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УДК 81’367.625.

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ББК Ш12=432.1*9*2я73

Составители:
Кишко С. Н., к. филол. наук, доцент кафедры английской филологии ДонНУ;
Керова Л.В., преподаватель кафедры английской филологии ДонНУ;
Щекина Л.Д., преподаватель кафедры английской филологии ДонНУ;
Мишина Е.В., преподаватель кафедры теории и практики перевода ДонНУ;
Бессонов Н.Ю., преподаватель кафедры теории и практики перевода ДонНУ.

Рецензенты:
Лычко Л. Я. к. филол. наук, доцент, заведующая кафедрой иностранных
языков ГОУ ВПО «Донецкая академия управления и государственной
службы при Главе Донецкой Народной Республики»;
Волосюк О.В. старший преподаватель кафедры английской филологии
ДонНУ

Non-finite Forms of the Verb. Неличные формы глагола английского


языка: учебное пособие для студентов 2 курса направления подготовки
45.03.01 «Филология», 45.03.02 «Лингвистика» / сост.: С. Н. Кишко,
Л. В. Керова, Л.Д. Щекина, Е. В. Мишина, Н.Ю. Бессонов – Донецк: ДонНУ,
2017. – 175 с.

Цель пособия – формирование грамматической компетенции студентов


в употреблении грамматических структур с неличными формами глагола в
устной и письменной речи. Предлагаемый комплекс упражнений может быть
использован на 2 курсе на занятиях по аспекту «Практическая грамматика» в
соответствии с рабочими программами, разработанными на кафедре
английской филологии Донецкого национального университета.

Утверждено на заседании кафедры английской филологии Донецкого


национального университета № 4 от 24.11.2016
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
I МЕТОДИЧЕСКАЯ ЗАПИСКА……………………………………….. 5
II ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИЙ МАТЕРИАЛ………………………………….. 8
§1. General characteristics of non-finite forms of the verb………………… 8
§2. Grammatical forms of the Infinitive and their meanings……………… 9
§3. The Infinitive without the Particle “to”…………………………………. 11
§4. Syntactical functions of the Infinitive…………………………………… 12
§5. Predicative constructions. The Objective-with-the- Infinitive
Construction…………………………………………………………………. 19
§6. The Subjective Infinitive Construction…………………………………. 21
§7. The For-to-Infinitive Construction……………………………………… 22
§8. Grammatical forms of the Gerund and their meanings………………... 23
§9. Syntactical functions of the Gerund…………………………………….. 24
§10. The Infinitive or the Gerund…………………………………………... 27
§11. The Gerund and the Verbal noun………………………………………. 27
§12. Predicative constructions with the Gerund. The Gerundial and the
Half-gerundial Constructions……………………………………………….. 28
§13. The Participles. Participle I…………………………………………….. 29
§14. Syntactical functions of Participle I…………………………………… 31
§15. The Gerund and Participle I…………………………………………… 34
§16. Participle II…………………………………………………………….. 35
§17. Syntactical functions of Participle II…………………………………... 36
§18. Predicative constructions with Participles. The Objective Participial
Construction with Participle I……………………………………………….. 37
§19. The Objective Participial Construction with Participle II……………… 38
§20. The Subjective Participial Construction with Participle I……………… 38
§21. The Subjective Participial Construction with Participle II…………….. 39
§22. Absolute constructions. The Nominative Absolute Participial
Construction. The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction.
Nominative Absolute Construction. Prepositional Absolute Construction…. 39
III СИСТЕМА УПРАЖНЕНИЙ………………...…………………….... 43
§1. Forms and Meanings of the Infinitive……………………………...…… 43
§2. The Infinitive without the Particle “to”………………………………… 46
§3. Functions of the Infinitive…………...…………………………………. 50
§4. The Objective -with-the- Infinitive Construction………………………. 76
§5. The Subjective Infinitive Construction…………………………………. 80
§6. The For-to-Infinitive Construction……………………………………… 84
§7. Forms and Meanings of the Gerund …………………………..……….. 87
§8. Functions of the Gerund……………...………………………………..... 89
§9. Combinability of the Gerund with some Verbs, Adjectives, Nouns...….. 95
§10. The Infinitive or the Gerund………………………………………….... 96
§11. The Gerundial and the Half-gerundial Construction…………………... 98
§12. Forms and Meanings of Participle I …………………………………… 103
§13. Functions of Participle I……………………………………………….. 105
§14. Differentiation between the Gerund, Participle I and the Verbal Noun.. 110
3
§15. Forms and Meanings of Participle II. Functions of Participle II………. 111
§16. The Objective Participial Construction……………………………...... 116
§17. The Subjective Participial Construction………………………………. 119
§18. The Absolute Constructions…………………………………………… 123
IV ПРИЛОЖЕНИЯ………………………………………………………. 128
Таблица 1. Forms of Verbals……………………………………………… 128
Таблица 2. Verb Characteristics of Verbals………………………………. 130
Таблица 3. Nominal Characteristics of the Infinitive and the Gerund……… 131
Таблица 4. Adjective and Adverb Characteristics of Participles…………… 131
Таблица 5. Meanings of the forms of the Infinitive………………………… 132
Таблица 6. The Infinitive without the Particle “to”………………………… 135
Таблица 7. Functions of the Infinitive ……………………………………... 138
Таблица 8. The Objective-with-the- Infinitive Construction………………. 143
Таблица 9. The Subjective Infinitive Construction………………………... 145
Таблица 10. The For-to-Infinitive Construction…………………………… 147
Таблица 11. Meanings of the forms of the Gerund………………………… 148
Таблица 12. Functions of the Gerund………………………………………. 149
Таблица 13. Right-hand combinability of Some Verbs V + prep + Ving…… 150
Таблица 14. Right-hand combinability V + {N/prep+N} + prep + Ving…..... 152
Таблица 15. Right-hand combinability Adj + prep + Ving……..................... 154
Таблица 16. Right-hand combinability of Some Nouns N + of + Ving…….. 156
Таблица 17. Right-hand combinability of Some Nouns N + prep + Ving….. 157
Таблица 18. The Infinitive or the Gerund………………………………….. 159
Таблица 19. The Gerund and the Verbal Noun……………………………. 161
Таблица 20. The Gerundial and the Half-gerundial Construction…………. 162
Таблица 21 Meanings of the forms of Participle I and Participle II……….. 163
Таблица 22. Functions of Participle I………………………………………. 164
Таблица 23. Differentiation between the Gerund and Participle I…………. 165
Таблица 24. Functions of Participle II……………………………………… 166
Таблица 25. Functions of Verbals………………………………………….. 167
Таблица 26. The Objective Participial Construction………………............. 169
Таблица 27. The ubjective Participial Construction……………………….. 170
Таблица 28. Absolute Constructions……………………………………….. 171
Таблица 29. Functions of Predicative Constructions……………………….. 172
IV ЛИТЕРАТУРА………………………………………………………… 175

