating in such zones.

Utkarsh 2022:

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has finalised a three- year roadmap, named Utkarsh 2022 to
improve regulation and supervision, among other functions of the central bank.
Utkarsh 2022 is a medium term strategy in line with the global central banks’ plan to
strengthen the regulatory and supervisory mechanism.
This specifically includes central bank’s proactive role to avoid any other IL&FS debt default

issue in future.
Earlier, an internal committee of RBI was formed under former Deputy Governor Viral
Acharya, to identify issues that needed to be addressed over the next three years.


Union HRD Minister launches NISHTHA to build capacities of 42 Lakh government teachers

across the country.

NISHTHA is the world’s largest teachers’ training programme of its kind in the world.
It has been launched to improve Learning Outcomes at the Elementary level.

The initiative is first of its kind wherein standardized training modules are developed at
national level for all States and UTs. However, States and UTs can contextualize the training

modules and use their own material and resource persons.

Shagun: Integrated Online Junction for School Education

It is an initiative to improve school education system by creating a junction for all online
portals and websites relating to various activities of the Department of School Education and
Literacy in the Government of India and all States and Union Territories.
The term ‘Shagun’ is coined from two different words- ‘Shala’ meaning Schools and
‘Gunvatta’ meaning Quality.

Integrated National School Education Treasury

Union Human Resource Development Minister has also announced the setting up of

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the Integrated National School Education Treasury (INSET).
It will envisage a fully integrated, accessible and seamless information network for all
parameters relating to the students, teachers, and schools in the country.
The main focus of INSETwill be on the following areas:

Reinforcing and cleaning the data of the Integrated Online Junction through feedback
from Stakeholders.
Ensuring full interoperability among the websites, portals and applications which are
already hosted in the junction.

Creating high-quality e-contents, including quizzes and puzzles to enhance learning and
also for teachers in aiding classroom transactions.


Vidyanjali is a school volunteer programme and an initiative of the Ministry of Human Resource
Development of India to boost community and private sector participation in government schools,

Definition of 'Labour Force Participation Rate'


Definition: Labour force participation rate is defined as the section of working population in
the age group of 16-64 in the economy currently employed or seeking employment.
People who are still undergoing studies, housewives and persons above the age of 64 are not

reckoned in the labour force.


Operation Twist
The Reserve Bank of India has announced that it will carry out US-style 'Operation Twist' to bring

down interest rates.


What is operation twist?

‘Operation Twist’ is when the central bank uses the proceeds from sale of short-term securities
to buy long-term government debt papers, leading to easing of interest rates on the long term
Reserve Bank of India (RBI) announced a simultaneous sale and purchase of government
bonds under the Open Market Operations mechanism, on lines of the “Operation Twist”

The countercyclical capital buffer

The countercyclical capital buffer is intended to protect the banking sector against losses that
could be caused by cyclical systemic risks.
Countercyclical capital buffer requirement requires banks to add capital at times when credit
is growing rapidly so that the buffer can be reduced when the financial cycle turns.
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Banks can use the additional capital buffers they have built up during the growth phase of the
financial cycle to cover losses that may arise during periods of stress and to continue
supplying credit to the real economy.

"EChO Network":
Indian Government has launched a network to encourage cross-disciplinary leadership- Called

EChO Network.
The purpose of this Network is to bring all those together to share knowledge and synergize
efforts under the umbrella of science.

EChO Network would develop a national network to catalyse a new generation of Indians who
can synthesize interdisciplinary concepts and tackle real-world problems in medicine,

agriculture, ecology, and technology.
The program will then train postdoctoral leaders in research and outreach on these topics.
The initiative has drawn in partners from Government, industry and academia.

mKisan portal

mKisan portal is a platform which provides web-based mobile advisory to farmers with the
technological backstopping from Research Institutes and Agricultural Universities supporting


Information on weather, market, various farm operations, outbreak of pest and disease
incidence and their control measures are given to farmers through Short Message Service


Fiscal policy:

Fiscal policy is the means by which a government adjusts its spending levels and tax rates to
monitor and influence a nation's economy.

The government of a country, through the various instruments of fiscal policy affects the level
of aggregate demand and other variables .
The contractionary fiscal policy or a negative fiscal shock, results in decreasing the aggregate
demand while an expansionary fiscal policy or a positive fiscal shock results in increasing the
aggregate demand.
In the short run, a fiscal shock affects the output, price level and the interest rates.
For example, a negative fiscal shock led to a decrease in interest rates, output and the price
level in the short run.
In the medium run, a fiscal shock affects only the price level and interest rate, keeping the
output unaffected at the natural rate of employment.
In case of a negative fiscal shock, the decrease in government spending, led to only a decrease
in the price level and the interest rate, keeping the output unaffected in the medium run.

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Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF)
USOF ensures that there is universal non-discriminatory access to quality ICT services at
economically efficient prices to people in rural and remote areas.
Currently, it is charged at the rate of 5%, while the TSPs demand it to be reduced to 3%.
It was created under the Department of Telecommunications in 2002.
It is a non-lapsable fund, i.e., the unspent amount under a targeted financial year does not
lapse and is accrued for next years’ spending.

All credits to this fund require parliamentary approval and it has a statutory support under
Indian Telegraph (Amendment) Act, 2003.

India Kisan Congress Sabha

Founded in Lucknow in April 1936
Swami Sahjanand Saraswati as the president and N.G. Ranga as the general
Held their sessions in Faizpur in 1936.

What Are Special Drawing Rights (SDR)?


Special drawing rights (SDR) refer to an international type of monetary reserve currency
created by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1969 that operates as a supplement to

the existing money reserves of member countries.

Created in response to concerns about the limitations of gold and dollars as the sole means of
settling international accounts, SDRs augment international liquidity by supplementing the

standard reserve currencies.


What Is a Reserve Tranche?


A reserve tranche is a portion of the required quota of currency each member country must
provide to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) that can be utilized for its own
purposes—without a service fee or economic reform conditions.

National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI)

Founded in 2008, the NPCI is a not-for-profit organisation registered under section 8 of the
Companies Act 2013, established by Reserve Bank of India & IBA. The organisation is owned
by a consortium of major banks,and has been promoted by the country's central bank, the
Reserve Bank of India.

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National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) is a payment system that facilitates one-to-one funds
transfer. Using NEFT, people can electronically transfer money from any bank branch to a person
holding an account with any other bank branch, which is participating in the payment system. Fund

transfers through the NEFT system do not occur in real-time basis and the fund transfer settles in 23
half-hourly batches.


Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) is another payment system in which the money is credited in the

beneficiary’s account in real time and on gross basis. The RTGS system is primarily meant for large

value transactions that require and receive immediate clearing.


Immediate Mobile Payment Services(IMPS) is a real time instant inter-bank funds transfer
system managed by National payment corporation of India. IMPS is available 24/7 throughout the

year including bank holidays unlike NEFT and RTGS.


The Bharat Bill Payment System (BBPS)


The Bharat Bill Payment System (BBPS) is an RBI conceptualised system driven by National
Payments Corporation of India (NPCI).

It is a one-stop payment platformfor all bills, providing an interoperable and accessible

“Anytime Anywhere” bill payment service to customers across the country with certainty,
reliability and safety of transactions.

Payments through BBPS may be made using cash, transfer cheques and electronic modes. Bill
aggregators and banks, who will function as operating units, will carry out these transactions

for the customers.

National Automated Clearing House (NACH).

NACH is a web based platform to facilitate interbank, high volume, electronic transactions for
Banks, Financial Institutions, Corporates and Government.
It basically functions like an electronic clearing service available especially for banks.

Electronic Toll Collection

In order to save fuel, time and curb pollution as well as ensure seamless movement of traffic,
Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) through FASTag was successfully started

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Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)
It is statutory body established under the Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act of
KVIC works under Union Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises with aim to plan,
promote, facilitate, organise and assist in the establishment and development of khadi and
village industries in the rural areas in coordination with other agencies engaged in rural

Other schemes by KVIC





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REducing PLAstic in Nature (REPLAN)


Khadi and Village Industries Commission’s (KVIC) REducing PLAstic in Nature (REPLAN)

project . The project was launched as part of KVIC’s commitment to Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan.
KVIC manufactures plastic-mixed handmade paper.

Basel III norms:

Basel III norms prescribe banks to hold capital to cover 3 types of risks, including

Credit risk: Risk of defaults;

Market risk: Risks that may arise out of market risks, as banks hold risky assets, including
ones in the equity market.
Operational risk: Including fraud, cyber threats, physical threats, etc.

Financial Action Task Force

The Financial Action Task Force (on Money Laundering) (FATF), also known by its
Frenchname, Groupe d'action financière (GAFI), is an intergovernmental organization founded
in 1989 on the initiative of the G7 to develop policies to combat money laundering.
In 2001 its mandate expanded to include terrorism financing. It monitors progress in
implementing the FATF Recommendations through "peer reviews" ("mutual evaluations") of

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member countries.
The FATF Secretariat is housed at the OECD headquarters in Paris.

Liquidity trap
Liquidity trap is a situation when despite decrease in policy rates to revive the economy; it has not
had an impact in reviving demand in the economy.

Money Policy

Cheap money policy implies that theCentral Bank eases the rates at whichcredit is available.
This is often donein order to spur growth in theeconomy.
Dear money policy implies that theCentral Bank is raising the interestrates. This is in order to
mop upexcess money in the market and,thus, to tackle inflation

In this model, the entire investment comes from the power consumer, consumer generally hire

a solar EPC company who provide turnkey installation of entire solar power system and hand

over assets to consumers.

EPC also do annual operation and maintained (O&M) of plant on mutually agreed cost per



In the OPEX model, an investor or project developer (sometimes called Renewable Energy

Service Company –RESCO) invests the CAPEX and consumer pays for the energy
consumed/supplied by the solar power project delicately developed for a particular consumer.
Both consumer and developer sign a long-term power purchase agreement (PPA) for an agreed
tenure & tariff.

What is marketplace model?

Marketplace model of e-commerce means providing of an information technology platform by
an e-commerce entity on a digital and electronic network to act as a facilitator between buyer
and seller.”
The main feature of the market place model is that the e-commerce firm like flipkart, snapdeal,
amazon etc.

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will be providing a platform for customers to interact with a selected number of sellers.
When an individual is purchasing a product from myntra, he will be actually buying it from a
registered seller in myntra.
The product is not directly sold by myntra .Here, myntra is just a website platform where a
consumer meets a seller.
Inventory, stock management, logistics etc are not supposed to be actively done by the
ecommerce firm.

What is inventory model

Inventory model of ecommerce means an ecommerce activity where inventory of goods and
services is owned by e-commerce entity and is sold to the consumers directly.

The main feature of inventory model is that the customer buys the product from the
ecommerce firm. He manages an inventory (stock of products), interfaces with customers,
runs logistics and involves in every aspects of the business.
Alibaba of China is following the inventory model.
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Eat Right Mela


The event was organized by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) in

collaboration with National Association of Street Vendors of India (NASVI) to encourage

people for having healthier diets to reduce disease burden in the country.

The theme of the mela is “Healthier Diets”.

The PURPLE Book, a handbook on diets for diseases was releasedalso launched NetSCoFAN
(Network for Scientific Co-operation for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition), a network of eight

research & academic institutions working in the area of food & nutrition along with the
NetSCoFAN directory, covering detailed information of various heads/Directors.

Angel Tax
Angel tax is a 30.9 % tax levied on investments made by external investors in startups or
The entire investment is not taxed – only the amount that is considered above “fair value”
valuations of the startup, classified as ‘income from other sources’ in the Income Tax Act of
The problem arises because startups are often valued subjectively on the basis of discounted
cash flows, without taking into account intangibles like goodwill.
This can cause differing interpretations of “fair value” and leave startups vulnerable to unduly
high taxes because the taxman feels the investment is too high over their valuation.

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Union Budget 2019-20: Government eases angel tax norms.
Now, the start-ups who file requisite declarations will not be subject to any kind of scrutiny in
respect of valuations of share premiums.
Additionally, the issue of establishing identity of the investor and source of his funds will be
resolved by putting in place a mechanism of e-verification.
With this, funds raised by start-ups will not require any kind of scrutiny from the Income Tax

Alternate investment fund

In India, alternative investment funds (AIFs) are defined in Regulation 2(1)(b) of Securities and

Exchange Board of India (Alternative Investment Funds) Regulations, 2012.
It refers to any privately pooled investment fund, (whether from Indian or foreign sources), in
the form of a trust or a company or a body corporate or a Limited Liability

Partnership(LLP)which are not presently covered by any Regulation of SEBI governing fund
management (like, Regulations governing Mutual Fund or Collective Investment Scheme)nor
coming under the direct regulation of any other sectoral regulators in India-
Hence, in India, AIFs are private funds which are otherwise not coming under the jurisdiction

of any regulatory agency in India.

Thus, the definition of AIFs includes venture Capital Fund, hedge funds, private equity funds,
commodity funds, Debt Funds, infrastructure funds, etc. while, it excludes Mutual funds

or collective investment Schemes, family trusts, Employee Stock Option/ purchase Schemes,

employee welfare trusts or gratuity trusts, ‘holding companies’

Alternative Investments Funds come under the SEBI (Alternative Investment Fund) Regulations

2012. Under this regulatory regime, the funds which come under AIF are as follows:

Venture Capital Funds PIPE (Private Investment in Public Equity ) Funds

Private Equity Fund Debt Funds
Infrastructure Equity Fund

Real Estate Fund SME Fund

Social Venture Funds Strategy Fund (Residual Category, including all varieties of funds such

as hedge funds, if any).

Types of Alternative Investment Funds

These funds are established in India in various formats like trust, company, limited liability
partnership etc. SEBI has allowed AFIs to be operated under only three categories.

Categories Of alternative investment fund

Category I AIFs: These generally invest in start-ups or early stage ventures which the government
or regulators consider as socially or economically desirable.

g. venture capital funds, infrastructure funds.

Category II AIFs: These are AIFs which do not fall in Category I and III and which do not undertake

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leverage or borrowing other than to meet day-to-day operational requirements and as permitted in
the SEBI (Alternative Investment Funds) Regulations, 2012.

g. real estate funds, private equity funds.

Categories III AIFs: AIFs which employ diverse or complex trading strategies and may employ
leverage including through investment in listed or unlisted derivatives.

g. hedge funds, private investment in Public Equity Funds.

Social Venture Fund

The National Innovation Council, in partnership with the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium
Enterprises (MSME), launched the India Inclusive Innovation Fund (IIIF), an impact

investment fund that will invest in ventures catering to the country’s poor.
The Rs 500-crore fund, which will be registered under market regulator SEBI’s Alternative
Investment Fund regulations as a Category –I venture capital fund, will invest in social
ventures operating in areas such as healthcare, food, nutrition, agriculture, education and skill
development, energy, financial inclusion, water, sanitation and employment generation.

Participatory Note

Also known as Overseas Derivative Instruments, Equity Linked Notes, Capped Return Notes,
and Participating Return Notes .

P-Notes or Participatory Notes are Overseas Derivative Instruments that have Indian stocks as
their underlying assets.

They allow foreign investors to buy stocks listed on Indian exchanges without being registered.
The instrument gained popularity as FIIs, to avoid the formalities of registering and to remain
anonymous, started betting on stocks through this route.

The Regulatory Sandbox

A regulatory sandbox (RS) usually refers to live testing of new products or services in a
controlled/test regulatory environment for which regulators may (or may not) permit certain
regulatory relaxations for the limited purpose of the testing.
The RS allows the regulator, the innovators, the financial service providers (as potential
deployers of the technology) and the customers (as final users) to conduct field tests to collect
evidence on the benefits and risks of new financial innovations, while carefully monitoring and
containing their risks.

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Provisioning Coverage Ratio (PCR)
Provisioning Coverage Ratio (PCR) refers to the prescribed percentage of funds to be set aside by
the banks for covering the prospective losses due to bad loans.

Gross non-performing assets

Gross non-performing assets are the sum of all the loans that have been defaulted by the individuals
who have acquired loans from the financial institution.

Net non-performing assets

Net non-performing assets are the amount that is Realized after provision amount has been
deducted from the gross non-performing assets.

Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR)

Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) is the ratio of a bank's capital in relation to its risk weighted
assets and current liabilities.
It is decided by central banks and bank regulators to prevent commercial banks from taking

excess leverage and becoming insolvent in the process.

Capital Adequacy Ratio = (Tier I + Tier II ) /Risk weighted assets.

POSHAN Abhiyaan:

(National Nutrition Mission) is a flagship programme of the Ministry of Women and Child
Development (MWCD).
The Abhiyaan targets to reduce stunting, under-nutrition, anemia (among young children,

women and adolescent girls) and reduce low birth weight by 2%, 2%, 3% and 2% per annum

The target of the mission is to bring down stunting among children in the age group 0-6 years
from 38.4% to 25% by 2022.
Components will form the pillars of the Mission : ICDS-CAS(Common Application Software),
Convergence, Behavioural change, IEC Advocacy, Training and Capacity building, Innovations,
Incentives ,Grievance Redressal.

Objectives :

By synergizing frontline functionaries and volunteers like, DAY-NRLM Self help

groups,ANMs,Co-operatives, Swasth Bharat Preraks etc.,
Swasth Bharat Preraks will be deployed one in each district for coordinating with district
officials and enabling fast and efficient execution of the Abhiyaan.

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It which ensures convergence with various programmes like, Anganwadi Services, Pradhan
Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY), Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), National Health
Mission (NHM),Swachh-Bharat Mission (PDS), Department Food & Public Distribution etc.


Scheme will be funded by Government Budgetary Support (50%) and 50% by IBRD or other

Multilateral development banks.
Government budgetary support would be 60:40 between Centre and States/UTs, 90:10 for
NER and Himalayan States and 100% for UTs without legislature.

Time Release Study

The Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, as part of its strategic commitment to
improve global trade, has conducted India’s first national Time Release Study (TRS).
The exercise was conducted at the same time across 15 ports including sea, air, land and dry
ports which cumulatively account for 81% of total Bills of Entries for import and 67% of
Shipping Bills for export filed within India.
The TRS is an internationally recognized tool advocated by World Customs Organization to
measure the efficiency and effectiveness of international trade flows.

It measures rule based and procedural bottlenecks (including physical touch points) in the
clearance of goods, from the time of arrival until the physical release of cargo.

Char Dham Pariyojna:


Char Dham Pariyojna is an initiative of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.

The Char Dham Pariyojna is an initiative to improve connectivity to the Char Dham pilgrimage
centres in the Himalayas namely Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath and Badrinath.

These four ancient pilgrimages sites in Uttarakhand are known as Chota Char Dham to

differentiate them from the bigger circuit of modern day Char Dham sites namely Badrinath,
Dwarka, Puri and Rameswaram.
The works under Char Dham Pariyojna are being implemented on Engineering Procurement
and Construction (EPC) mode of contract.

These projects are being implemented by three executing agencies of

1. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways,

2. Uttarakhand State PWD,

Border Road Organization(BRO) and

1. National Highway & Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited(NHIDCL).

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School Education Quality Index (SEQI)
School Education Quality Index (SEQI) was developed by NITI Aayog to evaluate the
performance of States and Union Territories (UTs) in the school education sector.
The index aims to bring an ‘outcomes’ focus to education policy by providing States and UTs
with a platform to identify their strengths and weaknesses and undertake requisite course
corrections or policy interventions.
It includes the indicators from elementary, primary and secondary level school education.

National Achievement Survey- NCERT.

To monitor improvement in children’s learning levels and to assess the health of the government

education system as a whole, gm


ASER stands for Annual Status of Education Report


PRATHAM.This is an annual survey that aims to provide reliable estimates of children’s enrolment

and basic learning levels for each district and state in India. ASER has been conducted every year
since 2005 in all rural districts of India. It is the largest citizen-led survey in India. It is also the only

annual source of information on children’s learning outcomes available in India today.Unlike most
other large-scale learning assessments, ASER is a household-based rather than school-based survey.

The Programme for International Student Assessment



It is a triennial international survey which aims to evaluate education systems worldwide by testing
the skills and knowledge of 15-year-old students-OECD

National eHealth Authority (NeHA)

NeHA was proposed to be set up in 2015 as a promotional, regulatory and standards-setting
organization in Health Sector .


To formulate “National e-Health Policy and Strategy” for coordinated eHealth adoption in the
To oversee orderly evolution of e-Health initiatives (state and nationwide) and to guide
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adoption of e-Health at various levels and in different geographical and health system areas
To promote setting up of state health records repositories and health information exchanges
(HIEs) to facilitate interoperability
To formulate and manage all health informatics standards for India
To lay down data management, privacy and security policies, guidelines and health records of
patients in accordance with statutory provisions
To enforce the laws and regulations relating to the privacy, confidentiality, and security of the
patient's health information and records
To coordinate efforts across departments and ministries, and liaise with other related

policy/regulatory groups to ensure consistency and coherence
To help enable ecosystem that involves stakeholders to improve care delivery and health

To map continuous evolution of the e-Health landscape and take on new functions as needed

National Health Stack
NITI AAYOG unveiled the blue print of National Health Stack, a shared digital healthcare
infrastructure. It is in accordance with National Health Policy 2017 had also envisaged creation of a
digital health technology ecosystem aimed at developing an integrated health information system

that serves the needs of all stakeholders

It is in line with the implementation of the Centre’s flagship scheme Ayushman Bharat and

other public healthcare programmes in the country.


It envisages a centralized health record for all citizens of the country in order to streamline
the health information and facilitate effective management of the same.

National Health Portal


The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India has set up the National
Health Portal in pursuance to the decisions of the National Knowledge Commission, to provide
healthcare related information to the citizens of India and to serve as a single point of access

for consolidated health information.

The National Institute of Health and Family Welfare (NIHFW) has established Centre for

Health Informatics to be the secretariat for managing the activities of the National Health

National Pension System (NPS)

It is a government-sponsored pension scheme. It was launched in January 2004 for
However, in 2009, it was opened to all sections.
The scheme allows subscribers to contribute regularly in a pension account during their
working life.On retirement, subscribers can withdraw a part of the corpus in a lumpsum and
use the remainin corpus to buy an annuity to secure a regular income after retirement.
This system is managed by PFRDA (Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority).
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Pradhan Mantri Innovative Learning Programme- DHRUV’
The Pradhan Mantri Innovative Learning Programme has been started to identify and
encourage talented children to enrich their skills and knowledge.

In centres of excellence across the country, gifted children will be mentored and nurtured by
renowned experts in different areas, so that they can reach their full potential.
It is expected that many of the students selected will reach the highest levels in their chosen

fields and bring laurels to their community, State and Nation.

Automatic Exchange of Information (AEOI) gm
It is systematic and periodic transmission of “bulk” taxpayerinformation by the source country to the

residence country, which is possible under most of the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements
(DTAAs) and Multilateral Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters (MAC).

Appointments in RBI:

As per the RBI Act, the central bank should have one governor and four deputy governors -Two
from within the ranks and one commercial banker and another an economist to head the
monetary policy department.

Any vacancy in the list will be filled by the government after getting recommendations from
the Financial Sector Regulatory Appointment Search Committee (FSRASC).

FSRASC is headed by Cabinet Secretary and includes additional Principal Secretary to the
Prime Minister who is a permanent government nominee and 3 other experts.
As per the process, the panel will invite applications from eligible candidates and based on
interactions with them will select the candidate.
The appointment would be made by the central government on the recommendation of the
It is noted that the FSRASC is free to identify and recommend any other person also, on the
basis of merit, who has not applied for the post.
The same process is being followed in the selection of Chairman of SEBI and IRDAI.
Currently, Deputy governor post in RBI is being vacant after the resignation of Viral Acharya.
The tenure of the office is three years and the person is eligible for reappointment.

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Population Census- Every 10 Years - 2021 Census will be 16th
Livestock Census- Every 5 Years
Agriculture Census - Every 5 Years
Forest Survey - Every 2 Years

Tiger Census - Every 4 Years
Elephant Census - Every 5 Years
Rhino Census - Every 3 Years

Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY)
It quantifies the burden of disease from mortality and morbidity.
DALYs for a disease or health condition are calculated as the sum of the Years of Life Lost
(YLL) due to premature mortality in the population and the Years Lost due to Disability (YLD)

for people living with the health condition or its consequences.

The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as
the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.

Qualified Foreign Investors (QFIs)


The Qualified Foreign Investor (QFI) is sub-category of Foreign Portfolio Investor and refers to
any foreign individuals, groups or associations, or resident, however, restricted to those from a

country that is a member of Financial Action Task Force (FATF) or a country that is a member
of a group which is a member of FATF and a country that is a signatory to International

Organization of Securities Commission’s (IOSCO) Multilateral Memorandum of Understanding


Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)

Exchange rates are calculated by the prices of the same basket of goods and services in
different countries.
On a PPP basis, China is the world’s largest economy in 2018.
The total wealth of China is estimated at 25.3 trillion international dollars. The United States
follows China with figure 19.4 trillion and India follows the USA

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Capital-output ratio:
Capital-output ratio: It is the amount of capital required to produce one unit of output.
The high capital-output ratio implies the low efficiency of the economy due to the high
capitalinvolved in the production

Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP)
Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) is the arrangement for the price to be paid to sugarcane

farmers by the Sugar Mills and is announced each year by the Centre, under the Sugarcane
Control Order and on the advice of Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP), as
the minimum price of sugarcane.

The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) approves the proposal.


The SDR is an international reserve asset, created by the IMF in 1969 to supplement its
member countries’ official reserves. So far SDR 204.2 billion (equivalent to about US$291

billion) have been allocated to members, including SDR 182.6 billion allocated in 2009 in the

wake of the global financial crisis.

The value of the SDR is based on a basket of five currencies—the U.S. dollar, the euro, the

Chinese renminbi, the Japanese yen, and the British pound sterling

Reserve Tranche Position


A country's Reserve Tranche Position (RTP) is the difference between the International Monetary

Fund's (IMF) holdings of that country's currency and the country's IMF-designated quota.

Ways and means advances

Ways and means advances (WMA) is a mechanism used by Reserve Bank of India (RBI) under
its credit policy to provide to States, banking with it, to help them tide over temporary
mismatches in the cash flow of their receipts and payments.
This is guided under Section 17(5) of RBI Act, 1934, and are '..repayable in each case not later
than three months from the date of making that advance'.
There are two types of WMA – normal and special.
While Normal WMA are clean advances, Special WMA are secured advances provided against
the pledge of government of India–dated securities.
The operative limit for special WMA for a state is subject to its holdings of central government
dated securities up to a maximum of limit sanctioned.

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In addition, the RBI has determined limits for normal and special WMA for each state as
multiples of the prescribed minimum balance required to be maintained with the RBI by that
state. These limits have been revised periodically.
These are temporary advances (overdrafts) extended by RBI to the govt. Section 17(5) of RBI
Act allows RBI to make WMA both to the Central and State Govt. Objective – to bridge the
interval between expenditure and receipts. They are not a sources of finance but are meant to
provide support, for purely temporary difficulties that arise on account of mismatch/shortfall in
revenue or other receipts for meeting the govt. liabilities.
On 26 March 1997, Govt. of India and RBI signed an agreement putting the ad hoc T-bills

system to end w.e.f 1 April 1997.

Fiscal drag

Fiscal drag is a concept where inflation and earnings growth may push more tax payers into

higher tax brackets. Therefore, fiscal drag has the effect of raising government tax revenue
without explicitly raising tax rates.

Tax inversion
This is a situation of tax structure.

This takes place when a firm bases its headquarters in a low tax country while keeps its

material operations in the high tax countries (generally their country of origin). This way, firms
cut their tax payment liabilities.

This is legal and is a method of tax avoidance.

Multinational corporations (MNCs) keep doing this.

Tax Incidence
The key to imposing the tax is who bears its burden. If the person on whom the tax is imposed

have the flexibility to transfer it on to the other person, then we say tax incidence has shifted.

The shifting of tax form one person to the other is known as tax incidence.
All indirect tax comes under this category. For all direct tax, the incidence of tax and burden
lies with the same person.

Base erosion profit sharing

It refers to tax avoidance strategies that exploit gaps and mismatches in tax rules to artificially shift
profits to low or no tax locations. Under the OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework on BEPS, over 125
countries are collaborating to implement BEPS measures and tackle BEPS.

Tax Evasion
It refers to reducing the tax liabilities using illegal measures. Tax evasion is a clear case of forgery of
accounts as it uses measures which are unforbidden in law.

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Tax buoyancy
Tax buoyancy is an indicator to measure efficiency and responsiveness of revenue mobilization in
response to growth in the Gross domestic product or National income. A tax is said to be buoyant if
the tax revenues increase more than proportionately in response to a rise in national income or

CESS vs Surcharge

Cess Surcharge
A cess is imposed over and above the tax A surcharge is a charge levied on any tax. It is

for a specific predetermined purpose. an additional charge on tax.
For example a cess on financing primary

education as education cess or a cess for The main surcharge levied on income and
the cleaning and sanitation as Swach corporation taxes beyond a certain threshold.
Bharat Cess.
A cess is levied as an addition to the
A sur charge of 10% in addition to the income
proposed taxes. Like a 3% education cess tax of 30% for high net worth individuals
on Income tax. earning more than 50 Lakhs.
The revenue from cess is not kept under The revenue from the sur charge is kept under
Consolidated Fund of India. Consolidated Fund of India.

Cess is not to be shared with States. Sur Charge is also not to be shared with states.

Tax Haven

A tax haven is defined as a country or place with very low "effective" rates of taxation for foreign

Grandfather Clause

A grandfather clause (or grandfather policy or grandfathering) is a provision in which an old


rule continues to apply to some existing situations while a new rule will apply to all future cases.
Those exempt from the new rule are said to have grandfather rights or acquired rights, or to have
been grandfathered in.

It is an Ease of Doing Business (EoDB) monitoring dashboardof the Indian Customs that
will help public see the daily customs clearance times of import cargo at various ports and
It will help the businesses in comparing clearance times across ports and thus plan their
logistics accordingly.
It has been developed in collaboration with theNational Informatics Centre (NIC).

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It is an easy to use mobile appfor international travelers to file the Customs declaration in
Passengers can use this app to file declaration of dutiable items and currency with the Indian
Customs even before boarding the flight to India.
It would encourage tourism and business travelto India.

Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs
CBIC is a part of the Department of Revenue under the Ministry of Finance.

It deals with the tasks of formulation of policy concerning levy and collection of Customs,
Central Excise duties, Central Goods & Services Tax,Integrated GST (IGST) and prevention

of smuggling.

Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation


What is it ?
When a bank is liquidated, depositors are entitled to receive an insurance amount of ₹1 lakh
per individual from the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation of India (DICGC).

The DICGC is a wholly owned subsidiary of the RBI. The ₹1 lakh insurance limit includes both

principal and interest dues across your savings bank accounts, current accounts, fixed
deposits and recurring deposits held with the bank.

what so far..
in DECEMBER 28, 2019 DICGC proposes raising cover from the current ₹1 lakh to ₹3 lakh-
₹5 lakh

Related committee
Damodaran committee(Committee on Customer Service in Banks, constituted under
chairmanship of former SEBI chairman M. Damodaran) in its recommendation to RBI asked to

increase DICGC limit to 5 lakh rupees.


Whats in Union budget 2019-2020

Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (DICGC) permitted to increaseDeposit
Insurance Coverage to Rs. 5 lakh from Rs.1 lakh per depositor.

Unemployment trap
It is a situation when unemployment benefits discourage the unemployed to go to work. People
find the opportunity cost of going to work too high when one can simply enjoy the benefits by
doing nothing.
While the purpose of social security and welfare systems is to provide relief to the
unemployed, they end up providing them with an incentive not to return to work.
An unemployment trap arises when opportunity cost of going to work is higher than the

Page 49
income received, discouraging people from returning to work and being productive.

Employment elasticity
It is a measure of the percentage change in employment associated with a 1 percentage point
change in economic growth.
The employment elasticity indicates the ability of an economy to generate employment

opportunities for its population as per cent of its growth (development) process.


GOLDEN HANDSHAKE: A payment (usually generous) made by a company to its employees for
quitting the job prior to their service tenure.
GOLDEN HANDCUFF: A royalty/bonus payment by a company to its staff (usually top ranking) to
keep them with the company or to save them from poaching by other companies.

GOLDEN HELLO: A large sum paid by a company to attract new staff to its fold.

GOLDEN RULE: A fiscal policy stance which suggests that over the economic cycle, Government

should borrow only to ‘invest’ and not to finance the ‘current expenditure’. The attempts towards
‘balanced budgeting’, ‘zero-based budgeting’ developed under influence of this rule.


What are bonds yields?

The yield of a bond is the effective rate of return that it earns. But the rate of return is not

fixed — it changes with the price of the bond.


What is a yield curve ?

A yield curve is a graphical representation of yields for bonds (with an equal credit rating)
over different time horizons.
Typically, the term is used for government bonds — which come with the same sovereign
guarantee. So the yield curve for US treasuries shows how yields change when the tenure (or
the time for which one lends to the government) changes.

What is yield inversion ?

Yield inversion happens when the yield on a longer tenure bond becomes less than the yield
for a shorter tenure bond.

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A yield inversion typically portends a recession. An inverted yield curve shows that investors
expect the future growth to fall sharply; in other words, the demand for money would be much
lower than what it is today and hence the yields are also lower.

ARTIS (Application for Remedies in Trade for Indian industry and other Stakeholders)
DGTR has launched an online portal - ARTIS.

Objective is to Enhance transparency, efficiency and provide expedited relief to the domestic
producers for different trade remedies like
Anti-dumping duty

Safeguard duty and
Countervailing duty.
DGTR has also started using all available options for providing relief against unfair trade

practices like.
DGTR has also started first ever Safeguard Quantitative Restrictions investigation on imports
of Iso-propyl Alcohol initiated under the FTDR Act, 2002.
Also Anti-circumvention provision was introduced in Customs Tariff Act, 1975 for Counter-
vailing Duty (CVD) investigations.
9 1@

What are sovereign bonds?


1. A sovereign bond is a specific debt instrument issued by the government.


2. They can be denominated in both foreign and domestic currency

Facility to Avail Liquidity for Liquidity Coverage Ratio



To understand FALLCR, one first needs to understand LCR (Liquidity Coverage Ratio).
LCR is a short term liquidity ratio to be maintained by banks in form of high quality liquid

assets (HQLA) to survive an acute stress scenario lasting for 30 days. LCR should be 100% or
more i.e. at a minimum, the stock of liquid assets should enable the bank to survive until day
30 of the stress scenario, by which time it is assumed that appropriate corrective actions can
be taken.
The HQLA, as per BASEL III, should include assets that can be easily and immediately
converted into cash at little or no loss of val ue (i.e. near cash assets). This would include cash
and G-secs.
FALLCR is that part of the G-secs under SLR that can be pledged to raise liquid assets to meet
LCR requirement under BASEL III.

Quality Council of India (QCI):

1. Quality Council of India (QCI) was set up in 1997 jointly by the Government of India and the
Indian Industry represented by the three premier industry associations i.e. (ASSOCHAM),
Page 51
Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and (FICCI).
2. The vision was to establish and operate national accreditation structure and promote quality
through National Quality Campaign.
3. The Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion is the nodal agency for implementation of
QCI of Ministry of Commerce & Industry.
4. By providing national accreditation structure QCI certifies the quality and thus facilitates
trade and business across the world.

Aviation Sector in India

India is the third largest domestic civil aviation market in the world.
Also, it is the second fastest aviation industry in the world.

Currently, India ranks 9 in terms of the civil aviation market.
The aviation sector currently contributes 72 billion USD to GDP.
It job opportunities to 8 million Indians. gm
Electrical Energy in India

India is the third largest producer and consumer of electricity.

The National Grid of the country has the capacity of 368.79 GW as of December 2019.

Of the 368.79 GW, the private sector production is 46%.


Deposit insurance

Deposit insurance is providing insurance protection to the depositor’s money by receiving a


The government has set up Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (DICGC)
under RBI to protect depositors if a bank fails.
Every insured bank pays premium amounting to 0.001% of its deposits to DICGC every year.

Advisory Board for Banking Frauds

CVC sets up advisory board to examine banking frauds above Rs 50 cr.
It would function as the first level of examination of all large fraud cases before
recommendations or references are made to the investigative agencies by the respective
public sector banks (PSBs)
Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) may also refer any case or matter to the board where it
has any issue or difficulty or in technical matters with the PSB concerned,

Economic capital framework

Economic capital framework refers to the risk capital required by the central bank while

Page 52
taking into account different risks.
The economic capital framework reflects the capital that an institution requires or needs to
hold as a counter against unforeseen risks or events or losses in the future.

Core investment company

Core Investment Companies (CICs) are a specialized Non-Banking Financial Companies

A Core Investment Company registered with the RBI has an asset size of above Rs 100 crore.
Their main business is acquisition of shares and securities with certain conditions.

For e.g. these should not hold less than 90% of its net assets in the form of investment in
equity shares, preference shares, bonds, debentures, debt or loans in group companies.

Group companies are an arrangement involving two or more entities related to each other
through any of the following relationships, viz.,subsidiary, joint venture, associate, promoter-
promotee for listed companies, a related party, common brand name, and investment in equity
shares of 20% and above.
A working group formed by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has recommended measures to

strengthen Core Investment Companies (CIC).

The group is headed by the former Corporate Affairs Secretary - Tapan Ray.

Industrial Finance Corporation of India


IFCI, previously Industrial Finance Corporation of India, is a Non-Banking Finance Company in

the public sector.

It provides financial support for the diversified growth of Industries across the spectrum.
The Govt. of India has placed a Venture Capital Fund of Rs. 200 crore for Scheduled Castes
(SC) with IFCI with an aim to promote entrepreneurship among the Scheduled Castes (SC) and

to provide concessional finance.

Further, the Government of India designated IFCI as a nodal agency for the “Scheme of Credit

Enhancement Guarantee for Scheduled Caste (SC) Entrepreneurs”.

Under the scheme, IFCI would provide guarantees to banks against loans to young and start-
up entrepreneurs belonging to scheduled castes.

What is cyclic slowdown?

A cyclical slowdown is a period of lean economic activity that occurs at regular intervals. Such
slowdowns last over the short-to-medium term, and are based on the changes in the business
Generally, interim fiscal and monetary measures, temporary recapitalisation of credit markets,
and need based regulatory changes are required to revive the economy.
What is structural slowdown?
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A structural slowdown, on the other hand, is a more deep rooted phenomenon. It is driven by
disruptive technologies, changing demographics, and/or change in consumer behaviour.
Fixing such problems would require the government to undertake some structural policies.
The best example in this regard would be the reforms that were carried out to address the
crisis in 1991

RoDTEP Scheme – Remission of Duties or Taxes on Export

Product (RoDTEP)

The Government of India (GoI) has introduced Remission of Duties or Taxes on Export Product
(RoDTEP) scheme to replace the existing Merchandise Exports from India Scheme (MEIS) and

create a fully automated route for Input Tax Credit (ITC) in the GST to help increase the
exports in India.

from January 1, 2020. gm

The RoDTEP scheme will be monitored by the Ministry of Finance (MoF) and comes into effect

The following were the other announcements covered on RoDTEP:

The MEIS scheme will be applicable only until Procedure for December 31, 2019, replacing
with RoDTEP

Create a fully automated procedure for ITC in GST to avoid double taxation
Privileged Textile and other export sectors that are applicable for an incentive of up to 2% of

MIES shall be replaced with RoDTEP scheme

MoF has allocated a budget of Rs.1,700 crore to provide higher insurance cover through
Export Credit Guarantee Corporation (ECGC), to increase the lending opportunities from


Chit fund/ Fraternity Fund


A chit fund is a type of saving scheme where a specified number of subscribers contribute
payments in instalment over a defined period.
Regulation of chit funds: being part of the Concurrent List of the Indian Constitution; both the
centre and state can frame legislation regarding chit funds.
Neither RBI nor SEBI regulates the chit fund business.
Under the Chit funds Act, 1982 all chit fund companies need to be registered with respective
state government.
Chit Funds (Amendment) Bill, 2019
Use of the words “Fraternity Fund" for chit business in the Act to signify its inherent nature,
and distinguish its working from ‘Prize Chits’ which are banned under a separate legislation.

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Social Stock Exchange (SSE)
It is an electronic fundraising platform that allows investors to buy shares in a social
enterprise that has been vetted by the exchange.
Social enterprises, volunteer groups and welfare organisations will be listed on this platform
so that they can raise capital.
Social enterprise is a revenue-generating business whose primary objective is to achieve a
social objective, for example, providing healthcare or clean energy.

It will act as crowd-sourcing platforms for fundraising by non-profit entities aimed at impact
investment and transparency.
Social stock exchange (SSE) under the regulatory ambit of the Securities Exchange Board of

India (SEBI) to support social enterprises and non-profits in raising funds.


SBI has publicly issued a warning of ‘Juice Jacking’ through its twitter handle.
It is an attack carried out by hackers through a USB charging cable.

How it works?

1. When a user plugs in the charging cable in his mobile’s charging port, and connects it to any
of the rigged charging stations installed at public spaces such as airports, train stations,

hotels, cafes etc – it gives a back-door entry to hackers into the compromised device.

2. The charging port which is also used for data transfer over the USB, is pointed as the main
cause of concern over here.

Balanced Budget Multiplier


1. It is the ratio of the change in aggregate output (GDP) to a change in government spending,
which is matched by an equal change in taxes.
2. It is termed so because the change in spending is matched by the change in taxes, and thus

the government’s budget deficit or surplus is neither increased nor decreased.


Surakshit Matritva Aashwasan (SUMAN) scheme

Under which pregnant women, mothers up to 6 months after delivery, and all sick newborns
will be able to avail free healthcare benefits.

