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Readings in

Philippine
History
LAND AND AGRARIAN REFORM
1. Executive Order No. 407 - directed all government instrumentalities, including
financial institutions and corporations, to turn over to DAR all lands suitable for
agriculture for coverage under CARP.
2. Executive Order No. 406 – emphasized that CARP is central to the government’s
efforts to hasten countryside agro-industrial development and directed the
implementing agencies to align their respective programs and projects with the
CARP
3. Executive Order No. 405 – vested in the Land Bank of the Philippines the primary
responsibility for land valuation.
4. Republic Act No. 4054 - the Rice Share Tenancy Act was passed. The act provided
for a 50-50 sharing arrangement between landowners and tenants.
5. RA 6657 - Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law
6. CARP - Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law
7. Republic Act No. 6657 – It is an act instituting a comprehensive agrarian reform
program to promote social justice and industrialization providing the mechanism
for its implementation and for other purposes.
8. Executive Order No. 229 – Provided mechanism for the implementation of CARP
such as administrative procedures and mechanics for land registration, private land
acquisition, and mode of compensation to the landowners.
9. Executive Order No. 228 – Declared full ownership to qualified farmer-
beneficiaries covered by P.D. 27. It also provided for the manner of payment by
the farmer beneficiary and mode of compensation to the landowners.
10. Executive Order No. 129-A – Reorganized, streamlined and expanded power
and operation of DAR.
11. Proclamation No. 131 – Institutionalized the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform
Program (CARP) and Agrarian Reform Fund (ARF). It covers all agricultural
lands regardless of tenurial arrangement and commodity produced, all public and
private agricultural lands and other lands of public domain suitable to agriculture.
12. Constitution (Art. II, Sec. 21) – “The State shall promote comprehensive rural
development and agrarian reform.”
13. Letter of Instruction 474 - provides that tenanted areas of seven (7) hectares or less
could be placed under P.D. 27, if the owner own other agricultural lands not
devoted to rice and corn, or other lands used for residential, industrial, or other
urban purposes from which they receive adequate income to support themselves
and their families.
14. Letter of Instruction 143 - compels landowner to transfer to their tenant, if
determined by DAR to be absentee-farmer, with sources of income other than their
holdings.
15. P.D. 27 - Decreeing the emancipation of tenants from the bondage of the soil,
transferring to them the ownership of the land they till and providing the
instruments and mechanism therefor.
16. Presidential Decree No. 2 – Placed the whole country under the land reform
program
17. Republic Act No. 6389 – Instituted Code of Agrarian Reform and created the
Department of Agrarian Reform
18. Republic Act No. 3844 - known as the Agricultural Land Reform Code
19. Executive Order No. 129-A provided for the strengthening of the DAR as the lead
agency responsible for the implementation of CARP.
20. Republic Act No. 1400 – Land Reform Act provided for the acquisition of large
tenanted rice and corn lands over 200 hectares if owned by individuals; 600
hectares if owned by corporations.
21. Republic Act No. 1199 – Agricultural Tenancy Act provided security of tenure for
tenants. It also granted tenants the choice of shifting from share tenancy to
leasehold. It also created the Courts of Agrarian Relations.
22. Republic Act No. 1166 – Creation of National Resettlement and Rehabilitation
Administration (NARRA).
23. Executive Order No. 355 – Replaced the National Land Settlement Administration
with Land Settlement Development Corporation (LASEDECO), which took over
the responsibilities of the Agricultural Machinery Equipment Corporation and the
Rice and Corn Production Administration.
24. Republic Act No. 34 – established a 70-30 sharing arrangement between tenant
and landlord. It provided that whoever shouldered the expenses of planting and
harvesting and provided the work animals would be entitled to 70 percent of the
harvest.
25. Tenancy Act of 1933 (Act No. 4113) – regulated relationships between landowners
and tenants of sugar cane fields
26. Rice Share Tenancy Act of 1933 (Act No. 4054) – regulated relationships between
landowners and tenants of rice lands
27. Land Registration Act of 1902 (Act No. 496) – provided for a comprehensive
registration of land titles under the Torrens system.
28. Philippine Bill of 1902 – imposed specific conditions on the disposition of public
lands.
29. Friar Land - Were purchased by the government for sale to actual occupants under
the provisions of Act 1120 or the Friar Lands Act.
30. Encomenderos - became the first group of hacenderos in the Philippines.
31. Datus – chiefs, who governed them and were captains in their wars and whom they
obeyed and reverenced under pre-spanish era.
32. Barangay – tribal gathering, sometimes as many as a hundred houses, sometimes
even less than thirty.
33. Maharlica – nobles that are free-born
34. Aliping namamahay – commoners
35. Aliping saguiguilir – slaves
36. Land reform - refers to a wide variety of programs and measures usually by the
government to bring about more effective control and use of land for the benefit of
the community.
37. Agrarian reform - includes measures to modernize the agricultural practices and
improving the living conditions of everyone within the entire agrarian community.
Philippine Government and Constitutions
38. Caciques – landlords
39. 1565 to1821 – year that the Philippines was a crown colony of Spain through
Mexico
40. Las Leyes de Indias – in the Mexico these were the laws that Spain implemented in
the colony.
41. Encomienda - The first government system based on land partition in the Spanish
period.
42. Frailocracy - making the friars became politically powerful.
43. Noli Me Tangere - Rizal’s first novel was considered as the most powerful weapon
the Propaganda ever had against Spain.
44. 1892 - the year that the (KKK), started as a secret organization against the Spanish
power .
45. 1897 – year that the Biak-na-Bato Republic under Aguinaldo was established.
46. May 1, 1898 - the American Asiatic Squadron destroyed the Spanish armada in the
Battle of Manila Bay.
47. June 12, 1898 - the culmination of all the sacrifices of all Filipino heroes and
martyrs was reached when the Independence of the Philippines was proclaimed by
Aguinaldo in his residence at Kawit, Cavite.
48. August 13, 1898 - the Fall of Manila was achieved when the Spaniards under Gov.
General Fermin Jaudenes preferred to surrender to the Americans rather than the
Filipinos.
49. Gen. Wesley Merritt - The first U.S. Military Governor of the Philippines.
50. September 15, 1898 - the Malolos Congress was inaugurated at the Barasoain
Church, Malolos, Bulacan. Its first task was to draft a constitution needed for the
formation of a republic.