4
I МЕТОДИЧЕСКАЯ ЗАПИСКА

Настоящее учебное пособие ставит своей целью формирование прочных


навыков студентов в употреблении грамматических структур с неличными
формами глагола в устной и письменной речи, что является важной
составляющей коммуникативной компетентности осуществления
коммуникации в ситуациях межличностного и профессионального общения.
Указанная компетентность принадлежит к разряду общепрофессиональных
компетенций (ОПК-5). Этот факт обусловливает актуальность разработки
настоящего пособия.
Тема «Неличные формы глагола» изучается на 2 курсе (4 семестр)
после прохождения тем «Модальные глаголы» и «Сослагательное
наклонение», что дает возможность опираться на сформированные знания,
умения и навыки студентов в области основных грамматических средств
современного английского языка. Таким образом, создаются условия для
дальнейшего углубленного изучения явлений системы английского глагола и
совершенствования коммуникативных навыков. Пособие рассчитано на
студентов, которые имеют уровень B2 в соответствии с общеевропейской
шкалой уровней.
Задачи обучения данной темы:
- формирование целостной системы знаний о специфике неличных форм
глагола в английском языке, а также понятия вторичной предикации;
- формирование коммуникативных умений английской речи на основе
овладения студентами категориальными формами неличных форм глагола и
предикативными конструкциями.
В результате изучения темы студенты должны
знать:
● грамматические категории инфинитива, герундия и причастия в
английском языке;
● морфологические формы инфинитива, герундия и причастия и их
семантический потенциал;
● особенности синтаксической сочетаемости инфинитива, герундия и
причастия в составе фразы и предложения;
● синтаксические функции инфинитива, герундия и причастия в
предложении;
● предикативные конструкции с инфинитивом, герундием и причастием и их
синтаксические функции в предложении;
● отклонения от норм и исключения, наиболее часто встречающиеся в
английском языке;
● функционально-грамматические соответствия языковых моделей
изучаемых структур в английском и русском языках;
● стандартную терминологию и правила по изучаемой теме.

Уметь:
5
● осуществлять правильный выбор и функционально адекватно употреблять
категориальные формы неличных форм глагола и предикативные
конструкции в устной и письменной речи в зависимости от коммуникативной
ситуации;
● определять категориальную форму, значение и синтаксическую функцию
неличных форм глагола в предложении;
● определять тип предикативной конструкции и ее синтаксическую функцию
в предложении;
● правильно переводить предложения с русского языка на английский язык и
с английского языка на русский с соблюдением грамматических норм обоих
языков;
● создавать грамматически-корректные и коммуникативно-эффективные
высказывания с изучаемыми грамматическими структурами;
● обнаруживать ошибки в своих и чужих (устных и письменных) речевых
произведениях и исправлять замеченные ошибки;
● грамотно объяснять употребление неличных форм глагола и
предикативных конструкций в предложении;
● выполнять грамматические трансформации разноструктурных
синтаксических конструкций;
● использовать стандартную терминологию и правила при анализе
изученных грамматических структур по теме.
Владеть:
● навыками употребления неличных форм глагола и предикативных
конструкций в устной и письменной речи;
● навыками употребления синтаксической синонимии;
● стандартной грамматической терминологией и правилами по изученной
теме.
Предлагаемое учебное пособие может быть использовано как для
аудиторной, так самостоятельной работы студентов.
Предлагаемый комплекс упражнений отвечает требованиям учебной
программы по дисциплине «Практическая грамматика» для 2 курса
факультета иностранных языков ДонНУ.
Тематический план
Семестр 4
Non-finite forms of the verb. Predicative constructions.

Содержательный модуль 3
Non-finite forms of the verb. The
Infinitive. Predicative constructions
with the Infinitive
Тема 10. Non-finite forms of the verb. Finite and non-finite forms of the verb
General characteristics. compared on the semantical,
The Infinitive. morphological and syntactical levels.
6
Forms and meanings of the Infinitive.
The use of the Infinitive without the
particle to. The functions of the
Infinitive in the sentence.
Тема 11. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive
The notion of the predicative Construction.
construction. The Subjective Infinitive Construction.
Predicative constructions with the The For-to-Infinitive Construction.
Infinitive.
Содержательный модуль 4
Gerund and Participles. Gerundial
and Participial Constructions
Тема 12. The general characteristics of Forms and meanings of the Gerund. The
the Gerund. functions of the Gerund in the sentence.
Тема 14. The Gerundial and the Half-gerundial
Predicative constructions with the constructions.
Gerund.
Тема 12. The general characteristics of Forms and meanings of Participle I. The
Participle I. functions of Participle I in the sentence.
Тема 12. The general characteristics of Forms and meanings of Participle II.
Participle II. The functions of Participle II in the
sentence.
Тема 15. Predicative constructions with The Objective Participial Construction.
the Participle. The Subjective Participial Construction.
Absolute Constructions.

В соответствии с учебным планом на изучение данной темы отводится


118 час. из них лабораторные занятия составляют 64 час.; самостоятельная
работа – 54 часа.
Учебное пособие состоит из методической записки, двух разделов,
приложений и списка литературы. Раздел 1 содержит теоретический
материал по изучаемой теме, изложенный в основном в соответствии с
традиционной грамматикой. Раздел 2 содержит упражнения к каждой
грамматической теме. Приложения включают 29 таблиц, тематика и
последовательность которых соответствует порядку прохождения материала
в разделах пособия.
Для овладения материалом учебного пособия студенты используют
навыки и умения, сформированные на протяжении изучения грамматики на
предшествующих этапах обучения (1-3 семестры).