Under the scheme, the beneficiaries visiting public health facilities are entitled to several free
These include at least four ante natal check-ups , at least one checkup under Pradhan Mantri
Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan, Iron Folic Acid supplementation, Tetanus diptheria injection and
other components of comprehensive ANC package and six home-based newborn care visits.
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Under the scheme there will be zero expense access to identification and management of
complications during and after the pregnancy.
The government will also provide free transport from home to health institutions.
Assures free medicines for pregnant women

Facts about MMR

According to government, India’s maternal mortality rate has declined from 254 per 1,00,000 live
births in 2004-06 to 130 in 2014-16. Between 2001 and 2016, the infant mortality rate came down
from 66 per 1,000 live births to 34.

Debenture Redemption Reserve (DRR)
It is a provision stating that any Indian corporation that issues debentures must create a
debenture redemption service in an effort to protect investors from the possibility of a
company defaulting.
Trade Receivable Discounting System (TreDS) It is an online bill discounting platform that
helps cash-starved micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) raise funds by selling their

trade receivables to corporate


Regulatory Consistency Assessment Programme

The Basel Committee established a comprehensive Regulatory Consistency Assessment Programme

(RCAP) in 2012 to monitor and assess the adoption and implementation of its standards, while
encouraging a predictable and transparent regulatory environment for internationally active banks.

Sustainable alternative towards affordable transportation

(satat) initiative
The Minister for Petroleum and Natural Gas will launch the Sustainable Alternative Towards
Affordable Transportation (SATAT) initiative on the second last day of the ongoing Swachhta
Hi Seva fortnight.
This move has the potential to boost the availability of affordable transport fuel, for better use
of agricultural residue, cattle dung and municipal solid waste, as well as to provide an
additional revenue source to farmers.

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Northeast gas pipeline grid project:
The proposed gas pipeline grid will connect Guwahati to the major Northeast cities and major
load centers. It is 1, 656 km long.
Implemented under ambitious Urja Ganga Gas Pipeline Project. Besides connecting all the
state capitals in the region, the pipeline will also connect with the National Gas Grid through
Barauni-Guwahati Gas Pipeline, which is being laid by GAIL.
The pipeline will enable the supply of piped cooking gas to households and CNG to

automobiles, besides fuel to industry.


The marginal cost of funds-based lending rate (MCLR) is the minimum interest rate that a
bank can lend at.
MCLR is a tenor-linked internal benchmark, which means the rate is determined internally by
the bank depending on the period left for the repayment of a loan.
MCLR is closely linked to the actual deposit rates and is calculated based on four components:

1) The marginal cost of funds,


2) Negative carry on account of cash reserve ratio,


3) Operating costs

4) Tenor premium.

The Reserve Bank of India introduced the MCLR methodology for fixing interest rates from 1

April 2016.
It replaced the base rate structure, which had been in place since July 2010.
Under the MCLR regime, banks are free to offer all categories of loans on fixed or floating

interest rates.

The actual lending rates for loans of different categories and tenors are determined by adding
the components of spread to MCLR. Therefore, the bank cannot lend at a rate lower than
MCLR of a particular maturity, for all loans linked to that benchmark.

Capital conservation buffer (CCB)

Why in news ?

The Reserve Bank of India on Thursday deferred the implementation of the last tranche of
Capital Conservation Buffer (CCB) by a year, a move that would leave about estimated Rs
37,000 crore capital in the hands of banks.
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Accordingly, minimum capital conservation ratios of 2.5 per cent would be applicable from on
March 31, 2020. Currently, the CCB of banks stands at 1.875 per cent of the core capital.
What is the significance of this move ?
This would help banks increase lending by over Rs 3.5 lakh crore by leveraging ten times of
the capital. "It has been decided to defer the implementation of the last tranche of 0.625 per
cent of CCB from March 31, 2019 to March 31, 2020.
What is Capital conservation buffer (CCB)
CCB is a relatively new concept, introduced under the international Basel III norms.
The concept says that during good times, banks must build up a capital buffer that can be

drawn from when there is stress.
In simple terms, this is savings for the future as this capital can be drawn when a bank is
incurring losses.

Since it is a buffer, or extra capital, banks’ minimum capital is not violated.
It was introduced after the 2008 global financial crisis to improve the ability of banks to

withstand adverse economic conditions.

Government e-Marketplace (GeM): gm

GeM is a one-stop National Public Procurement Portal of common use Goods & Services

required by various Central and State Government Departments / Organizations /Public Sector
Undertakings ( PSUs).
Bring transparency and efficiency in the government buying process.

It operates under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.


The procurement of goods and services by Ministries and the Central Public Sector
Enterprises (CPSEs) is mandatory for goods and services available on GeM.
It also provides the tools of e-bidding and reverse e-auction to facilitate the government users

achieve the best value for their money.


Telecommunication Consumers Education and Protection

Fund (TCEPF)

Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has directed telecom service providers to put all

unclaimed subscriber money in consumer protection fund.

With this amendment service provider will deposit any unclaimed consumer money of any form
such as excess charges, security deposit, plan charges of failed activations, or any amount
belonging to a consumer.
It provides a time of 12 months or period of limitation specified under law whichever is later,
after which unclaimed consumer money should be deposited to the fund.
Telecommunication Consumers Education and Protection Fund Regulations were notified in
The income from the fund is utilised for programmes and activities relating to consumer
education and protection.


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Farmer Connect Portal
A Farmer Connect Portal has been set up by APEDA on its website for providing a
platform for Farmer Producer Organisations (FPOs) and Farmer Producer Companies (FPCs)
to interact with exporters.

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee

Act, 2005

1. The Act aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing
hundred days of wage employment to volunteer to do unskilled work.

2. The central government bears the full cost of unskilled labour, and 75% of the cost of material
(the rest by the states).

3. It is aims to enforce the ‘right to work’.
4. Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), Government of India in association with state
governments, monitors the implementation of the scheme.

Fruit Product Order/FPO Mark


Fruit Product Order/FPO Mark is issued by Ministry of Food Processing for processed fruit

products. It is effective since 1955.

This mark is a certification mark mandatory for all the "processed fruit products" in India.
This mark is applicable on food such as packaged fruit beverages, fruit-jams crushes and

squashes,pickles, dehydrated fruits, products and fruits extracts, following the food safety and
standard act of 2006.

This mark proves that this product has been manufactured in a clean 'food safe' environment
and is not harmful for people's healt


Ecomark is a certification mark issued by the Bureau of Indian Standards to products

conforming to a set of standards aimed at the least impact on the ecosystem.The marking
scheme was started in 1991.
One of the purposes of the mark is increasing awareness among the consumers towards
reducing environment impact.
The mark is issued to various product categories and the development of standards for more
products is in progress.

AGMARK is a certification mark employed on agricultural products in India, assuring that they

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conform to a set of standards approved by the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection an
attached Office of the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare under
Ministry of Agricultural & Farmers Welfare an agency of the Government of India.
The AGMARK Head Office at Faridabad (Haryana) is legally enforced in India by the
Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act of 1937 (and amended in 1986).
The present AGMARK standards cover quality guidelines for 222 different commodities
spanning a variety of pulses, cereals, essential oils, vegetable oils, fruits and vegetables and
semi-processed products like vermicelli.

Indian economic census

The 7th Economic Census -2019 is being conducted by MoSPI to provide disaggregated

information on various operational and structural aspects of all establishments in the country.
Implementing agency ,MoSPI has partnered with Common Service Centres, CSC e-Governance
Services India Limited, a Special Purpose Vehicle under the MEITY as the implementing
Everything about Indian economic census

Indian economic census is the census of the Indian economy through counting all
entrepreneurial units in the country which involved in any economic activities of either
agricultural or non-agricultural sector which engaged in production and/or distribution of

goods and/or services not for the sole purpose of own consumption.

The economic census provides detailed information on operational and other characteristics
such as number of establishments, number of persons employed, source of finance, type of
ownership etc.

These information used for micro level/ decentralized planning and to assess contribution of
various sectors of the economy in the gross domestic product (GDP).

In 1976, Government of India launched a plan scheme called Economic Census and Surveys.
In 1977 Central Statistical Organisation conducted First economic census in collaboration with
the Directorate of Economics & Statistics (DES) in the States/Union Territories.

All other economic censuses were conducted by the Directorates of Economics and Statistics
of the states under the overall guidance of the Central Statistical Office.

What Are REITs?

Real estate investment trusts (“REITs”) allow individuals to invest in large-scale, income-
producing real estate.
A REIT is a company that owns and typically operates income-producing real estate or related
assets. These may include office buildings, shopping malls, apartments, hotels, resorts, self-
storage facilities, warehouses, and mortgages or loans.
Unlike other real estate companies, a REIT does not develop real estate properties to resell
them. Instead, a REIT buys and developspropertiesprimarilytooperate themaspartofitsown

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Funds under NRLM

1. NRLM provides Revolving Fund (RF) to SHGs of Rs.10,000-15,000 as corpus to meet the
members’ credit needs directly and as catalytic capital for leveraging repeat bank finance. RF
is given to SHGs that have been practicing ‘Panchasutra’ (Regular meetings; Regular savings;

regular inter-loaning; Timely repayment; and Up-to-date books of accounts).

2. NRLM provides Community Investment Fund as Seed Capital to SHG Federations at Cluster

level to meet the credit needs of the members through the SHGs/Village Organizations and to
meet the working capital needs of the collective activities at various levels.
3. NRLM provides Vulnerability Reduction Fund (VRF) to SHG Federations at Village level to

address vulnerabilities like food security, health security etc., and to meet the needs of the
vulnerable persons in the village.

Gini coefficient

Gini coefficient (Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the
income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used

measurement of inequality.
The Gini coefficient measures the inequality among values of a frequency distribution (for
example, levels of income).

A Gini coefficient of Zero expresses perfect equality, where all values are the same (for

example, where everyone has the same income).

A Gini coefficient of One (or 100%) expresses maximal inequality among values (e.g., for a
large number of people, where only one person has all the income or consumption, and all
others have none, the Gini coefficient will be very nearly one).

Lorenz curve
In economics, the Lorenz curve is a graphical representation of the distribution of income or
of wealth.
It was developed by Max O. Lorenz in 1905 for representing inequality of the wealth
The concept is useful in describing inequality among the size of individuals in economy.

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Kuznets curve
In economics, a Kuznets curve graphs the hypothesis that as an economy develops, market
forces first increase and then decrease economic inequality.
The hypothesis was first advanced by economist Simon Kuznets in the 1950s and '60s.

Phillips curve

The Phillips curve is a single-equation empirical model, named after William Phillips,
describing a historical inverse relationship between rates of unemployment and corresponding
rates of rises in wages that result within an economy.
Stated simply, decreased unemployment, (i.e., increased levels of employment) in an economy
will correlate with higher rates of wage rises.

Phillips did not himself state there was any relationship between employment and inflation,
although this notion was subsequently made popular by Milton Friedman from 1967.

Palma ratio

The Palma ratio is a measure of inequality.

It is the ratio of the richest 10% of the population's share of gross national income (GNI)

divided by the poorest 40%'s share.

It measures inequality similar to Gini coefficient.

Tax buoyancy
Tax buoyancy is an indicator to measure efficiency and responsiveness of revenue mobilization
in response to growth in the Gross domestic product or National income.
A tax is said to be buoyant if the tax revenues increase more than proportionately in
response to a rise in national income or output.

Laffer Curve
The Laffer Curve is a theory developed by supply-side economist Arthur Laffer to show the
relationship between tax rates and the amount of tax revenue collected by governments.
The curve is used to illustrate Laffer's main premise that the more an activity — such as
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production — is taxed, the less of it is generated.

e-Tribes India:
Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India, (TRIFED), under the Ministry
of Tribal Affairs, has developed its own e-commerce (electronic commerce) website i.e., com
for sale of all its products and to tap m-commerce (mobile commerce).

Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA)

It Providesstrategic funding to eligible state higher educational institutions.
The objective is to achieve the target of Gross Enrolment Ratio of 30% by the year 2019-20

with equity and inclusion.

SARAS Aajeevika Mela:

An endeavour of DAY-NRLM to provide to the rural women (huge socio-economic

transformation) producers a national platform and an opportunity to showcase their products,

and seek buyers, either individuals or bulk buyers for sale nationally / internationally.


Platform for Effective Enforcement of No Child Labour, a robust enforcement mechanism in

the form of an online portal.

Transformation of Aspirational Districts programme


Launched by the Hon’ble PM in January, the ‘Transformation of Aspirational Districts’

programme aims to quickly and effectively transform some of the most underdeveloped
districts of the country.
NITI Aayog today launched the baseline ranking for the Aspirational Districts based on
published data of 49 indicators (81 data points) across five developmental areas of

1. Health and Nutrition

2. Education
3. Agriculture and Water Resources
4. Financial Inclusion and Skill Development
5. Basic Infrastructure

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Prabhari officers:

For each of the Districts, a senior official in the rank of Additional secretary and Joint
secretary has been nominated as Prabhari officer

Unnat Bharat Abhiyan 2.0

750 Higher Education Institutions to get together for Development of Rural India.
Students are the real agents of change who can develop, empower and brighten the future of

the country.
Unnat Bharat Abhiyan is a flagship programme of the Ministry of Human Resources
Development, with the intention to enrich Rural India.

The knowledge base and resources of the Premier Institutions of the country are to be
leveraged to bring in transformational change in rural developmental process.

It also aims to create a vibrant relationship between the society and the higher educational
institutes, with the latter providing the knowledge and technology support to improve the
livelihoods in rural areas and to upgrade the capabilities of both the public and private
organisations in the society.
Under the Unnat Bharat Abhiyan 2.0, the institutions have been selected on a Challenge

Mode and the scheme has been extended to 750 reputed Higher Educational Institutes (both
public and private) of the country.
IIT Delhi has been designated to function as the National Coordinating Institute for this

programme and the Ministry intends to extend the coverage to all the reputed Higher

Educational Institutes, in a phased manner.


UNNATI Project

Ministry of Shipping
The aims and objectives of Project UNNATI of the Ministry of Shipping are as follows:

1. Benchmark operational and financial performance of the 12 major ports with selected Indian
private ports and best-in-class international ports for identifying improvement areas.
2. Undertake capability maturity assessment for key processes and functional capabilities (e.g.,
IT, HR, Environment, and Health) and identify gaps and areas for further strengthening.
3. Detailed deep-dive diagnosis and root cause analysis for the identified opportunity areas in
each of the 12 major ports to understand underlying reasons for performance bottlenecks.
4. Develop practical and actionable solutions on the basis of root cause findings, and develop a
comprehensive improvement roadmap for each of the 12 major ports.

Under Project UNNATI 116 initiatives have been identified for various major ports. Out of the
116 initiatives, 86 have been implemented so far.

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ICAR-NAARM and IIM-A‘s incubator centres announced “AGRI UDAAN”- Food and
Agribusiness Accelerator 2.0.
The aim of AGRI-UDAAN is to bring start-up revolution in agriculture which has been mostly
concentrated in Services sector.


Government recently launched an e-auction portal e-RaKam for selling agricultural produce.

NABARD has launched e-Shakti initiative for digitisation of Self Help Groups.

Hunar Se Rozgar Tak


The Ministry of Tourism launched a special initiative called Hunar Se Rozgar Tak (HSRT) in
the year 2009-10 for creation of employable skills amongst youth.

The initiative is fully funded by the Ministry of Tourism. The features common to the training
programmes under the HSRT are: the trainees should be in the age group of 18-28 years; each

training programme is of short duration – 6 to 8 weeks; and no fees chargeable to the trainee.

MSME Act, 2006:


Old Classification of MSME:


1. Manufacturing enterprise: on the basis of investment in plant and machinery:


1. Micro: less than 25 lakh

2. Small: 25L to 5 cr
3. Medium: 5cr to 10cr
4. Service enterprise: on the basis of investment in equipment:
2. Micro: upto 10 lakh
3. Small: 10L to 2cr
4. Medium: 2cr to 5cr

New Approved Classification: On the basis of annual turnover

1. Micro: upto 5cr

2. Small: 5 to 75cr
3. Medium: 75 to 250cr
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Udyami Mitra’ Portal
Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) has launched the ‘Udyami Mitra’ Portal
(www.udyamimitra.in) to improve accessibility of credit and handholding services to Micro,
Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs).

Swachhta Udyami Yojana
Swachhta Udyami Yojana - Swachhta Se Sampannta Ki Aur” of National Safai Karamcharis

Finance and Development Corporation.
The Scheme provides financial assistance to Safai Karamcharis and identified Manual
Scavengers for Construction, Operation and Maintenance of community toilets in Public

Private Partnership (PPP) Mode and for Purchase of Sanitation related Vehicles.
Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment.

Swasthya Raksha Programme


‘Swasthya Raksha Programme’ launched by the AYUSH Ministry to promote health and
health education in villages.

Swasthya Rakshan Program has been initiated through

1. Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS),


2. Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM),

3. Central Council for Research in Homoeopath (CCRH)
4. Central Council for Research in Siddha (CCRS) in selected districts/ villages

Following are aims and objectives:-

To organize Swasthya Rakshan OPDs, Swasthya Parikshan Camps and Health/Hygiene

awareness programme
Awareness about cleanliness of domestic surroundings and environment.
Provide medical aid/incidental support in the adopted Colonies/villages.
Documentation of demographic information, food habits, hygiene conditions, seasons, lifestyle
etc., incidence/prevalence of disease and their relation to the incidence of disease.
Assessment of health status and propagation of Ayurvedic concept of pathya-apathya and
extension of health care services.

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The Ministry of Power along with the Ministry of Textiles have launched its new initiative
named Sustainable and Accelerated Adoption of efficient Textile technologies to help small
Industries (SAATHI).
Under the initiative, Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), a public sector entity under
the administrative control of Ministry of Power, would procure energy efficient power looms,
motors and repair kits in bulk and provide them to the small and medium power loom units at

no upfront cost.
The SAATHI initiative of the Government will be jointly implemented by EESL and the office of
the Textile Commissioner on a pan-India basis. To kick start the implementation, cluster wise

demonstration projects and workshops will be organized in key clusters such as Erode, Surat.
The Power loom sector in India is predominantly an unorganized sector and has a large
number of micro and small units which produce 57% of total cloth in country.

Energy Transition Index
Index released by World Economic Forum
The index ranks countries on how well they are able to balance energy security and access
with environmental sustainability and affordability.
Sweden ranked 1.

Global Manufacturing Index


1. Leading (strong current base, high level of readiness for future),

2. High Potential (limited current base, high potential for future),

3. Legacy (strong current base, at risk for future) or

4. Nascent (limited current base, low level of readiness for future).
China was placed among ‘leading countries’. Indian and Russia were placed in ‘Legacy’

group while Brazil and South Africa are in ‘nascent’ ones.


Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP) was implemented by Ministry of Water
Resources (MoWR) with assistance from the World Bank.
The Central Dam Safety Organisation of Central Water Commission is coordinating and
supervising the Project implementation.
The main objectives of DRIP are - To improve the safety and performance of selected (223
dams across 7 different states) existing dams in a sustainable manner.
To strengthen the dam safety institutional setup in participating states as well as at central
The Seven DRIP States includes Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha,

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Tamil Nadu, and Uttarakhand.

Central Water Commission is a technical organization functioning under the Ministry of Water
Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation.
The Commission is entrusted with the general responsibilities of initiating, coordinating and

furthering in consultation about the water resources to the concerned state governments.
Central Water Commission CWC is headed by a Chairman, with the status of Ex-Officio
Secretary to the Government of India.

The work of the Commission is divided among 3 wings namely,

Designs and Research (D&R) Wing.
River Management (RM) Wing.
Water Planning and Projects (WP&P) Wing.

Central Ground Water Board (CGWB)


Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), a subordinate office of the Ministry of Water Resources,
Government of India, is the National Apex Agency entrusted with the responsibilities of
providing scientific inputs for management, exploration, monitoring, assessment,

augmentation and regulation of ground water resources of the country.

Central Ground Water Board was established in 1970 by renaming the Exploratory Tube wells

Organization under the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India.

It was merged with the Ground Water Wing of the Geological Survey of India during 1972.

Startup Sambandh

It is a recent initiative by Ministry of commerce and industry in collaboration of Sweden.

It is an online platform and it aims to create suitable environment for startups in the country
by allowing foreign investors.

Reserve Money (M0):

= Currency in circulation + Bankers’ deposits with the RBI + ‘Other’ deposits with the RBI
= Net RBI credit to the Government + RBI credit to the commercial sector + RBI’s claims on
banks + RBI’s net foreign assets + Government’s currency liabilities to the public – RBI’s net
non-monetary liabilities.

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=Currency with the public + Deposit money of the public (Demand deposits with the banking
system + ‘Other’ deposits with the RBI).

=M1 + Savings deposits with Post office savings banks.

M3: (Broad concept of the money supply)

= M1+ Time deposits with the banking system
= Net bank credit to the Government + Bank credit to the commercial sector + Net foreign

exchange assets of the banking sector + Government’s currency liabilities to the public – Net
non-monetary liabilities of the banking sector (Other than Time Deposits).


=M3 + All deposits with post office savings banks (excluding National Savings Certificates).

Money Multiplier (m)


The money multiplier is an approach used to demonstrate the maximum amount of broad money that
could be created by commercial banks for a given fixed amount of base money and reserve ratio.

The money multiplier, m, is the inverse of the reserve requirement, R:


Page 69
Great Indian Horn Bill
It is also known as Great piped Hornbill.
It is found mostly in India and also in southwestern China, Bangladesh, western
Thailand, mainland Southeast Asia.

It lives primarily in evergreen and moist deciduous
It is on Appendix II of(CITES).
It is listed as vulnerable as per IUCN

It is state bird of kerala.

The World Sustainable Development Summit (WSDS)
It is The Energy and Resources Institute's (TERI) annual flagship event. The theme of the 2019
edition of the Summit is 'Attaining the 2030 Agenda: Delivering on Our Promise'.
9 1@


Augmenting Nature by Green Affordable New-habitat (ANGAN ) commenced in New Delhi.

The conference focuses primarily on achieving Energy Efficiency in the building sector.
It is being organized by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Ministry of Power in

collaboration with GIZ under the Indo German Technical Cooperation initiative.
Experts and policymakers from around 16 countries are participating in this event.



Eco Development Forces Scheme:

Eco-Development Forces (EDF) Scheme was established in 1980s as a scheme being
implemented through Ministry of Defence for ecological restoration of terrains, rendered
difficult either due to severe degradation or remote location or difficult law and order
The scheme of Eco-Development Forces is based on twin objectives of ecological regeneration
in difficult areas, and promotion of meaningful employment to ex-servicemen.

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The establishment and operational expenditure on the Eco Task Force (ETF) Battalions raised
by Ministry of Defence is reimbursed by Ministry of Environment and Forests while the inputs
like sapling, fencing, etc.
and also the professional and managerial guidance is provided by the State Forest

Carbon tax:

A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels (transport and energy sector)
and, like carbon emissions trading, is a form of carbon pricing.

A carbon tax is a form of pollution tax.
Carbon taxes offer a potentially cost-effective means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions

A carbon tax is also an indirecttax—a tax on a transaction—as opposed to a direct tax, which
taxes income.
carbon tax is called a price instrument, since it sets a price for carbon dioxide emissions.
In economic theory, pollution is considered a negative externality, a negative effect on a
third party not directly involved in a transaction, and is a type of market failure.

A tax on a negative externality is called a Pigovian tax, and should equal the marginal
damage costs.
Hence carbon tax is a pigovian tax.

Common But Differentiated Responsibilities


Common But Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR) was formalized in United Nations


Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) of Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro,

It was the first international legal instrument to address climate change and the most

comprehensive international attempt to address negative impacts to global environment

CBDR principle acknowledges all states have shared obligation to address environmental

destruction but denies equal responsibility of all states with regard to environmental
Based on polluter-pays principle where historical contribution to climate change and
respective ability become measures of responsibility for environmental protection.
Concept of CBDR evolved from notion of "common concern" in Convention for the
Establishment of an Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission of 1949 and "common heritage
of mankind" in United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982.

Biodiversity Heritage Sites:

Under Section 37 of Biological Diversity Act, 2002 (BDA) the State Government in
consultation with local bodies may notify in the official gazette, areas of biodiversity
importance as Biodiversity Heritage Sites (BHS).

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“Biodiversity Heritage Sites” (BHS) are well defined areas that are unique, ecologically
fragile ecosystems – terrestrial, coastal and inland waters and, marine having rich
biodiversity comprising of any one or more of the following components:
Richness of wild as well as domesticated species or intra-specific categories
High endemism
Presence of rare and threatened species
Keystone species
Species of evolutionary significance
Wild ancestors of domestic/cultivated species or their varieties

Past pre-eminence of biological components represented by fossil beds and
Having significant cultural, ethical or aesthetic values and are important for the maintenance
of cultural diversity, with or without a long history of human association with them.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
IPCC is the leading international body for the assessment of climate change.
It was established in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and World

Meteorological Organization (WMO).

It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
Currently 195 countries are its members.

It comprises a group of several hundred scientists of different nationality who assess


climate change science.

Every 5 or 6 years, IPCC comes out with comprehensive periodic reports on Climate
Change called Assessment Reports (AR).

Functions: IPCC neither monitors climate related parameters or data nor does it conduct
any research work.

It merely assesses the most recent scientific, socio-economic and technical information
produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change.

What is Vermin?

Vermin means wild mammals and birds which are harmful to crops, farm animals or which
carry disease.
In India, wild animals can be declared as vermin if they have become
Dangerous to human life or property (including standing crops on any land).
Become disabled or diseased as to be beyond recovery.
Using these provisions, any animal listed in Schedule I to IV of WPA can be declared vermin
by listing it in Schedule V for a specific period.
Currently, some animals like the common crow, fruit bats, mice and rats have been listed as
vermin in Schedule V of WPA.

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Hope Spots
Hope Spots are special places that are critical to the health of the ocean — Earth’s blue
Hope Spots are about recognizing, empowering and supporting individuals and
communities around the world in their efforts to protect the ocean.
About 12 percent of the land around the world is now under some form of protection (as
national parks etc.), less than six percent of the ocean is protected in any way.

Hope Spots allow us to plan for the future and look beyond current marine protected
areas (MPAs), which are like national parks on land where exploitative uses like fishing and
deep sea mining are restricted.

Hope Spots are often areas that need new protection, but they can also be existing MPAs
where more action is needed.
They can be large, they can be small, but they all provide hope due to:

A special abundance or diversity of species, unusual or representative species, habitats or
Particular populations of rare, threatened or endemic species
A site with potential to reverse damage from negative human impacts
The presence of natural processes such as major migration corridors or spawning grounds

Significant historical, cultural or spiritual values.

Particular economic importance to the community.
Mission Blue is uniting a global coalition to inspire an upwelling of public awareness, access

and support for a worldwide network of marine protected areas – Hope Spots

Important Bird Areas:


The IBA programme of Birdlife International aims to identify, monitor and protect a
global network of IBAs for conservation of the world's birds and associated biodiversity.
The IBAs serve as conservation areas for protection of birds at the global, regional or

sub-regional level. According to Birdlife International, designation of IBAs is based on


standardized criteria, namely

1. Hold significant numbers of one or more globally threatened bird species,
2. Be one of a set of sites that together hold a suite of restricted-range species or biome-
restricted species and
3. Have exceptionally large numbers of migratory or congregatory birds. The ibas contain a
range of habitats, such as wetlands, mudflats, microhabitats in biodiversity hotspots,
grasslands and scrublands, making them excellent indicators of biodiversity richness.
The Bombay Natural History Societyand Birdlife Internationalhave identified 467 IBAs
in India. Forty percent of these IBAs fall outside the PA network and thus form an important
tool for landscape-level conservation planning.
BNHS has also prepared a list of 96 new/potential sites which can be designated as IBAs in
the future.

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Soil moisture map
Soil Moisture Map forecast has been prepared by IITGandhinagar and IMD, for the first time.
It provides a Country-wide soil moisture forecast at seven and 30-day lead Times.

Protection of plant varieties

And farmer's rights act, 2001 The act provides for the establishment of an effective system for
protection of plant varieties, the rights of farmers and plant breeders and to encourage the
development of new varieties of plants.

It is considered necessary to recognise and protect the rights of the farmers in respect of their
contribution made at any time in conserving, improving and making available plant genetic

The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) is an

intergovernmental organization.

The convention was adopted in Paris in 1961 and it was revised in 1972, 1978 and 1991.
It is headquartered in Geneva (Switzerland).

It aims to provide and promote an effective system of plant variety protection, with the aim of
encouraging the development of new varieties of plants, for the benefit of society.
By this convention, member countries had to introduce restrictions on the free use and

exchange of seeds by farmers unless the “breeders” were remunerated.

In 2002, India joined this organisation. It led to the introduction of some form of Intellectual
Property Rights over plant varieties.

Platform for Science-Based Ocean Solutions?


The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

A global treaty with an objective to protect human health and the environment from
persistent organic pollutants was adopted by the Conference of Plenipotentiaries on 22 May
2001 in Stockholm, Sweden.
The Convention entered into force on 17 May 2004 and requires its parties to take
measures to eliminate or reduce the release of pops into the environment.

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United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), established in 1994, has
197 parties.It is the sole ‘legally binding’ international agreement.
It is the only convention stemming from a direct recommendation of the Rio Conference's
‘Agenda 21’.
It links the environment and development to sustainable land management.
It addresses specifically the arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas, known as the

The new ‘UNCCD 2018-2030 Strategic Framework’ is the most comprehensive global
commitment to achieve Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN).

Degradation Neutrality strategy:
Degradation Neutrality strategy, which has been defined by parties to UNCCD as ‘a state
whereby the
amount and quality of land resources, necessary to support ecosystem functions and services,

remains stable or increases within specified temporal and spatial scales and ecosystems’.

Integrated farming System (IFS):


Integrated Farming System (IFS) is an interdependent, interrelated often interlocking

production systems based on few crops, animals and related subsidiary enterprises in such a
way that maximize the utilization of nutrients of each system and minimize the negative effect

of these enterprises on environment.


Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI):


1. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi first proposed CDRI during the 2016 Asian Ministerial
Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction.
2. The CDRI was later conceptualized in the International Workshop on Disaster Resilient
Infrastructure (IWDRI) in 2018-19.
3. The coalition envisages 3 tiered structures viz Governing Council (GC), Executive Committee
and a Secretariat of the Society.

The objectives of CDRI are:

The CDRI aims to serve as a platform where knowledge is generated and exchanged on
different aspects of disaster and climate resilience of infrastructure.
The work of CDRI is to focus on relevant thematic areas including the four major themes of
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1. a) Risk Assessment for key infrastructure sectors at multiple scales.
2. b) Standards, regulation and mechanisms for enforcement.
3. c) Role of finance in promoting disaster resilience.
4. d) Predictable mechanisms for supporting disaster recovery in key infrastructure

The charter of CDRI has been shared with 38 countries including G 20 and non-G 20 nations.
So far nine countries viz.
Afghanistan, Australia, Bhutan, Fiji, Italy, Mauritius, Mongolia, Sri Lanka and United Kingdom
have conveyed their willingness to join the CDRI in writing.

Also Know!

Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction -UNDRR

“Emissions Gap”

1. Also called as the “Commitment Gap”

2. It is the difference between the low level of emissions that the world needs to drop to,

with the projected level of emissions based on countries’ current commitments to De-


Findings of the report:


The world will fail to meet the 1.5°C temperature goal of the Paris Agreement unless global
greenhouse gas emissions fall by 7.6 per cent each year.
The top four emitters (China, USA, EU and India) contributed to over 55% of the total

emissions over the last decade, excluding emissions from land-use change such as

The rankings would change if land-use change emissions were included, with Brazil likely to be
the largest emitter.

Man & Biosphere Programme

UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme was launched in 1971 with aim of
promoting interdisciplinary research, training, and communications in field of ecosystem
conservation and rational use of natural resources.
The programme is suited to respond to results of the 1992 United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED) and especially the objectives of the Convention on
Biological Diversity.

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Selection of Biosphere Reserves

Primary Criteria: Site must contain effectively protected and minimally disturbed core area
of value of nature conservation.
It should also include additional land and water suitable for research and demonstration of
sustainable methods of research and management.
Its core area should be typical of biogeographical unit and large enough to sustain viable
populations representing all trophic levels in the ecosystem.
Secondary Criteria: Areas having rare and endangered species, Areas having diversity of soil

and micro-climatic conditions and indigenous varieties of biota, Areas potential for
preservation of traditional tribal or rural modes of living for harmonious use of environment.

HT Cotton

Herbicide-Tolerant (HT) Cotton also known as BG-III cotton is innovation in Bt Cotton as it
takes care of weeds problem at much lower cost as compared to physical labour required for

It contains Round-up Ready and Round-up Flex (RRF) gene.

The RRF herbicide-tolerant trait was developed and commercialised by US-based multinational
seed giant Monsanto.

Harmful effects

The herbicide-resistant gene in HT cotton can spread through pollen into biodiversity

system leading to transformation of weeds into super weeds on large-scale.

It will threaten growth and yields of all crops in future and also increase cultivation costs
and lead to health hazards.

The cultivation of BG-III or HT cotton has not been approved by Genetic Engineering
Approval Committee (GEAC) of the Ministry of Environment.

India: Climate Change Impacts

Extreme Heat:

Unusual and unprecedented spells of hot weather are expected to occur far more frequently
and cover much larger areas.
Under 4°C warming, the west coast and southern India are projected to shift to new, high-
temperature climatic regimes with significant impacts on agriculture.

Changing Rainfall Patterns:

A 2°C rise in the world’s average temperatures will make India’s summer monsoon
highly unpredictable.
At 4°C warming, an extremely wet monsoon that currently has a chance of occurring only
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once in 100 years is projected to occur every 10 years by the end of the century.
An abrupt change in the monsoon could precipitate a major crisis, triggering more
frequent droughts as well as greater flooding in large parts of India.
India’s northwest coast to the south eastern coastal region could see higher than average
Dry years are expected to be drier and wet years wetter.


Droughts are expected to be more frequent in some areas, especially in north-western

India,Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh.
Crop yields are expected to fall significantly because of extreme heat by the 2040s.


Although it is difficult to predict future ground water levels, falling water tables can be
expected to reduce further on account of increasing demand for water from a growing
population, more affluent life styles, as well as from the services sector and industry.
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Glacier Melt:

At 2.5°C warming, melting glaciers and the loss of snow cover over the Himalayas are
expected to threaten the stability and reliability of northern India’s primarily glacier-fed rivers,

particularly the Indus and the Brahmaputra.

The Ganges will be less dependent on melt water due to high annual rainfall downstream

during the monsoon season.

The Indus and Brahmaputra are expected to see increased flows in spring when the snows
melt, with flows reducing subsequently in late spring and summer.

Alterations in the flows of the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra rivers could significantly
impact irrigation, affecting the amount of food that can be produced in their basins as well as

the livelihoods of millions of people (209 million in the Indus basin, 478 million in the Ganges
basin, and 62 million in the Brahmaputra basin in the year 2005).

Sea level rise:

With India close to the equator, the sub-continent would see much higher rises in sea levels
than higher latitudes.
Sea-level rise and storm surges would lead to saltwater intrusion in the coastal areas,
impacting agriculture, degrading groundwater quality, contaminating drinking water, and
possibly causing a rise in diarrhea cases and cholera outbreaks, as the cholera bacterium
survives longer in saline water.

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Energy Security:

The increasing variability and long-term decreases in river flows can pose a major challenge to
hydropower plants and increase the risk of physical damage from landslides, flash floods,
glacial lake outbursts, and other climate-related natural disasters.
Decreases in the availability of water and increases in temperature will pose major risk factors
to thermal power generation.

Water Security:

An increase in variability of monsoon rainfall is expected to increase water shortages in some
Studies have found that the threat to water security is very high over central India, along the

mountain ranges of the Western Ghats, and in India’s northeastern states.


Biopiracy is the practice of commercially exploiting naturally occurring biochemical or

genetic material, especially by obtaining patents that restrict its future use, while failing to

pay fair compensation to the community from which it originates.


Myristica swamps:

Myristica swamps are known with this name because; they are dominated by members of
A primitive family of flowering plants, Myristicaceae has 18 genera and 300 species.

One of the well known species is the nutmeg, Myristica fragrans, a native of Mollucas Island,

and cultivated widely in the gardens of the Western Ghats.

The Myristica swamps are tropical fresh water swamp forests with an abundance of Myristica
trees, the most primitive of the flowering plants on earth.
The evergreen, water-tolerant trees have dense stilt roots helping them stay erect in the thick,
black, wet alluvial soil. The swamps are typically found in valleys, making them prone to
inundation during monsoon rains. The trees form a fairly dense forest with a closed canopy.
Studies have shown that the swamps, which would have occupied large swathes of the thickly-
wooded Western Ghats in the past, are now restricted to less than 200 hectares in the country.
Myristica swamps, a vanishing ecosystem, is now largely confined to 53 patches in the
Kulathupuzha and Anchal forest ranges and the Shendurney wildlife sanctuary in Kerala.

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Dirty Dozen:
These are the 12 initial POP compounds that were listed under the Stockholm convention.

1. Aldrin,
2. Chlordane,
3. DDT,
4. Dieldrin,
5. Endrin,

6. Heptachlor,
7. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB),
8. Mirex,

9. Toxaphene,
10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB),

11. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD),
12. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF)

Underwater Arctic Forests (Kelps) are expanding according to a research by Canadian

Marine Ecology, Universite Laval published in Global Change Biology.


Warming waters and retreating of sea ice will benefit marine plants.
Researchers predict a northern shift of kelp forests as ice retreats.


Kelp forests are underwater forests that thrive well in cold, nutrient rich waters.

Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds attached to the seafloor and eventually grow to the
water’s surface and rely on sunlight to generate food and energy.
These forests are always coastal and require shallow, relatively clear water.

These forests harbor a greater variety and higher diversity of plants and animals than almost

any other ocean community.


Kelp forests have been observed throughout the Arctic by Inuit, researchers and polar
explorers. The Canadian Arctic alone represents 10 per cent of the world’s coastlines.


Kelps function underwater in the same way trees do on land. They create habitat and modify
the physical environment by shading light and softening waves.
home to hundreds or thousands of species of invertebrates, fishes, and other algae.
These forests comprise one of the ocean’s most diverse ecosystems.

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Thawing permafrost and crumbling Arctic coasts are dumping sediments into coastal
waters at alarming rates, which blocks light and could limit plant growth.
The run-off from melting glaciers will also lowers salinity and increase turbidity, which
impacts young kelp.
Destructive fishing practices, coastal pollution, and accidental damage caused by boat
entanglement are known to negatively affect kelp forests.
Sea urchins can destroy entire kelp forests at a rate of 30 feet (9 m) per month by moving in

herds. Sea otters play a key role in stabilizing sea urchin populations so that kelp forests may

Ecotone – zone of transition between two ecosystems. E.g. grasslands, mangroves etc.-

Habitat – surroundings in which an organism lives (home).

Home Range – A home range is an area in which an animal lives and moves on a daily or periodic
basis (a little bigger than habitat – home → office → home)
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Sixth mass extinction or Anthropoceneextinction
The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the sixth mass extinction or
Anthropocene extinction, is an ongoing extinction event of species during the present
Holocene epoch (with the more recent time sometimes called Anthropocene) as a result of
human activity.

Bio-accumulation refers to increase in concentration of a substance in certain tissues of
organism’s body. While Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance
from all sources at a rate greater than that at which the substance is lost.

Bioconcentration occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance from ONLY Water at a
rate greater than that at which the substance is lost.

Bioaccumulation and Bioconcentration are synonymous except the difference of the
source. Both Bioaccumulation and Bioconcentration occur in the same organism. However,
Biomagnification occurs across various trophic levels in a food chain.

The ‘Half-Earth Project’,


recently in the news, is related to the sixth mass extinction



Biomagnification refers to the is the INCREASE in concentration of the POPs such as DDT,
that occurs in a food chain as a consequence of persistence, high lipid solubility and low water

The substances become more and more concentrated in tissues or internal organs as they
move up the chain

The conviction rate in rape cases is as low as 32.2 per cent at the national level,
according to the latest report of the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB).

India, a megadiverse country with only 2.4% of the world's land area, accounts for 7-8% of all
recorded species, including over 45,000 species of plants and 91,000 species of animals.
The country’s diverse physical features and climatic conditions have resulted in a variety of
ecosystems such as forests, wetlands, grasslands, desert, coastal and marine ecosystems
which harbour and sustain high biodiversity and contribute to human well-being.
Four of 34 globally identified biodiversity hotspots: The Himalayas, the Western Ghats, the
North-East, and the Nicobar Islands, can be found in India.
India became a State Member of IUCN in 1969, through the Ministry of Environment,

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Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC).

Operation Clean Art

Operation Clean Art is the first pan India operation to crackdown on the smuggling of
mongoose hair in the country.

It was conceived by the Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) with the aim of closing
down the mongoose hairbrush trade across the country.

Tiger Census Report

Tiger Census Report is a four-yearly report.
census is carried out by Wildlife Institute of India (WII – funded by MoEF) and NTCA.


Every 5 years

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)


Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) based in Stockholm is an

independent international institute established in 1966.
It is dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.

It releases the National Reports on Arms Exports to highlight the oversight of government
implementation of arms export control policies.

According to a recent SIPRI report, India was the world’s second-largest arms importer
from 2014-18, in the year 2009-2013 India was the largest arms importer.