7
I. ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИЙ МАТЕРИАЛ
§ 1. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FINITE FORMS OF
THE VERB (VERBALS)
There are four non-finite forms of the verb in English: the Infinitive (to
take), the Gerund (taking), Participle I (taking), Participle II (taken) (see Table 1).
Non-finite forms denote a secondary action related to that expressed by the finite
form of the verb-predicate.
Non-finite forms possess a double nature. The Infinitive and Gerund have
verb and noun features. Participle I and Participle II have verb, adjective and
adverb features.
The main verbal feature of the Infinitive and Participles is that they can be
used as part of analytical forms of the verb (will do, is standing, is built, have
come, etc.).
The double nature of the non-finite forms is expressed morphologically and
syntactically.
On the morphological level the verb features of non-finite forms are
manifested in their grammatical categories (see Table 2). The Infinitive has three
grammatical categories: Time Correlation (Non-Perfect – Perfect), Aspect (Non-
Continuous (or Common) – Continuous) and Voice (Active – Passive).
The Gerund and Participle I have two categories: Time Correlation (Non-
Perfect – Perfect) and Voice (Active – Passive). Participle II has no categories at
all. All non-finite forms lack the categories of person, number, mood, and tense.
On the syntactical level the verb features of non-finite forms are manifested
in their combinability (see Table 2). The non-finite forms except Participle II may
combine with a direct object: e.g. I like to meet my friend. I feel like meeting my
friend. Seeing my friend off, I went home.
All non-finite forms can combine with an adverb: e.g. I would like to read aloud. I
like reading aloud. She sat reading aloud. Much surprised, he went out.
The nominal features of the Infinitive and the Gerund are manifested on the
syntactical level, namely, in their syntactic functions and combinability (see Table
3). The Infinitive and the Gerund are used in the syntactic functions which are
typical of nouns:
Subject: To go to the Crimea is my intention. Getting to sleep on time is my
problem.
Object: I’d like to go to the Crimea this summer. I like going to the Crimea each
summer.
Predicative: My intention is to go to the Crimea. My problem is getting to sleep on
time.
The Gerund can have the left-hand combinability with Preposition and
Ngenetive case or Pronpossessive.: e.g. I am afraid of going to the mountains. She insisted
on her brother’s \ his going to London.
Adjective and adverb features of the Participles are manifested in their
syntactic functions and combinability too. Participles can be used in the function of
an attribute, both in preposition and postposition) (see Table 4). E.g. He looked at
the playing children.\ He looked at the children playing in the yard. He answered
8
through the locked door.\ There was no evidence left.
Participles can perform the syntactical function of an adverbial modifier of time:
e.g. Having answered my questions he went out. When answered he went out.
Participles can have the left-hand combinability with Adv degree: e.g. The
silence was very frightening. I never saw a woman so altered.
All non-finite forms cannot form a predicate by themselves, although they
can function as part of a simple or compound verbal predicate.
In the sentence non-finite forms can stand to other words in different
relations, thus forming infinitive, participial and gerundial phrases, e.g. Every day
I had to learn how to spell pages of words. Arthur, having read the letter twice,
put it in an envelope. She showed no sign of having ever known me.
A peculiar property of non-finite forms is that they can have the subject of
their own though lacking agreement in person and number. It is this principle that
the predicative constructions with verbals are based on. A predicative construction
is a two-member structure consisting of the nominal part expressed by a Noun or
Pronoun and the verbal part expressed by the non-finite form. The non-finite form
stands in predicative relation to the nominal part, thus forming the secondary
predication which is dfferent from the primary predication and may be called
implicit. It is translated into Russian as a subordinate clause. The part of the
sentence expressed by a predicative construction is always complex.

§2. The Grammatical Forms of the Infinitive and Their Meanings

As the infinitive has three grammatical categories, those of time correlation,


voice and aspect, there are altogether six forms of the Infinitive: four in the active
voice, and two in the passive voice (see Table 1).

The category of time correlation


The category of time correlation finds its expression in the opposition of non-
perfect and perfect forms.
The non-perfect Infinitive denotes an action simultaneous with that of the
finite verb:
I am glad to take part in it. I am glad to be invited there.
The perfect Infinitive always denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb
– the predicate of the sentence.
I am glad
I was glad to have seen you again.
I shall be
glad

The perfect continuous Infinitive shows that the action, expressed by an


Infinitive, was prior to that of the finite verb and at the same time had been in
progress for a certain period of time. The period of previous duration is usually
indicated by an adverbial modifier of time:
9
It is annoying to have been waiting here for so long

The category of aspect


The category of aspect finds its expression in the opposition of non-
continuous (or common) aspect and continuous aspect. The difference between the
category of aspect in finite verb forms and in the Infinitive is that in the Infinitive it
is consistently expressed only in the active voice:
to speak – to be speaking
to have spoken – to have been speaking

The two aspects differ in their frequency and functioning: the continuous
aspect forms are very seldom used and cannot perform all the functions in which
the non-continuous (or common) aspect forms are used. They can function only as:
1) subject: To be staying with them was a real pleasure.
2) object: I was glad to be waking.
3) part of a compound verbal predicate: Now they must be getting back. The
leaves begin to be growing yellowish.
The continuous aspect forms do not occur in the function of adverbial
modifiers and attributes.
The category of voice
The infinitive of transitive verbs has the category of voice – Active and
Passive.

to say - to be said
to have said - to have been said

The active Infinitive points out that the action is directed from the subject
(either expressed or implied). It shows that the subject of the sentence is the doer
of the action of the Infinitive. The passive Infinitive indicates that the action is
directed to the subject, thus it shows that the subject of the sentence is the recipient
of the action of the Infinitive.

Active Passive

He expected to find them very soon. They expected to be found by night fall.

However, the active form of the non-perfect Infinitive can denote an action
10
directed towards the subject, it is called retroactive, it is passive in meaning and it
can be replaced by the corresponding passive form:

He is to blame.

The house is to let.

The question is difficult to answer.

There was only one thing to do.

He is to blame —> He is to be blamed.


There was only one thing to do ——> There was only one thing to be done.
The meanings of the forms of the Infinitive ate summarized in Table 5.

§3. Infinitive without the Particle “to”


In Modern English the Infinitive is chiefly used with the particle to. Yet,
there are cases when the Infinitive is used without the particle to, the so-called bare
Infinitive. The bare Infinitive is used in the following cases. See Table 6.

§4. Syntactical functions of the Infinitive

1. The Infinitive as subject


The Infinitive as subject may either precede the predicate, e.g. To be good
is to be in harmony with oneself. or follow it. In the latter case it is introduced by
the formal introductory subject it, which is placed at the beginning of the
sentence and introduces the following real subject expressed by the Infinitive:
It’s so silly to be fussy and jealous.
The second of these structural patterns is more common than the first, and the
subject in this pattern is more accentuated (compare: It’s impossible to do it and To
do it is impossible). The other difference is that in the second case the sentence can
be both declarative and interrogative, while in the first one the sentence can only
be declarative:

Declarative sentences

It’s nice to see you again. To find him still at home was a relief.
It was not a good idea to bring her here To see her again did not give him the usual
pleasure.

Interrogative sentences

Is it bad to love one so dearly?


11
Wasn’t it a waste of time to sit there?

The sentence pattern with the formal introductory subject it is more preferable
when the Infinitive has some dependant words, thus forming an infinitive phrase:
It is interesting to study Lomonosov’s poetical works.
The Infinitive as subject in both structural patterns is a “to” - Infinitive. If
there are two or more homogeneous infinitive subjects in a sentence, all of them
keep the particle to:
To be alone, to be free from the daily interests and cruelty would be
happiness to Asako.
It was awfully difficult to do or even to say nothing at all.
The function of the subject can be performed by the Infinitive of any voice,
aspect and time correlation form, although the non-continuos (or common) aspect
non-perfect active forms are far more frequent.
To expect too much is a dangerous thing.
To be walking through the fields all alone seemed an almost impossible
pleasure.
To have seen her was even a more painful experience.
To be recognized, to be greeted by some local personage afforded her a
joy which was very great.
To have been interrogated in such a way was a real shock to him.
The predicate of the subject expressed by an Infinitive always takes the form
of the 3rd person singular. To understand is to forgive.

2. The Infinitive as part of the predicate

2.1. The Infinitive as part of the simple verbal predicate


As part of the simple verbal predicate the Infinitive is used after auxiliary verbs.
do, does, did to form negative and interrogative forms in the Present and the Past
Simple; after will to form the Future Simple; after should, would to form the
Future-in-the-Past and the Conditional Mood.
I don’t love him. He didn’t come. I will do it. He said that he would do it the next
day. He would do it tomorrow.
2.2. The Infinitive as part of the compound nominal predicate
As part of the compound nominal predicate the Infinitive functions as
predicative. In this function the Infinitive is used after the link verb to be:
His dearest wish was to have a son.
With homogeneous predicatives the use of the particle to varies. If the
Infinitives are not linked by conjunctions, the particle is generally used with all of
them:
My intention was to see her as soon as possible, to talk to her, to calm her.
If they are linked by the conjunctions and or or the particle to is generally
used with the first Infinitive only:
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Your duty will be to teach him French and play with him.
His plan was to ring her up at once, or even call on her.
A predicative infinitive phrase may be introduced by the conjunctive adverbs
and pronouns how, when, where, what, whom, the choice depending on the lexical
meaning of the noun:
Now the question was what to tell him.
The problem was how to begin.

2.3. The Infinitive as part of a compound verbal modal predicate


As part of a compound verbal modal predicate the Infinitive is used after the
modal verbs can, may, might, ought, must, shall, should, will, would, need, dare,
modal equivalents:to be able to, to be to, to have to, and expressions with modal
meaning had better, would rather, to be going, to be about.
I can tell you nothing at all about him.
She had better stay in.

2.4. The Infinitive as part of a compound verbal aspect (or phasal)


predicate
As part of a compound verbal aspect (or phasal) predicate the Infinitive is
used after aspect verbs denoting various phases of the action, such as its beginning,
continuation, or end: to begin, to start, to continue, to go on, to cease, etc.).
Now I begin to understand you.
Then she started to realize what it all meant.
They continued to whisper.
The verbs to begin, to continue and to start can also be followed by a Gerund,
although with a certain difference in meaning. Thus the verb to stop followed by a
Gerund means to put an end to an action, to interrupt, whereas followed by an
Infinitive means to pause in order to do something. So, the Infinitive after the verb
to stop is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of purpose.

He stopped to see what it was. He stopped seeing her.


Он остановился, чтобы посмотреть, Он перестал с ней встречаться.
что это такое.

3. The Infinitive as object


The Infinitive as object is always a complement to a Verb, Adjective
(adjectivized participles) or Stative and thus it completes the meaning of these
parts of speech.
Please don’t hesitate to call us if you have any problems.
I’m proud to say we made the right decision.
If you don’t know the answer, don’t be afraid to say so.

Note:
As most of these verbs denote an attitude to the action expressed by the
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Infinitive, the verb + Infinitive may be treated syntactically as one whole. Thus the
succession of two verbs (... like to help ..., ... expect to arrive ..., ... plan to do ...)
allow of two modes of analysis, as a verb + its object or as a compound verbal
predicate with the first element expressing attitude.

Besides the above-mentioned verbs there are also some rather common
phrases used with the Infinitive-object. They are the phrases can afford, can bear
in the negative or interrogative and such phrases as to make sure, to make up one’s
mind, to take care, to take the trouble.
Can you afford to buy it yourself?
I can’t bear to hear of it again.
At last he made up his mind to answer Sibyl’s letter.
NOTE! With some verbs the function of object may be performed by a
conjunctive infinitive phrase. These verbs are very few in number and fall into two
groups:
a) Verbs that can take either an Infinitive or a conjunctive infinitive phrase as
their object. These are: to advise, to decide, to forget, to learn, to remember.
They advised me to go on. He advised me at last how to settle the matter.
He decided to begin at once. He could not decide whether to come at all.
I forgot to tell you about the last incident. I forgot how to do it.
b) Verbs that can take only a conjunctive infinitive phrase as their object: to
know, to show, to wonder.
She did not know what to say.
I know well enough where to stop.
Will you show me how to do it?
The Infinitive as object may stand not immediately after the finite verb, but
after an adjective in the function of an objective predicative. In such cases the
formal object it is used between the finite verb and the adjective: I think it useless
to teach him Maths. The formal object it is not translated into Russian.