Stop TB partnership:

Stop TB partnership = Geneva based nodal agency + recommends policy interventions +

Administered by UNOPS(UN office of project services) + include international NGO and
governmental organisations

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campaign has recently been launched by UN Environment To eliminate major sources of
marine litter such as micro plastics in cosmetics

The Port of Hodeidah (Hudaydah) is littoral to Red Sea

Starry Dwarf frog

A starry dwarf frog, a nocturnal amphibian which sports pale blue spots and brilliant orange

thighs has been found in Wayanad district, Kerala.
The frog species is named as Astrobatrachus kurichiyana in the honor of Kurichiya tribal
community of Kerala. gm
The frog is not only a new species but different enough to be assigned to a new ‘subfamily’.

UN, Environment Assembly


The United Nations Environment Assembly is the world’s highest-level decision-making body
on the environment.
The Environment Assembly meets biennially to set priorities for global environmental policies

and develop international environmental law.


It addresses the critical environmental challenges facing the world today.


The United Nations Environment Assembly was created during the United Nations
Conference on Sustainable Development, also referred to as RIO+20, in 2012.

Recent UN Environment Assembly is being held at Nairobi, Kenya.

Red Sanders
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), has reclassified Red Sanders as
near threatened from endangered shifting it to a better conserved category
Found in Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests and Deccan Thorn Scrub Forests
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Endemic to South Eastern portion of Indian peninsula.
Majorly found in the Palakonda and Seshachalam hill ranges of Andhra Pradesh.

World Network of Biosphere Reserves

Khangchendzonga BR- key facts, UNESCO MAB programme, BRs in India.
The Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve has become the 11th Biosphere Reserve from India
to be included in the UNESCO designated World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR).

This decision was taken at the recently concluded 30th Session of International Coordinating
Council (ICC) of Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme of UNESCO held at Palembang,



The Sustainable Blue Economy Conference is the first global conference on the sustainable
blue economy
Kenya and its co-hosts Canada and Japan are inviting the world to Nairobi for the first global

conference on the sustainable blue economy.


The Sustainable Blue Economy Conference builds on the momentum of the UN’s 2030 Agenda
for Sustainable Development, the 2015 Climate Change Conference in Paris and the UN Ocean

Conference 2017 “Call to Action”

how to build a blue economy that:


1. Harnesses the potential of our oceans, seas, lakes and rivers to improve the lives of all,
particularly people in developing states, women, youth and Indigenous peoples

2. Leverages the latest innovations, scientific advances and best practices to build prosperity
while conserving our waters for future generations

Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN)

As per the UNCCD definition, LDN is a state whereby the amount and quality of land
resources, necessary to support ecosystem functions and services and enhance food
security, remains stable or increases within specified temporal and spatial
It is a unique approach that counterbalances the expected loss of productive land
with the recovery of degraded areas
LDN can prevent Soil erosion, desertification, water scarcity, migration
insecurity and income inequalities caused by land
Thus, it helps in combating the impacts of climate change.

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2. What is the LDN Fund?

The Land Degradation Neutrality Fund (LDN Fund) is an impact investment fund blending
resources from the public, private and philanthropic sectors in support of achieving LDN
through sustainable land management and land restoration projects undertaken by the private
sector worldwide.

What is the Great Green Wall?

The Great Green Wall is a symbol of hope in the face of one of the biggest challenges of our

Launched in 2007, this game-changing initiative aims to restore Africa’s degraded

regions, the Sahel.

landscapes and in the process transform millions of lives in one of the world’s poorest
9 1@

India Energy Modelling Forum


India Energy Modelling Forum (IEMF) has been envisaged as a pan-stakeholder platform for
debating ideas, scenario-planning & discussing India's energy future.
The Forum aims to improve cooperation and coordination between modelling teams, the

Government of India, knowledge partners and think-tanks, build the capacity of Indian
institutions, and identify issues for joint modelling activities and future areas of research.
Recently NITI Aayog and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

organized the first workshop on the development of the India Energy Modelling Forum (IEMF).

Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC)

GEAC is apex body under Environment Ministry for regulating manufacturing, use, import,
export and storage of hazardous micro-organisms or genetically engineered organisms (GMOs)
and cells in the country.
It is also responsible for giving technical approval of proposals relating to release of GMOs and
products including experimental field trials.

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The National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF) is a fund created in 2010-11 using the carbon tax -
clean energy cess - for funding research and innovative projects in clean energy technologies
of public sector or private sector entities, upto the extent of 40% of the total project cost.
Assistance is available as a loan or as a viability gap funding, as deemed fit by the Inter-
Ministerial group, which decides on the merits of such projects.
The Fund is designed as a non lapsable fund under Public Accounts and with its secretariat in

Plan Finance II Division, Department of Expenditure, Ministry of Finance An Inter Ministerial
Group (IMG) chaired by Finance Secretary approves the projects/schemes eligible for
financing under the NCEF.

These projects include innovative schemes like Green Energy Corridor for boosting up the
transmission sector, Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM)'s installation of solar
photovoltaic (SPV) lights and small capacity lights, installation of SPV water pumping systems,

SPV Power Plants, Grid Connected Rooftop SPV Power Plants, pilot project to assess wind
power potential etc.

The Black Softshell Turtle:


The Black Softshell Turtle is a species of freshwater turtle found in India (Assam) and
Bangladesh (Chittagong and Sylhet).

Black Softshell Turtle( Nilssonia nigricans), Under the IUCN red list, it is listed as Extinct in
Wild .
It is protected under Schedule IV of Wildlife Protection Act (WLPA).

Environment, Education, Awareness and Training scheme


Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change


Objective to promote environmental awareness among all sections of the society and to
mobilize people’s participation for conservation of environment.
Establishment of ECOCLUBS through the National Green Corps programme in school/ college
The ‘Green Good Deeds’ initiative is about simple, practical steps that
students/teachers/citizens can perform in their day-to-day life towards protection of

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Environment, Education, Awareness and Training scheme
Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change

Objective to promote environmental awareness among all sections of the society and to
mobilize people’s participation for conservation of environment.
Establishment of ECOCLUBS through the National Green Corps programme in school/ college
The ‘Green Good Deeds’ initiative is about simple, practical steps that

students/teachers/citizens can perform in their day-to-day life towards protection of

About cGanga:

In 2016, The Centre for Ganga River Basin Management and Studies (cGanga) was established

at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur.

The centre acts as a comprehensive think-tank to the National Mission for Clean Ganga
(NMCG), Ministry of Jal Shakti, Government of India, in achieving its goals and objectives
towards the Ganga River Basin.

Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary:


Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in the floodplains of River Brahmaputra in the district
of Morigaon and about 45 kms from Guwahati, the capital of Assam, India.

It harbors the highest density of Rhinos in the world and the second highest number of great
one-horned rhinoceroses, in Assam after Kaziranga National Park.

Besides rhinoceros, the other mammals found are Leopard, Leopard cat, Fishing cat, Jungle
cat, Feral Buffalo, Wild pigs, Chinese pangolins among others.

Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN):


The Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN), launched in 2012, mobilizes global
scientific and technological expertise to promote practical problem solving for the Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Climate Agreement.
It was established under the auspices of the United Nations Secretary-General.
The SDSN and the Bertelsmann Stiftung have been publishing the annual SDG Index &
Dashboards Global Report since 2016.

City Biodiversity Index

City Biodiversity Index, also referred to as the Singapore Index on Cities Biodiversity or the
Singapore Index (SI), is a self-assessment tool for cities to evaluate and monitor the progress
of their biodiversity conservation efforts against their own individual baselines.

It comprises:

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1. The Profile of the City, which provides background information on the city; and
2. The 23 indicators that measure native biodiversity, ecosystem services provided by
biodiversity, and governance and management of biodiversity based on guidelines and
methodology provided in the Users Manual on the Singapore Index on Cities

BirdLife International
BirdLife International is the world’s largest nature conservation partnership.

BirdLife International strives to conserve birds, their habitats and global biodiversity, working
with people towards sustainability in the use of natural resources.
BirdLife International is the official Red List authority for birds, for the International Union for

Conservation of Nature.
It identifies the sites known/referred to as ‘Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas’.

Tree Ambulance launched in Chennai: gm
A unique 'Tree Ambulance' service - an initiative to provide care to trees besides spread green

cover, was launched by Vice President M. Venkaiah Naidu.


Important Bird Areas


The IBA programme of Birdlife International aims to identify, monitor and protect a global
network of IBAs for conservation of the world's birds and associated biodiversity.
The IBAs serve as conservation areas for protection of birds at the global, regional or sub-

regional level.
According to Birdlife International, designation of IBAs is based on standardized criteria,

2. Hold significant numbers of one or more globally threatened bird species,

3. Be one of a set of sites that together hold a suite of restricted-range species or biome-

restricted species and

4. Have exceptionally large numbers of migratory or congregatory birds.
5. The IBAs contain a range of habitats, such as wetlands, mudflats, microhabitats in
biodiversity hotspots, grasslands and scrublands, making them excellent indicators of
biodiversity richness.
The Bombay Natural History Society and Birdlife International have identified 467 IBAs in
India. Forty percent of these IBAs fall outside the PA network and thus form an important tool
for landscape-level conservation planning. BNHS has also prepared a list of 96 new/potential
sites which can be designated as IBAs in the future.

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CCPI- climate change performance index. By GREEN WATCH
Measures the emission, renewable energy share and climate policies of 57 countries.
India ranks among top 10 for the first time.

The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)

The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) was launched in 2008 by the Prime

Minister's Council on Climate Change.
It aims at creating awareness among the representatives of the public, different agencies of
the government, scientists, industry and the communities on the threat posed by climate

change and the steps to counter it.
There are 8 national missions forming the core of the NAPCC which represent multi-pronged,

long term and integrated strategies for achieving key goals in climate change. These are-
National Solar Mission
National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
National Water Mission
National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
National Mission for A Green India
National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture

National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change


Salient Features

NAPCC is guided by following principles-

Protection of poor and vulnerable sections of society through inclusive and sustainable

development strategy, sensitive to climate change.

Achievements of national growth through qualitative changes enhancing ecological

Deployment of appropriate technologies for both adaptation and mitigation of GreenHouse

Gases emissions extensively and at an accelerated pace.

TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network, is a leading non-governmental organisation
working globally on trade in wild animals and plants.
It is a strategic alliance of IUCN and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF).
Its mission is to ensure that trade in wild plants and animals is not a threat to the conservation
of nature.
It plays a vital role in tackling illegal wildlife trade through conducting research and analysis,
advocacy and awareness work and by supporting remedial action against illegal wildlife trade.

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‘Emissions Gap Report’:
Recently, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) released ‘Emissions Gap
Report’, according to which India is the fourth-largest emitter of Green House Gases (GHGs).
According to the report, unless global greenhouse gas emissions fall by 7.6 per cent each year,
the world will fail to meet the 1.5°C temperature goal of the Paris Agreement.
The top four emitters (China, USA, EU and India) contribute to over 55 per cent of the total
emissions over the last decade, excluding emissions from land-use change such as

deforestation, the report states.
If land-use change emissions were included, the rankings would change, with Brazil likely to
be the largest emitter.

Sectors that are the largest emitters Energy >Industry> Forestry> Transport> Agriculture>
The report, however, adds that India is among a small group of countries that are on track to
achieve their self-declared climate targets under the Paris Agreement.


Biodiversity or biological diversity refers to the variety of life on earth.

The term was first coined by Walter G. Rosen in the year 1986.
The term biodiversity encompasses three categories: ‘genetic diversity’, ‘species diversity’ and

‘ecosystem diversity’.

Genetic diversity describes the variation of genes within a species.

Species diversity describes the variety of species with in a region &

Ecosystem diversity refers to the number and distribution of ecosystem.


Biodiversity Hotspots

The term ‘biodiversity hotspots’ was first coined and used by Norman Myers, a British
Ecologist, in the year 1988.

According to Myers to qualify as a hotspot an area must contain 0.5 per cent of or 1500 of the
world’s 300000 plant species and should have lost 70 per cent or more of its primary
The main purpose of describing hotspots is to emphasize spatial variation in the value of
Currently, 36 biodiversity hotspots have been identified, most of which occur in tropical

Biodiversity Hotspots in India

India shares its territories into three biodiversity hotspots viz.

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1) Eastern Himalaya.

2) Western Ghats & Srilanka

3) Indo-Burma.

4) Sunda land

There are four Hotspots regions in India namely Himalaya, Indo-Burma, Sunda- lands and

Western Ghats and Sri Lanka.
Out of them, Himalaya and Western Ghats are mostly located within India’s territory.
In the Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, India shares only a small part in north East India.

"Biodiversity Hope Spot"
A hope spot is an area of ocean that is under special protection because of its wildlife and
significant under water habitat.
They are places where human activities and impacts will be minimized, the unique and vital

ecosystems within the Hope Spots will have a chance to recover and to flourish.
Earle named these areas Hope Spots because they represent a real hope to restore the health
of our imperiled ocean.

During the 3rd International Marine Protected Areas Congress (IMPAC3), the Mission Blue

and IUCN have launched 31 new Mission Blue Hope Spots Marine Protected Areas across the

Mission Blue is an initiative of the Sylvia Earle Alliance to ignite public support for the
protection of Hope Spots
"The ocean as a system, our life support system, is in trouble and whatever we can do, whether

it’s in our community, state or country, region, or in the high seas, we should really respect
what the ocean gives us,” says Sylvia Earle.

Andamans, Lakshwadeep declared ‘hope spots’ by IUCN


Two groups of islands are the first in India to make it to the list of 50 global hope spots with.

The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC):

The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) is the apex body constituted in the
Ministry of Environment and Forests under 'Rules for Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and
Storage of Hazardous Microorganisms Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells 1989',
under the Environment Protection Act, 1986.
These rules commonly referred as ‘Rules 1989’.
The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) functions in the Ministry of
Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC).

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Functions of GEAC

To appraise activities involving large scale use of hazardous microorganisms and recombinants
in research and industrial production from the environmental angle.
To appraise proposals relating to release of genetically engineered organisms and products
into the environment including experimental field trials.
The committee or any persons authorized by it has powers to take punitive action under the

Environment Protection Act.

What is Beveridge curve in economics?

This refers to a graphical representation that shows the relationship between the
unemployment rate (on the horizontal axis) and the job vacancy rate (on the vertical axis) in an

The Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana


(PMMY) is a scheme launched in 2015for providing loans up to Rs. 10 lakhsto the non-
corporate, non-farmsmall/micro enterprises. These loans are classified as MUDRA loans

These loans are given by CommercialBanks, Regional Rural Banks (RRBs),Small Finance
Banks, Micro financeInstitutions (MFIs) and Non-BankingFinancial Company (NBFC).

Ocean Dumping: International Treaties:


The London Convention and London Protocol are international treaties of global application to
protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes and other
matter into the ocean.

What is the London Convention?

The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter
of 1972, known as the London Convention.
The London Convention applies to the deliberate disposal at sea of wastes or other matter
from vessels, aircraft, platforms and other man-made structures at sea.
But it does not cover discharges from land-based sources such as pipes and outfalls ,
One regional type of convention is Barcelona Convention, which covers the same problems in

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the Mediterranean sea.

What are the purpose and objectives of the London

Convention and Protocol?
Under the Protocol all dumping is prohibited, except for possibly acceptable wastes on the so-

called "reverse list".
A so-called "black- and grey-list" approach is applied for wastes, For the blacklist items
dumping is prohibited. Dumping of the grey-listed materials requires a special permit from a

designated national authority under strict control.

What is the London Protocol?
London Protocol, is to modernize and eventually replace the London Convention. The London
Protocol entered into force in 2006.
The purpose of the Protocol is similar to that of the Convention, but the Protocol is more

Application of a "precautionary approach" is included as a general obligation;

A "reverse list" approach is adopted, which implies that all dumping is prohibited unless

explicitly permitted;
incineration of wastes at sea is prohibited;

How have the London Convention and Protocol addressed

levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?

A] Sub-Seabed Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide in Sub-Seabed Geological Formations (Offshore


Carbon Capture and Storage)

The process involves the capture of carbon dioxide from industrial and energy-related sources,
transport to an offshore sub-seabed geological formation, and long-term isolation from the
atmosphere in that formation
The risks include those associated with leakage into the marine environment of carbon
dioxide and other substances in, or mobilized by, the carbon dioxide stream.

B] Ocean Fertilization

Ocean fertilization (for example, adding nutrients such as iron to the ocean) has been
proposed as a climate mitigation measure. In order for ocean fertilization to mitigate climate

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Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF)
Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has unveiled draft
Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) for coastal zone management.
It was prepared by Society for Integrated Coastal Management, an MoEFCC-affiliated body as
part of a World Bank-funded project.

What is white pollution?

White pollution is a term used to indicate the overwhelming discharge of plastic bags into the

UNCCD COP14: Drought Toolbox launched gm
At the ongoing 14th Conference of Parties (COP14) to United Nations Convention to Combat

Desertification (UNCCD) at India Expo Centre & Mart, Greater Noida a Drought Toolbox was
launched on the 10th day of conference (on 11 September 2019) which was dedicated to the
theme of Drought. India hosted the UNCCD COP14 from 2 September - 13 September 2019.

About Drought Toolbox

It is a one-stop shop for all actions on drought.


It is a kind of knowledge bank that may be used by vulnerable countries, such as India, to
reduce drought

risk and be better prepared and effectively respond to it.

It is a web page that provides involved stakeholders easy access to case studies and other
resources tosupport action on drought preparedness with aim to boost resilience of people and

ecosystems to drought.
It contains tools that strengthen ability of vulnerable countries and enable communities to

anticipate and
prepare for drought effectively, mitigate their impacts and find land management tools that
help them to build resilience to drought.
It will help countries in framing/fine-tuning their respective national drought policies in due
course based on monitoring, forecast, and early warning.

Nagoya protocol:
Nagoya protocol on access and benefit sharing ,The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic
Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization (ABS)
to the Convention on Biological Diversity is a supplementary agreement to the Convention on
Biological Diversity.
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It provides a transparent legal framework for the effective implementation of one of the three
objectives of the CBD:

The fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.

The Nagoya Protocol on ABS was adopted on October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan and entered into
force on October 2014. thereby contributing to the conservation and sustainable use of

Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate


The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Special Report on the Ocean and
Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (SROCC) was approved at the IPCC’s 51st Session
(IPCC-51) in Monaco. gm
The report is the third in the series of three Special Reports in the current Sixth Assessment
Report (AR6) cycle, which began in 2015 and will be completed in 2022.

The first was the Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C.
Second was the Special Report on Climate Change and Land (SRCCL).

Global Deal for Nature:


The Global Deal for Nature (GDN) is a time-bound, science-driven plan to save the diversity
and abundance of life on Earth.

“Pairing the GDN and the Paris Climate Agreement would avoid catastrophic climate change,
conserve species, and secure essential ecosystem services.
The GDN campaign is being driven by One Earth, an initiative of the Leonardo DiCaprio

Foundation that aims to marshal support from international institutions, governments, and
citizens of planet Earth to support ambitious conservation goals.

Ecological Sanitation (ECOSAN):

Ecosan is a concept that treats various types of waste generated by humans as a resource,
which can be safely collected, treated and reused to prevent pollution of water bodies and the
environment. E.g. Ecosan toilets, compost pit, biogas plants, reed-beds for treatment of
The underlying aim is to close (local) nutrient and water cycles with as less expenditure on
material and energy as possible to contribute to a sustainable development.
The Ecosan is a dry toilet built on a raised platform, listed in the Swachh Bharat Mission’s
guidelines as suitable for dry areas with scarce water supply, coastal and flood-prone areas
with high water tables, and rocky areas. But it has very few takers, due to the Swachh Bharat
Mission’s focus on pit toilets.

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In Ecosan Toilets, human excreta, urine and wash water are separated through specially
designed toilet seats unlike the conventional water closets where all these are collected

India forest report 2019

By -- Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change
Total Forest and Tree Cover rises to 24.56 percent of the total geographical area of the

In a remarkable feat, forest and tree cover has increased by more than 130 million hectares in
the last four years

India is among few countries in the world where forest cover is consistently increasing.
The total forest and tree cover of the country is 80.73 million hectare which is 24.56 percent of
the geographical area of the country

Comparison with forest report 2017
As compared to the assessment of 2017, there is an increase of 5,188 sq. km in the total forest
and tree cover of the country.
“Out of this, the increase in the forest cover has been observed as 3,976 sq km and that in tree

cover is 1,212 sq. km.

Range increase in forest cover has been observed in open forest followed by very dense forest

and moderately dense forest and the top three states showing increase in forest cover are
Karnataka (1,025 sq. km) followed by Andhra Pradesh (990 sq km) and Kerala (823 sq km).”

ISFR 2019 is the 16th report in the series.


In tune with the Government of India’s vision of Digital India, FSI’s assessment is largely
based on digital data whether it is satellite data, vector boundaries of districts or data

processing of field measurements.

The report provides information on forest cover, tree cover, mangrove cover, growing stock

inside and outside the forest areas, carbon stock in India’s forests, Forest Types and
Biodiversity, Forest Fire monitoring and forest cover in different slopes & altitudes.
Special thematic information on forest cover such as hill, tribal districts, and north eastern
region has also been given separately in the report.
For the first time, Ortho-rectified satellite data has been used for forest cover mapping due to
its better positional accuracy as it removes effects of image perspective (tilt) and relief
(terrain) and scale distortions in the image to represent features in its true positions for
accurate measurement of distances, angels and areas.
FSI, in a first ever attempt has carried out a rapid assessment of biodiversity for all the States
and UTs (except two) and for all the sixteen Forest Type Groups as per Champion & Seth
Classification (1968).

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Some Major Findings
Area-wise Madhya Pradesh has the largest forest cover in the country followed by Arunachal
Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Maharashtra.
In terms of forest cover as percentage of total geographical area, the top five States are
Mizoram (85.41%), Arunachal Pradesh (79.63%), Meghalaya (76.33%), Manipur (75.46%) and
Nagaland (75.31%).
The Mangrove ecosystems are unique & rich in biodiversity and they provide numerous

ecological services.
Mangrove cover has been separately reported in the ISFR 2019 and the total mangrove cover
in the country is 4,975 sq km.

An increase of 54 sq Km in mangrove cover has been observed as compared to the previous
assessment of 2017.
Top three states showing mangrove cover increase are Gujarat (37 sq km) followed by

Maharashtra (16 sq km) and Odisha (8 sq km).

Colombo Declaration

It has been developed with the technical support of the International Nitrogen Management System
(INMS), a joint activity of the UNEP and the International Nitrogen Initiative supported by the

Global Environment Facility.


BEE (Bureau of Energy Efficiency) :


BEE is a statutory body under the Ministry of Power, Government of India.

It develops policies and strategies with the primary objective of reducing the energy intensity

of the Indian economy.

BEE coordinates with designated consumers, designated agencies, and other organization to
identify and utilize the existing resources and infrastructure, in performing the functions

assigned to it under the Energy Conservation Act 2001.


BEE notifies new energy performance standards for air conditioners All room air conditioners
to have default temperature setting of 24 degrees celsius from Jan 1, 2020.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act empowers Central Pollution Control Board to set
standards for the quality of air.
Pollutants covered under NAAQS are
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2),
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2),
Particulate Matter (PM 10, PM 2.5),
Ozone (O3),
Lead (Pb),
Carbon Monoxide (CO),

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Ammonia (NH3),
Benzene (C6H6),
Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP),
Nickel (Ni).

Wetlands are defined as:

“areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary,
with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the

depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres”

GSLEP: Global Snow Leopard & Ecosystem Protection Plan
It is the world‘s first initiative that aims to conserve high mountain ecosystems by protecting
snow leopard in the region.
It unites all 12 range country governments, nongovernmental and inter-governmental

organisations, local communities, private sector.

Arunachal Pradesh is one of the 22 priority landscapes of the GSLEP.
In 2004, WWF-India introduced the concept of Community Conserved Area (CCA) in the State

to empower local communities to become active decision-makers and implement conservation


This year, GSLEP Program is being organised by Union Environment Ministry at New Delhi.

The Steering Committee meeting of GSLEP chaired by Nepal and Co-Chaired by Kyrgyzstan.


Peats are a heterogeneous mixture of plant material (vascular plants, mosses and humus) that
had accumulated in a water-saturated area and are only partially decomposed due to absence

of oxygen. The natural areas covered by peat are called peatlands.

Various types of peat are – swamp forests, fens, bogs or mires. They form where climate,
bedrock and relief create an area with permanent water saturation i.e. either in shallow water
over layers of lake sediments or directly on mineral soil.


Brazzaville Declaration was signed to promote better management and conservation ofCuvette
Centrale Region in the Congo Basin.
It was jointly signed by Democratic Republic of Congo(DRC), the Republic of Congo and

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Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA)
Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) is planning to set up a dedicated
Green Window with an aim to serve the unserved segments of renewable energy.
The Green Window will support underserved clean energy markets It will also support the
scaling up of new clean energy technologies
It will be used to leverage additional sources of capital from both private domestic banks and
international sources.

Polluter pays’ principle

The ‘polluter pays’ principle is the commonly accepted practice that those who produce pollution

should bear the costs of managing it to prevent damage to human health or the environment. For

instance, a factory that produces a potentially poisonous substance as a by-product of its activities is
usually held responsible for its safe disposal. The polluter pays principle is part of a set of broader
principles to guide sustainable development worldwide

Black Softshell Turtle:


The black softshell turtle or Bostami turtle is a species of freshwater turtle found in India and

It is the close relative of Indian peacock softshell turtle, but it is a distinct species.
As of 2002, the IUCN classified the species as Extinct in the Wild.

The turtle is originally native to the lower Brahmaputra River.


Global Carbon Project


It is a Global Research Project of Future Earth and a research partner of the World Climate

Research Programme.
Formed in 2001 to help the international science community to establish a common, mutually
agreed knowledge base that supports policy debate and action to slow the rate of increase
ofgreenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Its projects include global budgets for three dominant greenhouse gases — CO2, methane, and
nitrous oxide — and complementary efforts in urban, regional, cumulative, and negative


The 14th Asiatic Lion Census was conducted in 2015.the population of lions was 523 (27%
up compared to the previous census in 2010). The population of lions was 411 in 2010 and 359
in 2005
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Lion census is conducted on 5 year intervals.


"Environmental Performance Index (EPI)"

This index has been developed by Yale University and Columbia University in collaboration
with the World Economic Forum and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission.
The 2018 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) ranks 180 countries on 24 performance

indicators across ten issue categories covering environmental health and ecosystem vitality.
These metrics provide a gauge at a national scale of how close countries are to established
environmental policy goals.

"Climate change & Stratification of oceans "
Water stratification is when water masses with different properties - salinity (halocline),
oxygenation (chemocline), density (pycnocline), temperature (thermocline) - form layers that

act as barriers to water mixing which could lead to anoxia or euxinia.

These layers are normally arranged according to density, with the least dense water masses
sitting above the more dense layers.

Rising Temperature & Stratification of oceans

As temperatures increase due to climate change, the ocean water becomes more stratified.

The increase in temperature has even a greater effect, thermocline becomes even a more
powerful boundary causing potential reduction in upwelling .

This reduction in upwelling and down welling makes it more difficult for nutrient (such as
nitrate and phosphate) rich water to reach the surface and for oxygen to reach the lower
depths of the ocean.
These kinds of reductions can result in biomass loss and changes in species compositions as

certain species abundance goes down.


Global Climate Risk Index

Global Climate Risk Index is published by Germanwatch, a non-profit, non-governmental
organization based in Bonn, Germany.
The Global Climate Risk Index 2018 has put India amongst the six most vulnerable countries in
the world. Given that a sizeable population under poverty live in areas prone to climatic shifts
and in occupations that are highly climate-sensitive, future climate change could have
significant implications for living standards.

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Keeling Curve:
The Keeling Curve is a graph of the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere
based on continuous measurements taken at the Mauna Loa Observatory on the island of
Hawaii from 1958 to the present day.
The curve is named for the scientist Charles David Keeling, who started the monitoring
program and supervised it until his death in 2005.
Keeling's measurements showed the first significant evidence of rapidly increasing carbon

dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere. The Keeling curve is one of the most important
scientific works of the 20th century.
Many scientists credit the Keeling curve with first bringing the world's attention to the current

increase of CO2 in the atmosphere.

Short-lived climate pollutants:

Short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) are agents that have relatively short lifetime in the
atmosphere – a few days to a few decades – and a warming influence on climate.
The main short-lived climate pollutants are black carbon, methane and tropospheric ozone,
which are the most important contributors to the human enhancement of the global
greenhouse effect after CO2.
These short-lived climate pollutants are also dangerous air pollutants, with various detrimental

impacts on human health, agriculture and ecosystems. Other short-lived climate pollutants
include some hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

While HFCs are currently present in small quantity in the atmosphere, their contribution to
climate forcing is projected to climb to as much as 19% of global CO2 emissions by 2050.

Green accounting:
Green accounting is a type of accounting that attempts to factor environmental costs into the

financial results of operations.


It has been argued that gross domestic product ignores the environment and therefore
policymakers need a revised model that incorporates green accounting.
The major purpose of green accounting is to help businesses understand and manage the
potential quid pro quo between traditional economics goals and environmental goals.
It also increases the important information available for analyzing policy issues, especially
when those vital pieces of information are often overlooked.

Saksham 2020:
'Saksham', an annual one-month long fuel conservation mega campaign of Petroleum
Conservation Research Association (PCRA) under the aegis of Ministry of Petroleum and
Natural Gas.
Saksham where in general public is involved in various activities.
By mid 2020s India will be the world’s largest growth market accounting for 25% of global

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energy demand growth.
Today 83% of India’s crude oil requirement is met through import.

"The Kigali Amendment":

The Kigali Amendment is an amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete
the Ozone Layer.
It was adopted by the 28th Meeting of Parties to the Montreal Protocol (MOP28) in Kigali,

The Amendment adds greenhouse gases hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) to the list of substances
controlled under the Protocol and which are to be phased down.

The Montreal Protocol makes important contributions to the realization of the UN Sustainable
Development Goals- including, among others: No. 11 – Sustainable Cities and Communities,
No. 12 – Responsible Production and Consumption, and No. 13 – Climate Action.

The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA):

The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) is a statutory autonomous body under the Ministry
of Environment, Forests and climate change
Established in 2003 to implement the provisions under the Biological Diversity Act, 2002.


To regulate access to biological resources and or associated knowledge for research, bio-
survey and bio-utilization, commercial utilization.
To Obtain Intellectual Property Rights, transfer of results of research and transfer of accessed

biological resources.

It’s Headquarter is in Chennai.

It also advises State Governments in identifying the areas of biodiversity importance -
biodiversity hotspots as heritage sites.

3. The Cartagena Protocol on Bio-safety:

The Cartagena Protocol on Bio-safety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an

international treaty governing the movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting
from modern biotechnology from one country to another.
It is a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity.
It establishes an advance informed agreement procedure for ensuring that countries are
provided with the information necessary to make informed decisions before agreeing to the
import of such organisms into their territory.

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The Green Climate Fund (GCF):
The Green Climate Fund (GCF) is a global fund created to support the efforts of developing
countries to respond the challenge of climate change.
It seeks to promote a paradigm shift to low-emission and climate resilient development.
It was set up by the 194 countries who are parties to the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2010, as part of the Convention’s financial

National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) and Small Industries
Development Bank of India (SIDBI) act as National Implementing Entity of India for Green
Climate Fund.

What is eco-anxiety?
1. The feeling of being overwhelmed by the challenges of climate change and the fear about the
state of the environment.
2. It is the helplessness that makes us see ourselves as just one insignificant entity on the planet,

unable to reverse the crisis.

3. It is also the sense that no matter how hard we work, nothing will ever be enough.
4. You know the deteriorating climate is affecting your health or your child‘s but you do not know

how you can stop it.


5. In 2017, the American Psychological Association referred to the condition as eco-anxiety.


National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Ecosystems


NPCA is a single conservation programme for both wetlands and lakes.

It is a centrally sponsored scheme, currently being implemented by the Union Ministry of

Environment and Forests (MoEF).

It was formulated in 2015 by merging of the National Lake Conservation Plan and the National

Wetlands Conservation Programme.

NPCA seeks to promote better synergy and avoid overlap of administrative function

Rare Steppe Eagle Spotted in Andhra Pradesh

Sighted in Andhra Pradesh during Asian Bird Census.

1. The Steppe Eagle is a migratory raptor.

2. The bird has moved from ‘Least Concern’ to ‘Endangered’ under IUCN Red List.
3. It breeds in Russia, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia during the winter season.
4. Steppe eagle is the second-largest migratory eagle species to India.
5. The threats to the Steppe Eagle include habitat loss/degradation, electrocution on/ collision
with energy infrastructure, poisoning through herbicides/ pesticides/ veterinary drugs in food
sources, etc.
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Innovating for Clean Air (IfCA),
A two-year UK-India joint initiative providing Indian and UK stakeholders opportunities to test
interventions related to air quality and EV integration.

Dracaena cambodiana

Dracaena cambodiana is the only true dragon tree species.
It is an important medicinal plant as well as an ornamental tree.
It is a major source of dragon’s blood, a precious traditional medicine in China.

Several antifungal and antibacterial compounds, antioxidants, flavonoids.

They have been extracted from various parts of the plant. gm


Peace Forest Initiative:


It is an initiative of South Korea to use ecological restoration as a peace-building process. It


aims at addressing the issue of land degradation in conflict-tornborder areas and would go a
long way in alleviating tensions and building trust between communities living there and
between enemy countries in particular.


Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE


The Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) is an autonomous

organisation[4][5] or governmental agency under the Ministry of Environment and Forests,

Government of India.
Headquartered in Dehradun,
Its functions are to conduct forestry research; transfer the technologies developed to the
states of India and other user agencies; and to impart forestry education.


The UN Environment Programme has launched its latest Frontiers report 2018/19, which
explores five of the most significant emerging issues on the environment.

5. What is Soil Organic Carbon?

Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon associated with soil organic matter

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SOM comprises the remains of plants and animals in the soil at various stages of
decomposition, along with the microbial biomass and several by-products of complex biotic
metabolic processes.

What is Sixth Assessment Report (AR6)?

1. It will examine topics such as the link between consumption and behaviour and greenhouse

gas emissions, and the role of innovation and technology.
2. It will assess the connection between short to medium-term actions and their compatibility
with the long-term temperature goal in the Paris Agreement.

3. It will assess mitigation options in sectors such as energy, agriculture, forestry and land use,
buildings, transport and industry

Coevolution, the process of reciprocal evolutionary change that occurs between pairs of
species or among groups of species as they interact with one another.


Gross primary productivity of an ecosystem is the rate of production of organic matterduring



Gross primary productivity minus respiration losses (R), is the net primary productivity (NPP).


Secondary productivity is defined as the rate of formation of new organic matter by



Cryptozoology is a pseudoscience and subculture that aims to prove the existence of

entities from the folklore record.


Standing crop
Each trophic level has a certain mass of living material at a particular time called as the
standing crop. The standing crop is measured as the mass of living organisms (biomass) or the
number in a unit are


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Healthy ecosystems are the base for a wide range of economic, environmental and aesthetic
goods and services. The products of ecosystem processes are named as ecosystem services


Red Mud
In a step towards productive utilization of bauxite residue, commonly known as the 'Red Mud',
an interactive workshop called 'Waste To Wealth' was organized by Ministry of Mines in New

Red mud is a side-product of the Bayer process, the principal means of refining bauxite en
route to alumina.

WAYU is developed by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research – National Environmental
Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI) as a part of Technology Development Project

being funded by Department of Science and Technology.

The device works on two principles mainly Wind generation for dilution of air pollutants and
Active Pollutants removal. The device has filters for Particulate Matter removal and activated

carbon (charcoal) and UV lamps for poisonous gases removal such as VOCs and Carbon


Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT)


The Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT) supports developing countries to

build institutional and technical capacity, both pre- and post-2020, to meet enhanced

transparency requirements as defined in Article 13 of the Paris Agreement.


Reed bed systems

Reed bed systems are an effective, sustainable and low maintenance method of sewage
treatment. It requires no electricity and once matured it provides an ecological habitat for a
wide range of species.
With the help of common reed plants, reed beds drain all wastewater and pollutants from
solids. Artificial reed beds are also used as a method of removing pollutants from sewage or

It is the conscious design and maintenance of agriculturally productive ecosystems which have
the diversity, stability, and resilience of natural ecosystems. It is the harmonious integration of

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landscape and people —providing their food, energy, shelter, and other material and non-
material needs in a sustainable way.
The term was coined by Bill Mollison in 1978

London Convention on Marine Pollution

The London Convention or LC-72 is a non-binding treaty which seeks address the problem of
deliberate disposal at sea of wastes or other matter from vessels, aircraft, and platforms.


Allelopathy: is defined as direct or indirect harmful effect of one plant over the other crop

species through the exudation of toxic substances from the roots or the decomposition of crop


The International Conference on Status and Protection of

Coral Reefs (STAPCOR – 2018)

The International Conference on Status and Protection of Coral Reefs (STAPCOR – 2018) was
held at Bangaram coral Island of Lakshadweep under the theme ‘Reef for Life.’

It was jointly organised by Department of Environment and Forest, Union Territory of


Lakshadweep Administration with the technical support of Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) and
in association with Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC),

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and Environmental Information

System (ENVIS).


Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds. Kelp grows in "underwater forests" (kelp forests) in

shallow oceans. They are recognized as one of the most productive and dynamic ecosystems on


Clouded Leopard National Park of Tripura is India’s first dedicated wildlife park to
Clouded Leopards, located inside the the Sipahijola Wildlife Sanctuary.
The Clouded Leopard park covers an area of about 5.08 square kilometres and home to four
species of primate monkey including Phayre’slangur.

The Global Tiger Initiative (GTI)

The Global Tiger Initiative (GTI) was launched in 2008 as a global alliance of governments,
international organizations, civil society, the conservation and scientific communities and the

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private sector, with the aim of working together to save wild tigers from extinction.
In 2013, the scope was broadened to include Snow Leopards.

The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI)

The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), a subordinate organization of the Ministry of
Environment, Forest and Climate Change was established in 1916 as a national centre for

faunistic survey and exploration of the resources leading to the advancement of knowledge on
the exceptionally rich faunal diversity of the country.
ZSI has its headquarters at Kolkata.

Club of Rome
Founded in 1968 the Club of Rome consists of current and former heads of state, UN
bureaucrats, high-level politicians and government officials, diplomats, scientists, economists,

and business leaders from around the globe.

It stimulated considerable public attention in 1972 with the first report to the Club of Rome,
The Limits to Growth.

The organization has been based in Winterthur, Switzerland.



Agenda 21

It is the outcome of the Earth Summit at Rio de Janeiro in the year 1992.
It is the voluntary action plan of the United Nations (UN) related to sustainable development.

6. Biodiversity coldspot

Biodiversity coldspot is a region that does not have as high species richness as found in
biological hotspots.
It is important to conserve them, as they may be the only location where a rare species is


The first Indian grey wolf to be seen in Bangladesh in eight decades has been beaten to death
by farmers after preying on their livestock.
Scientific Name: Indian Grey Wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) is a subspecies of grey wolf.
Distribution: It has a wide distribution range that extends from the Indian subcontinent to

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Carbon markets
Carbon markets allow the buying and selling of emission reductions in the form of carbon
credits, and enable countries struggling to meet their climate targets to buy these credits from
countries that are in a position to reduce their emissions beyond their own targets.
ARTILE 6 PARIS AGREEMENT deal with carbon market


Global Carbon Project

The Global Carbon Project is a Global Research Project of Future Earth and a research partner

of the World Climate Research Programme.
It was formed to work with the international science community to establish a common and
mutually agreed knowledge base to support policy debate and action to slow down and
ultimately stop the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.




The app is aimed to encourage Public engagement in planting trees and other such Green


People can now upload information/photos of any plantation done by them, which is linked to app

and will be displayed on the website www.epgc.gov.in.


Central Pollution Control Board


1. Statutory organisation under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
2. Established in 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
3. Also entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act, 1981.

Suprem Court has now allowed to initiate the re-introduction of foreign Cheetahs (African
Cheetahs) from Namibia into the Indian habitat i.e (Palpur Kuno sanctuary in Madhya
Pradesh) on an experimental basis.
In 1952, the Asiatic Cheetah was officially declared extinct from India.
African Cheetah- IUCN status Vulnerable

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'The Evil Quartet' term relates to : The four major causes of species extinctions.

Types of Biodiversity
1. Alpha-diversity (Within-Community diversity) refers to the diverse organisms sharing the
2. Beta-diversity (Between-community diversity) refers to the rate of replacement of species

along a gradient of habitats orcommunities.
3. Gamma diversity (Overall) refers to the diversity of habitats over the total landscape or

The ‘Montreaux Record’ is a register of:
Invasive Alien Species and their ecological hazards outside their native environment.
2. Wetland sites under the threat of anthropogenicactivities.

3. Endangered species of tropical and sub-tropicalfauna.

4. Coastal cities under direct threat of consequences of globalwarming.

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Nokrek National Park
1. Garohills
2. Indian wild orange. It has GItag.
3. Nokrek and Shillong lies in same latitude
4. Nokrek In UNESCO National Biosphere List
5. Nokrek close to Tura Range highest peak inMeghalaya

Birds with lakes
1. Siberian crane - Keoladeo National park

2. Florican - Bengallakes

Jerdon's courser- Sri LankamaleswaraAndhra

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for

Location: Kanha Pench Corridor, Madhya Pradesh, India

Duration: 2014 – 2015


Vultures play a significant ecological service as carrion feeders and disposers of disease-
carrying carcasses.
In the past decade, vulture populations, particularly those belonging to the Gyps species, have

declined by over 95% across South Asia.

The white-rumped vulture has suffered a population decline of more than 99.9% in just 15

The Indian and slender-billed vulture populations dropped by 97% in the same duration
from 1992 to 2007.