4. The Infinitive as attribute


The Infinitive as attribute in English is far more frequent than the Russian
Infinitive. This is because in Russian the Infinitive as attribute can combine with
abstract nouns only, while in English it is used with a much wider range of words.
In this function the Infinitive always denotes a not yet fulfilled action, which is
regarded as desirable, possible, advisable, necessary, etc. The modal meaning of
the Infinitive as attribute is generally rendered in Russian by modal verbs or
expressions.
The Infinitive as attribute can modify:
1. nouns, both abstract and concrete:
Because of his quarrel with his family he was in no position to get the
news. (... не мог получить известий)
The best thing to do would be to go back. (самое лучшее, что можно
было сделать ...)
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Не is just the man to do it. (он как раз тот человек, который
может/должен это сделать)
I suppose there was nothing to be done, but depart. (ничего нельзя было
сделать, оставалось только удалиться)
2. indefinite, negative and universal pronouns in -
body, -thing, - one (one):
Have you anything to offer me? (Вы можете мне что-нибудь
предложить?)
Не was someone to admire. (... тот, кем можно восхищаться)
Не had everything to make his life a happy one. (...что могло сделать его
счастливым)
Occasionally the Infinitive can have the function of an attribute to personal
negative and reflexive pronouns or pronominal adverbs:
I’ve only you to look to.
Oh, but you have only yourself to praise.
Now I had nobody to see, nowhere to go.
3 . s u b s t a n t i v i z e d o r d i n a l n u m e r a l s (especially first),
s u b s t a n t i v i z e d a d j e c t i v e s (next and last).
Jack was the first to come.
She was the last to reach the hall.
The words with the words the first (the second etc) and the only (one), the
last followed by an Infinitive may correspond to Russian simple sentences:

4. substantivized quantitative adjectives much, little,


(no) more, (no) less, little more, enough:

A man in your position has so much to lose.


I’ve no more to add.
The most common form of the Infinitive as attribute is the non-perfect
common aspect active voice form and non-perfect common aspect passive form.
When performing the function of an attribute a “to”-Infinitive is always used.
If there are two or more homogeneous attributes the second (and the following)
retain to if joined asyndetically, but drop it if joined by conjunctions.
There was, however, my little Jean to look after, to take care of.
Did he give you any small parcel to bring back and deliver to anyone in
England?
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The Infinitive as attribute may be introduced by conjunctive pronouns or
adverbs:
He had sought in vain for inspiration how to awaken love.
I had now an idea what to do.
The conjunctive infinitive phrase may be preceded by a preposition:
They had no knowledge of how to live on.
He’s got no information about when to start.
In Russian the Infinitive as attribute is often rendered by means of an
attributive clause with the words expressing modality, such as ‘можно, нужно,
следует’.

5. The Infinitive as adverbial modifier

5.1. The adverbial modifier of purpose


In this function the action denoted by the Infinitive is always a hypothetical
one following the action denoted by the predicate. As such it can be expressed only
by non-perfect common aspect forms of the Infinitive (both active and passive):

I think I will go to England to improve my English.


We stood in the rain and were taken out one at a time to be questioned and
shot.

In this function a “to”- Infinitive is used, but if there are two or more
homogeneous adverbials of purpose joined by and, usually, though not necessarily,
only the first of them has the particle to. Compare the following sentences:

Mary, looking pale and worried, left him to go down to the kitchen and
start breakfast.
Then I went upstairs to say how-do-you-do to Emily, and into the kitchen to
shake hands with Mary-Ann, and out into the garden to see the gardener.

The position of the Infinitive used as an adverbial modifier of purpose varies.


It usually stands after the predicate, though the position at the beginning of the
sentence is also possible:

To occupy her mind, however, she took the job given her.

In both positions the Infinitive may be preceded by the conjunction in order,


so as or by limiting particle (just, only):

I keep a diary in order to enter the wonderful secrets of my life.


In order to see her better he had to turn his head.
I’m here just to see you off.
He came down only to say good-night to you.

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5.2. The adverbial modifier of subsequent events
In this function the Infinitive denotes an action that follows the action denoted
by the predicate. The position of this adverbial in the sentence is fixed - it always
follows the predicate. The only forms of the Infinitive occurring in this function
are those of the non-perfect common aspect, usually active.

He arrived at three o’clock to hear that Fleur had gone out with the car at
ten. (He arrived and heard ...)
I came down one morning to find Papa excited to the point of apoplexy. (I
came down and found ...)
He hurried to the house only to find it empty. (He hurried and found ...)

In this function the Infinitive may be preceded by the particles only, merely,
simply, which change the meaning of the whole sentence: the action denoted by the
Infinitive makes the action denoted by the predicate pointless or irrelevant.

She returned to London in a few days, only to learn that Bess had gone to
the continent. (She returned ..., and learnt...)

5.3. As an adverbial modifier of consequence the infinitive depends on a)


adjectives and adverbs modified by too; b) adjectives, adverbs and nouns modified
by enough; c) adjectives modified by so, and nouns modified by such. In the last
two cases the Infinitive is introduced by as:

a) Не was too tired to argue. (= He was so fired, that is why he couldn’t


arque).
The story was too interesting to be passed over lightly.
He had gone too far to draw back.

b) He’s old enough to learn this. (= He is old enough, so he can learn this).
I thought I liked Letty well enough to marry her. (=1 liked Letty, so I
wanted to marry her)
He was fool enough to enjoy the game.
He had seen enough blasted, burned out tanks to have no illusions.

c) She was so kind as to accept my proposal. (= She was so kind, therefore


she accepted my proposal)
Do you think I am such a fool as to let it out of my hands?

In all these cases the Infinitive denotes an action, which would become or
became possible (enough, so, such) or impossible (too) due to the degree of quality
or quantity expressed in the words it refers to.
The position of the Infinitive is fixed, it always follows the words it modifies.
The form of the Infinitive is non-perfect, common aspect, usually active.
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5.4. The Infinitive used as an adverbial modifier of attendant
circumstances indicates other actions which take place at the same time as the
action of the predicate.

He left the house never to come back.


I am sorry to have raised your expectations only to disappoint you.

The Infinitive always follows the predicate verb it modifies. Its form is a non-
perfect, common, active voice.

5.5. The Infinitive used as an adverbial modifier of comparison refers to


predicate groups including adjectives or adverbs in the comparative degree. The
Infinitive itself is introduced by than:

To give is more blessed than to receive.


Soon she realized, that it was much more pleasant to give than to be given.
Although the Infinitive of comparison is generally used with to, it may also
occur without it:

I was more inclined to see her safely married than go on watching over
her.

5.6. The Infinitive used as an adverbial modifier of condition denotes an


action which pre-conditions the action expressed by the predicate.

To look at Montmorency you would imagine that he was an angel sent upon
earth ... (If you looked ..., you would imagine ...)
To touch it one would believe that it was the best of furs. (If one touched it,
one would believe ...)
The position of the Infinitive varies; it may either precede or follow the
predicate verb it modifies. The only possible form of the Infinitive is non-perfect,
common, active.