Use of diclofenac, an anti-inflammatory veterinary drug, has been identified as the primary
cause for the removal of nature’s primary scavengers from our landscapes.

Municipalities will have to re-think whether it is economically sound to rebuild a new waste
management system to dispose carcasses or breed and reintroduce vultures.
Several collaborative projects and initiatives to address the long-term survival of vulture
species have been initiated across the South Asian region.
More recently, in 2012, IUCN and the government of India were instrumental in bringing
together the governments of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Nepal in agreeing to joint
conservation and management and policy-level actions for the long-term conservation of South
Asian vultures.
The four countries also adopted the Regional Declaration on the Conservation of South
Asia’s Critically Endangered Vulture Species, and formed a Regional Steering Committee
(RSC) for South Asian vulture conservation, constituting membership from government and
civil society.
The secretarial and technical support for the functioning of the RSC is provided by IUCN.

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Sustainable Development Solutions Network
The UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) has been operating since 2012
under the auspices of the UN Secretary-General.
SDSN mobilizes global scientific and technological expertise to promote practical solutions for
sustainable development, including the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals

(SDGs) and the Paris Climate Agreement.
The Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) engages scientists, engineers,
business and civil society leaders, and development practitioners for evidence based problem

It promotes solutions initiatives that demonstrate the potential of technical and business
innovation to support sustainable development.

SDSN has a small secretariat with offices in New York, New Delhi, and Paris.

Earth Day gm
This day was first celebrated on April 22, 1970 and has ever since been an annual event.

The person credited for organising the event 48 years ago is US Senator Gaylord Nelson.
The idea is to encourage people to cut down on their plastic consumption by paying a closer
attention to the number of plastic items each person consumes annually and make a conscious

effort to reduce the amount.


Biosafety Clearing-House

BCH is a mechanism set up by the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to facilitate the exchange
of information on Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) and assist the Parties to better comply
with their obligations under the Protocol.

Global access to a variety of scientific, technical, environmental, legal and capacity building

information is provided in the six official languages of the UN.

Building Rating system in INDIA

LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)
It is an international certification run by S. Green Building Council (USGBC), which
provides a framework to building owners and operators for identifying and implementing
practical green building solutions.


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Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) formed the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) in
year 2001.
IGBC is the non profit research institution having its offices in CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green
Business Centre, which is itself a LEED certified Green building.

Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) has licensed the LEED Green Building Standard from the


Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) is India’s own rating system jointly
developed by TERI and the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India.

SAFAR - India

System of Air Quality and Weather ForecastingAnd Research.

By Ministry of Earth Science, Govt. of India & Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune
SAFAR system is developed by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, along with

ESSO partner institutions namely India Meteorological Department (IMD) and National Centre

for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF).

The implementation of SAFAR is made possible with an active collaboration with local
municipal corporations and various local educational institutions and governmental agencies

in that Metro city.

The ultimate objective of the project is to increase awareness among general public regarding

the air quality in their city well in advance so that appropriate mitigation measures and
systematic action can be taken up for betterment of air quality and related health issues.
It engineer’s awareness drive by educating public, prompting self-mitigation and also to help

develop mitigation strategies for policy makers.


Hope Spots
Hope Spots are special places that are critical to the health of the ocean — Earth’s blue
Hope Spots are about recognizing, empowering and supporting individuals and communities
around the world in their efforts to protect the ocean.
Sylvia Earle introduced the concept in her 2009 TED talk and since then the idea has inspired
millions across the planet.
While about 12 percent of the land around the world is now under some form of protection
(as national parks etc.), less than six percent of the ocean is protected in any way.
Hope Spots allow us to plan for the future and look beyond current marine protected areas
(MPAs), which are like national parks on land where exploitative uses like fishing and deep sea
mining are restricted.
Hope Spots are often areas that need new protection, but they can also be existing MPAs
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where more action is needed.
They can be large, they can be small, but they all provide hope due to:
A special abundance or diversity of species, unusual or representative species, habitats or
ecosystems, particular populations of rare, threatened or endemic species.

Mission Blue

It is uniting a global coalition to inspire an upwelling of public awareness, access and support for a
worldwide network of marine protected areas – Hope Spots.

Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment

The Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) was initiated by the World
Climate Research Programme (WCRP) in 2009 in response to the need for a coordinated
framework for evaluating and improving regional climate.
The CORDEX framework additionally offered the potential for better coordination of RCD-
related research and modelling activities within the regional climate modelling and

downscaling communities and further to bridge the gap between the climate modelling
community and end users of climate information across the globe.

City Biodiversity Index


City Biodiversity Index, also referred to as the Singapore Index on Cities Biodiversity or the

Singapore Index (SI), is a self-assessment tool for cities to evaluate and monitor the progress
of their biodiversity conservation efforts against their own individual baselines.
It comprises:

1. the Profile of the City, which provides background information on the city; and
2. the23 indicators that measure native biodiversity, ecosystem services provided by
biodiversity, and governance and management of biodiversity based on guidelines and

methodology provided in the Users Manual on the Singapore Index on Cities



Blue Flag:
The Blue Flag is a certification by the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) that
a beach, marina or sustainable boating tourism operator meets its high environmental and
quality standards.
The Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) is a non-governmental, non-profit
organisation promoting sustainable development through environmental education.
FEE is active through five programmes; Blue Flag, Eco-Schools, Young Reporters for the
Environment (YRE), Learning about Forests (LEAF) and Green Key.
Union Environment Ministry has launched a pilot project for beach clean-up and development
and is also striving for the 'Blue Flag' certification for such identified beaches.
Under the project, each state or UT has been asked to nominate a beach which will be funded

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through the ongoing In tegrated Coastal Management Programme.
As of now, no beach in India is Blue Flag certified.

Clean Sea-2017
The Indian Coast Guard (ICG) conducted the Regional Level Marine Oil Pollution Response
Exercise named ‘Clean Sea-2017’ at sea off Port Blair, Andaman.

Clean Seas campaign

UN Environment's Clean Seas campaign by committing measures that include plastic bag
bans, new marine reserves and drives to increase recycling.
Forty countries are now part of the campaign. gm

Phytoremediation is the direct use of living green plants for removal, degradation, or
containment of contaminants in soils, sludges, sediments, surface water and groundwater.

Phytoremediation is: A low cost, solar energy driven cleanup technique.


Most useful at sites with shallow, low levels of contamination.

Useful for treating a wide variety of environmental contaminants.

Effective with, or in some cases, in place of mechanical cleanup methods.

It can be used both in-situ (by using these plants at the site of contamination) and ex-situ (by
transferring contamination to these plants e.g. contaminated groundwater can be pumped to

irrigate these plants which in turn will trap the contamination).

Global Climate Risk Index


The Global Climate Risk Index is released by the Germanwatch, an independent Berlin-based
development and environmental organisation in its latest global climate risk index (CRI).

First organised census of Indus Dolphin begins in Punjab

Punjab government along World Wildlife Fund (WWF)-India are conducting first organised
census of Indus Dolphins, one of the world’s rarest mammals found only in India and Pakistan.
The organised census aims at conservation of the species.
The first organised census will be conducted over period of five days in 185 km stretch
between Talwara and HarikeBarrage in Beas River in Punjab were riverine fresh water
Indus Dolphins are confined.
Indus Dolphin is subspecies of freshwater river dolphin (which also includes Ganges River
dolphin) found in Indus river (and its Beas and Sutlej tributaries) flowing through India and

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It is national mammal of Pakistan.
It is a key indicator species of river’s health. Its presence is considered as river is healthy.
Indus dolphin like Ganges River dolphin is functionally blind and relies on echolocation to
navigate, communicate and hunt prey in muddy river water.
Only 1,816 Indus dolphins are reported to exist presently in lower parts of Indus River.
They are patchily distributed in five small, sub-populations that are separated by irrigation
barrages across course of Indus river and its tributaries.
Their numbers have declined dramatically after construction of irrigation system.
It listed by the IUCN as endangered on its Red List of Threatened Species.

Indus Dolphin was also found in Sutlej decades back, but river pollution has caused its
extinction in river.

Clouded leopard

Nepal, China, Indai, south East Asia
Status- vulnerable
National park ( exclusive) - Sipahijola national park- Tripura
State animal of meghalya.
Clouded leopard (Kheleo) was the mascot for 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup, hosted by India from

6 to 28 October 2017.

Automated moorings

India is all set to have its own automated ocean pollution observation system, called automated
moorings, this year that will help keep a tab on ocean pollution levels apart from offering

insights on how the marine system is changing.

It will do away with the present practice of collecting water samples from sea and studying
their pollution levels thereafter.

The system is being developed by the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services

The Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF)


The Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) was founded in 2000 to address this
challenge by empowering civil society in developing countries and transitional economies to
protect the world’s biodiversity hotspots, which are some of Earth's most biologically rich yet
threatened terrestrial ecosystems.
CEPF seeks to protect biodiversity, build long-term local conservation leadership and nurture
sustainable development.
The fund is a joint program of l’Agence Française de Développement, Conservation
International, the European Union, the Global Environment Facility, the Government of Japan,
the MacArthur Foundation and the World Bank.

ECOLEX is an information service on environmental law, operated jointly by FAO, IUCN and

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Its purpose is to build capacity worldwide by providing the most comprehensive possible
global source of information on environmental law.
This unique resource, which combines the environmental law information holdings of FAO,
IUCN and UNEP, seeks to put this information at the disposal of users world-wide, in an easily
accessible service, employing modern technology.
The ECOLEX database includes information on treaties, international soft-law and other non-
binding policy and technical guidance documents, national legislation, judicial decisions, and
law and policy literature. Users have direct access to the abstracts and indexing information

about each document.

Environmental determinism

Environmental determinism (also known as climatic determinism or geographical

determinism) is the study of how the physical environment predisposes societies and states
towards particular development trajectories.

Under2 Coalition

It is a coalition of a subnational governments that aims to achieve greenhouse gases emissions

mitigation. It started as a memorandum of understanding, which was signed by twelve
founding jurisdictions on May 19, 2015 in Sacramento, California.

Although it was originally called the Under2 MOU, it became known as the Under2 Coalition in

2017. As of September 2017, the list of signatories has grown to 177 jurisdictions which
combined encompasses 1.2 billion people and 39% of the world economy.

The Under2 Coalition, a Memorandum of Understanding by subnational governments to

reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions towards net-zero by 2050, is generating a
unique precedent for bold climate leadership, with its member states and regions surpassing

200 in number.


GloMEEP is a GEF-UNDP-IMO project aimed at supporting the uptake and implementation of

energy efficiency measures for shipping, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions from
The GloMEEP Project is being executed by a dedicated Project Coordination Unit (PCU)
established within the Marine Environment Division of IMO. IMO is a specialized agency
responsible for safe, secure and efficient shipping and the prevention of pollution from ships.
GloMEEP supports ten Lead Pilot Countries of the project to implement these measures,

1. Legal, policy and institutional reforms

2. Awareness raising and capacity-building activities
3. Establishment of public-private partnerships to support low carbon shipping

The Lead Pilot Countries (LPCs) of the GloMEEP project are: Argentina, China, Georgia, India,
Jamaica, Malaysia, Morocco, Panama, Philippines and South Africa.

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The Green Growth Equity Fund (GGEF)
It is a joint initiative by the Governments of India and the UK under India’s flagship National
Investment and Infrastructure Fund.
It will provide financing to the fast-growing Indian renewable energy sector. With a
commitment of £120 million from each side, the GGEF is expected to raise up to £500 million
from institutional investors.
GGEF will help accelerate achieving India’s target of 175GW of renewable energy capacity by

2022 and also invest in other related sectors such as clean transportation, water and waste

World heritage outlook report

Published by IUCN.
Updated in every three year's.

The climate change is the fastest growing threat to natural World Heritage sites, as the
number of sites it threatens has almost doubled in just three years says report.
The report found that 29% of UNESCO natural sites faced “significant” threats, and7%
including the Everglades National Park in the United States and Lake Turkana in Kenya had a
“critical” outlook.
The World Heritage listed three coral reefs.

1. the Aldabra Atoll in the Indian Ocean,


2. the Belize Barrier Reef in the Atlantic,

3. Australia’s Great Barrier Reef, is the biggest on Earth have been affected by “devastating”
bleaching events over the last three years.

Basel Convention:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes

and their Disposal was created to protect people and the environment from the negative

effects of the inappropriate management of hazardous wastes worldwide.

It is the most comprehensive global treaty dealing with hazardous waste materials throughout
their lifecycles, from production and transport to final use and disposal.

Outcomes of the recent meeting:

In Basel Convention on Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and

their Disposal, two important issues were mainly discussed and decided i.e. technical
guidelines on e-waste and inclusion of plastic waste in Prior Informed Consent (PIC)
In Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP), COP decided to list
“Dicofol” in Annex A (Elimination) without any exemption. The “PFOA”, (Perfluorooctanoic

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acid) was also listed with some exemptions in Annex A of Stockholm Convention.
In Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous
Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade, two new chemicals named Phorate and
HBCD (hexabromocyclododecane) were added in list for mandatory Prior Informed Consent
(PIC) procedure in international trade.

Rotterdam Convention:

Was adopted on 10th September 1998 by a Conference of Plenipotentiaries in Rotterdam,
Netherlandsand entered into force on 24th February 2004.

It covers pesticides and industrial chemicals that have been banned or severely restricted

for health or environmental reasons by Parties and which have been notified by Parties for
inclusion in the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedure.

The Convention creates legally binding obligations for the implementation of the Prior
Informed Consent (PIC) procedure.

The Stockholm Convention:


Is a global treaty to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic
pollutants (POPs). POPs are chemicals that remain intact in the environment for long
periods, become widely distributed geographically, accumulate in the fatty tissue of living

organisms and are toxic to humans and wildlife.


The objectives of the Stockholm Convention are:

Support the transition to safer alternatives

Target additional POPs for action

Cleanup old stockpiles and equipment containing POPs

Work together for a POPs-free future

The Global Environmental Facility (GEF) is the designated interim financial mechanism for
the Stockholm Convention.

The Bamako Convention:


s a treaty of African nations prohibiting the import into Africa of any hazardous (including
radioactive) waste. The convention came into force in 1998.


It is response to Article 11 of the Basel convention which encourages parties to enter into
bilateral, multilateral and regional agreements on Hazardous Waste to help achieve the objectives of
the convention. The impetus for the Bamako convention arose also from:

The failure of the Basel Convention to prohibit trade of hazardous waste to less developed
countries (LDCs);
The realization that many developed nations were exporting toxic wastes to Africa (Koko
case in Nigeria, Probo Koala case in Ivory Coast).

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The Bamako convention uses a format and language similar to that of the Basel convention, except
that: (a) it is much stronger in prohibiting all imports of hazardous waste, and (b) it does not make
exceptions on certain hazardous wastes (like those for radioactive materials) made by the Basel

Status of the Convention

It was negotiated by 12 nations of the African Union (former Organization of African Unity) at
Bamako, Mali in January, 1991.
I t came into force in 1998.

To date, it has 29 Signatories and 25 Parties

Purpose of the Convention

To prohibit the import of all hazardous and radioactive wastes into the African continent for
any reason; gm
To minimize and control transboundary movements of hazardous wastes within the African

To prohibit all ocean and inland water dumping or incineration of hazardous wastes.
To ensure that disposal of wastes is conducted in an “environmentally sound manner".
To promote cleaner production over the pursuit of a permissible emissions approach based on

assimilative capacity assumptions


To establish the precautionary principle.

The Minamata Convention


The Minamata Convention on Mercury is a global treaty to protect human health and the

environment from the adverse effects of mercury.

It was agreed at the fifth session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee on mercury
in Geneva, Switzerland and adopted later at a Diplomatic Conference (Conference of

Plenipotentiaries), held in Kumamoto, Japan.


Entered into force on 16 August 2017, on the 90th day after the date of deposit of the 50th
instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
Controlling the anthropogenic releases of mercury throughout its lifecycle has been a key
factor in shaping the obligations under the Convention.
Convention include a ban on new mercury mines, the phase-out of existing ones, the
phase out and phase down of mercury use in a number of products and processes,
control measures on emissions to air and on releases to land and water, and the regulation of
the informal sector of artisanal and small-scale gold mining.
The Convention also addresses interim storage of mercury and its disposal once it becomes
waste, sites contaminated by mercury as well as health issues
Mercury amalgamation is used to extract gold from ore.

Article 33 Withdrawal

At any time after three years from the date on which this Convention has entered into force for
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a Party, that Party may withdraw from the Convention .

Article 34 Depositary

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary of this Convention.

Article 35

Authentic texts The original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English,

French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the

‘Emissions Gap Report’:

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) released ‘Emissions Gap Report’, according
to which India is the fourth-largest emitter of Green House Gases (GHGs).

The world will fail to meet the 1.5°C temperature goal of the Paris Agreement unless

global greenhouse gas emissions fall by 7.6 per cent each year.
The top four emitters (China, USA, EU and India) -55% of the total emissions over the
last decade, excluding emissions from land-use change such as deforestation.

Brazil likely to be the largest emitter if land-use change included.


Sectors that are the largest emitters-


Emissions Gap Report


It is a flagship report from UNEP and it assesses the gap between anticipated emissions in
2030 and levels consistent with the 1.5°C and 2°C targets of the Paris Agreement.
This year, the report looked at the potential of the energy transition – particularly in

the power, transport and buildings sectors


India's Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to be achieved primarily, by


To reduce the emissions intensity of the GDP by about a third.

A total of 40% of the installed capacity for electricity- from non-fossil fuel sources.
Additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon by the year 2030.

Sand and Sustainability:

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has released a report, Sand and
Sustainability: Finding new solutions for environmental governance of global sand
resources, that highlights a problem that the sand has been extracted at rates exceeding

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natural replenishment rates.

Ecological Damage

While 85% to 90% of global sand demand is met from quarries, and sand and gravel pits, 10%
to 15% extracted from rivers and seashores is a severe concern due the environmental and
social impacts.

Global Environment Outlook:

United Nation Environment Program (UNEP) has recently released the 6th edition of the
Global Environment Outlook Report (GEO).

About GEO

First Global Environment Outlook in 1997.

Key Findings of the GEO-6 report gm

As greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise amid an increased risk of droughts, floods

and superstorms ..
A quarter of all premature deaths and diseases worldwide are due to manmade
pollution .

Chemicals pumped into the seas cause “potentially multi-generational” adverse


health effects.
Land degradation through mega-farming and deforestation.

United Nation Environment Program:


United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), was established in 1972 to guide and
coordinate environmental activities within the United Nations (UN) system.
UNEP promotes international cooperation on environmental issues, provides guidance

to UN organizations.

UNEP is headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya.

The organization also encourages participation by the private sector to promote the
sustainable use of the world’s natural resources.

UNEP Colombo Declaration:

UN Environment Programme (UNEP) member states recently adopted the “Colombo

Declaration” which calls for tackling global nitrogen challenge.

Highlights of the declaration:

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1. The Colombo Declaration has been developed with the technical support of the
International Nitrogen Management System (INMS), a joint activity of the UNEP and
the International Nitrogen Initiative supported by the Global Environmental Facility.
2. Aim: halve nitrogen waste by 2030.
3. A campaign : “Nitrogen for Life” is to be launched

What necessitated this?

While a critical element for building structures of living organisms

Nitrogen overuse has negative impacts on the planet, biodiversity

How Nitrogen turned into pollutant ?

1. Nitrogen compounds running off farmland have led to water pollution problems .
2. Over 80% of the nitrogen in soil is not utilised by humans.

3. Nitrogen becomes a pollutant when it escapes into the environment and reacts with
other organic compounds.
4. According to the World Health Organization, nitrate-contaminated drinking water can
cause reduced blood function, cancer and endemic goiters.
5. It may also affect natural soil decomposition.

What is Biopiracy?

Biopiracy is the practice of commercially exploiting naturally occurring genetic material or



Some of the traditional knowledge that is relevant to global survival includes the following

1. Medicinal Plants.
2. Farming or Agriculture.
3. Varieties of Food crops.

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9 1@

Examples of Biopiracy

1. Biopiracy of African super-sweet berries: Pentadiplandra brazzein is a plant found in the

west of South Africa. It is a vital source of protein known as Brazzein. Here, people use it as a
low-calorie sweetener. It is known to be two thousand times sweeter than sugar. Recent
developments includes isolation of the gene encoding brazzein that has been sequenced and
patented in the USA.
2. Patenting of Azadirachta indica – Neem: Since ancient times, Neem has proved to be
useful in several ways. Indians have shared their knowledge regarding neem across the globe.
In the year 1994, U.S. Department of Agriculture and an American company – W.R. Grace
received a European patent that included various methods that are used for controlling fungal
infections in plants by using a composition extracted from neem.
3. Biopiracy of the Enola bean: It was named after the wife of Larry Proctor, who patented it
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in 1999. Enola bean is a variety of Mexican yellow bean.
4. The rosy periwinkle: The rosy periwinkle was originally found in Madagascar.

Bio-accumulation and Bio-magnification:

1. Few toxic substances especially non- biodegradable (which cannot be metabolized by the
living organism) ones, often present in the industrial waste have the ability to move through
the various trophic level.

9 1@

2. Higher concentration of these elements in the food chain creates a lot of serious problems and
may even cause life-threatening diseases like cancer.
3. The process of movement of toxic elements is of two type: Bio-accumulation and Bio-


It is the process of increase in the concentration of toxic elements within the body of particular

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Example- The air pollution which is caused due to various factors including the vehicular
emission, progresses to an accumulation of toxic elements like PM2.5 and PM10 inside an
organism and can have dangerous impacts on humans as well as other organisms.

Biomagnification is also known as bio amplification, in this the concentration of the

toxicants increases at the successive trophic levels. It is due to the reason that toxic elements
cannot be absorbed and simultaneously they get transferred to the successive higher trophic
levels resulting in more concentration of toxicants at the higher trophic level.

Biomagnification can be seen in the case of Mercury or DDT.
A pollutant having properties like long life, mobile, soluble in fat, biologicallyactive will
lead to the process of biomagnification.

Special Operations conducted by WCCB

Operation “SOFT GOLD”

Illegal wildlife trade in Tibetan antelope (Shahtoosh) species


“Operation Soft Gold” was envisaged and conducted by WCCB .

Under the operation, team of WCCB officials with Scientist from Wildlife Institute of India

conducted awareness programmes along Indo-Nepal border


Operation LESKNOW II

The Operation was intended to drag attention of the enforcement agencies within the
country towards the illegal wildlife trade in lesser known species such as Deer, Wild Boar,
Jackal, Mongoose, Monitor Lizard, Sea cucumber and Pangolin etc.

The Operation brought about encouraging response from the state enforcement agencies


Take on the illegal wildlife crime network, based on the recommendations of e 28th Interpol
wildlife crime working group meeting held in Singapore during October, 2017.

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INTERPOL coordinated enforcement operation code named “Operation THUNDERSTORM”
was launched in which WCCB coordinated the country wide multi-species wildlife” operation
during the period.

Based on intelligence inputs from WCCB and other enforcement agencies, the State/Central
enforcement agencies conducted operations against illegal wildlife crime/criminals as a result
of which 52 wildlife cases were registered in the 13 States of India and 98 wildlife criminals
were apprehended involving seizures of parts/artifacts of big cats, pangolin, rhinoceros,
elephant, blackbuck, turtle/tortoise, live birds, snakes, live animals and plants listed under the

Schedules of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

Operation "BIRBIL"

The Enforcement agencies were requested to collect intelligence pertaining to the illegal
trade in all Birds and cat species and conduct enforcement operations apart from
gathering information on modus operandi in poaching, concealment techniques, transporting
and smuggling etc.

The Bureau found overwhelming response from the State Enforcement agencies in which cases
were registered in 7 States.

In a secret joint operation carried by Wildlife Crime Control Bureau Eastern Region and
Northern Range, Panibharal, Kaziranga National Park at BiswanathCharialiarea

offenders were apprehended And bag, contain a skin & bones and teeth of Royal Bengal Tiger

Operation "WILDNET"

To encounter the menace of the illegal trade through e-commerce platform, WCCB
organized and coordinated an enforcement operation named “Operation WILDNET” to drag
the attention of the enforcement agencies within the country to focus their attention on the
ever increasing illegal wildlife trade over internet using Social Media Platforms such
as Facebook, Twitter, Whatsapp, Wechat etc. apart from various online classified sites and
trade portals, websites and Blog Spots.

The operation started from 1st of May 2017 and continued till 30th June, 2017. online e-
commerce platforms were detected by WCCB by surfing the internet and the information was
passed to field agencies for conducting operations. Based on the information the perpetrators
were booked under relevant provisions of the wildlife protection act by various State agencies.

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WCCB requested enforcement agencies to concentrate mainly on illegal trade in species

such as Tigers and other Asian big cats, Bears, Pangolins, Reptiles, Red Sanders, Sea-
cucumber and sea horses.

Operation "SAVE KURMA"

Considering the commercial exploitation of the turtles and tortoises as well as the extent of
involvement of illegal wildlife traders in the illegal trade of live specimens WCCB envisaged a

species specific operation code named “OPERATION SAVE KURMA” to focus specifically on the
major states involved in the poaching, transportation and illegal trade of live turtles and
tortoises. gm

Efforts of the WCCB during Operation Save Kurma were recognized by CITES

Secretariat by awarding a Secretary-General's Certificate of Commendation during the


69th meeting of the Standing Committee of CITES at Geneva Switzerland on


Wildlife Crime Control Bureau:


Wildlife Crime Control Bureau is a statutory multi-disciplinary body established by the


Government of India under the Ministry of Environment and Forests, to combat

organized wildlife crime in the country.

The Bureau has itsheadquarter in New Delhi and five regional offices at Delhi, Kolkata,
Mumbai, Chennai and Jabalpur; three sub-regional offices at Guwahati, Amritsar and
Cochin; and five border units at Ramanathapuram, Gorakhpur, Motihari, Nathula and Moreh.
Under Section 38 (Z) of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, it is mandated to collect
and collate intelligence related to organized wildlife crime activities and to disseminate
the same to State and other enforcement agencies for immediate action so as to apprehend the

1. Centralized wildlife crime data bank;

2. Co-ordinate actions by various agencies
3. Assist foreign authorities and international organization
4. Capacity building of the wildlife crime enforcement agencies
5. And advise the Government of India
6. It also assists and advises the Customs authorities in inspection of the consignments of flora &

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fauna as per the provisions of Wild Life Protection Act, CITES and EXIM Policy governing such
an item.

National Action Plan on Climate Change

The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) was launched in 2008 by the
Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change.
It aims at creating awareness

There are 8 national missions forming the core of the NAPCC which represent multi-
pronged, long term and integrated strategies for achieving key goals in climate change. These

National Solar Mission
National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
National Mission on Sustainable Habitat

National Water Mission
National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
National Mission for A Green India gm
National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change

Salient Features

NAPCC is guided by following principles-


Protection of poor and vulnerable sections of society through inclusive and

sustainable development strategy, sensitive to climate change.
Achievements of national growth through qualitative changes enhancing ecological

Deployment of appropriate technologies for both adaptation and mitigation of

GreenHouse Gases emissions extensively and at an accelerated pace.

UNFCCC Secretariat (UN Climate Change)


Established in 1992 .

Located in Bonn, Germany.

Focuses on facilitating intergovernmental climate change negotiations.
Provides technical expertise and assistance on analysis and review of climate change
reports presented by the parties.
Plays a crucial role in implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement.


NAPCC addresses the country’s critical and urgent needs by directionally shifting the
development path and enhancing the current and planned programmes and
It identifies measures that promote our developmental goals and co-benefits by
addressing climate change also.

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The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission

Governed by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.

It was launched in 2010 with the primary aim of achieving grid parity by 2022 and with
coal-based thermal power by 2030.
Aims to increase the share of solar energy in India's energy mix.
It takes the measures of increasing R&D efforts, promoting decentralised distribution of
energy by creating cheaper and more convenient solar power systems.
Emphasis on manufacturing solar panels at the local level and to tie up local research with

international efforts.
Seeks to reduce the absolute cost of solar energy to bring it down and make it affordable.

National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency

Governed by the Ministry of Power.
Based on the Energy Conservation Act, 2001.
It creates a market based mechanism to enhance cost effectiveness .
Development with energy efficiency as a key criterion.
Overcome market failures through regulatory and policy measures.
Key areas to work upon are Energy, Efficiency, Equity and Environment.

National Mission on Sustainable Habitat


Governed by the Ministry of Urban Development.

Manifold agenda mission

Plans to make urban areas more climate friendly and less susceptible to climate
change by a multi-pronged approach to mitigate and adapt to it.

Better enforcement of Urban Development Plan Formulation and Implementation (UDPFI)


National Water Mission


Governed by the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga

Ensures better integrated water resource management leading to water conservation,
less wastage, equitable distribution forming better policies.
Looks into the issues of groundwater and surface water management, domestic and
industrial water management, improvement of water storage capacities and
protection of wetlands.

National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem

Governed by the Department of Science and Technology.
Created to protect the Himalayan ecosystem. The mandate is to evolve measures to sustain
and safeguard the Himalayan glaciers, mountain ecosystems, biodiversity and wildlife
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conservation & protection.

National Mission for Green India

Governed by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
It has the mandate of reviving degraded forest land with a focus on increasing forest

cover & density and conserving biodiversity.
Works towards reducing fragmentation of forests, enhancing private public
partnerships for plantations, improving schemes based on joint forestry management

Makes plans to tackle the challenges posed by climate change.

National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
Governed by the Ministry of Agriculture. gm
It works towards devising strategies to make Indian agriculture less susceptible to
climate change.

It would identify and develop new crop varieties, use traditional and modern
agricultural techniques.
This mission sees dry land agriculture, risk management, access to information and use

of biotechnology as areas of intervention.


National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate



Governed by the Department of Science and Technology.

It identifies challenges and requisite responses to climate change. This will be done
through open international collaboration and would ensure sufficient funding for this

There is a need for strong strategic knowledge system on climate change.


The World Wide Fund for Nature-India (WWF) feels that the National Action Plan is
fairly comprehensive and has cross-sectoral links through the eight National Level
Missions. The focal point is India's impetus on following on a low carbon energy path
without impending economic growth and quality of life of people.
NAPCC brings a balanced perspective on mitigation and adaptation through some new
dimensions like creation of National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change as
this would ensure exchange of knowledge and informed research in India.

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Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 (with Amendment Acts of 2003
and 2006):
The act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants and matters connected
with them, with a view to ensure the ecological and environmental security of India.
Extends to the whole of India.
It provides for prohibition on use of animal traps except under certain circumstances
It provides for protection of hunting rights of the Scheduled Tribes in Andaman and

Nicobar Islands
Has provisions for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora (CITES)

It has six schedules which give varying degrees of protection
Species listed in Schedule I and part II of Schedule II get absolute

protection — offences under these are prescribed the highest penalties
Species listed in Schedule III and Schedule IV are also protected, but the penalties are
much lower gm
Schedule V includes the animals which may be hunted
The plants in Schedule VI are prohibited from cultivation and planting

The act constitutes a National Board for Wildlife that

provides guidelines for framing policies and advising Central and State Government
Making recommendations for setting up and managing national parks, sanctuaries and

other protected areas; and


Suggesting measures for improvement of wildlife conservation.

It also sets up National Tiger Conservation Authority.
The acts sets up various provisions related to trade and penalties for hunting theanimals

in wild.
Five kinds of protected areas can be notified in the Act. These are:

Sanctuaries: The State or Central Government may by notification declare its intention
to constitute any area as a sanctuary for protecting wildlife and the environment. The
government determines the nature and extent of rights of persons in or over the land

within the sanctuary.

National Parks:

The State or Central Government may declare an area, whether inside a sanctuary
or not, as a national park for the purpose of protecting and developing wildlife and
its environment.
The State Government cannot alter the boundaries of a national park except on
the recommendation of the National Board for Wildlife.
No grazing is allowed inside a national park.
All provisions applicable to a sanctuary are also applicable to a national park.
Conservation Reserves: The State Government after consultations with local
communities can declare any area owned by the Government, particularly areas adjacent
to national parks or sanctuaries, as conservation reserves. The government constitutes a
Conservation Reserve Management Committee to manage and conserve the
conservation reserve.
Community Reserves: The State Government can, in consultation with the community
or an individual who have volunteered to conserve wildlife, declare any private or

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community land as community reserve. A Community Reserve Management Committee
shall be constituted by State Government for conserving and managing the reserve.
Tiger Reserve: These areas were reserved for protection tiger in the country. The State
Government on the recommendation of the Tiger Conservation Authority may notify an
area as a tiger reserve, for which it has to prepare a Tiger Conservation Plan.

Similarities / Difference between a National Park and

Wildlife Sanctuary

National Park:

1. National parks are formed by Central or State Legislation.

1. Status of National Park is higher.
2. No human habitation is permitted in man area.

3. Harvesting timbers, cultivation,collection of forest products are restricted. Eg.Corbet National

1. Sanctuaries are formed by the order of State or Central Government.

2. Status of sanctuary is lower.


3. Private ownership may be allowed.

4. These activities are allowed with permission. Eg. Chilika-Nalaban Sanctuary for migrating

Tiger Reserves

Project Tiger was launched by the Government of India in the year 1973 to save the
endangered species of tiger in the country.

Starting from nine (9) reserves in 1973-2016 the number is grown up to fifty (50). A total area
of 71027.10 km2 is covered by these project tiger areas.

Biosphere Reserves
Biosphere reserves are sites established by countries and recognized under UNESCO’s
Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme to promote sustainable development based on
local community efforts and sound science.
The programme of Biosphere Reserve was initiated by UNESCO in 1971.
Conserve in situ all forms of life, along with its support system, in its totality.
The first biosphere reserve of the world was established in 1979.

Selection Criteria of Biosphere Reserves

1. A site that must contain an effectively protected and minimally disturbed core area of
value of nature conservation.
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2. The core area should be typical of a bio-geographical unit and large enough to sustain
viable populations representing all trophic levels in the ecosystem.
3. The management authority to ensure the involvement/cooperation of local communities to
bring variety of knowledge and experiences to link biodiversity conservation and socio-
economic development while managing and containing the conflicts.
4. Areas potential for preservation of traditional tribal or rural modes of living for harmonious
use of environment.

Legal Backing to Biosphere Reserves

A core zone being National Park or Sanctuary/protected/regulated mostly under the Wildlife
(Protection) Act, 1972.

‘Green Good Deeds’

BRICS Ministerial on Environment Includes Green Good Deeds in its Official Agenda

Forest & Climate Change. gm

Green Good Deeds, the societal movement launched by the Union Minister for Environment,

The ongoing BRICS Ministerial on Environment at Durban, SouthAfrica.

However, he wondered how these declarations can be put to practice at the ground level,

involving every section of the society.

“Green Good Deeds” is an idea to take it to the people and get them involved,”

Permaculture is a contraction of the word PERMAnent agriculture or PERMAnent CULTURE.”

No civilization or culture can survive without a sustainable agriculture base and land use
ethics ” says Bill Mollison. (He is considered to be the ‘father of permaculture)

Based on this philosophy the ethical basis,the code of conduct for people is evolved and founded on.
1) Care of the earth

2) Care of the people.

3) Invest surpluses

What is Permaculture ‘though the problems of the world are increasingly more complex, the
solutions remain embarrassingly simple….’ – bill mollison, co-founder of the world-wide

Permaculture – Key Concepts Food Forests and Guilds Food Forest mimics the architecture and
benecial relationships between plants and animals found in a natural forest or other natural
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Seed Bankers for Conserving Native Crops
India’s Seed Bank

India has established its own seed storage facility at Chang La in Ladakh, Jammu and
It has been built jointly by the Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR) and

the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) in 2010 under the aegis
of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
Svalbard Global Seed Vault is the world’s largest seed storage facility situated at


ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR)
It is a nodal organisation for management of plant genetic resources in India and functions
under the control of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).
It is conserving seed germplasm for long-term conservation (at -20°C) in its National

Genebank (NGB)
It plans, organizes, conducts and coordinates exploration and collection of indigenous and
exotic plant genetic resources.

Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights Authority


It is a statutory body created under the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Act,
2001 (PPV&FR Act).
Plant Genome Saviour Reward is also given by it to the farmers engaged in the conservation

of genetic resources of landraces and wild relatives of economic plants and their improvement.

Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights Act, 2001


(PPV&FR Act)

It has been enacted to fulfill India’s obligation under the agreement on Trade Related
aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) of the World Trade Organization as
also to stimulate investment in Research and Development for the development of new plant
varieties which will facilitate the growth of the seed industry and ensure the availability of
high quality seeds to the farmers.
The Protection of Plant Varieties & Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001 provides for the establishment
of an effective system for the protection of plant breeders’ rights.
According to section 39 of the Act, farmers are allowed to save, use, sow, re-sow, exchange,
share and even sell farm produce including seed of a protected variety. But when it is sold, it
cannot be packaged and branded as such.

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9 1@

Stubble Burning
Air pollution in Delhi NCR has now become a familiar story, repeated with minor variations every
year, mainly aggravated by stubble burning in Punjab and Harayana.

Stubble (parali) burning is the act of setting fire to crop residue to remove them from the field to
sow the next crop.

If parali is left in the field, pests like termites may attack the upcoming crop.
The precarious economic condition of farmers doesn’t allow them to use expensive
mechanised methods to remove stubble.

Causes of the Stubble Burning

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Technology: The problem arises due to the use of mechanised harvesting which leaves
several inches of stubble in the fields.
Adverse Impact of Laws: Implementation of the Punjab Preservation of Subsoil Water
Act (2009) made the time period of stubble burning coincident with the onset of winter in
Northern India.
High Silica Content: Rice straw is considered useless as fodder in the case of non-basmati
rice, because of its high silica content.

Effects of Stubble Burning

Pollution: Open stubble burning emits - methane (CH4), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Volatile
organic compound (VOC) and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Soil Fertility: Burning husk on ground destroys the nutrients in the soil, making it less fertile.
Heat Penetration: Heat generated by stubble burning penetrates into the soil, leading to the

loss of moisture and useful microbes.

Wealth From Stubble

From parali (stubble), high-grade organic fertilizers can be prepared by mixing with cow
dung and few natural enzymes.

Using straw for electricity generation is another productive way of generating wealth from

Torrefaction to reduce stubble burning


India tests Swedish torrefaction technologyto reduce stubble burning.


It is a thermal process used to produce high-grade solid biofuels from various streams
of woody biomass or agro residues.
The end product is a stable, homogeneous, high quality solid biofuel with far greater energy

density and calorific value than the original feedstock, providing significant benefits in
logistics, handling and storage, as well as opening up a wide range of potential uses.

How it works?

1. Biomass torrefaction involves heating the biomass to temperatures between 250 and 300
degrees Celsius in a low-oxygen atmosphere.

Advanced air pollution warning system

The Union Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) has launched an advanced Air Quality Early Warning
System, which can predict places neighbouring Delhi that are likely to burn crop residue on a given

The air quality in Delhi, the capital of India, according to a WHO survey of 1600 world cities, is
the worst of any major city in the world.

Air quality early warning system (aqews):

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The system has been developed by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, under
The AQEW system uses data of stubble burning incidents from the past 15 years to predict
the date and place of the next burning.
This is then correlated with wind speed to predict air pollution level for next 72 hours.
It can also forecast the level of pollutants like particulate matter (PM) 2.5, PM10, and
dust, coming from sources other than stubble burning.
Presently the system monitors and forecasts two types of pollutants – PM2.5 and CO (Carbon


Cryosphere and its affect on global climate

The frozen water is present in different forms (snow, sea ice, lake and river ice, glaciers, ice sheets,
icebergs and frozen ground) altogether within the climate system is called as the 'Cryosphere'.
Albedo is the measurement of reflectivity of an object. In other words, it is the measure of the
diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body.
9 1@

How does the cryosphere affect global climate?


The state of the cryosphere strongly depends on and interacts with atmospheric conditions, on
local to hemispheric spatial scales, and on hourly to glacial-interglacial scales.

It has a non-linear response to changes in temperature, due to threshold effects associated

with melt. The affects of Cryosphere on global climate are discussed below:

1. The Albedo of snow/ice sheet is highand plays important role in solar radiation because
reflect much of the insolation, which helps incooling of the earth.
2. It influences the surface energy, greenhouse gases and water fluxes.

3. It plays important role in cooling the air .

4. The polar region acts as carbon sinkand trapped tonnes of carbon inside its soil.

5. When seawater is condense into sea ice at Polar region then the surrounding water gets
saltier. Saltier water has higher density; it sinks and initiates thermohaline circulation
patterns across the oceans of the world.
6. If the frozen form of water melts, then the volume of water in the oceans will be
affected.So any changes in the water cycle, affects global energy / heat budget, and
thereby global climate.

Keeling Curve

1. The Keeling Curveis a graph of the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the Earth's
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atmosphere based on continuous measurements taken at the Mauna Loa Observatory on the
island of Hawaii from 1958 to the present day.
2. The curve is named for the scientist Charles David Keeling, who started the monitoring
program and supervised it until his death in 2005.
3. Keeling's measurements showed the first significant evidence of rapidly increasing carbon
dioxide(CO2) levels in the atmosphere.

"Bishkek Declaration

SCO Summit- 2019

The 19th annual Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) summit was held on 13-14 June

2019 in Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic.

The heads of the Member States reviewed the implementation of the results of the Qingdao
Summit and the priority goals for SCO development in the context of current global political
and economic processes. gm
The Bishkek Declaration was adopted by the Member states.
Another "Bishkek Declaration", adopted in 2013 by 12 countries (including India) is
associated with conservation and protection of Snow Leopard.

International Stock Taking Conference on Tiger



Recently the 3rd Stock Taking Conference on Tiger Conservation relating to Global Tiger
Recovery Program (GTRP) implementation was held in New Delhi.
This is the second edition to be held in India after 2012 wherein progress

against resolution adopted by tiger range countries in 2010 at St. Petersburg, Russia, was
The conference was hosted by the National Tiger Conservation Authority, Ministry of

Environment, Forest and Climate Change in close collaboration with the Global Tiger

Forum which is an International, Intergovernmental Organization for conserving tigers in the


St. Petersburg Declaration on Tiger Conservation

This resolution was adopted In November 2010, by the leaders of 13 tiger range countries
(TRCs) assembled at an International Tiger Forum in St. Petersburg, Russia.
The resolution’s implementation mechanism is called the Global Tiger Recovery
Program whose overarching goal was to double the number of wild tigers from about 3,200 to
more than 7,000 by 2022.
13 Tiger range countries are: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia,
Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand and Vietnam.

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Eco City

The plotted residential development under GMADA, Ecocity is the upcoming Ultra modern
Township at Mullanpur, New Chandigarh.
Quite synonymous to its name, it is surrounded by lush green areas. The scheme launched in
the year 2011 for the allotment of 836 residential plots evoked overwhelming response as

approximately 1, 60,000 applications were received.

The Union Ministry of Environment and Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has launched
“Wood is Good” Campaign under Partnership for Land Use Science (Forest-Plus).

It was launched on sidelines of two-day conference on “Sustainable landscapes and forest

Theory to Practice” in New Delhi.

Forests are integral part of Indian culture and tradition. Government is committed to increase
forest cover from 24% to 33% of geographical area and creating an additional carbon sink of
2.5 to 3 billion tons of CO2 equivalent in forests, as reflected in Internationally Nationally
Determined Contributions (INDCs)
The ‘Wood is Good’ campaign on the occasion under the Forest-Plus programme.

The purpose of the campaign is to promote wood as a climate-friendly resource and substitute
to materials like steel and plastic as it is a renewable resource, having zero carbon footprint,

unlike other materials that leave carbon footprint in their production.


The Partnership for Land Use Science (Forest-Plus)is a joint programme by the United States

Agency for International Development (USAID) and Ministry of Environment, Forest and
Climate Change (MoEF&CC) to strengthen capacity for REDD (Reducing Emissions from
Deforestation and Forest Degradation) implementation in India.

The programme will bring together experts from both India and the United States to develop

tools, technologies and methods of forest management in order to meet the technical
challenges of managing forests for the health of the ecosystem, carbon stocks, biodiversity and
The REDD Programme is collaborative programme of Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP).
It was created in 2008 in response to UNFCCC decisions on Bali Action Plan and REDD at
COP-13. Its goal is to reduce forest emissions and enhance carbon stocks in forests while
contributing to national sustainable development.

The Kigali Agreement

Kigali Agreement, which has been signed by 197 nations – including India – in Kigali, Rwanda,
with the goal of curbing the use of climate-altering hydroflourocarbons (HFCs).

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“The Kigali Agreement to the Montreal Protocol reached this morning is a historic occasion,
which will have a lasting impact on our planet.
Agreement will lead to a reduction of 0.5 degree in global temp by the end of the century and
enable us to achieve the goals set in Paris.
The flexibility and cooperation shown by India as well as other countries has created this fair,
equitable and ambitious HFC agreement.
This will also provide a mechanism for countries like India to access and develop technologies
that leave a low carbon footprint.

India Welcomes Landmark HFC Agreement at Kigali

Gravitational Lensing

USA's space agency NASA is planning to launch James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2021,

which will use a natural phenomenon called “gravitational lensing” to carry out astronomical
JWST will study every phase in the history of our Universe, ranging from the first luminous
glows after the Big Bang, to the formation of solar systems capable of supporting life on

planets like Earth, to the evolution of our own Solar System, etc.
For achieving this objective NASA has launched a program called Targeting Extremely
Magnified Panchromatic Lensed Arcs and Their Extended Star Formation, or


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Gravitational Lensing
The phenomenon of gravitational lensing occurs when a huge amount of matter, such as
a massive galaxy, cluster of galaxies or a black hole, creates a gravitational field that
distorts and magnifies the light from objects behind it.
Gravitational lensing is based on Einstein's theory of general relativity (Mass bend light).
Normal lenses such as the ones in a magnifying glass work by bending light rays that pass
through them in a process known as refraction, in order to focus the light somewhere else.

Similarly, the gravitational field of a massive object causes light rays passing close to that
object to be bent and refocused somewhere else.
The more massive the object, the stronger its gravitational field and hence the greater the

bending of light rays - just like using denser materials to make optical lenses results in a
greater amount of refraction.
In effect, gravitational lenses act like natural cosmic telescopes.

The effect allows researchers to study the details of early galaxies too far away to be seen

otherwise with even the most powerful space telescopes.
However, gravitational lensing is very rare as it requires a distant star, black hole and the
observer on earth to be well-aligned.
Also, it can help astronomers to know about black holes, dark matter, etc.

Blue Flag Certification


Recently, the Union Environment Ministry has selected 12 beaches in India to contend for a

‘Blue Flag’ certification


The Blue Flag is one of the world’s most recognised voluntary eco-labels awarded to beaches,
marinas, and sustainable boating tourism operators.
In order to qualify for the Blue Flag, a series of stringent environmental, educational, safety,

and accessibility criteria must be met and maintained.

There are nearly 33 criteria that must be met to qualify for a Blue Flag certification, such as
the water meets certain quality standards, having waste disposal facilities, being disabled-

friendly, have first aid equipment etc.


The Blue Flag Programme for beaches and marinas is run by the international, non-
governmental, non-profit organisation FEE (the Foundation for Environmental

Swachh – Nirmal Tat Abhiyaan

The Environment Ministry is undertaking a mass cleanliness-cum-awareness drive in 50 identified
beaches under the “Swachh – Nirmal Tat Abhiyaan”.

About Nirmal Tat Abhiyaan:

1. Launched by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC)

2. Aim: To make beaches clean and create awareness amongst citizens about the importance of
coastal ecosystems – in Beaches across 10 states / UTs.

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3. The campaign will be organized in the beaches after consultation with the state governments.
4. Environment Education Division and Society of Integrated Coastal Management
(SICOM) under the Environment Ministry will be responsible for its implementation.
5. At end of the drive, the best three beaches will be suitably awarded along with a
certificate of appreciation for all the participating eco-clubs.
6. The implementation of the drive will be monitored by the MoEF&CC officials.

Category Ib: Wilderness Area

Protected areas that are usually large unmodified or slightly modified areas, retaining their
natural character and influence, without permanent or significant human habitation, which are

protected and managed so as to preserve their natural condition.

Primary objective

To protect the long-term ecological integrity of natural areas that are undisturbed by
significant human activity, free of modern infrastructure and where natural forces and
processes predominate, so that current and future generations have the opportunity to
experience such areas.

Zero Waste International Alliance (ZWIA)


It is a group of environmental professionals dedicated to working towards a world without waste


through public education and practical application of Zero Waste principles.

By disseminating knowledge and providing support to its members ZWIA is promoting the

implementation of Zero Waste Principles in various aspects.


Indian rapid urbanization is creating an unprecedented demand for buildings, which already account
for nearly 35 percent of India’s total electricity consumption.

Thus, the country's building sector is expected to increase five-fold from 2015 to 2050.

Biodiversity & Environment

The Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) has come out with Net Zero Energy Buildings rating
system in collaboration with the World Green Building Council and the United States Agency
for International Development (USAID).

IGBC also launched ‘Green Building Rating System for Hill Habitats’ intended for hill
cities, differentiating the sustainability needs of urban development in hills as compared to
cities in the plains.
The theme for Green Building Congress 2018 is ‘Green Built Environment for People & the
IGBC plans to promote the concept of ‘Net Zero’ in India. Under this initiative, the focus
is reducing the annual energy consumption by 40-50% with respect to national baseline
and cut down energy cost by about 30 per cent.
The rating system launched during the IGBC's 16th Green building Congress 2018 seeks to
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complement the National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency and the National Solar

Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB)

A net-zero energy building is one that relies on renewable sources to produce as much
energy as it uses, usually as measured over the course of a year.
Homes and other structures that create almost as much energy as they use are sometimes

called near-zero energy buildings.
It is also possible for a building to produce an energy surplus, sending excess back to the
electrical grid.

Net-zero energy buildings start with energy-conscious design. Many features work without
an energy source. For example:
Solar panels, heat recovery systems, geothermal heating and wind turbines are among

the other technologies used to achieve net-zero status.

Indira Paryavaran Bhavan gm

Indira Paryavaran Bhavan in New Delhi is India’s first net zero energy building that has

been constructed with the adoption of solar passive design and energy-efficient building
It is one of the exemplary projects to be rated under Green Rating for Integrated Habitat

Assessment (GRIHA) and has set standards that can be emulated by upcoming buildings.

The design allows for 75% of natural daylight to be utilised to reduce energy

The entire building has an access friendly design for differently-abled persons.
The building is fully compliant with the requirements of the Energy Conservation Building
Code of India (ECBC).

Total energy savings of about 40% have been achieved through the adoption of energy
efficient system of air-conditioning.
Green materials like fly ash bricks, regional building materials, materials with high

recyclable content, high reflectance terrace tiles and rock wool insulation of outer

walls have been used.

Green Building Certifying Agencies

There are various certifying agencies that help building developers to implement these principles
and get green certification. Some of them are:

LEED-India – Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) is

an international recognized certification system for the green buildings. The LEED-India Green
Building Rating System is an international benchmark for the design, construction and
operation of high performance green buildings (provided by IGBC).
IGBC Ratings – The Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) is a division of the Confederation
of Indian Industry that works closely with the government and aims at sustainably built

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BEE-ECBC – The Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) was established by the Indian
Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) to set energy efficiency standards for design and
construction of buildings.
TERI GRIHA – The Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) is a national
rating system for green buildings that is adopted while designing and evaluating new

World Wildlife Fund (WWF)

Six mammal, bird and fish species are facing the spectre of extinction in Russia according to World
Wildlife Fund (WWF).

These include the Saiga antelope, the gyrfalcon, the Persian leopard, the spoon-billed sandpiper,
the Sakhalin sturgeon and the kaluga, also a type of sturgeon.


It is an international non-governmental organization
2. Founded in 1961

3. Headquarter — Gland (Switzerland).

4. Aim : wilderness preservation & the reduction of human impact on the environment
5. It is the world’s largest conservation organization


1. Conserving the world’s biological diversity

2. Ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable

3. Promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption

Reports & programmes:


1. Living Planet Report— published every two years by WWF since 1998; it is based on a Living

Planet Index and ecological footprint calculation

2. Earth hour
3. Debt-for-nature swaps–financial transactions in which a portion of a developing nation’s
foreign debt is forgiven in exchange for local investments in environmental conservation
4. Marine Stewardship Council(MSC) — independent non-profit organization which sets a
standard for sustainable fishing
5. Healthy GrownPotato — eco-brand that provides high-quality, sustainably grown, packaged,
and shipped potatoes to consumers by leveraging integrated pest management(IPM) farming
practices on large scale farms

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TX2 logo

TX2 is a 12 year goal: 2010 – 2022, from the last Year of the Tiger to the next.

In 2010, at the Tiger Summit in St Petersburg, Nepal and the 12 other tiger range countries
committed to the most ambitious and visionary species conservation goal ever set: TX2 – to double

wild tiger numbers by 2022, the next year of the tiger.

Professionalizing wildlife protection by training rangers, developing conservation standards


(CA|TS) and technology (SMART) to achieve Zero Poaching

Tackling the illegal wildlife trade through our partnership with various enforcement agencies
Focusing efforts in key tiger landscapes such as Terai Arc Landscape

Ensuring there is space for both tigers and people in the future

State of India’s Bird 2020

Why in News

Recently, the State of India’s Bird 2020 was released at the 13th Conference of Parties of the
Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals which is taking place
in Gandhinagar, Gujarat.

The first-of-its-kind analysis was carried out by ten research and conservation
organisations across India.
It used a massive database of over 10 million observations -on the online platform (e-
Bird) and ‘citizen science data’ to assess the distribution and trends of common Indian

Categorisation of Birds:
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The study categorised 101 species as “high concern”, 319 as “moderate
concern” and 442 into “low concern”.
Out of the species categorised as a high concern, 26% are classified globally by IUCN as
“least concern”.

Indian Peacocks:
The numbers of India’s national bird, the Indian
Peacock, has increased dramatically over the past few decades.
The increase in numbers of the species has been attributed to a combination of the bird

expanding its range (earlier it was absent in Kerala), conservation efforts and
associated penalties for poaching under Schedule I of the Wildlife Act.
It is listed as ‘Least Concern’ on the IUCN Red List.

Indian vultures:
It has experienced catastrophic population declines starting in the early 1990s.

The declines are almost entirely attributable to inadvertent poisoning by the
livestock anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac.
Surveys conducted have shown that White-rumped Vulture has suffered the most
severe declines, followed by Indian Vulture and Egyptian Vulture.
House Sparrow:
The House Sparrow has been found to be stable across the country as a whole,
although declining in the major cities.
It has been declared as the “State Bird of Delhi” .

The reasons for the decline include decreasing insect populations and paucity of

suitable nesting sites.

Moreover, the popular theory that radiation from mobile phone towers is a factor is not
supported by the findings of this report.

Bustards in India:
All the four species of bustards in India (the Great Indian Bustard, Macqueen’s

Bustard, Lesser Florican and Bengal Florican) have suffered continuous population

It showed overall long-term declines.


Brown, Black and Green Carbon…but did you know about

the Blue?

“Brown Carbon” Green house Gases (a gas which absorbs radiation and traps heat in the
earth’s atmosphere, e.g. CO2)
“Black Carbon” The particles leftover from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (soot and
dust), which has a greater effect on radiation transmission. This in turn can directly and
indirectly reduce the albedo effect of global snow and ice.
“Green Carbon” Carbon incorporated into plant biomass and the soils below.
“Blue Carbon“- carbon captured by the world’s ocean critters, and over half of all carbon in
living organisms resides here, under the glassy and deceiving barren big blue. Important

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coastal vegetation habitats such as mangroves and seagrasses which acquire the carbon
stored in marine sediments are being lost at a rate 5-10 times higher than the rainforests
(Nellemann et. al. , 2009).
Soil Organic Carbon : Preventing Land Degradation and Desertification - Current Affair
Article for UPSC, IAS, Civil Services and State PCS Examinations

Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN)

LDN has been defined as a state whereby the amount and quality of land resources, necessary
to support ecosystem functions and services and enhance food security, remains stable or
increases within specified temporal and spatial scales and ecosystems.

LDN represents a paradigm shift in land management policies and practices. It is a unique
approach that counterbalances the expected loss of productive land with the recovery of
degraded areas.

It strategically places the measures to conserve, sustainably manage and restore land in the
context of land use planning. Because land is fixed in quantity, there is ever-increasing
competition to control land resources and capitalize on the flows of goods and services from
the land.
This has the potential to cause social and political instability, fueling poverty, conflict and


Soil Organic Carbon


Soil organic carbon (SOC), the largest carbon pool in the terrestrial biosphere, is an important
component of the global carbon cycle.

SOC is the major constituent of soil organic matter (SOM), which plays a critical role in soil
productivity and a wide array of ecosystem processes.
SOM comprises the remains of plants and animals in the soil at various stages of

decomposition, along with the microbial biomass and several by-products of complex biotic
metabolic processes.

The Bonn Challenge


The 'Bonn Challenge' is a global effort to bring 150 million hectares of the world’s deforested
and degraded land into restoration by 2020, and 350 million hectares by 2030.
It was launched in 2011 by the government of Germany and IUCN, and later endorsed and
extended by the New York Declaration on Forests at the 2014 UN Climate Summit.

Shannon-Wiener index of diversity(information index)

A measure derived from information theories developed by Claude E. Shannon and Norbert
Wienerand published in 1949 by Shannon and Warren Weaver, which is used by ecologists
when a system contains too many individuals for each to be identified and examined.
A small sample is used; the index (D) is the ratio of the number of species to their importance
values (e.g. biomassor productivity) within a trophic level or community.

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..Indian Polity..

What is a Whip?

A whip in parliamentary parlance is a written order that party members be present for an
important vote, or that they vote only in a particular way.

The term is derived from the old British practice of “whipping in” lawmakers to follow the
party line.

In India all parties can issue a whip to their members.
Parties appoint a senior member from among their House contingents to issue whips — this
member is called a Chief Whip, and he/she is assisted by additional Whips.
A whip is the instruction issued by political parties to vote according to the party line in a
legislature. Violation of the party whip could lead to expulsion under the AntiDefectionAct.

Sometimes political parties decide on a particular course of action, but may not issue a
whip to enforce it.

A whip is of three kinds.


A one-line whip is non-binding, and merely serves to inform the members of the vote.
A two-line whip seeks attendance in the legislature during the vote.

A three-line whip is a clear-cut directive, to be present in the legislature during the vote
and cast vote according to the party line. Violation of the whip could lead to the member's
expulsion from the House.

In India, under the anti-defection law, a three-line whip can be violated only by more than
one-third of a party's strength in the legislature.
However, there are some cases such as Indian Presidential elections where whips cannot

direct a Member of Parliament (MP) or Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) on


whom to vote.

Defiance of whip:

The penalty for defying a whip varies from country to country.

In the UK, MPs can lose membership of the party, but can keep their House seats as
In India, rebelling against a three-line whip can put a lawmaker’s membership of the
House at risk.
The anti-defection law allows the Speaker/Chairperson to disqualify such a member; the
only exception is when more than a third of legislators vote against a directive, effectively
splitting the party.

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The registry of the Supreme Court launched SUVAS (Supreme Court Vidhik Anuvaad
Software trained by Artificial Intelligence, especially designed for Judicial Domain and can
translate English Judicial documents, including Orders and Judgments, into nine vernacular
Artificial intelligence powered law focused translation engine will aid timely and quality

translation and thereby can help improve the efficiency of the judicial delivery system.reduce
pendency, expedite judicial adjudication and create more time for judges to resolve complex

Also Know

Nyaya Mitra Scheme?

9 1@

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9 1@

Delimitation Commission
The Delimitation Commission in India is statutory body whose orders have the force of law and
cannot be called in question before any court.
The Commission consists of the Chief Election Commissioner of India and two judges of
Supreme Court or any of the High Courts in India.
These orders come into force on a date to be specified by the President of India in this behalf.
The copies of its orders are laid before the House of the People and the State Legislative
Assembly concerned, but no modifications are permissible therein by them.

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"Public Account of India":
Public Account of India accounts for flows for those transactions where the government merely
acts as a banker.
These funds do not belong to the government and have to be paid back at some time to their
rightful owners.
Expenditures from this account are not required to be approved by the Parliament.
This fund is constituted under Article 266 (2) of the Constitution.

Examples of these are provident funds, small savings.

Disqualification for Insulting the National Honour Act:

A person who is convicted for the following

1. Offences under the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act of 1971 is disqualified to
contest in theElections to the Parliament and state legislature for 6 years.

The offence of insulting the National Flag.

Offence of insulting the Constitution of India
Offence of preventing the singing of National Anthem

Directions of the Supreme Court in Prakash Singh vs Union


of India:

2. Constitute a State Security Commission.

3. Constitute a Police Establishment Board (decide postings, transfers and promotions).

4. Constitute Police Complaints Directions of the Supreme Court in Prakash

5. Provide a minimum tenure of at least two years for the DGP and other key police officers.
6. Ensure that the DGP of state police is appointed from amongst three senior most officers who

have been empanelled for the promotion by the Union Public Service Commission on the basis

of length of service, good record and experience.

7. Separate the investigating police from the law and order police.
8. Constitute a National Security Commission (appointments).

Political Parties Registration Tracking Management

In order to enable applicants to track the status of the application, the Election Commission of
India has launched a “Political Parties Registration Tracking Management System (PPRTMS)”.
Applicant, who is applying for party registration from 1st January, 2020 will be able to track
the progress of his/her application and will get status update through SMS and e-mail.

# Registration of political parties

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1. Registration of political parties is governed by the provisions of Section 29A of the
Representation of the People Act, 1951.
2. These guidelines are in exercise by ECI of the powers conferred by Article 324 of the
Constitution of India and Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.

What was the Kihoto Hollohan case?

Supreme court in this judgment held that the presiding officer (speaker) , while deciding a

question under the Tenth Schedule, function as a tribunal.
Hence, his decision like that of any other tribunal, is subject to judicial review on the grounds
of mala fides, perversity, etc.

Project 39A
It is inspired by Article 39-A of the Indian Constitution, a provision that furthers the
intertwined values of equal justice and equal opportunity by removing economic and social

Using empirical research to re-examine practices and policies in the criminal justice system,
Project 39A aims to trigger new conversations on legal aid, torture, DNA forensics, mental
health in prisons, and the death penalty.

Nyaya Mitra

Nyaya Mitra initiative deals with the issue of heavy pendency of cases in courts across the

In this initiative a retired judicial or executive officer (with legal experience) designated as
the ‘Nyaya Mitra.

Nyaya Mitra’s responsibilities would include among others assistance to litigants who are

suffering due to delay in investigations or trial, by actively identifying such cases through the
National Judicial Data Grid.
This initiative is significant benefits because at present, more than 2.4 crore cases are pending
in the district and lower judiciary, of which nearly 10% are more than 10 years old.
Though the initiative is good it is difficult to solve such number of cases and also it is not easy
to provided Nyaya Mitra’s as per requirement.

Pro Bono Legal Services

The ‘Pro bono legal services’ initiative is a web based platform, through which interested
lawyers can register themselves to volunteer pro bono services for the underprivileged
litigants, who are unable to afford it.

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As most of the lawyers are already dealing with their cases and it is difficult for them to work
voluntarily for this service.

eSanad (MEA)
'Parinam Manjusha(MOHRD External Affairs Minister Smt. Sushma Swaraj, Electronics and

Information Technology Minister Shri Ravi Shankar Prasad and Human Resource Development
Minister Shri Prakash Javadekar jointly inaugurated the integration of eSanad with Parinam
Manjusha today.

eSanad is aimed at online verification of the documents with an objective to extend
contactless, cashless and paperless document attestation/ apostille service to applicants in

India as well as abroad.
The integration OF e-Sanad with Parinam Manjusha will help the applicants avoid long travels

and precious resources of time and money for getting their documents attested by the
concerned authorities in States. It also allows filing the application online.
eSanad has been designed and developed by NIC and will be implemented in phases.



The NGO-Partnership System (NGO-PS) Portal called as NGO-DARPAN enables VOs/NGOs to

enrol centrally and thus facilitates creation of a repository of information about VOs/NGOs,

Sector/State wise.
The Portal facilitates VOs/NGOs to obtain a system generated Unique ID, as and when signed.
The Unique ID is mandatory to apply for grants under various schemes of

The NGO-Partnership System (NGO-PS) Portal (NGO-DARPAN) was earlier maintained by
erstwhile Planning Commission, which has been replaced by the National Institution for

Transforming India (NITI) Aayog w.e.f. 1st January, 2015. The Portal, therefore, is being

maintained at present under the aegis of NITI Aayog.

e-SAMVAD is a platform for the NGOS and Civil Societies to interact with the MWCD.
On this portal, the NGOs can provide suggestions, feedbacks and also put up grievances
among other things.
It is believed to help in formulating effective policies for the welfare of women and children in
the nation.
Ministry of Women and child development.

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MPLAD Scheme
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs has approved the proposal to continue the
MPLAD Scheme beyond the 12th Plan period (2012-17) up to March 31, 2020, an official
statement said today.
Members of Parliament Local Area Development (MPLAD) Scheme provides that each MP has
the choice to suggest to the Head of the District works to the tune of ₹5 crore per year, to be
taken up in his/her constituency.

Initially, this scheme was administered by Ministry of Rural Development. Later, Ministry of
Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI) has been looking into its working.
Elected Members of RajyaSabha and nominated members of both Houses may select works for

implementation in one or more district(s) as they may choose.
It also allows MPs to spend up to ₹10 lakh in any other constituency in India.

Ministry of Statistics and Programme gm
The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation came into existence as an

Independent Ministry on 15.10.1999 after the merger of the Department of Statistics and the
Department of Programme Implementation.
The Ministry has two wings, one relating to Statistics and the other Programme

Implementation. The Statistics Wing called the National Statistical Office(NSO) consists of the

Central Statistical Office (CSO), the Computer center and the National Sample Survey Office

The Programme Implementation Wing has three Divisions, namely :

1. Twenty Point Programme


2. Infrastructure Monitoring and Project Monitoring and

3. Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme.

Besides these two wings, there is National Statistical Commission created through a Resolution of
Government of India (MOSPI) and one autonomous Institute, viz., Indian Statistical Institute

declared as an institute of National importance by an Act of Parliament.

PPRTMS-an online system

Why in News > On January 1, 2020, the Election Commission of Indialaunched an online
system that will allow political parties to track theirapplications.
The system is called Political PartiesRegistration Tracking Management System (PPRTMS).
The system will track applications registered bypolitical parties.
The status of the application shall be obtainedthrough SMS or e-mail.
The system works on a real time basis.

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About Curative Petition
A curative petition may be filed after a reviewplea against the final conviction is dismissed.
It is meant to ensure there is no miscarriageof justice and to prevent abuse of process.
A curative petition is usually decided byjudges in chamber unless a specific request

for an open-court hearing is allowed.

About Article 131
The Article 131 vests the Supreme Court withoriginal jurisdiction over disputes occurring

between states or between states and theCentre.

The original jurisdiction means the power tohear a case for the first time, as opposed to

appellate jurisdiction in which the court reviewsthe decision of a lower court.

About Reciprocating Territory


Essentially, orders passed by certain designatedcourts from a ‘reciprocating territory’ can be


implemented in India, by filing a copy of the decree concerned in a District Court here.

The Ministry of Law and Justice issued an ExtraordinaryGazette Notification, declaring the

United Arab Emirates to be a “reciprocating territory” under Section 44A of the Civil
Procedure Code,1908.

Economist Intelligence Unit


The Economist Intelligence Unit has recently releasedthe Democracy Index.

It is prepared by Economist Intelligence Unit, the research and analysis division of The
It provides a snapshot of the state of democracy worldwide in 165 independent states and two
It is based on the electoral process and pluralism, the functioning of government, political
political culture and civil liberties.

Breach of Privileges
Parliamentary Privileges are certain rights andimmunities enjoyed by members of Parliament,

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individually and collectively, so that they can “effectively discharge their functions”.

Good Governance Index

It is a uniformtool to assess the status of governance andimpact of various interventions taken up by

State governments and Union Territories.

The index was launched by the Department of Administrative Reforms and Public
Grievances and the Centre for Good Governance.

The States are assessed on performance in 10 sectors namely

(1)agriculture and allied sectors (2)commerce and industries (3)human resource development
(4)public health (5)public infrastructure and utilities (6)economic governance (7)social welfare and

development,(8)judicial and public security (9)environment and (10)citizen-centric governance.

Who is An Anglo-Indian?

According to Article 366(2), An Anglo-Indian means a person whose fatheror any of whose other
male progenitors in the male line is or was ofEuropean descent but who is domiciled within the

territory of India and isor was born within such territory of parents habitually resident therein
andnot established there for temporary purposes only.

126th Constitutional Amendment Bill


It was passed byParliament.

This bill was brought for two objectives:


1. Extend reservation for Scheduled castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) to Lok Sabha and

legislative bodies.

2. Remove provision of nominating Anglo Indians to Lok Sabha and legislative bodies.

India Justice Report (IJR)

Tata Trusts has released India Justice Report 2019.
It has been prepared by Tata Trusts in collaboration with Centre for social Justice, Common
Cause, Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative, Daksh, TISS-Prayas and Vidhi Centre for
Legal Policy.
It is India’s first-ever ranking of states on justice delivery.
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Press Freedom Index
The Press Freedom Indexis an annual ranking of countries compiled and published
by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the
countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
It intends to reflect the degree of freedom that journalists, news organisations,
and netizenshave in each country, and the efforts made by authorities to respect this freedom.

Article 142
Article 142(1) states that “The Supreme Court in the exercise of itsjurisdiction may pass such

decree or make such order as is necessary fordoing complete justice in any cause or matter pending
before it.

This article has 2 provisions –

1. Article 142(1): The Supreme Court may pass an order for doingcomplete justice.
2. Article 142(2): It confers three different powers on the Supreme Court.

They are:

Securing the attendance of persons before it.


Discovery and production of documents and


Investigation and punishment of contempt of it.


The Commonwealth Youth Parliament is an annual gathering hosted by the


CommonwealthParliamentary Association (CPA).

It brings together young people aged 18–29 from across the Commonwealth of Nations to

issues of democracy and governance.


The Commonwealth Youth Parliament rotates annually through the nine regions of the

Commonwealth Parliamentary Association

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..International Organizations, Bodies,

Treaties and Reports..
IOM UN Migration:

The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is an intergovernmental organization that

provides services and advice concerning migration to governments and migrants,
including internally displaced persons, refugees, and migrant workers.

In September 2016, IOM became a related organization of the United Nations.


It was initially established in 1951 as the Intergovernmental Committee for European

Migration (ICEM) to help resettle people displaced by World War II.

As of March 2019, the International Organization for Migration has 173 member states and
eight observer
India is a member of it.

The Global Findex Report


The Global Findex Report analyses data of 144 economies to demonstrate that how people use

financial services.
The report was produced by the World Bank with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates
Foundation and in collaboration with Gallup Inc.
The database has been published every three years since 2011.

Readiness for future of Production Report?

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has launched the India chapter of its
new initiative, Accelerator Lab in New Delhi.
The objective behind launching lab is to address some of the most pressing issues facing India,

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including air pollution, through innovation.
To achieve its objectives, the UNDP has also partnered with NITI Aayog ‘s Atal Innovation
Mission (AIM).

The Ashgabat agreement

The Ashgabat agreement is a multimodal transport agreement between the governments of
Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Pakistan, India and Oman for creating an

international transport and transit corridor facilitating transportation of goods between
Central Asia and the Persian Gulf.
The agreement came into force in April 2016.

The agreement was originally signed by Iran, Oman, Qatar, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan on
April 25, 2011.
Qatar subsequently withdrew from the agreement in 2013, the same year Kazakhstan

applied for membership, which was eventually approved in 2015.
Pakistan has also joined the Agreement from November 2016.
India formally joined in February 2018. gm

The Gender Parity Index (GPI)


The Gender Parity Index (GPI) is a socioeconomicindex usually designed to measure the

relative access to education of males and females.

This index is released by UNESCO.

In its simplest form, it is calculated as the quotient of the number of females by the
number of males enrolled in a given stage of education (primary, secondary, etc.).

The Gender Inequality Index (GII)

The Gender Inequality Index (GII) is an index for measurement of gender disparity that was

introduced in the 2010 Human Development Report20th anniversary edition by the


United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

According to the UNDP, this index is a composite measure to quantify the loss of
achievement within a country due to gender inequality.
It uses three dimensions to measure opportunity cost:reproductive health,
empowerment, and labor market participation.
The new index was introduced as an experimental measure to remedy the shortcomings
of the previous indicators, the Gender Development Index (GDI) and the Gender
Empowerment Measure (GEM), both of which were introduced in the 1995 Human
Development Report.

Gender Development Index


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The GDI measures gender gaps in human development achievements by accounting for
disparities between women and men in three basic dimensions of human development—health,
knowledge and living standards using the same component indicators as in the HDI. The GDI
is the ratio of the HDIs calculated separately for females and males using the same
methodology as in the HDI.
It is a direct measure of gender gap showing the female HDI as a percentage of the male HDI.


The Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum. The 2016
report covers 144 major and emerging economies.
The report’s Gender Gap Index ranks countries according to calculated gender gap between

women and men in four key areas: health, education, economy and politics to gauge the state
of gender equality in a country.

Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism (GIFCT) gm
Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism (GIFCT) = industry led initiative + working in
close partnership with the UN Counter Terrorism Executive Directorate (UNCTED) to
substantially disrupt terrorists' ability to promote terrorism, disseminate violent extremist


‘Global Peace Index’


Institute for Economics and Peace


Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) is related to



"Operation Peace Spring"

It is a military operation launched by Turkey against the Syrian Democratic Forces in
Northeast Syria.
The Turkish Armed Forces together with the Syrian National Army launched this after U.S.
troops pulled back from the border area last week.
It is to prevent the creation of a terror corridor across border, and to bring peace to the area.
It is to create a safe zone to ensure that Syrian refugees return to their home countries.

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Global Competitiveness Report
The World Economic Forum (WEF) has released the 2019 edition of the Global
Competitiveness Report which features the Global Competitiveness Index 4.0 (GCI 4.0).
India has moved down 10 places to the rank of 68th compared to the 58th rank of 2018
primarily because of faster improvements of several countries previously ranked lower.

The Arctic Council

The Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental forum that addresses issues faced by the
Arctic governments and the indigenous people of the Arctic.

Eight member countries constitute the council: Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland,
Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States as these are the eight countries with

sovereignty over the lands within the Arctic Circle. Outside these, there are some observer

Formation September 19, 1996; 23 years ago (Ottawa Declaration).
Observer states consist of the following (2019): Germany-1998, Netherlands-1998,
Poland-1998, United Kingdom-1998, France-2000, Spain-2006, China-2013, India-2013,
Italy-2013, Japan-2013, South Korea-2013, Singapore-2013, Switzerland-2017,

The Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF)


The Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) was established under the UN Framework

Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to assist LDCs to carry out the preparation and
implementation of national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs).
It is operated by the Global Environment Facility (GEF).

Gender Inequality Index:


GII presents a composite measure of gender inequality using three dimensions:

Reproductive health,
Empowerment and
The labour market.

In GII, India is at 122 out of 162 countries.

Neighbours China (39), Sri Lanka (86), Bhutan (99), Myanmar (106) were placed above India.
The report notes that the world is not on track to achieve gender equality by 2030 as per the
UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDG -5).
It forecasts that it may take 202 years to close the gender gap in economic opportunity.
The report presents a new "social norms index" indicating how prejudices and social beliefs
obstruct gender equality, which shows that only 14% of women and 10% of men worldwide
have no gender bias.
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The report highlights that new forms of inequalities will manifest in future through climate
change and technological transformation.

According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), an international
agreement in force since 1994 regarding international activity in the world’s oceans, Article 55

of the document defines the legal regime of the Exclusive Economic Zone.
The article defines an area of ocean marked as an Exclusive Economic Zone (or EEZ) as –
“The exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to

the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the
coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant

provisions of this Convention” (UNCLOS, 2001)

International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS)
Came into existence following the entry into force of the United Nations Convention on the

Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), on 16 November 1994.

UNCLOS, also known as Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea Treaty is the
international agreement that resulted out of the third United Nations Conference on the Law

of the Sea.

It defines the rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to their use of the world's
oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of

marine natural resources.

Headquartered at Hamburg, Germany.
Currently 168 members.

An independent judicial body that maintains close links with the UN and both have entered
various agreements concerning cooperation and relationship.
The judges of the Tribunal are elected by the States Parties. Elections for the position of one-

third of the judges of the Tribunal are held at the Meeting of States Parties every three years
in New York.

Candidates must be nominated by States Parties and require a two-thirds majority of the votes
of the States Parties present and voting in order to be elected
There are 21 judges.The judges are elected for a term of nine years.The Tribunal may not
include more than one judge of the same nationality on its bench.

Global Refugee Forum:

Recently, the Global Refugee Forum meeting was held in Geneva, Switzerland.
The first ever Global Refugee Forum took place on 17 and 18 December 2019.
Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Germany, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Nations High Commissioner
for Refugees—were honoured to serve as co-convenors of this historic event.
There are currently more than 25 million refugees around the world, Following the adoption of
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the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants in 2016.
The first Global Refugee Forum had six key areas of focus: burden and responsibility sharing,
education, jobs and livelihoods, energy and infrastructure, solutions, and protection capacity.

World Organisation for Animal Health

World Organisationfor Animal Health is the intergovernmental organisation for animal health.
It was known as Office International des Epizooties (OIE) when formed. And it still known as

It is recognized as a reference organisation by the World Trade Organisation(WTO).
The organisation is placed under the authority and control of World Assembly of delegates

–consisting of delegates designated by the government of all member countries.
It gathers and disseminate information about animal diseases around the world and to create
health standards to protect international trade in animals and their products.

It performs some other functions like –promoting veterinary services, disseminating scientific
information, monitoring food safety and animal welfare.


The project Local Treatment of Urban Sewage streams for Healthy Reuse (LOTUS-HR) is an
Indo-Netherlands joint program.
It is supported by Department of Biotechnology.

It was initiated in 2017 and the 2nd phase was launched recently.

The project aims to demonstrate a novel holistic (waste) water management approach that will
produce clean water for reuse purposes.

The pilot scale plant upon commissioning will treat 10,000 L sewage water per day.
Special attention is paid to pathogen removal and removing conventional and emerging

The project was launched in India-Netherlands water laboratory at the Barapullahdrainin

Wetlab – A design challenge competition for Indian and Dutch young professionals to provide

innovative ideas to solve India‘s urban water challenges.


It is jointly supported by Department of Biotechnology and Netherlands Enterprise Agency.

G4 nations
The G4 nations comprising Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan are four countries which support
each other’s bids for permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council.

Group of Seven (G7)

The Group of Seven (G7) is an international intergovernmental economic organisation
consisting of the seven largest IMF-described advanced economies in the world: Canada,
France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America.
The European Union is an invitee to G7. India is not a part of group.

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Group of Twenty (G20
The Group of Twenty (G20) is the premier forum for its members’ international
economiccooperation and decision-making. Its membership comprises 19 countries plus the
European Union.
India is a member of this group. The G20 started in 1999 as a meeting of Finance Ministers
and Central Bank Governors in the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis.

The Global Restoration Council
It is a voluntary, non departmental entity supported by the World Resources Institute on

behalf of the Global Partnership for Forest Landscape Restoration (GPFLR) and in support of
other organizations that are actively engaged in restoration activities.

It aims to harness the collective wisdom, influence and energy of its members to catalyze and
sustain a global movement for restoration

International Geological Congress (IGC)

Popularly described as the Olympics of Geosciences
It is a global geoscientific events held once in four years and participated by around 5000-
6000 geoscientists from all across the world.

India is the only Asian country to host the event twice. In 1964, India had hosted it for the first

time, which was the 22nd IGC.

Geological Survey of India is the nodal agency for organizing the event

‘YuWaah’- Generation Unlimited initiative: by UNICEF.


It brings young people together with the private sector, governments, international and local
The aim is to tackle the urgent challenge of investing in their learning and training so that

they are prepared for the complex and fast-changing world of work and can be active and
engaged citizens.

1. The Group of 20 (G-20), is a group of finance ministers and central bank governors from 19 of
the world's largest economies, including those of many developing nations, along with the
European Union.
2. It is formed in 1999, following the Asian and Russian financial crises, G-20 has a mandate to
promote global economic growth, international trade, and regulation of financial markets.
3. G-20 is a forum is not a legislative body and its agreements and decisions have no legal
impact, but they do influence countries' policies and global cooperation.

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India & UNSC
India has already held a non-permanent seat on the UNSC for 7 terms.
India has been in the UNSC for 14 years.
This represents roughly a fifth of the time the United Nations (UN) has existed.
India recently won the unanimous support of all countries in the 55-member Asia-Pacific Group
at the UN

Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ):
Itis a strip of land running across the Korean Peninsula.

it is established by the provisions of the Korean mArmistice Agreement to serve as a buffer
zone between North Korea and South Korea.

It roughly follows latitude 38° N (the 38th parallel), the original demarcation line between
North Korea and SouthKorea at the end of World War II. The site where the Armistice was
signed is called the Joint Security Area (JSA).
Eastern Economic Forum

The Eastern Economic Forum was established by Decree of the President of the Russian
Federation Vladimir Putin in 2015.

In accordance with the Decree, the Eastern Economic Forum takes place each year in

Every year, the Eastern Economic Forum serves as a platform for the discussion of key issues
in the world economy, regional integration, and the development of new industrial and

technological sectors.
Global challenges facing Russia and other nations are discussed too.

United Nations Industrial Development Organization


UNIDO is an UN coordinating body central to the promotion of industrial development,

poverty reduction and environmental sustainability.
Its mission is to promote Inclusive and sustainable industrial development (ISID) in was
described in the Lima Declaration‘.
Headquarters location: Vienna, Austria
Founded: 1966
Parent organization: United Nations Economic and Social Council
The main objectives of UNIDO are,

1. The promotion of industrial growth and technological progress,

2. Most effective use of human resources,
3. Equitable development through industrialization, industrial development and environmental
4. International cooperation in industrial investment and technology.

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At present there are 170 Member States in UNIDO.
It has a Regional Office in New Delhi
It acts as a focal point to promote UNIDO‘s mandate.
REPORTS : Industrial Development Report

The Global Risks Report:

The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum.
The top-five risks by impact, facing the world are

1. Weapons of mass destruction;
2. Failure of climate-change mitigation and adaptation;

3. Extreme weather events,
4. water crises; and
5. Major natural disasters. gm
The report also explores the interconnectedness of risks, and considers how the strategies for the

mitigation of global risks might be structured.


World Economic Situation and Prospects 2020 (WESP)


United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), United Nations Department

of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) and the five United Nations Regional Economic
Commissions have jointly released the World Economic Situation and Prospects 2020 (WESP)

INSTEX Barter Mechanism


A trade mechanism ‘Instrument in Support of Trade Exchanges (INSTEX)’ was established by

France, Germany and the United Kingdom to allow European entities to maintain trade with

The mechanism has been designed to circumvent U.S. sanctions against trade with Iran by
avoiding the use of the dollar.