5.7. The Infinitive used as an adverbial modifier of exception denotes the


action which is the only possible one in the situation. The Infinitive is generally
used without to and is introduced by the prepositions but and except. It is found in
negative and interrogative sentences:

I had nothing to do but wait.


What could I do but submit?
There is nothing to do except turn back.

5.8. The Infinitive used as an adverbial modifier of time denotes an action


which marks out the moment of time up to which or at which the action of the
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predicate is performed.

His father lived to be ninety. (lived till he was ...)


I may not live to reach the airstrip this afternoon. (may not live till I reach)

The position of the Infinitive is fixed, it always follows the predicate it


modifies. Its form is non-perfect, common aspect, active.

5.9. The Infinitive used as an adverbial modifier of cause or motivation


refers to a compound nominal predicate with the predicative expressed by an
adjective, a noun, or a prepositional phrase denoting someone's qualities
(intellectual qualities, morals, etc.)
The Infinitive denotes an action which serves as a cause or a motivation on
which this or that charaterization is based.

She was silly to come here. (She came here, and it was silly of her.)
They’re out of their mind to have sent you here! (They have sent you here,
so one can think them out of their minds.)

6. The Infinitive as parenthesis


The Infinitive used as parenthesis is usually part of a collocation, as in: to
begin with, to be (quite) frank, to be sure, to make matters worse, to put it mildly,
to say the least, to tell the truth, needless to say, strange to say, so to speak, to
make a long story short, to crown all, to be more precise, to say nothing of ..., etc.

To begin with, you have been lying to me all the time.


To be quite frank, I don’t like him at all.
He was, strange to say, just an ordinary little chap.
The functions of the Infinitive are summarized in Table 7.

§5. PREDICATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE INFINITIVE

The Infinitive is used in predicative constructions of three types: the


Objective-with-the Infinitive construction, the Subjective Infinitive construction,
and the For-to-Infinitive construction.

§5. The Objective-with-the Infinitive construction


The Objective-with-the Infinitive construction consists of two parts: the
nominal part and the verbal part (see Tables8, 8a) . The nominal part is expressed
by the Noun in the common case or Personal Pronoun in the objective case. The
verbal part is expressed by the Infinitive (either the to-Infintive or the bare
Infinitive). The construction functions as a complex object in the sentence. It is
19
translated into Russian by an object clause.
The Objective-with-the Infinitive construction is used in the following cases:

1. After verbs of sense perception (to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to


observe, to notice and some others). In this case t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e f o r m
of the Infinitive is non-perfect, non-continuous (or
c o m m o n ) , a c t i v e I n f i n i t i v e , used without the particle to:
No one has ever heard her cry.
I paused a moment and watched the tram-car stop.
The verb to listen to, though not a verb of sense perception, is used in the
same way, with a bare Infinitive:
He was listening attentively to the chairman speak.
If the verb to see or to notice is used with the meaning to realize, or the verb
to hear with the meaning to learn, the Objective-with-the Infinitive construction
cannot be used. Here only subordinate object clause is possible:
I saw that he did not know Я видел (понимал), что он ничего не
anything. знает.

I hear that you have dropped the idea of Я слышала (узнала), что ты
leaving him. отказалась от мысли уйти от него.

Не only had time to notice that the girl Он только успел заметить
was unusually pretty. (осознать), что девушка была
необычайно хорошенькой.
2. After verbs of mental activity (to think, to believe, to consider, to expect,
to understand, to suppose, to find and some others). Here the Infinitive is used in
any form, though the non-perfect forms are the most frequent (always with the
particle to).
I know him to be an honest man.
She believed him to have left for San Francisco.
I believed her to be knitting in the next room.
I should expect my devoted friend to be devoted to me.
3. After verbs of emotion (to like, to love, to hate, to dislike and some
others). Here non-perfect, non-continuous (or common) aspect forms of the “to”-
Infinitive are the most usual.
I always liked him to sing.
She hated her son to be separated from her.
I’d love you to come with me too.
I hated him to have been sent away.
4. After verbs of wish and intention (to want, to wish, to desire, to intend, to
mean and some others). After these verbs only non-perfect non-continuous (or
common) aspect forms of the Infinitive with the particle to are used:
He only wished you to be near him.
I don’t want him to be punished.
5. After verbs of declaring (to declare, to pronounce):
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I declare you to be out of your mind.
He reported the boat to have been seen not far away.
6. After verbs of inducement (to have, to make, to get, to order, to tell, to
ask, etc.) of which the first two take a bare Infinitive. In the construction some of
them acquire a different meaning: make - заставить, get - добиться, have -
заставить (сказать, чтобы ...)
I can’t get him to do it properly.
She made me obey her.
7. After verbs requiring a prepositional object, for example to count
(up)on, to rely (up) on, to look for, to listen to, to wait for:
I rely on you to come in time.
Can’t I count upon you to help me?