World Gold Council

World Gold Council report: RBI ranks 6th in buying gold abroad
World Gold Council
The WGC is a market development organization. headquarters - London.
The offices of WGC are located in China India, US and Singapore.

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Global Social Mobility Index: WEF
The WEF’s Global Social Mobility Index assesses the 82 economies on “10 pillars” spread
across the following five key dimensions of social mobility:

1. # Health;
2. # Education (access, quality and equity, lifelong learning);
3. # Technology;
4. # Work (opportunities, wages, conditions);

5. # Protection and Institutions (social protection and inclusive institutions).

Top Performers: Denmark > Norwa,>Finland and Sweden

Among the G7 economies: Germany 11th> France in 12th position.
Among BRICS grouping: The Russian Federation > (39th) > China (45th)> Brazil (60th)>

India (76th) and South Africa (77th).

Women Business and the Law (WBL) Index 2020: gm

1. The Women Business and the Law (WBL) 2020 index to measure the economic empowerment

of women was recently published.

2. Released by the World Bank
3. It is based on the countries’ formal laws and regulations that have a bearing on women’s

economic participation, covering eight areas (eg, parenthood, equality of pay).


4. It tracks how laws affect women at different stages

5. India placed 117th among 190 countries on the index.
6. India, the world’s most populous democracy scored 74.4 on a par with Benin and Gambia and

way below least developed countries like Rwanda and Lesotho.

7. Only eight economies scored a perfect 100 — Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland,

Latvia, Luxembourg, and Sweden.


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BASIC countries
1. The BASIC countries are a bloc of four large newly industrialized countries – Brazil,South
Africa, India and China The signatory nations committed to acting together at the United
Nations Climate change Conference, commonly known as the Copenhagen Summit which had
happened in Copenhagen, Denmark on December 7,2009.
2. Subsequently, the Copenhagen Summit resulted in Copenhagen Accord between the US and
BASIC countries.

3. The BASIC countries have met regularly to address the common concerns and interests of the
developing countries vis-a-vis developed countries regarding climate change

The International Whaling Commission (IWC)

Regulation of gm
It is an international body set up by the terms of the International Convention for the

Whaling (ICRW) signed in Washington, D.C., United States, on 2 December 1946.

It seeks to "provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the

orderly development of the whaling industry"

In 1982 the IWC adopted a moratorium on commercial whaling.
Its Headquarters are located in Impington, United Kingdom.


United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 to
promote development-friendly integration of developing countries into the world economy.
UNCTAD is a permanent intergovernmental body headquartered at Geneva in Switzerland.

Some of the reports published by it are:


1. Trade and Development Report

2. World Investment Report

3. The Least Developed Countries Report

4. Information and Economy Report
5. Technology and Innovation Report
6. Commodities and Development Report

Arctic Council
It was established in 1996 by Ottawa Declaration
Headquarter: Tromso, in Norway.
Members (8): Russia, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Denmark (representing Greenland
and Faroe Islands), Canada and United States.

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The International Renewable Energy Agency is an intergovernmental organisation mandated
to facilitate cooperation, advance knowledge, and promote the adoption and sustainable use of
renewable energy.
Headquarters: Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

REN21 is a think tank and global multi-stakeholder network which is focused on renewable
energy policy. REN21's goal is to facilitate policy development, knowledge exchange, and joint
action towards a rapid global transition to renewable energy.

Headquarters: Paris, FranceGLOBAL STATUS REPORT BY REN 21

Oslo Accords
Oslo Accords are a series of agreements between Israel and the Palestinians signed in the

Oslo I (1993) is formally known as the Declaration of Principles (DOP), Middle East peace
process. It planned for an interim Palestinian government in Gaza and Jericho in the West

Oslo II is officially called the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the agreement was

finalised but it has tacitly been rolled over for more than two decades.
The question of Jerusalem was left undecided under the Oslo Accords.

BUNKER Convention

The International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage (BUNKER)
is an International treaty listed and administered by the International Maritime Organization,
signed in London on 23 March 2001 and in force generally on 21 November2008.

The purpose is to adopt uniform international rules and procedures for determining questions

of liability and providing adequate compensation.

Bunker Oil is fuel used to power the ship.
The convention covers leakage of that oil, and requires signatories to the convention tohave
their ships appropriately insured against such leakages.

Rooppur Nuclear Power Project, Bangladesh

A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed at Moscow, Russia between the State
Atomic Energy Corporation ‘Rosatom’.
Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh and the
Department of Atomic Energy, India.

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Water Scarce Cities Initiative
World Bank launched the Water Scarce Cities Initiative (WSC), to bolster awareness of
integrated and innovative approaches to managing water resources and service delivery in
water scarce cities as the basis for water security and climate resilience.

Gender Parity Index
The Gender Parity Index (GPI) is a socio-economic index usually designed to measure the

relative access to education of males and females.
This index is released by UNESCO. In its simplest form, it is calculated as the quotient of the
number of females by the number of males enrolled in a given stage of education (primary,

secondary, etc.).

It is used by international organizations, particularly in measuring the progress of developing

Gender Inequality Index


GII is an index for measurement of gender disparity that was introduced in the 2010 Human

Development Report20th anniversary edition by the United Nations Development Programme


According to the UNDP, this index is a composite measure to quantify the loss of achievement
within a country due to gender inequality.
It uses three dimensions to measure opportunity cost: reproductive health, empowerment, and

labor market participation.

The new index was introduced as an experimental measure to remedy the shortcomings of the
previous indicators, the Gender Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment

Measure (GEM), both of which were introduced in the 1995 Human Development Report.

Gender Development Index


The GDI measures gender gaps in human development achievements by accounting for
disparities between women and men in three basic dimensions of human development—health,
knowledge and living standards using the same component indicators as in the HDI.
The GDI is the ratio of the HDIs calculated separately for females and males using the same
methodology as in the HDI.
It is a direct measure of gender gap showing the female HDI as a percentage of the male HDI.

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The Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum.
The 2016 report covers 144 major and emerging economies.
The report’s Gender Gap Index ranks countries according to calculated gender gap between
women and men in four key areas: health, education, economy and politics to gauge the state
of gender equality in a country.

Under2 Coalition
It is a coalition of subnational governments that aims to achieve greenhouse gases emissions

It started as a memorandum of understanding, which was signed by twelve founding

jurisdictions on May 19, 2015 in Sacramento, California.
Although it was originally called the Under2 MOU, it became known as the Under2 Coalition in
As of September 2017, the list of signatories has grown to 177 jurisdictions which combined
encompasses 1.2 billion people and 39% of the world economy.
The Under2 Coalition, a Memorandum of Understanding by subnational governments to
reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions towards net-zero by 2050, is generating a
unique precedent for bold climate leadership, with its member states and regions surpassing

200 in number.

International Criminal Court


The International Criminal Court (ICC) is an independent judicial body with jurisdiction
over persons charged with genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.

Located in The Hague, The Netherlands

Governed by the Rome Statute adopted by the UN Diplomatic Conference of

Rome Statute was negotiated within the UN; however, it created an independent judicial
body distinct from the UN.

Establishment of an International Criminal Court on 17 July 1998 entered into force on 1 July
The ICC is not part of the UN.
The Court was established by the Rome Statute.
The ICC has the jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide,
crimes against humanity, and war crimes.

South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation

The South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) Program, set up in 2001, brings
together Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka.
It is a project-based partnership to promote regional prosperity by improving cross-border
connectivity, boosting trade among member countries, and strengthening regional economic
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Since 2001, SASEC countries have implemented 49 regional projects worth over $10.74 billion
in the energy, transport, trade facilitation, economic corridor development, and information
and communications technology (ICT) sectors.
The Manila, Philippines-based Asian Development Bank (ADB) serves as the Secretariat for
the SASEC member countries.

Press Freedom Index

The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by
Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries'

press freedom records in the previous year.
It intends to reflect the degree of freedom that journalists, news organisations, and netizens

have in each country, and the efforts made by authorities to respect this freedom.
Reporters Without Borders is careful to note that the index only deals with press freedom and
does not measure the quality of journalism nor does it look at human rights violations in
India’s ranking in the Press Freedom Index has fallen two places to 138/180

SAREX – 18

It is a joint search and rescue exercise between India and Japan to help increase mutual

understanding in Anti-Piracy operations.

During the exercise, helicopters of the Japan and Indian Coast Guard will perform cross

landing operations to improve compatibility between the two forces.

This year, it will be held in Chennai.
Japanese coast guard ship “Tsugaru”, a patrol vessel with helicopters will participate in this


Vajra Prahar

Indo-US joint military exercise ‘Vajra Prahar’ to be held in Seattle. The exercise will mainly
focus on special operations in urban areas.

The India-Vietnam Bilateral Army Exercise.

Hand – in – Hand
India China Joint Training Exercise Hand – in – Hand

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Blue Flag
It is a biennialmultilateral exercise held by the Israeli Air Force which aims to strengthen
military cooperation amongst participating nations.

UN Road Safety Trust Fund:

United Nations has launched UN Road Safety Trust Fund to improve road safety worldwide

to save lives and prevent the loss of opportunity associated with road accidents.
UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) is secretariat for the trust fund.
The fund aims to accelerate progress in improving global road safety by bridging gaps in

mobilization of resources for effective action at all levels.
It will mobilize resources from governments, intergovernmental or non-governmental

organizations (NGOs), private sector, philanthropic organizations and individuals.
It will support efforts along five pillars of Global Plan for Decade of Action for Road Safety

(2011-20), which include improved safety of road infrastructure and broader transport
networks; strengthened road safety management capacities; enhanced safety of vehicles;
improved behaviour of road users and improved post-crash care.
The fund will serve as catalyst for much-needed progress towards road safety targets of
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
SDG targets 3.6 and 11.2 aim to halve number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic

accidents and provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems
as well as improve road safety for all.

Resolution on road safety


The UN General Assembly (UNGA) also adopted resolution on road safety, sponsored by
It calls for host of measures to prevent road accidents and to minimising resulting damage.

It has urged adoption of policies and measures to implement vehicle safety regulations to
ensure that all new motor vehicles meet applicable minimum regulations for protection of

occupants and other road users, with seat belts, airbags and active safety systems fitted as
standard equipment.

The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) and its guidelines
provide the foundation for countries to implement and manage tobacco control.
To help make this a reality, WHO introduced the MPOWER measures.
These measures are intended to assist in the country-level implementation of effective
interventions to reduce the demand for tobacco, contained in the WHO FCTC.

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International North – South Transport Corridor (INSTC)
It is a multimodal transportation established in 2000 by India, Russia and Iran.
Later INSTC was expanded to include 10 new members namely Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Ukraine, Belarus, Oman and Syria.
A dry-run of the INSTC was successfully conducted by the Federation of Freight Forwarders of
India (FFFAI) in 2014 on the routes;
1) Nhava Sheva (Mumbai) – Bandar Abbas (Iran)-Tehran-Bandar Anzali(Iran)-

2) Nhava Sheva (Mumba)-Bandar Abbas (Iran)-Baku (Azerbaijan).
The objective of dry run study was to identify the bottleneck/missing links in the INSTC route.

Hague Code of Conduct (HCOC)

The International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation, also known as the

prevent the proliferation of ballistic missiles. gm

Hague Code of Conduct (HCOC), was established on 25 November 2002 as an arrangement to

The HCOC is the result of international efforts to regulate access to ballistic missiles which
can potentially deliver weapons of mass destruction.
The HCOC is the only multilateral code in the area of disarmament which has been adopted
over the last years.

It is the only normative instrument to verify the spread of ballistic missiles.

The HCOC does not ban ballistic missiles, but it does call for restraint in their production,

testing, and export.

As agreed by the conference in The Hague, Austria serves as the Immediate Central Contact

(Executive Secretariat) and therefore coordinates the information exchange of the HCOC.
India joined the HCOC on 1 June 2016.

Delhi Declaration
ASEAN-India Commemorative Summit held to mark 25th Anniversary of ASEAN-India

In the plenary session of the India- ASEAN commemorative summit, Delhi Declaration was

issued to support the implementation of the Langkawi Declaration on the Global Movement of
Moderates to promote peace, security, upholding rule of law, sustainable and inclusive
development, equitable growth and social harmony.

Langkawi Declaration on the Global Movement of Moderates

At the 26th ASEAN summit in Langkawi at the end of April, the ASEAN leaders adopted the
Langkawi Declaration on the Global Movement of Moderates.
It is an important document because it is considered as a contribution from ASEAN to the
world in shaping global development, peace and security.
According to the Langkawi Declaration, the ASEAN countries would organize outreach
programs, interfaith and cross-cultural dialogues ay national, regional and international levels.
Most importantly, there should be more information-sharing on best practices on moderation
among the members and through the ASEAN Secretariat.

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Permenant Court of arbitration
It is an international organisation.
HQ : The Hague, The Netherlands.
Established in 1899
It is not a court and does not have permanent judges.
It is not part of the UN system although it has observer status in UN General Assembly .
The PCA is a permanent bureaucracy that assists temporary tribunals to resolve disputes

among states (and similar entities), intergovernmental organizations, or even private parties
arising out of international agreements.
The cases span a range of legal issues involving territorial and maritime boundaries,

sovereignty, human rights, international investment, and international and regional trade.
The decision of the arbitrators is binding in all cases on the parties.
In its interim ruling, the UN’s Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague ruled that

Sergeant Salvatore Girone (Italian Marine) be allowed to return home until the dispute is
resolved through arbitration

Ashgabat Agreement

Ashgabat Agreement, an international transport and transit corridor facilitating

transportation of goods between Central Asia and the Persian Gulf.

The Ashgabat Agreement has Oman, Iran, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan as founding

Kazakhstan has also joined this arrangement subsequently.

India and Pakistan also joined the Agreement Turkmenistan, as depository State of Ashgabat

Agreement, Minority Affairs Ministry.

International Dam Safety Conference


Conducted at Thiruvananthapuram
Organized by - Central Water Commission (CWC) in association with Kerala state government.

Dam safety conferences is an annual event under the Dam Safety Rehabilitation and

Improvement Project (DRIP) project.

The Global Alliance for Literacy within the Framework of

Lifelong Learning (GAL)
The UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, one of UNESCO’s specialist institutions with a
core mandate for literacy and lifelong learning, has been asked by UNESCO to lead the
consultation process for establishing the Global Alliance for Literacy within the Framework of
Lifelong Learning (GAL).
As literacy will play a direct or indirect role in achieving many of the Sustainable Development
Goals (SDGs), GAL aims to help Member States make accelerated progress towards the 2030
Agenda for Sustainable Development.

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The Alliance, which will be composed of experts and representatives of UN and government
agencies, donors, national and international non-governmental organizations, and the private
sector, will work towards improving literacy for sustainable development through concrete
action and tangible outcomes.

Gender Parity Index

The Gender Parity Index (GPI) is a socio-economic index usually designed to measure the

relative access to education of males and females.
This index is released by UNESCO. In its simplest form, it is calculated as the quotient of the
number of females by the number of males enrolled in a given stage of education (primary,

secondary, etc.).
It is used by international organizations, particularly in measuring the progress of developing

The Gender Inequality Index (GII) is an index for measurement of gender disparity that was
introduced in the 2010 Human Development Report20th anniversary edition by the United
Nations Development Programme (UNDP). gm
According to the UNDP, this index is a composite measure to quantify the loss of achievement
within a country due to gender inequality. It uses three dimensions to measure opportunity

cost: reproductive health, empowerment, and labor market participation.

The new index was introduced as an experimental measure to remedy the shortcomings of the
previous indicators, the Gender Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment

Measure (GEM), both of which were introduced in the 1995 Human Development Report.

Gender Development Index


The GDI measures gender gaps in human development achievements by accounting for
disparities between women and men in three basic dimensions of human development—health,

knowledge and living standards using the same component indicators as in the HDI.
The GDI is the ratio of the HDIs calculated separately for females and males using the same

methodology as in the HDI.

It is a direct measure of gender gap showing the female HDI as a percentage of the male HDI.


The Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum. The 2016
report covers 144 major and emerging economies.
The report’s Gender Gap Index ranks countries according to calculated gender gap between
women and men in four key areas: health, education, economy and politics to gauge the state
of gender equality in a country.

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GAVI- the Vaccine Alliance.
Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization is a public-private global health partnership
committed to increasing access to immunization in poor countries.
It is a global Vaccine Alliance with the goal of creating equal access to new and underused
vaccines for children living in the world’s poorest countries.
Gavi brings together developing countries and donor governments, the World Health
Organization, UNICEF, the World Bank, the vaccine industry in both industrialized and

developing countries, research and technical agencies, civil society, the Bill & Melinda Gates
Foundation and other private philanthropists Gavi was launched in 2000
It is based in Geneva, Switzerland.

..Internal security..
National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID):

NATGRID is an attached office under the Ministry of Home Affairs.

It is a robust intelligence gathering mechanism related to banking, immigration, individual

taxpayers, air and train travels.

It is setup to track any terror suspect and prevent terrorist attacks with real-time data.

It will have data related to all immigration entry and exit, air flyers, credit card purchases,
banking and financial transactions, individual taxpayers, telecom, and train travelers among

others to generate intelligence inputs.

10 agencies which will be able to access NATGRID data on a real-time basis are:
▪ (IB)▪ (R&AW) ▪(CBI) ▪ (ED) ▪ (DRI) ▪ (FIU) ▪ (CBDT) ▪ (CBEC) ▪ (DGCEI) ▪ (NCB)

Initially, no state agencies will be given direct access to NATGRID data but in case any
relevant information is required, they can approach NATGRID through any of 10 user
agencies. There is no provision for publicly sharing the data.


The Indian Air Force mission to bomb a terrorist hideout in Pakistan‘s Balakot was codenamed
‘Operation Bandar‘ (Monkey), while Indian Army had taken up massive defensive measures in
case Pakistan retaliated which was codenamed as ―Operation Zafran

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StrandHogg is a bug that allows real-time malware applications to pose as genuine
applications and access user data of all kind.
It poses threat to all versions android system including Android 10.
It can then potentially listen to their conversations, access photo album, read/send messages,
make calls, record conversations and get login credentials to various account.
Recently, Union Home Ministry has sent an alert to all states warning about this bug.

The information was shared by the Threat Analytical Unit, Indian Cyber Crime Coordination

The Global Study on Homicide 2019 has been published by
the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

About UNODC:
Established in 1997 through a merger between the United Nations Drug Control Programme
and the Centre for International Crime Prevention, UNODC is a global leader in the fight

against illicit drugs and international crime.

UNODC relies on voluntary contributions, mainly from Governments, for 90% of its budget.
UNODC is mandated to assist MemberStates in their struggle against illicit drugs,crime and


"Chief of Defence Staff (CDS)"


Union Cabinet chaired by PM has approved to create the post of Chief of Defence Staff in the
rank of a four-star General with salary and perquisites equivalent to a Service Chief.
Also he/she will be head the Department of Military Affairs (DMA), to be created within the

Ministry of Defence and function as its Secretary.

Also be the Permanent Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, Principal Military Adviser

to Raksha Mantri on all tri-Services matters.

The following areas will be dealt by the Department of Military Affairs headed by CDS:
The Armed Forces of the Union, namely, the Army, Navy and Air Force.
Integrated Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence comprising Army ,Naval ,Air and Defence
Staff Headquarters.
The Territorial Army.
Works relating to the Army, the Navy and the Air Force.
Procurement exclusive to the Services except capital acquisitions, as per Rules.
CDS will not exercise any military command.
It will synergise long term planning, procurement, training and logistics of the three Services,
and ensure better coordination between them.
In 2012 Naresh Chandra task force recommended the appointment of a permanent chairman
of chiefs of staff committee.
The CDS is also one of the 99 recommendations made by the Lt. General D.B. Shekatkar (retd.)

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committee (2016).

Conventions to limit the use of narcotic drugs and

psychotropic substances
The UN Single Convention on Narcotics Drugs 1961

The Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971
The Convention on Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988
India is a signatory to all these three.

Crime in India: NCRB

National Crime Record Bureau
NCRB, headquartered in New Delhi, was set-up in 1986under the Ministry of Home
Affairs to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the
investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators.
It was set up based on the recommendations of the National Police Commission (1977-1981)
and the MHA’s Task Force (1985).

NCRB brings out the annual comprehensive statistics of crime across the country (‘Crime in
India’ report).

Being published since 1953,the report serves as a crucial tool in understanding the law and
order situation across the country.

Key Findings

Crime Registration and Rate:


In 2017, there was an increase of 3.6% in registration of casesover 2016.


Delhiwitnessed the highest crime rate in the country with 1,050 Indian Penal Code
(IPC) crime incidents per lakh of the city’s population.
This was over four times the national average of 238.
Offences against the State:

There has been a 30% risein incidents of offences against the state as compared to
This category includes offences such as sedition, waging war against the
countryand damage to public property among others.
The maximumnumber of such offences were reported from Haryana followed by
UP. The act of damage to public property was the leading reason.
Maximum offences were committed bythe Left Wing Extremist (LWE) operatives,
followed by North East insurgents and Terrorists (Jihadi and other elements).

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Crime Against Women:

The number of crimes committed against womenincreased by 6% over the year 2016.
Majority cases were registered under ‘Cruelty by Husband or His Relatives’ followed by
‘Assault on Women with Intent to Outrage her Modesty’.
The maximum caseswere registered in Uttar Pradesh (UP) followed by Maharashtra
and West Bengal.
Cyber Crimes:

Bengaluru topped the listamong metropolitan cities across the country in terms of
number of cyber crimes registered.
Bengaluru was followed by Mumabi and Jaipur.


Out of the total 58,880 incidents of rioting reported, communal and sectarian riots
accounted for 723 and 183 incidents respectively.
There were 805 riots due to caste conflictand 1909 riots due to political reasons.
Maximumincidents were reported from Bihar, followed by Uttar Pradesh and

Crime Against SC/STs:

The incidents registered under theScheduled Caste Prevention of Atrocities Act saw

an increase from 5,082 incidents reported in 2016 to 5,775 in 2017.


Incidents of crime related to Scheduled Tribes dippedfrom 844 in 2016 to 720 in


A honeypot is a system intended to mimic likely targets of cyber attackers for security

researchers to monitor cybercriminal behaviour.

Recently, honeypots were set-up in 10 of the most popular Amazon Web Services (AWS) data

centres in the world.

Cybercriminals attempted attacks on a Mumbai Cloud server honeypot more than 678,000
times in a month.

The Indian Ocean Dialogue (IOD)

The Indian Ocean Dialogue (IOD) is a flagship initiative of the Indian Ocean Rim Association
(IORA), with its origins in the 13th Council of Ministers meeting, held in November 2013 in
Perth, Australia.
The first IOD was held in Kerala, India in 2014, and has been followed by two others to date: in
Perth, Australia in 2015 and Padang, Indonesia in 2016, respectively.
Discussions includedfar ranging topics such as economic cooperation, maritime safety and
security, blue economy, human assistance and disaster relief, etc. and resulted in the Kochi,

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Perth and Padang Consensuses each.

Global Climate Change Alliance

The Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) is an initiative of the European Union.
Its overall objective is to build a new alliance on climate change between the European Union
and the poor developing countries that are most affected and that have the least capacity to

deal with climate change.
The GCCA does not intend to set up a new fund or governance structure, but is working
through the European Commission’s established channels for political dialogue and

cooperation at national and international level.

Zero Day gm
Zero Day is associated with cyber attack or threat (USA and Israel's cyber-attack on Iranian

Day Zero is associated with Capetown's water crisis.

About Border Roads Organisation (BRO)


BRO develops and maintains road networks in India’s border areas and friendly neighbouring
countries. It functions under the Defence Ministry.

It plays pivotal role in construction, maintenance and upgradation of strategic infrastructure,

in remote and far flung border areas.

An indigenous Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW&C) christened 'Netra'
was handed over to the IAF on Tuesday at the ongoing 'Aero India 2017' here, ushering India
into an elite club of nations that have developed such technology on their own.

Cyber Gram
The Ministry of Minority Affairs has launched a pilot project for minority Cyber Gram for
digital literacy in a minority dominated village ‘Cyber Gram’ has been launched as an initiative
under Multi-sectoral Development Programme(MsDP) to provide hands on training in
computers to the students of minority communities and enable them to acquire basic
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills;

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Become digitally literate; Actively participate in knowledge-based activities; access financial,
social and government services and use internet for communications.
The initiative covers students of Class VI to Class X belonging to notified minority communities
residing in minority concentration areas.

Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System (RIMES)

The RIMES is an intergovernmental body registered under United Nations.
It is owned and managed by 45 collaborating countries in Asia Pacific and Africa Region.
India is chairman of the body.

It was established in 2009 and was registered with UN in July 2009.
It operates from its regional early warning centre located at campus of Asian Institute of
Technology in Pathumthani, Thailand.

It has evolved from efforts of countries in Africa and Asia in aftermath of 2004 Indian Ocean
Mandate: It seeks to establish regional early warning system within multi-hazard framework
for generation and communication of early warning information and capacity building for
preparedness and response to trans-boundary hazards.

It provides information related to Tsunami and extreme weather conditions.

It also acts as a test bed for emerging technologies and help to enhance performance.


ROSHNI is a special initiative under, Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya

Yojana (Formerly Ajeevika Skills), launched in June 2013 for training and placement of rural
poor youth from 27 Left wing extremism affected districts in 09 States.

Operation Milap
Delhi Police have also launched a special drive `Operation Milap’ to reunite missing children

with their parents through the Anti Human Trafficking Units (AHTU).

Operation Smile
Uttar Pradesh launched an operation named ‘Operation Smile’ in the month of September,
2014 to identify, track, locate, rescue and rehabilitate children who went missing and found to
be subjected to abuse and exploitation.

RPF has been conferred with the ‘Service of Excellence Award’ by the Ministry of Home
Affairs for the efforts in rescue of missing children under operation “MUSKAN’’ drive.

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Khoya Paya portal
The Khoya Paya portal is a citizen based website to exchange information on missing and
found children. It has been developed by the Ministry of Women and Child Development and
the Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY) ‘Vatsalya – Maatri Amrit
Kosh’, a National Human Milk Bank and Lactation Counselling Centre at the Lady Hardinge

Medical College (LHMC).

9 1@

..Art and culture..


Guru Padmasambhava

Guru Padmasambhava was born in India and travelled all across Himalayan region in the 8th

century to spread Buddhism and Buddhist teachings.

Guru Padmasambhava is highly revered in Bhutan.
There is an image or painting of the Guru Padmasambhava in every Bhutanese home or
Guru Padmasambhava was also known as Guru Rinpoche is widely venerated as a “second
Buddha” by adherents of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, the Himalayan states of
India, and elsewhere.
Guru Padmasambhava is also considered to be the founder of Nyingma tradition, oldest of
the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism.

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MP's Orchha makes it to tentative list of UNESCO World
Heritage Sites”:
The architectural heritage of Orchha town in Madhya Pradesh which depict peculiar style of
the Bundela Dynasty have been included in UNESCO's tentative list of world heritage sites
following a proposal sent by The ASI to the UN body.
Orchha is situated on the banks of the Betwa river

"Markandeshwar temple":
Archaeological Survey of India has been initiated ,The restoration work of Markandeshwar

temple in Maharashtra.
It also Known as the “Khajuraho of Vidarbha”.

The temple of Markandadeo is situated on the bank of River Wainganga in district Gadchiroli
of Maharashtra.
Markandeshwar temple belongs to the Nagara group of temples of North India.
The temples belong to saiva, vaishnava and sakta faith.

"Maharashtra’s Phupgaon":

The recent excavation carried out by Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) at Maharashtra’s
Phupgaon, Amravati district of Maharashtra.
Revealed evidence of an Iron Age settlement in the Vidarbha region.

The site is situated in the vast meander of the river Purna, a major tributary of Tapi, which
used to be a perennial river.

Chronologically, the site could be placed between 7th C BCE and 4th C BCE.
During the course of excavation, 4 complete circular structures were exposed. All were found
encircled with post holes.

Iron, Copper objects have also been collected from all the trenches.

It is a joint initiative of Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Government of India & Tribal Cooperative
Marketing Development Federation of India
The theme of the festival is : “A celebration of the spirit of Tribal Craft, Culture and

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Kambala is a traditional bull buffalo race which generally takes place in coastal Karnataka
from November to March.
The PETA has alleged that Kambala too involves acts of cruelty on animals which are not
physiologically suited for racing.
TRIFED essentially is to play the role of a ‘Service provider’ &‘Market Developer.

Vakataka Dynasty

It originated in the central Deccan in the mid-3rd century CE and its empire is believed to
have extended from Malwa and Gujarat in the north to the Tungabhadra in the south and from

the Arabian Sea in the west to the Bay of Bengal in the east.

The Vakataka rulers followed the Shaiva sect of Hinduism.
Animal rearing was one of the main occupations of the people.
One of the key alliances was with Prabhavatigupta of the Gupta dynasty (Vaishnavites), which
was then ruling north India.

Prabhavatigupta was the chief queen of the Vakataka king Rudrasena II and took over as
queen after the sudden death of her husband.
Some of the temples identified as Keval Narasihma, Rudra Narasimha and the one dedicated

to Varaha could be traced to Ramtek, and showcase strong affinity to the incarnations of Lord


Vijaya Vittala Temple


Vijaya Vittala Temple was built in the 15th century during the rule of DevarayaII, who was
one amongst the rulers of the Vijayanagara Empire.

One of the notable features of the Vittala Temple is the musical pillars. These pillars are

also known as SaReGaMa pillars, which are attributed to the musical notes emerging out of
Every main pillar is wrapped by 7 minor pillars and these minor pillars emit different musical
When hit with sandal-wood sticks, they produced rhythmic sounds close to the SaReGaMa.

There are basic four kinds of puppets used in India as follows:

String Puppets – This includes Kathputli of Rajasthan, Kundhei of Odisha, Gombeyetta of

Karnataka and Bomallattam art of Tamil Nadu.

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Shadow Puppets – This includes the Togalu Gombeyatta of Karnataka, Tholu Bommalata of
Andhra Pradesh, Ravanachhaya of Odisha
Rod Puppets– This includes Putul Nautch of West Bengal and Yampuri of Bihar
Glove Puppets – Important form is Pavakoothu of Kerala.

Indian martial arts

1. Kalarippayattu (Kerala specially) & rest of south

“Kalari” means arena. “Payattu” means combat/fighting.

Kerala’s “Kathakali” incorporates greatly of this in their routines

2. Malla-Yuddha (South India)

Combat-Wrestling type. Unarmed type.

Four types:

1. Hanumanti – for technical superiority

2. Jambuvanti – focuses on locking and holding till opponent gives up
3. Jarasandhi – breaking limbs and joints

4. Bhimaseni – focuses on sheer strength


3. Silambam (Tamil Nadu)

Weapon based type ,Variety of weapons used.
Majorly used “Silambam staff” as a weapon. (staff – a traditional pole weapon. It has

many variants from just a stick to having knife at one end)

Foot movements plays a key role
Movements of animals like snake, tiger, elephant and eagle used

4. Gatka (Punjab)

Weapon based, Used by Sikhs mainly

Gatka means – “One whose freedom belongs to race”

Stick, Sword, kirpan or kataar used as weapon

5. Musti Yuddha (Varanasi)

Unarmed type, Punches, kicks, knees and elbow strikes used

6. Thang Ta (Manipur)

Weapon Based ,“Thang” means sword. “Ta” means spear.Anything from sword or spear can be used.

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7. Lathi (Punjab & Bengal)

Weapon Based ,Cane Sticks used.

8. Mardani Khel (Kolhapur, Maharashtra)

Weapon Based ,Created by Marathas , Uses sword mainly & needs rapid movements

9. Pari-Khanda (Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha)

Weapon Based ,Created by Rajputs ,“Pari” means shield & “Khanda” means sword (according to
Chhau rulers) . It gave birth to Chhau dance

10. Inbuan Wrestling (Mizoram)

Unarmed Type ,Has strict rules prohibiting kicking, stepping out of the circle and bending of
the knees.Aim is to lift the opponent off his feet while strictly adhering to the rules Catching hold of
the belt worn by the wrestlers around the waist; it has to remain tight all through the game.

11. Kuttu Varisai (South India)


Unarmed Type ,“Kuttu Varisai” means empty hand combatused to improve footwork and athleticism
through gymnastics, stretching, yoga and breathing exercises

12. Cheibi Gadga (Manipur)


Weapon Based ,Uses sword & shield , Victory depends more on skill than on muscle power

13. Sarit-Sarak (Manipur)


Unarmed Type ,Used to fight with armed or unarmed opponent

14. Thoda (Himachal Pradesh)


Weapon Based ,Originated from the times of MahabharataGenerally based on archery skills ,

“Thoda” is the round piece of wood fixed to the head of the arrow

15. Mukna (Manipur)

Unarmed, Wrestling Type

16. Lakna-Phanaba (Manipur)

17. Karra Samu (Andhra Pradesh)
18. Kathi Samu (Andhra Pradesh)

Jnanpith Award

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It is an Indian literary award presented annually by the Bharatiya Jnanpith to an author for
their "outstanding contribution towards literature".
Instituted in 1961, the award is bestowed only on Indian writers writing in Indian languages
included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India and English,[a] with no
posthumous conferral.

Sahitya Akademi

It is India's National Academy of Letters, is an organisation dedicated to the promotion of
literature in the languages of India.
Founded on 12 March 1954, it is supported by, though independent of, the Indian government.

Its office is located in Rabindra Bhavan near Mandi House in Delh

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9 1@

..Social Issue..
National Commission of Safai Karamcharis
The National Commission for Safai Karamcharis (NCSK) was constituted on 12th August 1994
as a statutory body by an Act of Parliament viz. ‘National Commission for Safai Karamcharis
Act, 1993’.
The act “The National Commission for Safai Karamcharis Act, 1993” lapsed in February 2004.
The Commission is acting as a non-statutory body of the Ministry of Social Justice and
Empowerment whose tenure is extended from time to time through Government Resolutions
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The Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2019 (rural) was recently released by NGO
Only 16% of children in Class 1 in 26 surveyed rural districts can read text at the prescribed
level, while almost 40% cannot even recognise letters.
Only 41% of these children could recognise two digit numbers.

UN Women
1. UN Women is the United Nations entity dedicated to gender equality and the empowerment of

2. A global champion for women and girls, UN Women was established to accelerate progress on

meeting their needs worldwide.
3. UN Women supports UN Member States as they set global standards for achieving gender

equality, and works with governments and civil society to design laws, policies, programmes
and services needed to ensure that the standards are effectively implemented and truly benefit
women and girls worldwide.
4. It works globally to make the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals a reality for women
and girls and stands behind women’s equal participation in all aspects of life.

DeenDayal SPARSH

(i.e. Scholarship for Promotion of Aptitude & Research in Stamps as a Hobby):


To award annual scholarships to children of Standard VI to IX having good academic record and also
pursuing Philately as a hobby through a competitive selection process in all postal circles.

Population Commission

A Population Commission was established by the UN Economic and Social Council in its
resolution 3 (III) of 3 October 1946.

In its resolution 49/128 of 19 December 1994, the General Assembly decided that the
Commission should be renamed the Commission on Population and Development.
In the same resolution, the Assembly decided that it, the Council and the Commission should
constitute a three-tiered intergovernmental mechanism that would play the primary role in the
follow-up to the implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference
on Population and Development, and that the Commission, as a functional commission
assisting the Council, would monitor, review and assess the implementation of the Programme
of Action at the national, regional and international levels and advise the Council thereon.

SwachhVidyalaya initiative:
To provide separate toilets for girls and boys in all Government schools under the Swachh
Bharat Abhiyan.

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Stree Swabhiman
Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has announced an initiative by common
services centres (CSCs) on women’s health and hygiene. The initiative is named ‘Stree
Stree Swabhiman’ aims to create a sustainable model for providing adolescent girls and
women an access to affordable sanitary products by leveraging CSCs.
Under the ‘Stree Swabhiman’ project, sanitary napkinmicro manufacturing units are

being set up at CSCs across India, particularly those operated by women entrepreneurs.
The initiative is driven by awareness and personalised outreach by women entrepreneurs who
produce and market sanitary napkins themselves.

SUVIDHA’-100% Oxo-biodegradable Sanitary Napkin
Union Minister for Chemicals & Fertilizers and Parliamentary Affairs the launch of ‘Suvidha’,
the 100% Oxo-biodegradable Sanitary Napkin, under the Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi
Pariyojana (PMBJP).

The affordable sanitary napkin will be available for 2.50 per pad at over 3200 Janaushadhi
Kendras across India and would ensure ‘Swachhta, Swasthya and Suvidha’for the
underprivileged Women of India.

SUVIDHA napkins would be physically available at all Janaushadhi Kendras in the country by

May 28, 2018 – World Menstrual Hygiene Day.

Oxo-biodegradable is a special additive is added in the SUVIDHA napkin which makes it

biodegradable when it reacts with oxygen after it is used and discarded.


Program ‘LaQshya’ aims to:


Reduce maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality,


improve quality of care during delivery and immediate post-partum period and
enhance satisfaction of beneficiaries and provide Respectful Maternity Care (RMC) to all
pregnant women attending public health facilities.

National Achievement Survey- NCERT

To monitor improvement in children’s learning levels and to assess the health of the
government education system as a whole,
ASER stands for Annual Status of Education Report-PRATHAM.
This is an annual survey that aims to provide reliable estimates of children’s enrolment and
basic learning levels for each district and state in India.
ASER has been conducted every year since 2005 in all rural districts of India.
It is the largest citizen-led survey in India.
It is also the only annual source of information on children’s learning outcomes available in

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India today.
Unlike most other large-scale learning assessments, ASER is a household-based rather than
school-based survey.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a triennial international survey
which aims to evaluate education systems worldwide by testing the skills and knowledge of 15-
year-old students-OECD.

Vatsalya – Maatri Amrit Kosh
“Vatsalya – Maatri Amrit Kosh” is established in collaboration with the Norwegian

government, Oslo University and Norway India Partnership Initiative (NIPI).
“Vatsalya – Maatri Amrit Kosh” , is a national human milk bank and lactation counseling centre

that will collect, pasteurize, test and safely store milk that has been donated by lactating
mothers and make it available for infants in need.
In addition, this facility will protect, promote and support breastfeeding of their own healthy
mothers by providing lactation support to mothers through dedicated lactation counsellors.

Mothers Absolute Affection


MAA programme to create awareness regarding breastfeeding as being the most cost-effective
way of enhancing the child’s immunity.

Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative

The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), known as Baby Friendly Initiative (BFI).

The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), also known as Baby Friendly Initiative (BFI), is a
worldwide programme of the World Health Organization and UNICEF, launched in

1991following the adoption of the Innocenti Declaration on breastfeeding promotion in 1990.

The initiative is a global effort for improving the role of maternity services to enable mothers
to breastfeed babies for the best start in life.

Rapid Reporting System for the Scheme for Adolescent Girls

It a web based on line monitoring for the Scheme for Adolescent Girls .
The RRS will facilitate the monitoring of the scheme and taking corrective measures by
ensuring faster flow of information, accurate targeting of the beneficiaries and reduction of
This Portal has been developed in collaboration with National Informatics Centre (NIC).

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Uchchtar Aavishkar Abhiyaan
The scheme was launched to promote industry-specific need-based research so as to keep up
the competitiveness of the Indian industry in the global market.
All the IITs have been encouraged to work with the industry to identify areas where innovation
is required and come up with solutions that could be brought up to the commercialization

DIKSHA (Digital Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing)

DIKSHA will accelerate and amplify solutions, experiments and innovations that are underway,
and is being attempted in the areas of teacher training and professional development.

States and TEIs have the autonomy and choice to repurpose and extend DIKSHA to suit their
own needs and purposes.
DIKSHA is for the benefit of Teachers in Schools, Teacher Educators and Student Teachers in
Teacher Education Institutes (TEIs).


It is an initiative to provide 32 high quality educational channels through DTH (Direct to

Home) across the length and breadth of the country on 24X7 basis. This would enable to

deliver e-education in a most cost effective manner.

The Department of Space has allotted two Transponders of GSAT-15 for the same. The
subscribers of free DTH service of Doordarshan (Free dish) would be able to view these

Educational channels using the same set Top Box and TV. No additional investment would be

National Digital Library (NDL)

Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) is establishing the National Digital Library
(NDL) under the National Mission on Education through Information and Communication
Technology (NMEICT) with the objective to host a national repository of existing e-content
available across educational institutions in the country and e-content developed under
IIT Kharagpur has been entrusted to host, coordinate and set-up National Digital Library
(NDL) of India towards building a national asset.
The objective of the project is to integrate all the existing digitized and digital contents across
educational and cultural institutions/bodies to provide a single-window access to different
groups of users ranging across the entire population

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Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana
Scheme for providing Physical Aids and assisted living devices for SENIOR CITIZEN to BPL
Implemented through ALIMCO
The Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Corporation of India (ALIMCO) is a Public Sector
Undertaking (PSU) of the Government of India. Established on November 30, 1972, ALIMCO
manufactures artificial limbs and rehabilitation aids. The company is headquartered in Kanpur.

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

The Integrated Scheme on School Education was approved recently by subsuming Sarva
Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and Teacher

Education (TE) from 1st April, 2018 to 31st March, 2020.
The scheme aims to support the States in universalizing access to school education from

classes pre-nursery to XII across the country. The vision of the Scheme is to ensure inclusive
and equitable quality education from nursery to senior secondary stage in accordance with the
Sustainable Development Goal for Education.
The main emphasis of the Integrated Scheme is on improving quality of school education by
focusing on the two T's - Teacher and Technology.


The objective of Impactful Policy Research in Social Sciences (IMPRESS) is to identify and
fund research proposals in social sciences with maximum impact on the governance and

It will provide an opportunity for social science researchers in any institution in the country
which includes all universities (central and state) and also a few private institutions meeting

the requirement.
The scheme will focus on broad thematic areas such as state and democracy, urban

transformation; media, culture and society; employment, skills and rural transformation;
governance; innovation and public policy; macro-trade and economic policy and social media
and technology.
Under IMPRESS, 1,500 research projects will be awarded for two years to support social
science research in the higher educational institutions.
The Indian Council of Social Science and Research (ICSSR) will be the project implementing
The scheme will be implemented till March, 2021.

SPARC Scheme
This scheme will improve research ecosystem of India’s higher educational institutions by
facilitating academic and research collaborations/
The Indian institutions will include those from top-100 or category-wise top-100 in NIRF (
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including such Private Institutions which are recognized under 12(B) of UGC Act)].
The foreign institutions will be from top-500 overall and top-200 subject-wise institutions listed
in QS World University Ranking) from 28 selected nations.
As per the criteria mentioned above, 254 top Indian Institutes and 478 top ranked global
Institutes have been already identified.


STARS is abbreviated as Scheme for Translational and Advanced Research in Science.
Under the scheme 500 science projectswill be funded whose selection will be made based on
competition. Indian Institute of Science (IISC) will be the coordinator of the scheme.


Sanitary pads manufacturing at local common services centres -Ministry of electronics and IT

Menstrual hygiene scheme - HEALTH MINISTRY under Rasthriya Kishor Swashtya Karyakram

Menstrual hygiene management national guidelines -- Minsitry of Drinking Water and



Sanitary pads provided to schools n girl hostels under Rashtriya madhyamik shiksha abhiyan --


Shaala Darpan portal.


Human Resource Development ministry


It is an E-Governance school automation and management system for Navodaya Vidyalaya

Samiti (NVS) in New Delhi.
It is an end to end e-Governance school automation and management system.

It is a database management portal, where information about all government schools and
education offices is kept online and updated as a continuous process.


The Navodaya Vidyalayas are co-educational residential schools established by the Navodaya
Samiti which is an autonomous organization under MHRD to provide quality modern

National Safai Karamcharis Finance & Development

National Safai Karamcharis Finance & Development Corporation(NSKFDC), a wholly owned
Govt. of India Undertaking under the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment (M/o SJ&E)

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was set up on 24th January 1997 as a Company “Not for Profit” under Section 25 of the
Companies Act, 1956. NSKFDC is in operation since October, 1997, as an Apex Corporation for
the all round socio-economic upliftment of the Safai Karamcharis, Scavengers and their
dependants throughout India,through various loan and non-loan based schemes.
Apart from operating various loan and non-loan based schemes for the upliftment of the target
group, NSKFDC is playing a vital role in elimination of manual scavenging - the worst
surviving symbol of untouchability.
NSKFDC has been designated as the Nodal Agency for implementation of the Central Sector
Self Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers (SRMS) under the aegis of

the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment.

National Family Health Survey (NFHS)

The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) is a large-scale, multi-round survey conducted in a
representative sample of households throughout India.
All National Family Health Surveys have been conducted under the stewardship of the
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, with the International Institute

for Population Sciences, Mumbai, serving as the nodal agency.

ICF International (formerly Macro International), Maryland, USA, provided technical
assistance for all four surveys conducted as on date.

Salient findings of NFHS-4


Fewer children are dying in infancy and early childhood .

Better care for women during pregnancy and childbirth contributes to reduction of
maternal deaths and improved child survival.

Overall, women in the First Phase States/Union Territories are having fewer children.
Full immunization coverage among children age 12-23 months varies widely in the

First Phase States/Union Territories.

Married women are less likely to be using modern family planning in eight of the
First Phase States/Union Territories.

Lack of HIV awareness in Indian adults


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9 1@

..Miscellaneous Facts..

recently seen in news:

1.Themine is located in West Bengal

2.DeochaPachami is among the biggest coal mines in the world.

The 8888 Uprising; is associated with:Myanmar

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World‘s first Thermal Battery Plant has been inaugurated in
Following cities are included in UNESCO‘s Creative Cities Network fromIndia




Bhagwati Charan Vohra

kill Lord Irwin who escaped unharmed. gm
Bhagwati Charan Vohra had planned and executed a bomb blast on Delhi-Agra railway line to

Mahatma Gandhi condemned this attack and revolutionary activities in his article ‘the Cult of
the Bomb’.
In its response, Bhagwati Charan Vohra wrote ‘The Philosophy of the Bomb’ with the aid
of Chandrashekhar Azad.


Guru Ghasidas National Park is located in Korea district of Chhattisgarh. The last known
Indian cheetah was sighted in Korea District in 1951.


Paektu Mountain

Paektu Mountain, also known as Baekdu Mountain, and in China as Changbai Mountain, is an
active stratovolcano on the Chinese–North Korean border.
At 2,744 m, it is the highest mountain of the Changbai and Baekdudaegan ranges.


Telangana to set up country‟s first „Blockchain District‟ in Hyderabad


The Indian Government can imprison or deport illegal migrants under the Foreigners Act, 1946 and
the Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920

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Khelo India Programme
The Khelo India programme has been introduced to revive the sports culture in India at the grass-

root level by building a strong framework for all sports played in our country and establish India as a
great sporting nation

1st edition Delhi 2018
2nd edition Pune 2019

3rd edition Aassam 2020

“toothpaste lava” gm
Sometimes high-viscosity magma comes out from the pipe like toothpaste being squeezed out

of a tube.
The volcanologists sometimes use the term “toothpaste lava” to denote this eruption.

Digital Gender Atlas:


Digital Gender Atlas for Advancing Girls’ Education: Department of School Education and
Literacy has prepared a Digital Gender Atlas for advancing girls’ education in the country on

its website.
The tool, which has been developed with the support of UNICEF, will help identify low
performing geographic pockets for girls,

Antara is injectable contraceptive:

Antara is injectable contraceptive, effective for three months drug whereas Chayya is
contraceptive pill, effective for one week. Both of contraceptives are safe and highly effective.
They will be available for free in medical colleges and district hospitals in 10 states.
The introduction of these new contraceptives will expand the basket of choices for country’s
population to meet their family planning needs

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India’s first ‘Garbage Café’
India’s first ‘Garbage Café’ will soon be opened in Ambikapur city in north Chhattisgarh. It is
initiative ofAmbikapur municipal corporation. It aims to make Ambikar city plastic-free.


India is the largest user of ground water in the world, extracting ground water to the tune of
253 bcm per year, which is about 25% of the global ground water extraction.
Out of the total of 6584 assessment units, 1034 have been categorized as ‘Over-exploited’ 253

as ‘Critical’, 681 as ‘Semi-Critical’ and 4520 as ‘Safe’ The remaining 96 assessment units
have been classified as ‘Saline’ due to non-availability of fresh ground water due to salinity



Mumbai’s CSMT railway station becomes 1st to get “Eat


Right Station” certification from FSSAI

The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus (CSMT) railway station of Mumbai, Maharashtra

has been conferred with ‘Eat Right Station’ certification with the four-star rating by the Food

Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) for food safety and hygiene. With this, CSMT
becomes the first Central Railway station to get this certification.

The certification is a part of ‘Eat Right India’ movement launched by FSSAI and an FMCG
(Fast-Moving Consumer Goods) major. The movement is built upon two broad pillars i.e. Eat
healthy and Eat safe

Sarvatra Kawach’

Indigenously developed the bullet-proof jacket.The Jacket can withstand a sniper bullet even from 10

metres..It was developed in the College of Military Engineering in Pune.

Victoria Memorial Hall

The Victoria Memorial Hall, Kolkata (VMH), was founded principally through the efforts of
Viceroy Lord Curzon, in 1921 as a period museum in memory of Queen Victoria with particular
emphasis on Indo-British history.
The VMH was declared an institution of national importance by the Government of India Act of

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Epidemiological transition is a phase of development witnessed by a sudden and stark increase

in population growth rates brought by improved food security and innovations in public health
and medicine, followed by a re-leveling of population growth due to subsequent declines in
fertility rates.
This accounts for the replacement of infectious diseases by chronic diseases over time due to

increased life span as a result of improved health care and disease prevention.

The Great Blue Hole

The Great Blue Hole lies 100 km off the coast of Belize in Central America.

A world heritage site of the UNESCO, the Great Blue Hole is part of the Belize Barrier Reef
Reserve System. It is round in shape with a distinct colour measuring 300m across and 108m
in depth. gm
The Great Blue Hole, which was once an island, is a result of the geological factors at play.
Few thousand years ago during the ice age, the sea level was much lower.

Limestone rocks were found below the island, which dissolved in rain and groundwater. Over a
period of time, this process formed hollow places or caves below the earth’s surfac

" World Cotton Day "


Recently The World Trade Organisation (WTO), organized World Cotton Day event in
collaboration with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United

Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the International Trade Centre
(ITC) and the International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC).
This event was hosted at request of Cotton-4 (Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad and Mali) .

World Cotton Day organized by WTO in Geneva on 7th October, 2019, Ministry of Commerce
& Industry (GoI), announced the launch of Phase-II of C-TAP (Cotton Technical Assistance

Programme) in 11 African countries.


1. To give exposure and recognition to cotton and all its stakeholders

2. To engage donors and beneficiaries.
3. To seek new collaborations with the private sector and investors.
4. promote technological advances, as well as further R&D on Cotton.

Great Nicobar Island:

The Great Nicobar Island of Andaman has an area of about 1044 sq. km.
According to the 2011 census, has a population of about 8,069.
The island is home to one of the most primitive tribes of India — the Shompens.

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The island includes the Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve (GNBR) comprising of the Galathea
National Park and the Campbell Bay National Park.
The island harbours a wide spectrum of ecosystems from tropical wet evergreen forests,
mountain ranges and coastal plains.
The island is also home to giant robber crabs, crab-eating macaques, the rare megapode as
well as leatherback turtles.

Vaigai Valley Civilisation.
As per report published by the Tamil Nadu Archaeology Department (TNAD), the cultural

deposits unearthed during the excavations at site Keeladi located in the Sivaganga district
could be dated to a period between the 6th century BC and the 1st century AD.

The title of the report was ‘Keeladi-An Urban Settlement of Sangam Age on the Banks of River
The carbon dating test confirmed the date of the Tamil-Brahmi script is dated to the year 580
The results suggest that the second urbanization (the first being the Indus Valley Civilization)

of Vaigai plains happened in Tamil Nadu during the 6th century BC.
Skeletal fragments of Cow/Ox & Buffalo, Sheep & Goat, Nilgai & Blackbuck, Wild boar, and
Peacock suggest that the society in Keeladi had used animals predominantly for agricultural


The recovery of spindle whorls, pinpointed bone tip tools, hanging stones of the yarn etc.,
outlines the various stages of weaving industry from spinning, yarning, looming, weaving and

Drake Passage

It is the body of water between South America’s Cape Horn and the South Shetland Islands of

"The Pink city, Jaipur":


The Pink city, Jaipur (Rajasthan), has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The decision was taken at the 43rd session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee (WHC)
taking place in the city of Baku, Azerbaijan.
Jaipur has become the second city of the country after Ahmedabad to get the recognition.
The walled city of Jaipur in Rajasthan, was founded in 1727 AD under the patronage of Sawai
Jai Singh II. It also serves as the capital city of the state of Rajasthan.
Successful inscription of Jaipur City, India has 38 world heritage sites that include 30 Cultural
properties, 7 Natural properties and 1 mixed site.
Unlike other cities in the region located in hilly terrain, Jaipur was established on the plain and
built according to a grid plan interpreted in the light of Vedic architecture.

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"Tulu - Dravidian language":
Tulu is a Dravidian language whose speakers are concentrated in the region of Tulu Nadu,
which comprises the districts of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi in Karnataka and the northern
part of Kasaragod district of Kerala.

Kasaragod district is called ‘Sapta bhasha Samgama Bhumi (the confluence of seven
languages)’, and Tulu is among the seven.
"Mandara Ramayana" is most notable modern literature of Tulu language

The oldest available inscriptions in Tulu are from the period between 14th to 15th century AD.
"Yuelu Proclamation" made by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural

Organization (UNESCO) at Changsha, China, in 2018 plays a central role in guiding the efforts
of countries and regions around the world to 'protect linguistic resources and diversity'.
The United Nations General Assembly has proclaimed 2019 as the International Year of
Indigenous Languages (IYIL).
Article 29 of the Indian Constitution deals with the "Protection of interests of minorities".
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Jatayu conservation breeding centre


It is a facility within Bir Shikargah Wildlife Sanctuary for the breeding and conservation of
Indian vultures in Pinjore town near Chandigarh, Haryana.


Zero Day is associated with cyber attack or threat(USA and Israel's cyber attack on Iranian
centrifuges)AndDay Zero is associated with Capetown's water crisis


Principle of ‘Commons’
It deals with mindset that set of resources such as air, land, water and biodiversity do not belong to
one community or individual, but to humanity.

Himroo is a fabric made of cotton and silk using a special loom. The district of Aurangabad is
famous because of these beautiful fabrics.
The original form is made of silver and gold. The textile is associated with the times of
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq in the 14th C.

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Suranga Bawadi
It has entered the World Monuments Watch List under the Ancient Water System of the
Deccan Plateau of the World Monument Funds.
It is situated in Bijapur, Karnataka. It is an integral part of the ancient Karez System by which
water was supplied through subterranean tunnels.
Suranga Bawadi: Suranga Bawadi was built in the 16th century by Adil Shah-I of the
Adilshahi dynasty of Bijapur.

The system was aimed to supply water to Vijaypura in Karnataka.
Karez System: Karez System is a method to harness water in which groundwater is brought
to the surface by a tunnel. No mechanical pump or lift is used in the system.

"Seke Language":

Nepalese language Seke is reported to be “near-extinct” which has only 700 speakers around
the world.
According to the Endangered Language Alliance (ELA), Seke is one of the over 100 indigenous
languages of Nepal and is mainly spoken in the five villages of Chuksang, Chaile, Gyakar,
Tangbe and Tetang in the Upper Mustang district.


Centre for Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE), is a laboratory of the Defence
Research and Development Organization (DRDO).
It is located near Manali, Himachal Pradesh its primary function is research in the field of

snow and avalanches to provide avalanche control measures and forecasting support to Armed

Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Mission to carry on humanitarian relief and social
The Mission had many branches in different parts of the country and carried on social service
by opening schools, hospitals and dispensaries etc.
The motto of the Ramakrishna Mission is personal salvation


Amazon Founder and CEO Jeff Bezos have announced The Climate Pledge. The pledge is a
commitment to meet Paris Agreement's goal 10 years early by achieving net-zero carbon
across businesses by 2040

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APNA UREA - SonaUgle:
GOI (The Union Minister for Chemicals and Fertilizers) launched the "APNA UREA - SonaUgle"
brand of Hindustan Urvarak&Rasayan Limited (HURL) .
HURL is Joint Venture Company promoted by the three Maharatna Companies i.e. Coal India
Limited (CIL), NTPC Limited (NTPC) and Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL).
Objective of making the country self-reliant in Urea, the Government approved in 2016 the
revival of three sick Urea plants located at Gorakhpur, Sindri and Barauni.

“India importing 70-80 LMT fertilizer every year".

Z-Morh tunnel

Z-Morh Tunnel would provide all-weather road connectivity to Sonamarg tourist spot in Jammu

Gagenger area. gm
and Kashmir which mostly remains closed during the winters due to heavy snowfall in

The project includes construction, operation and maintenance of the tunnel with approaches
on NH-1 at Srinagar-Sonmarg-Gumri Road on Design, Build, Finance, Operate and Transfer

(DBFOT) Annuity basis.


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The Government of Indiadefines illegal immigrant as any foreigner :

1. Entering India without valid travel documents, or

2. Overstays a permitted period of stay.


What is Measles?

Measles is a serious and highly contagious disease.
It can cause debilitating or fatal complications, including encephalitis, severe diarrhoea and
dehydration, pneumonia, ear infections and permanent vision loss.

The disease is preventable through two doses of a safe and effective vaccine.

Megha Tropiques gm
Megha Tropiques is the joint collaboration between India and France to study the Water Cycle

in the tropical atmosphere in the context of climate change.

A collaborative effort between Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and French Centre
National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES),


Fausta, -a female black rhino, who was believed to be the world’s oldest rhino has died at the
age of 57 in a Tanzanian conservation area. Fausta died.


Oxygen Parlour-

In a unique initiative to battle rising air pollution in cities, Indian Railways has opened an
‘Oxygen Parlour’ at Nashik railway station in Maharashra

Chillai -kalan-
The traditional 40-day period of harshest winter in Kashmir known in the local parlance as


Hudson Valley-USA


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Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture by FAO.
It aims to improve nutrition, food security and resilience. The alliance has three aspirational

varieties of Coffee grown in India:

Kents: Kents is the earliest variety of Arabica. It is less susceptible to rust and is grown in a

few areas but it known for its exceptional cup quality.
795: It gives high yields, bold beans, superior quality and relative tolerance to leaf rust.
Cauvery: Popularly known as Catimor, Cauvery is a descendant of a cross between ‘Caturra’

and ‘Hybrido-de-Timor’. It inherited the high yielding and superior quality attributes of
Caturra and the resistance of ‘Hybrido-de Timor’.

9: Selection 9 is a derivative of a cross between an Ethiopian Arabica collection, ‘Tafarikela’,
and ‘Hybrido-de-Timor’.


US - China signed 'Phase One' of Trade Deal




It is a natural phenol derived from the cotton plant (genus Gossypium).



Myitsone Dam The project was proposed across Irawaddy river



The Ministry of Earth Science has launched Seismic Hazard Microzonation project in major
cities of India. The project aims to reduce hazards of seismic activities by putting in adequate
Japan is the best example where microzonation techniques are well implemented.



It forms the western part of the Dihang-Dibang Biosphere Reserve.
With elevations ranging from 400 m to over 3000 m in the park, it forms a transition
zonebetween tropical forests at lower altitudes to most temperate forest at altitudes above
2800 m.

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India is hosting the Conference of Parties (COP) 14 of the United Nations Convention Combat
geologic process (UNCCD)


Kajin Sara lake -Manang district of Nepal.

This lake in Nepal has set a new record of being the world's highest lake and replaced Tilicho
Lake of Nepal.


The Amazon Rainforest is spread across 9 South American countriesBrazil, Peru, Colombia,
Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana,Suriname and French Guiana are all a part of the
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Recently in news, It is Ancient Japanese paper cutting techniques.


North East India:


Arunachal Pradesh Governor “P B Acharya” said, " Indians know more about the US than

about the Northeast".

He made a valid point - very few of us know enough about the Northeast.
Here are some of the surprising facts about the Northeast.
There are “eight states” in Northeast: Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Assam, Manipur,
Meghalaya, Tripura, Sikkim, Nagaland.
There are nearly “220 languages” spoken in the Northeast, It is a mix of Tibetan, South-east
Asian and East Indian Cultures.
Northeast is the only part of India that the “Mughal Empire could not conquer”.
The “Ahom Dynasty”, which ruled the Northeast for 600 years, is the longest unbroken
Dynasty in Indian history.
The world's largest river island, the Majuli and the world's smallest river island, Umananda
both are in the Northeast.
Seven prominent National Parks of India are located in Northeast.
Shillong is considered as the Rock Capital of India.

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Mawsynram in Meghalaya holds the Guinness World Record for being the Wettest Place on
Sualkuchi in Assam is one of the World's largest weaving villages where the entire
population is engaged in weaving Silk Fabrics.
Muga, the Golden Silk of Assam, is not produced anywhere else in the World.
It is the cleanest region in India.
Mawlynnong in Meghalaya is the cleanest village in entire Asia.
70% of the country's Orchids are found in Northeast.
Mizoram and Tripura are among the states with the highest Literacy rate in India.

There is no Dowry culture in entire Northeast.

Delhi Proposals

Earlier, in December 1927, a large number of Muslim leaders had met at Delhi at the Muslim

League session and evolved four proposals for Muslim demands to be incorporated in the draft
constitution. These proposals, which were accepted by the Madras session of the Congress
(December 1927), came to be known as the ‘Delhi Proposals’.
These were –

1. Joint electorates in place of separate electorates with reserved seats for Muslims
2. One-third representation to Muslims in Central Legislative Assembly representation to
Muslims in Punjab and Bengal in proportion to their population

3. Formation of three new Muslim majority provinces— Sindh, Baluchistan and North-West

Frontier Province.

Delhi Manifesto

On November 2, 1929, a conference of prominent national leaders issued a “Delhi Manifesto”


which demanded that the purpose of the Round Table Conferences (RTC), promised by
Lord Irwin,

1. Should be to formulate a scheme for implementation of the dominion status;


2. Congress should have majority representation at the conference, amnesty and


3. A general policy of conciliation;

Viceroy Irwin rejected these demands on December 23, 1929, which led to the demand of
Purna swaraj in Lahore session of INC

Delhi Pact
The Gandhi Irwin Pact was a political agreement signed by Mahatma Gandhi and the then
Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin on 5 March 1931 before the second Round Table Conference in
Before this, the viceroy Lord Irwin announced in October 1929, a vague offer of 'dominion
status' for India in an unspecified future and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future
The second round table conference which was held in 1931.

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Dilli Chalo slogan was given by Indian freedom fighter name Subhas Chandra Bose.

Delhi Chalo movement

Gandhi initiated a limited satyagraha on an individual basis in every locality.
The carefully -chosen satyagrahis would preach against participation in the war , after
informing the district magistrate of the time and place of the anti war speech.
Vinoba Bhave was first satyagrahi on 17 October 1940 and Jawarharlal Nehru , the second .

If the government did not arrest them, they planned to start moving towards Delhi.

Plastic Park + Plastic Recycling unit

Upcoming Plastic Hub
Deoghar District, Jharkhand

World Water Development Report’,
It is an annual and thematic report, is published by UN-Water.
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Saral Eindhan Vitaran Application SEVA


Union Minister of State (IC) for Power, Coal, New & Renewable Energy and Mines, Shri Piyush
Goyal launched the Saral Eindhan Vitaran Application (SEVA), developed in-house by Coal
India Limited (CIL) for power sector consumers, here today.

SEVA is a part of ‘Digital India’ initiative, which is aimed at increasing the Consumer
Connect as well as the Transparency and Accountability in Coal dispatch.
The consumer friendly mobile app helps in tracking of coal dispatch to 118 Power Plants

through Fuel Supply Agreement (FSA) of around 500 MT besides, dispatch through Special

Forward E-Auction and Bridge Linkage from more than 200 dispatch points spread over eight
states of the country.

Gas- Cracker
Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) has commissioned the world’s largest Refinery Off-Gas
Cracker (ROGC) complex of 1.5 mtpa capacity along with downstream plants and utilities.
The ROGC complex is a core component of RIL’s J3 project at its integrated refinery-
petrochemicals complex at Jamnagar.
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Meisenheimer complex
A chemical compound (Meisenheimer complex) synthesised through a simple, single-step
process of mixing two chemicals at room temperature has been found to be highly effective in
removing fluoride and metal ions such as lead, mercury, cadmium, copper, and iron from
drinking water.

Don't Confuse

1) Udaym Sakhi Portal by Ministry of MSME

2)Women Entrepreneurship Platform by NITI AYOG

3) Women Entrepreneurship Council by Ministry of Women and Child Empowerment.

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Local Winds
Some of the local winds, their region of occurrence and characteristics are given blow:

Blizzard: It is intensely cold fast blowing wind accompanied by snow. Blows in North America.
Bora (Adriatic Sea): it descends from mountains during the winter season. It blows with a
speed of 120-150km/h. its duration may be from three to five days.
Brickfielder: it blows from the desert of Australia during the summer season( December to
Buran: it blows in central Asia and Siberia. It is a strong cold north easterly wind which

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reduces the temperature up to -30 o C.
Chili: it is a hot dry wind which blows from the Sahara Desert towards the Mediterranean Sea
through Tunisia.
Gibli: it blows from the Sahara Desert towards Mediterranean Sea through Libya. It is an
extreamely hot local wind.it blows during the summer season. It may last for 3-5 days. This
wind has extreme effects. Due to heat the government declares the holiday. Because of this
the shade temperature reaches up to 60 o C. Sometimes the tyres of the car melt and stick to
the road. Even the dry grass catches fire. People shelter themselves in the basements.
Haboob: it is a similar hot wind blowing towards the Mediterranean through Sudan.

Karaburn: it blows from March to May and leads to hazy weather. It is also responsible for
deposition of loess in Huwang Ho valley.
Khamsin: hot wind blows in Egypt for about 50 days.

Loo: it blows in summer season in India in northern plains. It is a hot dry wind and raises the
temperature. Loo follows a three day cycle. It starts blowing at 9am in the morning till 5 in

evening. On its third day, it is accompanied by a storm in the evening called Aandhi and causes
little shower taking the temperature down.
Mistral: it blows in Rhone valley of France. It a cold wind blowing during winters. It has
adverse effects on orchards.
Pampero: cold and dry wind blowing during winter season in Pampas (Argentina).

Samoon: Hot wind blowing during summers in Iran.

Simoon: Hot wind blowing during summers in Saudi Arabia.
Sirroco: hot and humid wind blowing from Sahara (Morocco) to Sicily during April to July.


Ministry of Human Resources Development.


Vishwajeet will aim to pick the IITs with greatest potential to climb up the global pecking
order and then ensure close focus on them, backed with funding, so that they excel on all

Incheon declaration

The Incheon declaration - 'Education 2030: Towards inclusive and equitable quality
education and lifelong learning for all ' was adopted at the World Education Forum in
Incheon, South Korea in 2015.

Science Cities
Science Cities have been set up by Ministry of Culture through National Council of Science
Museums (NCSM), an Autonomous Organisation under the Ministry of Culture.

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‘Hunar Haat’
Hunar Haat are being organised by the Minority Affairs Ministry to provide an opportunity, as
well as domestic and international exposure to the master artisans from across the country.

Padho Pardesh,

Padhao Pradesh is a scheme for providing interest subsidy on educational loans taken from
Banks by minority students for higher studies abroad.

Hamari Dharohar
The initiative of Hamari Dharohar is aimed at preservation of rich heritage and culture of
minorities, by supporting curation of iconic exhibitions, calligraphy, preservation of old
documents, research and development, restructured Multi-sectoral Development Programme

or Jan Vikaas Karyakram, for area development programme.

Nai Roshni

Nai Roshni is a scheme for Leadership Development of Minority Women by providing

knowledge, tools and techniques for interacting with Government systems, banks and

intermediaries at all levels, concessional loans by National Minorities Development & Finance

River : Origin

1. Satluj : Rakas Lake

2. Indus : Bokhar Chu glacier

3. Jhelum : Spring at Verinag

4. Chenab : Chandra and Bhaga stream
5. Ravi : Rohtang pass in the Kullu hills of Himachal Pradesh
6. Beas : Beas Kund in Rohtang Pass
7. Ghaghara : Mapchachugo glacier
8. Son : Amarkantak plateau
9. Kaveri : Brahmagiri hills
10. Krishna : Mahabaleshwar in Sahayadri
11. Narmada : Amarkantak plateau
12. Godavari : Rises near Nasik District of Maharashtra

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Transmission App for Real Time Monitoring & Growth Mobile App & Web
Portal has been developed by RECTPCL, under the guidance of Ministry of Power.
Introduction of the electronic platform shall enhance ease, accountability & transparency and
would boost confidence of investors in power transmission sector. Better price discovery shall
ultimately benefit the power consumers in India.
It tracks upcoming transmission projects and monitor the progress of Inter-State & Intra-State

transmission systems in the country.


e-Trans’ web platform for e-bidding and e-reverse auction for Tariff Based Competitive Bidding

(TBCB) in transmission projects.

Discovery of Efficient Electricity Price e-Bidding’ portal for medium term (1-5 years) purchase
of power, on the occasion.


Merit Order Despatch of Electricity for Rejuvenation of Income and Transparency-The app
displays extensive array of information regarding the merit order such as daily state-wise
marginal variable costs of all generators, daily source-wise power purchases of respective

states/UTs with source-wise fixed and variable costs, energy volumes and purchase prices.

Urban Jyoti Abhiyan Mobile App-

URJA App offers information on Consumer complaints redressal, Release of new service

connection, Average number of interruptions faced by consumer, Average duration of

interruptions faced by consumer, Number of consumers making e-payments, Energy lost /
power theft i.e. AT&C loss, IT Enablement (Go-live of towns), SCADA Implementation, Urban
System Strengthening, Feeder Data on National Power Portal, IPDS NIT progress, IPDS Award

Grameen Vidyutikaran Mobile App
The purpose of the mobile application is to ensure transparency in implementation of rural
electrification programme.
The mobile application provides real-time updated data of ongoing electrification process to all
users/stakeholders and provides information about Government schemes and electrification
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The app can also be used for sharing inspirational stories of differently-abled, who achieved
success despite all odds.

‘Saubhagya’ Web-Portal – a Platform for transparently monitoring Universal Household

Electricity, Price Availability and Highlights’” at a function here today. The mobile application

provides highlights of the power availability in the country on real time basis.
The Web / Mobile App provides a wealth of information pertaining to the current demand met,
shortages if any, surplus power available and the prices in the Power Exchange. The real time

data and comparison with previous day/year data is also available.

Data from multiple sources, including the States and Power Exchanges, has been made
available through a single portal for convenience of all.

Tarang Sanchar

The Telecom Department launched a portal – Tarang Sanchar Portal that will allow people to

track radiation emitted from mobile towers within a locality.

The portal will empower consumers to know about the towers working in a particular area and

whether they are compliant to the Electromagnetic field (EMF) emission norms.

Shilpostav- 2017

Shilpostav- 2017 is the annual fair of artisans from across the country, belonging to the
weaker sections of the society. Initiative of Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment.

NCRB Publications

NCRB(MoHA) publishes 4 annual publications on

1. Crime,
2. Prison Statistics,
3. Accidental Deaths & Suicides
4. Finger Prints.

These publications serve as principal reference points on crime statistics.

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Jalmani programme
The centrally sponsored programme commenced in 2008-09 aimed at installing simple Stand
Alone Water Purification Systems (SAWPS) in rural schools to enable school children to have
access to safe and clean water.
It is 100% central sponsored scheme.
This is done by Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation

Special initiatives under DDU-GKY
Himayat: A special scheme for the youth (rural & urban) of Jammu & Kashmir.

Roshni: A special initiative for the rural youth of poor families in 27 Left-wing Extremist (LWE)
districts across 9 states.

Sankalp Se Sidhi
Program was organized across the country to commemorate the Quit India Movement.
To commemorate 75 years of the Quit India Movement the government led the nation to a
pledge to create a New India that is strong, prosperous and all-encompassing; an India that
will make our freedom fighters proud.


Dam Health and Rehabilitation Monitoring Application (DHARMA) launched at the conference.
The app will serve as a web tool to digitize all dam related data effectively.

It will help to document authentic asset and health information pertaining to the large dams in
the country, enabling appropriate actions to ensure need based rehabilitation.


5000 Students in 25 KVs in 25 states will get pre-loaded tablets.

Teachers of these KVs will use tablets in classroom transaction.

It will promote flip-learning, reduce school bag load, learning at own pace, and effective

Classical languages
The following benefits are available for languages which are declared as classical languages: -

1. Two major annual international awards for scholars of eminence in the concerned language.
2. A 'Centre of Excellence for Studies in Classical Languages' can be set up.
3. The University Grants Commission can be requested to create, to start with at least in Central
Universities, a certain number of professional chairs for classical languages, for scholars of
eminence in the concerned language.

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About some islands
Sriharikota Island, which hosts Satish Dhawan Space Station.
The hope island is a relatively newly formed island due to sediments carried by Godavari
river and also acts as natural protection for Kakinada Port against strong storm surges from
the Bay of Bengal. It also hosts Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, relatively less known but important
breeding site for endangered Olive Ridley Turtles. (Important because of Fishing and Port
activities disturbing the turtle breeding)

The Wellington Island is also India's largest artificial island and home to India's Southern
Naval Command and Port Kochi.
The New Mooreisland is no more disputed after PCA's verdict in July 2014 and was assigned

to India, though the majority of the rest of disputed territory went into Bnagladeshi control.

Words in news
Buried Sunshine -Coal
Black Gold - Petroleum.

Golden fibre-Jute
Green Gold -Bamboo
Manchester of India-Ahmedabad

Manchester of Japan -Osaka


Silicon Valley- California

Silicon plateau – Bangalore

Geothermal energy resources


There are four major types of Geothermal energy resources.

1. Hydrothermal

2. Geopressurised brines
3. Hot dry rocks

4. Magma

There are seven geothermal provinces in India : the Himalayas, Sohana, West coast, Cambay,
Son-Narmada-Tapi (SONATA), Godavari, and Mahanadi.
Geothermal plants at Manikaram-HP, Puga Valley-Ladhak

Don't Confuse
1. Ganga Gram by Mini of Drinking Water and Sanitation
2. Smart Gram by President Office
3. Cyber Gram by Minority Affairs.
4. Nyaya Gram by Allhabad High Court

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Countries sharing border with different Sea :
1. Caspian Sea : Tarik ( Turkmenistan , Azerbaijan, Russia, Iran ,Kazakhstan) .
2. Black Sea : Gurr But ( Georgia, Ukraine,Russia , Romania , Bulgaria , Turkey)
3. Red Sea : Dessey ( Djibouti ,Erittrea , Saudi Arabia,Sudan, Egypt, Yemen )
4. Aral Sea : Uk ( Uzbekistan And Kazakhstan)
5. Sea Of Azov : Ur ( Ukrain And Russia)
6. Baltic Sea : Rude Germany Sell Poland And Finland. (Russia , Denmark , Germany , Sweden,

Estonia , Latvia , Lithuania , Poland And Finland )
7. Aral Sea: Kazakhstan ,Uzbekistan.

Parinam Manjusha

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has come up with digital academic
repository called 'Parinam Manjusha', which will allow students to find their mark sheets, pass

and migration certificates online. It has been developed by the board in collaboration with
NEGD (DigiLocker)

All India Council for TechnicalEducation


AICTE)under the aegis of Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) and in


collaboration with i4c, MyGov, Persistent Systems, and Rambhau Mhalgi Prabodhini is

organizing Smart India Hackathon 2018.

It includes 2 sub-editions – Software edition and the Hardware edition. Hardware edition,
involving the building of hardware solutions will be held later this year.

During the software edition grand finale, teams of thousands of technology students will build
innovative digital solutions for problems posed by different Central Govt.

"Champions of Change"

It is a initiative organised by NITI Aayog

Champions of Change - Transforming India through G2B Partnership Prime Minister described
the "Champions of Change" initiative as one effort to bring together diverse strengths for the
benefit of the nation and society.
This is the second series of such meetings Modi is having with the business fraternity after he
met around 200 start-up entrepreneurs last Thursday, where the Prime Minister prodded them
to devise systems and solutions that help in improving governance.

Global financial system report-BIS

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GLOBAL Financial stability Report- IMF
Financial stability Report- RBI

National Productivity Council

NPC is national level organization to promote productivity culture in India. Established by the
Ministry of Industry, Government of India in 1958, it is an autonomous, multipartite, non-profit
organization with equal representation from employers’ & workers’ organizations and

Government, apart from technical & professional institutions and other interests.
NPC is a constituent of the Tokyo-based Asian Productivity Organization (APO), an Inter-
Governmental Body, of which the Government of India is a founder member.

NPC teams up with its clients to work out solutions towards accelerating productivity,
enhancing competitiveness, increasing profits, augmenting safety and reliability and ensuring
better quality.

It provides reliable database for decision-making, improved systems and procedures, work
culture as well as customer satisfaction both internal & external.
The solutions can be all-encompassing or specific depending on the nature of the problem.
The council also helps monitor, review and implement the identified strategies.
Promotional and catalytic in nature, NPC’s services have bearings on economic growth and

quality of life.
The Council promotes a comprehensive view of productivity focused on improving triple
bottom line – economic, environmental and social and adds value for all the stakeholders

through generation & application of advanced knowledge for inclusive Growth.


The Union Minister for Industry is the President of the NPC, and the Secretary (Industrial
Policy and Promotion) is its Chairman.
The Director General is the CEO. NPC has 12 Regional Offices, located in major State

Capitals/industrial centre with Corporate Headquarters in New Delhi and has strength of
around 120 full time professional/consultants.

In addition, services of outside specialists and faculty are also enlisted on projects based


Microbeads are tiny plastic substances measuring less than five millimetres that act as
exfoliators (agents which remove dead cells) on skin and teeth when used in soap, toothpaste
and other products. Many brands manufacturing beauty products use microbeads.
The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has classified microbeads as “unsafe” for use in
cosmetic products.

Lapis Lazuli Corridor

Lapis Lazuli Corridor is created toward transit and trade cooperation among Afghanistan,
Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey intended to reduce barriers facing transit trade
and develop a Custom Procedure Integration in the region.

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The Eastern Rift Valley
Countries- Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Zambia, Tanzania, Malawi,

Buddhist Councils
There were four Buddhist Councils.

These Buddhist Councils are considered as the four milestones in the history of Buddhism.
In order to address the issues during that period in Buddhism. They are as follows.

First Buddhist Council ( 486 BC) at Rajgriha (the modern city of Rajgir)

King: Ajatasatru, son of King Bimbisara (Haryanka Dynasty).
Took place 3 months after the Buddha’s Passing. gm
The First Buddhist Council collected together and arranged the Buddhist Scriptures known as
the Pali Tipitaka.
9 1@

Second Buddhist Council(386 BC) at Vaishali


King: Kalasoka (Shisunaga Dynasty).


Third Buddhist Council (250 BC) atPataliputra


King: Ashoka (Maurya Dynasty).

Its objective was to reconcile the different schools of Buddhism and to purify the Buddhist

movement, particularly from opportunistic factions which had been attracted by the royal

The responses to doctrinal questions and disputes formulated at the Third Council were
recorded by Moggaliputta Tissa in the Kathavatthu, one of the books of the Abhidhamma

Fourth Buddhist Council (72 AD) at Kashmir

King: Kanishka (Kushan Dynasty) ,was a patron of Buddhism and was instrumental in
spreading the religion in north-western borders of India.
Final division of Buddhism into Mahayana & Hinayana sects.
Note: The Theravada Buddhist council in 1871 and Theravada Buddhist council in 1954 are
known as Fifth and Sixth Buddhist Councils respectively
Abhidhamma pitaka, dealing with Buddhist philosophy written in Pali.

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Countries collectively called as Horn of Africa:

1. S- Somalia
2. E- Ethiopia
3. E- Eritrea

4. D- Djibouti

The Yalu River, also called the Amrok River or Amnok River, is a river on the border between

North Korea and China
The Tumen River, also known as the Tuman or Duman River (Korean pronunciation:

[tumanɡaŋ]),[a] is a 521-kilometre (324 mi) long river that serves as part of the boundary
between China, North Korea and Russia, rising on the slopes of Mount Paektu and flowing into
the Sea of Japan.

..Science and Technology..



Is a US-developed technology tool being used worldwide since 2010

It can detect the TB bacterium as well check for resistance to rifampicin, one of the

standard key TB drugs, within 90 minutes.

Conventional tests take at least a day or more and require well-trained personnel for similar

Alternative to GeneXpert

GeneXpert kits are known to be expensive, as well as requiring air-conditioned settings

and reliable electricity access for optimal output
The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) is in the process of testing a cheaper
alternative to GeneXpert called Truenat MTB
Truenat MTB is reportedly more portable, battery-operated, and performs as well at

1. Bedaquiline,sold under the brand name Sirturo, is a medication used to treat active

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2. It is specifically used to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis(MDR-TB) when other
treatment cannot be used
3. It should be used along with at least three other medicationsfor tuberculosis

The Moscow Declaration to End TB

Nikshay Poshan Yojana

Nikshay Poshan Yojana, a direct benefit transfer (DBT) scheme to provide nutritional support to
TB patients. Under the scheme, TB patients have been receiving Rs. 500 per month for the entire

duration of treatment.

"About Rydberg polaron":
It is an exotic state of matter, created at low temperatures, in which a very large atom
contains other ordinary atoms in the space between the nucleus and the electrons.
For the formation of this atom, scientists had to combine two fields of atomic physics:

Bose-Einstein condensates and Rydberg atoms.

Rydberg atoms are formed by exciting a single atom into a high-energy state, in which
the electron is very far from the nucleus.

Bose-Einstein condensates are a state of matter that is produced at temperatures close to


absolute zero.

Pegasus (spyware)

Pegasusis a spyware that can be installed on devices running some versions of iOS, Apple's
mobile operating system, as well on devices running Android. It has been developed by

the Israeli cyberarms firm, NSO Group.

Upon clicking on a malicious link, Pegasus secretly enables a jailbreakon the device and can

read text messages, track calls, collect passwords, trace the phone location, as well as gather
information from apps including (but not limited
to) iMessage, Gmail, Viber, Facebook, WhatsApp, Telegram, and Skype.
It has been revealed that Pegasus can also target Android

National Supercomputing Mission

The National Supercomputing Mission wasannounced in March 2015, with an aim to
connect national academic and R&D institutions with a grid of more than 70 high-
performance computing facilities at an estimated cost of ₹4,500 crore over the period
of seven years.
It supports the government's vision of 'Digital India'and 'Make in India'
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The mission will be implemented by the Department of Science and Technology (Ministry
of Science and Technology )and Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology
(MeitY), through the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) and
Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru.
These supercomputers will also be networked on the National Supercomputing grid over the
National Knowledge Network (NKN). The NKN connects academic institutions and R&D labs
over a high speed network.
Under NSM, the long-term plan is tobuild a strong base of 20,000 skilled persons over the
next five years who will be equipped to handle the complexities of supercomputers.