§6. The Subjective Infinitive Construction


The Subjective Infinitive construction consists of two parts: the nominal part
and the verbal part (see Table 9). The nominal part is expressed by the Noun in the
common case or Personal Pronoun in the nominative case. The verbal part is
expressed by the Infinitive. The construction functions as a complex subject in the
sentence. In the Subjective Infinitive construction the Infinitive is always used
with the particle to.
The Subjective Infinitive construction is used in the following cases:
1. After verbs in the Passive Voice:
● Vsense perception :to see, to observe, to watch, to hear: e.g. He was heard to
mention the matter. The car was seen to disappear in the distance. After Vsense
perception the Indefinite Infinitive is used only. The Infinitive denotes a completed
action. In Russian it is rendered by means of a complex sentence with the verb-
predicate in the perfective form: Слышали, как он упомянул эту проблему.
Видели, как машина исчезла вдалеке.
● Vsaying \ declaring to say, to report, to declare: e.g. Ann is said to resemble her
sister. The man was reported to have stolen the money. Any form of the Infinitive
can be used. In Russian it is rendered by means of a complex sentence: Говорят
(говорили), что …; Сообщают (сообщили), что …
● Vmental activity to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to suppose, to expect:
e.g. He is known to live in this house. The manuscript is believed to have been
written in the 15th century. Any form of the Infinitive can be used. In Russian it is
rendered by means of a complex sentence: Известно, что …; Считают
(считали), что …
● Vcausative: to make, to force: He was made to pay for the damage he had
done. The Indefinite Infinitive is used only. In Russian it is rendered by means of a
simple sentence: Его заставили заплатить за нанесенный ущерб.
2. After Verbs in the Active Voice:
After the verbs to seem / to appear, to turn out / to prove any form of the
Infinitive can be used: e. g. He seems /doesn’t seem to have left for London a week
ago. They all turned out to be good friends. In Russian it is rendered by means of
21
a complex sentence: Кажется (казалось), что … . Оказывается (оказалось),
что .
After the verbs to happen / to chance the Non-Perfect Infinitive is used only.:
e.g. Only yesterday we happened to see Andy. In Russian it is rendered by means
of a simple sentence with the adverb случайно: Только вчера мы случайно
встретили Энди.
3. After expressions to be likely to V / to be unlikely to V, to be certain to V /
to be uncertain to V, to be sure to V the Indefinite Infinitive is used only because
the action of the Infinitive refers to the future: e.g. It is likely to rain soon.,This
fire is certain to produce a panic in the morning., We are sure to solve this
problem. In Russian it is rendered by means of a simple sentence with modal
words наверное (по-видимому), несомненно (бесспорно), обязательно:
Наверное (по-видимому), скоро пойдет дождь. Этот пожар, несомненно
(бесспорно) вызовет утром панику. Мы обязательно решим эту проблему.
Note: Some grammarians do not recognize the Subjective Infinitive
construction and stick to the point of view that the Infinitive in combination with
verbs mentioned above build up a compound predicate of double orientation, e.g.
In the sentence He is known to live in this house the predicate is is known to live.
It is a compound predicate of double orientation.

§7. The For-to-Infinitive construction


The For-to-Infinitive construction consists of two parts: the nominal part and
the verbal part (see Table 10). The nominal part is expressed by the Noun in the
common case or Personal Pronoun in the objective case. The verbal part is
expressed by the Infinitive. The construction is introduced by the preposition for.
The For-to-Infinitive construction is used in six syntactical functions, namely:
1. Complex subject.
It occurs in sentences with the formal introductory subject it, though it is
occasionally takes the initial position of the sentence:
It was difficult for him to do anything else.
For me to hear him was disturbing.
2. Complex predicative.
In this function the construction is mostly used with the link verb to be:
The best thing is for you to do it now.
3. Complex object. The construction functions as object is a complement to
verbs and adjectives:
She watched for the door to open.
His family were anxious for him to do something.
Occasionaly the For-to-Infinitive construction is used as a complex object
if there a formal object it in the sentence.
Her behavior made it impossible for him to tell her the truth.
4. Complex attribute.
There was no need for him to be economical.
5. Complex adverbial modifier of purpose.
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She paused for him to continue.
6. Complex adverbial modifier of result (consequence).
The wall was too high for anything to be visible.
He had said enough for me to get alarmed.
In all its functions the For-to-Infinitive construction is generally rendered in
Russian by a subordinate clause.

§8. The Gerund


The Gerund is a non-finite form of the verb that combines verb (see Table 2)
and nominal features (see Table 3). It is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the
stem of the verb. The grammatical meaning of the gerund is that of a process.
The verb characteristics of the Gerund are the following:
1) it can express the categories of time-correlation and voice: e.g. I regret having
told her the truth. He didn’t in the least object to being examined.
2) it can be modified by an adverb: e.g. He is not interested in dancing
professionally.
3) it can take a direct object: e.g. His hobby is drawing caricatures.
The nominal features of the Gerund are the following:
1) it can combine with a possessive pronoun or a noun in the genitive case: e.g. It’s
no use your telling me not to worry. It's bad enough Richard's failing at the
examination.
2) it can combine with a preposition: e.g. He was overjoyed at seeing his father
after so many years of separation.
3) it can be used in nominal functions of subject, object and predicative: e.g.
Getting to sleep on time is my problem. I like going to the Crimea each summer.
My problem is getting to sleep on time.

Grammatical forms of the Gerund and their meanings


The Gerund has four forms, i.e. two forms (active and passive) for the
indefinite group: reading, being read; and two forms (active and passive) for the
perfect group: having read, having been read (see Table 1).
The meanings of the forms of the Gerund are summarized in Table 11.
The Indefinite forms express time distinctions only relatively.
The Non-Perfect Gerund is used to denote the following meanings:
1) a general action: e.g. I like dancing.
2) a simultaneous action with that of the finite form of the verb: e.g. I can't
understand neglecting children like that.
3) an action which refers to the future: e.g. I entered the university for
mastering English.
4) an immediate succession of the actions in the sentence: e.g. On seeing us
she stopped.
The Perfect Gerund expresses an action prior to that of the finite verb: He
denied having done this on purpose.

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Note: After the verbs remember, forget, forgive, thank the Non-Perfect
Gerund is used, in spite of the priority of its action to that of the finite form of the
verb: e.g. I remember going to the British Museum once.
The Gerund Active Voce is used when the subject/object of the sentence is
the doer of the action of the Gerund: e.g. She denies meeting him every day.
The Gerund Passive Voce is used when the subject/object of the sentence is
the recipient of the action of the Gerund: e.g. She recalled having been told that
the underground was the fastest type of the city transport.
Note: Though the subject of the sentence is the recipient of the action of the
Gerund, the Gerund Active voice is used after be worth, deserve, need, require,
want: e.g. The TV needs repairing. My shoes want mending. A lot of the small
towns in the area are definitely worth visiting.

§9. Syntactical Functions of the Gerund

1. The gerund as subject


The Gerund in the function of the subject usually expresses permanent or
recurrent actions simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb. The
Gerund as subject takes the initial position in the sentence. In this case it is used
only in declarative sentences:
e.g.: Passing a law about equal rights doesn’t necessarily mean that women
get them. Seeing you is always a pleasure.
Besides the initial position in the sentence, the Gerund as subject can be
introduced by the formal introductory subject it, which is placed at the beginning
of the sentence and introduces the subject expressed by a gerund. The meaning of
the subject in this case is accentuated and the predicate of the sentence in this case
is usually expressed by such phrases as to be (of) no use (no good), to make all the
(no) difference.
e.g.: It was no good objecting. It will make no difference your being quiet.
The Gerund as subject can be occasionally found in sentences beginning
with there is, but its use is restricted to negative sentences where the Gerund is
usually preceded by no.
e.g.: There was no arguing with her about it when she had made up her
mind.
2. The gerund as part of the predicate
The gerund is used in compound predicates of two types – verbal and
nominal.