PARAM Shavakis one such machine that has been deployed to provide training.
Presently, Pratyush, a Cray XC40 system -an array of computers that can deliver a peak
power of 6.8 petaflops, installed at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM),

Pune, is the fastest supercomputer in India. Launched in January 2018, it is the fourth
fastest High Performance Computer (HPC) dedicated to climate modelling in the

The first supercomputer designed and built under National Supercomputing Mission (NSM) by
C-DAC at Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi is named “Param Shivay”. It uses
more than one lakh twenty thousand compute cores (CPU + GPU cores) to offer a peak
computing power of 833 TeraFlops.

TERAHERTZ imaging:

which exists between the microwave and infrared wavelengths.


has recently attracted attention for its ability to “see through” everyday objects.
Among other things, it has been used to detect defects in space shuttle panels and uncover the

material composition and substructure of paintings and murals.


The Galactic/Extragalactic ULDB Spectroscopic Terahertz Observatory (GUSTO) is NASA's


‘CO2 injection technology’:

CO2 gas is injected with residual oil in the ageing field in which total oil production has been
It reduces its viscosity and makes it easier to displace oil from the rock pores. CO2 gas also
swells oil, thereby pushing it towards the producing well for extraction.
CO2-EOR projects resemble a closed-loop system where the CO2 is injected, produces oil, is
stored in the formation, or is recycled back into the injection well.


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1. While the technology is a proven concept in the West specially the US and Canada.
2. ONGC’s project would be the first large scale CO2-injected project in Asia.

3. ONGC is planning to introduce CO2 injection technology in its Gandhar oil field in Gujarat.
Extra 20 million barrels of crude oil under enhanced oil recovery (EOR) programme, improve
India’s energy security.


Shale Gas?

The technological singularity–

Also, simply, the singularity[1] – is a hypothetical future point in time when technological
growth becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, resulting in unfathomable changes to human

Types of Asteroid:

NASA has classified asteroids based on their composition

1. C-type (chondrite): such asteroids are made up of clay and silicate rocks

2. S-types (stony): these are composed of silicate materials and nickel-iron

3. M-types (metallic): such asteroids have a metallic composition.

Some asteroids go in front of and behind Jupiter. They are called Trojans.
Asteroids that come close to Earth are called Near Earth Objects, NEOs for short.
NASA keeps close watch on these asteroids.

‘Diazotrophs’ are bacteria and archaea (single celled organisms) that fix atmospheric
nitrogen gas into a more usable form such as ‘ammonia’.
A diazotroph is a microorganism that is able to grow without external sources of fixed

Diazotrophs can be divided into two types:

A)Free living diazotrophs:

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1. a) Cyanobacteria ,Eg.- Anabaena cylindrica and Nostoc commune.
2. b) Anaerobes - Example - Clostridium.

B)Symbiotic diazotrophs:

1. a) Rhizobia—these are the species that associate with legumes

2. b) Frankias—much less is known about these 'actinorhizal' nitrog fixers.
3. c) Association with animals - Shipworms

“Agent Smith"
Agent Smith is embedded in apps available on Google Play-store, mostly connected to

gaming, image editing or adult entertainment.
Once a user downloads the app, the malware gets active, looking for other apps that it can

take over.
Its ability to impersonate apps, as well as the fact that its icon is not visible on the user’s
screen, makes it next to impossible to detect. gm


Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) launched India’s first large-scale trial for two new

tuberculosis (TB) vaccines named IMMUVAC and VPM1002.

Immuvac: It is also known as mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP), manufactured by
Cadila Pharmaceuticals (Indian),

VPM1002: It is manufactured by Serum Institute of India.



Buoyant Rover for Under-Ice Exploration (BRUIE) is a robot developed by NASA for

underwater exploration in extra-terrestrial, icy waters.

It will search for life in ocean worlds beyond Earth.
It could be used to explore Jupiter’s moon Europa or Saturn’s moon Enceladus.
It will be rolling into Antarctica soon to perform driving upside down under sea ice, since they
are the closest Earth analog to the seas of an icy moon which makes them an ideal testing
ground for it.
It uses buoyancy to remain anchored against the ice and is impervious to most currents.
NASA is already constructing the Europa Clipper orbiter, scheduled for launch in 2025 to
study Jupiter's moon Europa, laying the groundwork for a future mission that could search for
life beneath the ice.

Also Know!

Ocean cryobot ?

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WHO’s ‘REPLACE’ programme
was recently launched to Eliminate trans fat in foods.

"Milk Adulteration":

National Milk Safety and Quality Survey 2018 was conducted by a third party across all States

and UTs and recently released by FSSAI.
According to the survey, Telangana, Madhya Pradesh and Kerala accounted for the highest
number of cases of adulteration.

The adulterants like aflatoxin-M1, antibiotics and pesticides such as urea, hydrogen peroxide,
detergent were found in the milk.
The adulteration was mainly on account of low fat or low SNF (Solid Non-Fat) or both.
Aflatoxin-M1 is more dominant in processed milk than raw milk, which is life threatening,
usually through damage to liver.

It comes in the milk through feed and fodder that are currently not regulated in the country
Tamil Nadu, Delhi and Kerala were top three States where Aflatoxin residue was found the

India is the world‘s largest producer of milk with the total estimated milk production in the

country was 176.35 million tonnes during 2017-18.


Wooden Breast Syndrome


Researchers have recently found that the Wooden Breast Syndrome affects broiler chickens by
making the meat hard and chewy.

It is a metabolic disorder characterised by abnormal fat accumulation in the breast muscle


It involves inflammation of the veins in the breast tissue and accumulation of lipid around the
affected veins.
It is followed by muscle cell death and replacement by fibrous and fatty tissue.
An enzyme called lipoprotein lipase is behind the syndrome and it is crucial for fat metabolism.
At the onset of wooden breast syndrome, lipoprotein lipase was higher in affected chickens,
leading to more fat accumulating in the breast muscles.
This is an irregularity because breast muscle fibres in chicken typically rely on sugar
molecules for fuel, not fat molecules.
It can render the birds unmarketable and cause losses for growers.

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It refers to the society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the
rest of the people.
It is also known as ―rule by thieve.
It is closely associated with military juntas, oligarchies, dictatorships and nepotism or
autocratic regimes.
Russia is often pointed out as an example of a modern kleptocracy.

Africa has many of the world‘s kleptocratic leaders, who have driven their economies into ruin.
'Narco-kleptocracy‘, also known as 'Narco-economies‘, are nations where drug money has
compromised the integrity of the government.

It is through bribing of senior government officials to allow the illegal drug trade to be
conducted within the country. E.g Guinea, Panama, Tajikistan and Venezuela.
Digital Kleptocracy is a means by which rich tech companies mine poor people‘s data.

GPS-aided GEO augmented navigation

The GPS-aided GEO augmented navigation (GAGAN) is an implementation of a regional satellite-

based augmentation system (SBAS) by the Government of India.

It is a system to improve the accuracy of a GNSS receiver by providing reference signals.


Indian regional navigation satellite system


The Indian government has stated that it intends to use the experience of creating the GAGAN
system to enable the creation of an autonomous regional navigation system called the Indian

Regional Navigation Satellite System IRNSS

Currently all 7 satellites are in orbit but in 2017 it was announced that all
three rubidiumatomic clocks on board IRNSS-1A had failed, mirroring similar failures in

the Galileo The first failure occurred in July 2016, following which two other clocks also failed.

This rendered the satellite somewhat redundant and required replacement. Although the
satellite still performs other functions, the data is coarse, and thus cannot be used for accurate
measurements. ISRO plans to replace it with IRNSS-1H in July or August 2017.
Two more clocks in the navigational system had started showing signs of abnormality, thereby
taking the total number of failed clocks to five.

New Space India Limited (NSIL),

a wholly owned Government of India undertaking/ Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSE),
Under the administrative control of Department of Space (DOS)
To commercially exploit the research and development work of Indian Space Research
Organisation (ISRO) Centres and constituent units of DOS.

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ANTRIX for foreign market , NSIL FOR DOMESTIC.


A total of 239 satellites were commercially launched by Antrix Corporation Limited during the
last three years.
The total revenue from operations during the last three years is Rs 6289.05 Crores.

Indian research stations

Dakshin Gangotri was the first scientific base station of India situated in Antarctica, part of
the Indian Antarctic Programme.

Antarctic Programme. gm
Maitri is India's second permanent research station in Antarctica as part of the Indian

Bharati is an Antarctic research station commissioned by India.

It is India's third Antarctic research facility and one of two active Indian research stations,
alongside Maitri.
India's first committed research facility, Dakshin Gangotri, is being used as a supply base

IndARC is India's first underwater moored observatory in the Arctic It was deployed in
2014at Kongsfjorden fjord, Svalbard, Norway which is midway between Norway and North

Its research goal is to study the Arctic climate and its influence on the monsoon

National Programme on use of Space Technology for

Agriculture (NPSTA)

The Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare is proposing a new integrated

programme, called National Programme on use of Space Technology for Agriculture (NPSTA),
envisaging integrated use of Space and Geospatial Tools for Mapping, Monitoring and
Management of Agriculture.
The programme will have four sub-programmes catering to various themes viz. Crop
Assessment & Monitoring; Agricultural Resources Management; Disaster Monitoring and
Mitigation and Satellite Communication and Navigation Applications.
All the current running programmes, such as FASAL (for crop forecasting), NADAMS (for
drought assessment), CHAMAN (for horticultural assessment and development), KISAN (for
crop insurance) and Crop Intensification planning, will be subsumed under this proposed

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The Union Minister of Earth Sciences has recently launched the Gagan Enabled Mariner’s
Instrument for Navigation and Information (GEMINI) device.

The device is developed for effective dissemination of emergency information and

communication on Ocean States Forecastand mapping of Potential Fishing Zones (PFZ) to

Ocean States Forecastprovides the accurate state of the ocean that includes the
forecasts related to winds, waves, ocean currents, water temperature, etc.

PFZ provide information about the probable locations of fish aggregation in the seas to
the fishermen, while
GEMINI is a portable receiverthat is linked to ISRO-satellites. With this device, the

fishermen outside the signal range of their phone companies (i.e. 10-12 km) can also access
warnings and alerts, as the device can send signals up to 300 nautical miles.

Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services


INCOIS is an autonomous organizationunder the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES).

It is located in Hyderabad& was established in 1999 under the MoES and is a unit of the

Earth System Science Organization (ESSO).

It is mandated to provide the best possible ocean information and advisory services to society,
industry, government agencies and the scientific community through sustained ocean

observations and constant improvement through systematic and focused research.


The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)and its commercial arm Antrix

Corporation Ltd. are set to commercialize India’s regional navigation satellite system -
Navigation in Indian Constellation (NavIC).

Navigation in Indian Constellation (NavIC) is an Indian Regional Navigation Satellite

System (IRNSS),developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
IRNSS consists of eight satellites, three satellites in geostationary orbit and five satellites
in geosynchronous orbit.
The main objective is to provide reliable position, navigation and timing servicesover
India and its neighbourhood.
It works just like the established and popular U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) but within
a 1,500-km radius over the sub-continent.
It has been certified by the 3rdGeneration Partnership Project (3GPP), a global body for
coordinating mobile telephony standards.

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What is MANAV : Human Atlas Initiative?
It is a project funded by DBT, which aims at creating a database network of all tissues in the
human body from the available scientific literature

Why is MANAV important?

So far, researchers and students have had little or no expertise in reading scientific literature
and develop or build further information on the same.

This platform will impart key skills to the student community to read classified scientific
literature, in this case, on individual tissue-basis, and perform annotation and curation.
Since all the information generated will pass through multiple levels of reviews, it will be an

Atlas or a reliable collection on human body tissues.

What are the applications of information generated through MANAV?

The aim of the project remains to understand and capture the human physiology in two stages
– in a normal stage and while in a disease stage.
Such a database on individual tissues, once ready, can come handy in tracing the causes of a
disease, understanding specific pathways and ultimately decode the body’s disease stage
linked to tissues and cells.
The teams will also study any potent elements or molecules that have never been used in the

form of drugs, to target the specific cells or tissues.


According to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4):


58. 4 percent of children (6-59 months) are anaemic.

59. 1 percent women in the reproductive age gro up are anaemic.
60. 7 percent of children under 5 are underweight.
61. Around 50-70% of these birth defects are preventable, caused due to deficiency of Folic Acid.

FSSAI introduces Project Dhoop

Encourages children to absorb vitamin D through sunlight
Project Dhoop urges schools to shift their morning assembly to noon time, mainly between 11
am and 1 pm to ensure maximum absorption of Vitamin D in students through natural sunlight

Guidelines For Evaluation Of Nano-pharmaceuticals In India were launched by Ministry for
Science & Technology.

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Guidelines are jointly developed by Department of Biotechnology (DBI), Ministry of Science
and Technology, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and Central Drugs Standard
Control Organization (CDSCO), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
A nano-pharmaceutical is defined as "a pharmaceutical preparation containing nanomaterials
intended for internal use or external application on human for the purpose of therapeutics,
diagnostics and health benefits."


1. Enhanced solubility and dissolution rate.

2. Enhanced oral bioavailability.
3. Improved dose proportionality.

4. Reduced food effects.
5. Suitability for administration by all routes and possibility of sterile filtration due to decreased
particle size range.

India for Humanity’ initiative for Artificial limb fitment:


External Affairs Ministry has launched ‘India for Humanity’ initiative for Artificial limb fitment
camp in various countries across the world to commemorate the 150th birth anniversary of

Mahatma Gandhi.
‘India for Humanity’ Initiative The initiative will feature a year-long series of artificial limb

fitment camps in various countries across the globe.

For this MEA is collaborating with the renowned charitable organization —

“Bhagwan Mahaveer Viklang Sahayata Samiti” (BMVSS).


These camps will be initially held in 12 countries identified through our missions with financial

support of the central government.

The larger aim is to provide for the physical, economic and social rehabilitation of the

Endosulfan is a most toxic pesticides having hazardous effects on human genetic and
endocrine systems.
The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2011 added it in list of banned
substances and phasing it out as an agrichemical. It is banned in over 80 nations due to its
‘high toxicity.
It is sprayed as pesticide on crops like cotton, fruits, tea, paddy, cashew, tobacco etc. for
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control of pests in agriculture such as whiteflies, aphids, beetles, worms etc.
Hazardous effects: In case of humans it causes delayed reproductive development, autism,
bioaccumulation, endocrine disruption (stunting of hormones), long-range contamination,
neurotoxicity, long-range contamination and sensory Loss.
It blocks the inhibitory receptors of the Central Nervous System, disrupts the ionic channels
and destroys the integrity of the nerve cells. The spraying of endsosulfan also destroys
biodiversity of the area.

GRAPES-3 experiment:

GRAPES-3 experiment (or Gamma Ray Astronomy PeV EnergieS phase-3) is an India-Japanese

collaboration. It is a special telescope-array established in Ootyto detect muons from cosmic
It can be used to study solar storms and space weather at distances up to two times the earth's

First time in the world, researchers at the GRAPES-3 muon telescope facility in Ooty have
measured the electrical potential, size and height of a thundercloud
Learning about the properties of thunderclouds can be useful in navigation of aircraft and
preventing short circuits.
9 1@

Fuel cell electric vehicle:


A fuel-cell electric vehicle is essentially a hybrid electric vehicle wherein, the internal

combustion engine is replaced with a fuel-cell stack.

The onboard sources of power include hydrogen as well as an advanced battery system.
The fuel cell combines hydrogen and oxygen to generate an electric current, water being the

only byproduct.
Fuel cells generate electricity through an electrochemical process.
There are no moving parts in the fuel cell, so they are more efficient and reliable by


"Microarray technology":
Microarray technology can be used to study the expression of genes by spotting DNA on chips
and using dyes to label them.
Image processing is an important step in Microarray data analysis to study the hybridization of
DNA. It is a high throughput technique as it involves studying multiple genes simultaneously.

National Centre for Cell Science

The National Centre for Cell Science is a national level, biotechnology, tissue engineering and
tissue banking research center located at Savitribai Phule Pune University, Maharashtra.

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It is one of the premier research centers in India, which works on cell-culture, cell-repository,
immunology, chromatin-remodelling.

Svalbard Global Seed Vault in Norway

Celebrates the 10th anniversary of its official opening.

It is a facility located on a remote island in the Arctic Ocean and it houses the world's largest
collection of seeds. The seeds can be of use in the event of a global catastrophe or when some
species is lost due to natural disasters. It is therefore also referred to as the doomsday vault.

The seed vault is managed under terms spelled out in a tripartite agreement between the Norwegian

government, the Crop Trust and the Nordic Genetic Resource Center (NordGen)

Where is India's seed vault?


At Chang La in the Himalayas, at a height of 17,300 feet, there is a storage facility with over 5,000
seed accessions. One accession consists of a set of seeds of one species collected from different
locations or different populations.

Who maintains the vault?

The vault is a joint venture of the


1) National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (which comes under the Indian Council of

Agricultural Research)

2) Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (under Defence Research and Development

Indian Resource Panel (InRP)

The Government of India has established the Indian Resource Panel (InRP) — an advisory body
under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) — through the
support of Indo-German bilateral cooperation, to assess resource-related issues facing India
and advice the government on a comprehensive strategy for RE.

Param Shivay
It is a supercomputer of 833 teraflop capacity. It was built at the cost of Rs 32.5 crore under
the National Super Computing Mission at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Banaras
Hindu University (BHU).
It will include 1 peta byte secondary storage and appropriate open source system. This
supercomputer centre will help deal with social issues faced by common people.
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India's first supercomputer called PARAM 8000 was launched in 1991.

The other super computers in the country are as follows,

1. Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology – Pratyush

2. National Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting- Mihir
3. IISc - SERC-Cray


Parthenogenesis is a reproductive strategy that involves development of a female (rarely a
male) gamete (sex cell) without fertilisation or development of an embryo from an unfertilised

egg cell.
It is an adaptive strategy when sexual reproduction is not possible due to environmental

It occurs commonly among lower plants, pests of agriculture and horticulture, invertebrate
animals gm
(particularly rotifers, aphids, ants, wasps and bees) and rarely among higher vertebrates.
Offspring from parthenogenesis tends to be clones of the parent because there has been no

exchange and rearrangement of genetic information with another individual.

Recently, female anaconda has given a birth through the phenomenon of Parthenogenesis.

Nekton Mission:

Nekton Mission is aimed at enhancing the humanities knowledge and understanding of the
world’s oceansto speed up the protection and governance of our last great wilderness, the

deep ocean.
Nekton’s missions are undertaken with host nations and combine scientific research,

capacitydevelopment, ocean governance and public engagement.

Nekton Mission in the Indian Ocean named First Descent is a series of expeditions to explore
and conservethe world’s most unknown and least protected ocean, the Indian Ocean.

The data from the Nekton Mission will be used to help Seychelles expand its policy of
protecting 30% of itsnational waters by 2020.

Nekton is an independent, not-for-profit research institute working in collaboration with the

University of Oxford.

"GEMINI device":
The Union Minister of Earth Sciences has recently launched the Gagan Enabled Mariner’s
Instrument for Navigation and Information (GEMINI) device.
The device is developed for effective dissemination of emergency information and
communication .
Communication gap severely felt during the Ockhi cyclone in 2017.
“Ocean State Forecasts include the forecasts on winds, waves, ocean currents, water
temperature, etc. at every 6 hrs on daily basis for next 5 days.
To overcome this difficulty, Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) in
collaboration with the Airports Authority of India (AAI) utilized the GAGAN (GPS Aided Geo
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Augmented Navigation) satellite while developing the GEMINI device.
GEMINI is a portable receiver that is linked to ISRO-satellites, receives and transfers the data
received from GAGAN satellite/s to a mobile through Bluetooth communication.
A mobile application developed by INCOIS decodes and displays the information in nine
regional languages.

Extraocular vision"

The ability to see without eyes is known as extraocular vision.
For the first time, researchers have shown that a species of brittle stars can see even though it
does not have eyes.

The red brittle star (Ophiocoma wendtii) has become only the second creature, after a sea
urchin species, known to have the extraocular vision (barring rare cases in other species).
In sea urchins and brittle stars, researchers suspect that extraocular vision is facilitated by the

photoreceptor cells found on their bodies.
These light-sensing cells give the brittle star visual stimuli, allowing it to recognise coarse
structures such as rocks. gm
The researchers think that there may be a link between their extraocular vision and colour
changing abilities of red brittle star.

China's Artificial Sun


China has recently reported that it is close to completing its “artificial sun”- Experimental

Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) reactor, after it achieved an ion temperature of

100 million degrees Celsius.


Chinese researchers has identified a new virus, it was responsible for a new pneumonia-like
Coronaviruses are a specific family of viruses, with some of them causing less-severe damage,

such as the common cold, and others causing respiratory and intestinal diseases.

A coronavirus has many “regularly arranged” protrusions on its surface, because of which the
entire virus particle looks like an emperor’s crown, hence the name “coronavirus”.
Apart from human beings, coronaviruses can affect mammals including pigs, cattle, cats, dogs,
martens, camels, hedgehogs and some birds.
So far, there are four known disease-causing coronaviruses, among which the best known are
the SARS corona virus and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, both
of which can cause severe respiratory diseases.
In the newly identified coronavirus, a direct link with the disease has not been established yet.

India’s latest communication satellite GSAT-30 was successfully launched from the
Spaceport in French Guiana
The launch vehicle Ariane 5 VA-251 lifted off from Kourou Launch Base, French Guiana

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With a lift-off mass of 3357 kg, GSAT-30 will provide continuity to operational services
The satellite will provide communication services to Indian mainland and islands
through Ku-band and wide coverage covering Gulf countries, a large number of Asian
countries and Australia through C-band.
GSAT-30 will provide DTH Television Services, connectivity to VSATs for ATM, Stock-
ISRO’s Master Control Facility (MCF) at Hassan in Karnataka took over the command
and control of GSAT-30
satellite in Geostationary Orbit (36,000 km above the equator).

Exome sequencing,

It is also known as whole-exome sequencing (WES), is a genomic technique for sequencing all of the
protein-coding region of genes in a genome (known as the exome).

The portion of the genes responsible for making proteins — called the exome — occupies about 1%
of the actual gene. gm
Circadian Rhythm

A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24 hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings,
which are important in determining the sleeping and feeding patterns of all animals, including

human beings.

There are clear patterns of brain wave activity, hormone production, cell regeneration and
other biological activities linked to this daily cycle.

A Rare Tansit of Mercury:


The planet of Mercury skipped across the vast, glaring face of the sun in a rare celestial transit.

Facts about mercury.


Mercury is nearly tidally locked to the Sun – also known as a gravitational lock.
Over time this has slowed the rotation of the planet to almost match its orbit around the Sun.@
It is one of five planets that are visible to the naked eye.
After the Earth, Mercury is the second densest planet.
Mercury has no moons or rings
Mercury is only the second hottest planet.
The orbit of Mercury was important in proving Albert Einstein‘s theory of General Relativity.
Mercury has a very thin atmosphere.

Only two spacecraft have ever visited Mercury: they are Mariner 10 and Messenger.

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Centre of Excellence in Blockchain Technology has been set
up by the National Informatics Centre (NIC).
Set up in 1976, National Informatics Centre (NIC) is a premier technology advisor and ICT
solution provider to Government at all levels through its ICT Network, NICNET.

It plays a crucial role in the development of critical e-Governance solutions and a host of other
services required by the Government.

What are IPV and OPV?

IPV is a wild-type poliovirus strain that is administered in combination of other vaccines.
It includes Diptheria, pertussis, pertussis, tetanus, haemophilus, hepatitis B and influenza. IPV
is more effective than OPV.
It increases intestinal immunity in children who have been already immunized with OPV.

TrueNat MTB

The TrueNat test a new molecular test that can diagnose Tuberculosis in one hour.

The test uses polymerase chain reaction to detect bacteria. The that conducts the test is
battery operated.


Scientists in the US have created the world’s first “living machines” — tiny robots built from
the stem cells of the African clawed frog that can move around on their own.
“xenobots” — after the species of aquatic frog found across sub-Saharan Africa from Nigeria
and Sudan to South Africa, Xenopus laevis.
Scientists have repurposed living cells scraped from frog embryos and assembled them into
entirely new life-forms.
The xenobots can move toward a target, perhaps pick up a payload and heal themselves after
being cut.

On-line Monitoring of Rolling stock System (OMRS):

The objective is to achieve machine assisted automatic identification of defects in the Rolling

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Stock, well before any catastrophic failure.
This is paradigm shift in maintenance practices from “Time Based Maintenance” to “Condition
Based Predictive Maintenance”
OMRS consisting of Acoustic Bearing Detector (ABD) or Rail Bearing Acoustic Monitor
(RailBAM) and Wheel Impact Load Detector (WILD)/Wheel Condition Monitor (WCM).

1. Acoustic Bearing Detector (ABD)/ Bearing Acoustic Monitor (RailBAM) gives an early warning
on possible defects in the bearing box, before reaching the stage of hot box.
2. Wheel Impact Load Detector (WILD)/Wheel Condition Monitor (WCM) system measures the

wheel impacts on tracks to identify the flat surface on wheels in Rolling Stock.
3. PhotoTAG system is used for vehicle identification.

Submarine-launched Ballistic Missile: K-4

India successfully test-fired the 3,500-km range submarine-launched ballistic missile, K-4.
The test was carried out by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) from
a submerged pontoon off the Visakhapatnam coast (Andhra Pradesh).
The Circular Error Probability (CEP) of the missile is much more sophisticated than Chinese

The CEP determines the accuracy of a missile. The lower the CEP, the more accurate the
missile is.
INS Arihant, the first and only operational SSBN, is armed with K-15 Sagarika missiles with a

range of 750 km.



The WHO has endorsed TrueNat, an Indian indigenous molecular diagnostic tool for
tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis.

The TrueNat TB test is a new molecular test that can diagnosis TB in one hour as well as
testing for resistance to the drug rifampicin.
The data for TrueNat MTB-Rif shows similar accuracy to WHO-approved commercial line

probe assays.
It is developed by the Goa-based Molbio Diagnostics.


‘Rare disease’ is defined as a health condition of low prevalence that affects a small number of
people when compared with other prevalent diseases in the general population.

1. Among other measures, the policy intends to kickstart a registry of rare diseases, which will be
maintained by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).
2. According to the policy, rare diseases include genetic diseases, rare cancers, infectious
tropical diseases, and degenerative diseases.
3. Under the policy, there are three categories of rare diseases — requiring one-time curative
treatment, diseases that require long-term treatment but where the cost is low, and those

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needing long-term treatments with high cost. Some of the diseases in the first category include
osteopetrosis and immune deficiency disorders, among others.
4. As per the policy, the assistance of Rs 15 lakh will be provided to patients suffering from rare
diseases that require a one-time curative treatment under the Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi scheme.
The treatment will be limited to the beneficiaries of Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana.

Coronaviruses are a group:

Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and
In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases,

can be lethal.
In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory

There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Colony collapse disorder (CCD) gm

It is a disorder affecting honeybee colonies that is characterizedby sudden colony

disappearance, resulting in a lack of healthy adult beesinside the hive.

Allen's rule

Allen's rule, an ecogeographical rule, states that significant differences exist in the size of
limbs andother external organs of animals, even within the same species, depending on the

geographical region inwhich they live.

Animals living in colder regions of the world, for instance, have shorter limbs than those living
in warmer regions as an adaptation to control the dissipation of heat. A smaller body surface

area helps animals in colder regions stay warm by slowing down the loss of body heat.

India Hypertension Control Initiative

It is a collaborative project of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Ministry of Health
and Family Welfare (MoHFW), State Governments, WHO and ‘Resolve to Save Lives’- initiative
of Vital Strategies.
It was launched in November 2017
The primary goal of this project is to reduce morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular
diseases (CVDs)

It aims to:

1. Create patient-centred services .

2. Reduce reliance on bigger hospitals.
3. Provide for regular monitoring of health facilities.

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A-SAT Missile
About the Missile

It is an interceptor missile that destroys or jams satellites in space.

Two types of A-SATs:

1. Kinetic A-SATs, like ballistic missiles.
2. Non-Kinetic: Which include frequency jamming, blinding lasers or cyber-attacks.

India’s Test of A-SAT Missile

India successfully conducted (A-SAT) missile test from Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam Island launch
complex (Odisha).
developed by the DRDO under Mission Shakti.
It defend India’s space assets.

India became the fourth country -after USA, Russia, and China.
The A-SAT technology has a ‘hit to kill’ feature .

Here is a timeline of the indigenously developed missile


systems in India.

1. Prithvi I

Prithvi I was one of the first missiles developed under Government of India's IGMDP.

Launched in February 1988, Prithvi I is a single-stage, liquid-fuelled missile.

A surface-to-surface missile, it has a range of 150 km and a mounting capability of 1000 kg.
It was inducted into the Indian Army in 1994.

2. Agni I

A nuclear-capable ballistic missile, Agni I is the first of the five-missile Agni series launched in
1983 by the Defence Research and Development Organisation.
It has a range of 700 km.

3. Akash

Akash is a surface-to-air missile with an intercept range of 30 km.

It has multi-target engagement capability and is in operational service with the Indian Army
and the Indian Air Force.

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4. Nag

Nag is a third-generation hit-to-kill anti-tank missile that was first tested in 1990.
The two-stage solid propellant weapon uses the lock-on before launch system where the target
is identified and designated before the weapon is launched.

5. Trishul

Trishul is a short-range surface-to-air missile equipped with electronic measures against all

known aircraft jammers.
It has a range of 9 km and is used as anti-sea skimmer from ships against low-flying attacks.

6. Agni II gm
An intermediate-range ballistic missile, the Agni-II was first test fired on April 11, 1999.

The surface-to-surface missile has a range of 2000 to 2500 km and can carry conventional or
nuclear warheads.

7. Prithvi III

Prithvi III is the naval-version missile with a range of 350 km.

A two-stage surface-to-surface missile, Prithvi III was first tested in 2000.

8. Brahmos

BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile that is first test-fired on June 12, 2001.

It was developed as a joint venture between India and Russia and is the world's fastest anti-
ship cruise missile in operation.

9. Prithvi Air Defence (PAD)

India’s ballistic missiledefence got a fillip with the development of PAD, which has been
given the moniker Pradyumna.
The system was tested with a maximum interception altitude of 80 km, and has been designed
to neutralise missiles within a range of 300-2000 km up to a speed of Mach 5.0.
The technology employed in the PAD was the precursor to the indigenously developed
Advanced Air Defence (AAD) interceptor missile which was tested in 2007, as well as the
Barak-2 which was developed in collaboration with Israel.

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10. K-15 Sagarika

The successful test of the Sagarika marks an inflection point in India’s military history.
It forms the crucial third leg of India’s nuclear deterrent vis-à-vis its submarine-launched
ballistic missile (SLBM) capability.
The K-15 Sagarika, which has a range of 750 km, was successfully tested in February 2008,
and was subsequently integrated with India’s nuclear-powered Arihant class submarine.

11. Dhanush

Dhanush is a liquid propelled sea-based missile that was envisaged as a short-range version of

the Prithvi II ballistic missile.
It has a range of 350 km and is capable of carrying nuclear warheads. It was successfully test-
fired from a naval warship in March 2011, and carries forward the legacy of the K-15 Sagarika.

12. Agni III

Agni III is an intermediate-range ballistic missile developed as the successor to the Agni II.

It is an improvement over its previous iteration, and has a range of 3,500-5,000 km, making it

capable of engaging targets deep inside neighbouring countries.

It was inducted in to the armed forces in June 2011, enhancing its strike capability.

13. Agni IV

Carrying forward the success of its predecessor, the Agni III was developed to strike targets
within a similar range but with a significantly shorter flight time of 20 minutes.

The Agni IV, which has a two-phase propulsion system is designed to carry a 1,000 kg payload.

14. Shaurya

It was initially conceived as a surface-to-surface ballistic missile (SSM) variant of the K-15
Sagarika, that can be stored in underground silos for extended periods and launched using gas
canisters as a trigger.

Micius- Satellite was in news for-

1. First Quantum Satellite
2. Teleportation of Photons into space

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3. Communication is hack. proof

Financial services are provided under DDUAY- Rural development scheme.

TB elimination target for India 2025, and for World 2030.
Swachh Bharat abhiyan, Ujjwala Yojana, Poshan mission are some intervention to reduce TB
patient- said by PM.
Causes of NCD's- Salt, sugar, transfat and sodium.

Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC)

The VSSC at Thiruvananthapuram is the largest among the ISRO facilities for the
development of satellite launch vehicles and associated technology.

The centre had its beginnings as the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) in

It was renamed in honour of Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, the father of the Indian space program.
Satish Dhawan Space Centre or Sriharikota High Altitude Range (SHAR) is a rocket launch
centre of ISRO.

ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC)


The ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC) is the leading centre of ISRO for design, development,
fabrication and testing of all Indian made satellites.

It was established in the year of 1972 as Indian Scientific Satellite Project (ISSP) in Bengaluru.

Multi Application Solar Telescope(MAST)


It a telescope for the detailed study of the Solar activity including its magnetic field, has recently

been operationalised at the Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO) of Physical Research Laboratory
(PRL), an autonomous unit of the Department of Space. MAST is an off-axis Gregorian-Coude
telescope with a 50 cm aperture.

Aries (Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational

On March 30, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Belgian Prime Minister Charles
Michel unveiled.
Asia’s largest optical telescope in Nainital, Uttarakhand from Brussels, Belgium. “Even the sky
is not the limit for the ARIES Telescope” said Modi after launching the Aryabhatta Research
Institute of Observational Sciences or ARIES project.
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Gadanki Ionospheric Radar Interferometer (GIRI)
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has installed the GadankiIonospheric Radar
Interferometer (GIRI) Radar System near Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh.
It was installed at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), which is an
autonomous research institute of the Department of Space (DoS).


The Indian Initiative in Gravitational-wave Observations, is an initiative to set up

advanced experimental facilities, for a multi-institutional Indian national project in
gravitational-wave astronomy.
The IndIGO Consortium includes Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT), Indian Institutes of
Science Education and Research (IISER) and Delhi University, among others.
Since 2009, the IndIGO Consortium has been involved in constructing the Indian road-map for

Gravitational Wave Astronomy and a strategy towards Indian participation in realising the
crucial gravitational-wave observatory in the Asia-Pacific region.
A new LIGO gravitational wave detector to be built in India by 2025. This will be the world's

third LIGO detector.


A new gravitational wave detector to measure ripples in the fabric of space and time is set to
be built in India by 2025, in collaboration with universities from across the globe.

The new Laser Interferometer


Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detector will add to the two already operational in

the US.
The LIGO detectors discovered the first gravitational waves produced by two giant merging
blackholes last year.
The research won a Nobel Prize in Physics this year.
The LIGO India partnership is funded by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)
through its Newton-Bhabha project on LIGO.
The Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology in Indore and Institute for Plasma
Research in Ahmedabad are in charge of building various parts of the system, said
The mirrors and detectors required to build the system will be sent from the LIGO
collaborators in the US.
LIGO-India is a planned advanced gravitational-wave detector to be located in India, to be built
and operated in collaboration with the LIGO USA and its international partners Australia,
Germany and the UK.
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India’s first LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) laboratory will be set
up in Aundh in Hingoli district of Maharashtra.


GSLV Mk III is a three-stage heavy lift launch vehicle developed by ISRO.
The vehicle has two solid strap-ons, a core liquid booster and a cryogenic upper stage.

GSLV Mk III is designed to carry 4 ton class of satellites into Geosynchronous Transfer
Orbit (GTO) or about 10 tons to Low Earth Orbit (LEO), which is about twice the capability
of GSLV Mk II.

The first stage consists of two S200 solid motors, also known as Large Solid Boosters (LSB)
attached to the Core stage.

The S200 booster uses an HTPB based propellant.
It is the largest solid-fuel booster after the Space Shuttle SRBs and Ariane 5 SRBs.
The flex nozzle can be vectored using electro-hydraulic actuators and are used for vehicle
control during the initial ascent phase.
The second stage, designated L110, is a liquid-fueled stage.

Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and Nitrogen Tetroxide (N2O4).

It is powered by two Vikas 2 engines, each generating 766 kilonewtons ] The L110 is the first
Indian clustered liquid-fueled engine.

The Vikas engines uses regenerative cooling, providing improved weight and specific impulse

compared to earlier engines.


Third stage

The cryogenic upper stage, propellant LOX and LH2.

It is powered by the CE-20engine, producing 200 kN (45,000 lbf) of thrust.
CE-20 is the first cryogenic engine developed by India which uses a gas generator, as

compared to the staged combustion engines used in GSLV.


Comparable versions in the world:

Angara -Russiq
Delta IV -USA Boing
Falcon 9- Space X
H-IIA- Japan
Long March 3B -China
Titan IIIC -US Air Force
Long March 7- China

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Jupiter's Great Red Spot
NASA's Juno spacecraft during its first pass over Jupiter's Great Red Spot in July 2017 indicate
that this iconic feature penetrates well below the clouds
Jupiter's Great Red Spot is a giant oval of crimson-colored clouds in Jupiter's southern
hemisphere that race counterclockwise around the oval's perimeter with wind speeds greater
than any storm on Earth.
Measuring 10,000 miles (16,000 kilometers) in width as of April 3, 2017, the Great Red Spot is

1.3 times as wide as Earth.

National Programme on use of Space Technology for

Agriculture (NPSTA)

The Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare is proposing a new integrated
programme, called National Programme on use of Space Technology for Agriculture (NPSTA),
envisaging integrated use of Space and Geospatial Tools for Mapping, Monitoring and

Management of Agriculture.
The programme will have four sub-programmes catering to various themes viz. Crop
Assessment & Monitoring; Agricultural Resources Management; Disaster Monitoring and

Mitigation and Satellite Communication and Navigation Applications.


All the current running programmes, such as FASAL (for crop forecasting), NADAMS (for
drought assessment), CHAMAN (for horticultural assessment and development), KISAN (for
crop insurance) and Crop Intensification planning, will be subsumed under this proposed


FASAL (Forecasting Agricultural output using Space, Agro-


meteorology and Land based observations)


Under the operational component of FASAL programme of Ministry of Agriculture and

Farmers Welfare, MNCFC regularly generates crop forecasts at District/State/National level
for 8 major crops of the country, using the procedures developed by Space Applications
Centre, ISRO.
Both optical and microwave Remote sensing data is used for crop area enumeration, crop
condition assessment and production forecasting.
In India, National Agricultural Drought Assessment and Monitoring System (NADAMS) was
initiated towards the end of 1986, with the participation of National Remote Sensing Agency,
Dept. of Space, Government of India, as nodal agency for execution, with the support of India
Meteorological Department (IMD) and various state departments of agriculture.
NADAMS was made operational in 1990 and has been providing agricultural drought
information in terms of prevalence, severity and persistence at state, district and sub-district

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In the early years of the project, drought assessment was largely dependent on only one
satellite derived index i.e., NDVI and IMD rainfall data at district and sub-division.

KISAN Project [C(K)rop Insurance using Space technology And geoiNformatics] of Department
of Agriculture, Cooperation & FW, Ministry of Agriculture and FW.

The project envisages use of Space Technology and geoinformatics (GIS, GPS and
Smartphone) technology along with high resolution data from UAV/Drone based imaging for
improvement in yield estimation and better planning of Crop Cutting Experiments (CCEs),

needed for crop insurance programme.

CHAMAN is a pioneer project in which remote sensing technique is being used for strategic

development of horticulture sector as also to increase the farmers’ income.

It gives methodology for preparing reliable estimates of horticulture crops.
Union Agriculture Minister said that this methodology will help the farmers to generate better


Under this project sound methodology for estimation of Horticulture crops is being developed
and implemented on pilot basis using Sample Survey methodology and Remote Sensing

GSAT-7 Rukmini

Weighing nearly 2,650 kg, Rukmini was the first military communication satellite
developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) for the Indian Defence forces,

with the Indian Navy being the primary user.

Rukmini is also the last of ISRO’s seven fourth-generation satellites.

Surya Jyoti
Ministry of Science & Technology
Photo-Voltaic (PV) Integrated Micro Solar Dome (MSD).
In order to capture day light and concentrate the same inside a dark room, particularly in
urban slum or rural areas which lack electricity supply, a low cost and energy efficient Micro
Solar Dome has been tested and developed.
The Micro Solar Dome (MSD) is a day and night lighting single device unique in its features,
that has a transparent semi-spherical upper dome made of acrylic material which captures the
sunlight and the light passes through a sun-tube having a thin layer of highly reflective coating

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on the inner wall of the passage. It also contains a lower dome made of acrylic.
There is a shutter in the bottom of the lower dome which can be closed, if light is not required
in the daytime. It is leak proof and works throughout the day and 4 hours continuously after
The entire development activities were taken up by an R&D Organisation under the aegis of
the Department of Science & Technology.


Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed India's first
unmanned tank, which has three variants – surveillance, mine detection and reconnaissance in

areas with nuclear and bio threats.
It is called Muntra (Mission UNmanned TRAcked) and has been rolled out of the Chennai lab.

OTT platform gm
Over-the-Top (OTT) platforms deliver audio, video, and other media content via the internet,

eschewing the need for traditional platforms like cable, broadcast and satellite television.

These are also known as Online Curated ContentProviders (OCCP).


These are subscription-based video on demandplatforms and allows consumers to access a


range of content from around the world.


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