2.1 The gerund as part of a compound nominal predicate (predicative)


The Gerund as predicative is usually used after the link-verbs to be, to mean,
to feel like, to be for/against.
e.g.: The important part is helping people so that they can live normal lives.

24
I don’t feel like discussing this matter in her presence.

2.2 The gerund as part of a compound verbal aspect (or phase) predicate
As part of a compound aspect (or phase) predicate the Gerund is always used
after aspect (or phase) verbs, which denote a phase of the action expressed by the
gerund. The most common aspect (or phase verbs) followed by the gerund are: to
begin, to start, to cease, to continue, to go on, to finish, to keep (on), to stop.
e.g.: Again you start arguing. They kept on arguing.
The verbs to continue, to begin, to cease, to start can be followed by a
Gerund or an Infinitive.
e.g.: She started cooking dinner for the poor invalid. She started to dial the
familiar number.
Note. The only case where the Gerund can be used as part of a compound
verbal modal predicate is after the idiomatic expression can't (couldn't) help.
e.g.: I couldn't help admiring her.

3. The gerund as object


The gerund can be used as a direct or a prepositional object. The Gerund as
object is always a complement to a verb or an adjective, thus it completes the
meaning of these parts of speech.
e.g.: Children always like telling you about something. He was thinking of
asking a question. They are responsible for translating this article.
The following verbs always take a Gerund as a direct object: admit, afford,
appreciate, avoid, consider, defer, delay, deny, detest, dislike, endure, enjoy,
escape, excuse, fancy, forbid, forget, forgive, give up, hate, help, intend, imagine,
like, love, mention, mind ('object to'), miss, need, neglect, pardon, postpone,
practise, prefer, propose, put off, recall, recollect, risk, stand, suggest, try,
understand, want.
Note: After the verbs to fancy, to mind a Gerund mostly occurs in negative
or interrogative sentences.
e.g. Do you fancy going for a swim?
I don't mind driving if you're tired.
The following verbs always take a Gerund as a prepositional object (see
Tables 13, 14): to accuse of, to apologize for, to depend on, to insist on, to object
to, to prevent from, to see to, to succeed in, to suspect of, to think of, etc.
The following adjectives always take a Gerund as a prepositional object
(see Table 15): to be capable of, to be clever at, to be engaged in, to be fed up
with, to be fond of, to be grateful for, to be responsible for, to be sick of, to be tired
of, to be used to, etc.
4. The gerund as attribute
When used as an attribute, the gerund modifies nouns, mainly abstract nouns
(see Tables 16, 17), such as art, chance, difficulty, good, habit, harm, hope, idea,
intention, mistake, opportunity, plan, point, purpose, sense, way. In such cases it is
always preceded by a preposition.
e.g.: There is no harm in asking her again. I see no point in refusing. There
25
is a chance of catching the train. I don’t like his habit of making people wait.
When used as an attribute in preposition, the gerund imparts to the noun
modified a special meaning: it says what the thing (or person) is intended for: e.g.:
a sleeping-car = a car which is intended for sleeping in.

5. The gerund as adverbial modifier


When used as an adverbial modifier, the gerund is always preceded by a
preposition. It may function as:
5.1 an adverbial modifier of manner. The most characteristic prepositions in this
case are the prepositions by, in.
e.g.: You can make your skirt tighter by taking in a little at the seams.
5.2 an adverbial modifier of time. The most characteristic prepositions are on, in,
at, before, after.
e.g.: On entering the office, he saw that his colleagues were unusually excited.
5.3 an adverbial modifier of cause. The characteristic prepositions are because
of, for, for fear of, on account of.
e.g.: We found ourselves in an embarrassing position because of coming to see
them so early in the morning.
5.4 an adverbial modifier of concession. The characteristic preposition is in spite
of (despite).
e.g.: In spite of being a very diligent pupil, this time he couldn’t cope with the
task.
5.5 an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances. The characteristic
prepositions are without, instead of.
e.g.: She crossed the room without taking notice of the people present there.
5.6 an adverbial modifier of condition. The characteristic prepositions are
without, but for. e.g.: You won’t enrich your vocabulary without making use of an
English dictionary. (= if you don’t make use of...). But for meeting John, I
shouldn’t have learned the news.
5.7 an adverbial modifier of purpose. The characteristic prepositions are for,
fear of, for the sake of, for the purpose of.
e.g.: They took her to the police station for questioning.
5.8 an adverbial modifier of comparison: The country is much better than
working in the hot city all summer.
The functions of the Gerund are summarized in Table 12

§10. The Infinitive or the Gerund


A number of verbs can be followed by both a Gerund and an Infinitive (see
Table 18). The difference in meaning between the Gerund and the Infinitive is that
the Gerund is more general in meaning, while the Infinitive expresses some
particular action.
E.g.: I prefer staying at home to going to a cinema (i.e. in general).- "Let's
go to the cinema tonight." - "No, thanks. I prefer to stay at home." (i. e. on this
particular occasion).
26
With some verbs a Gerund and an Infinitive imply more special difference in
the meaning which can be traced only by comparing the two particular
constructions, e.g:
like + Inf. = to prefer, want
love + Ger. = to be fond of
don't like + Inf. = I'm unwilling
don't like + Ger. = I dislike (a weak form of hate)
remember, forget + Inf. denotes a future action
recollect, regret + Inf. denotes a future action
remember, forget + Ger. denotes a past action
recollect, regret + Ger. denotes a past action
to be afraid + Inf. = to be frightened to do something
to be afraid + Ger. =not to want to do something
mean + Inf. = to intend
mean + Ger. = to signify
try + Inf. = to attempt, to make an effort
try + Ger. = to test (by making an experiment)
to stop + Inf. (the infinitive expresses an adverbial modifier of purpose)
to stop + Ger. = to give up doing something

§11. The Gerund and the Verbal noun


Gerunds and verbal nouns coincide in form: they are both –ing forms.
However, there are some principal differences between them (see Table 19).
A gerund has some verb properties, namely, it can take a direct object and it
can be modified by an adverb.
Drawing a dog badly is not acceptable for your project.
drawing - is a gerund. It has verb properties. Just like a verb, it combines with
a direct object a dog and the adverb badly.
Verbal nouns do not have any verb properties. Instead, they have all the
properties of nouns. They can take plural forms, e.g. She understood the message
after several readings.
Verbal nouns are preceded by Noun - determiners (articles and possessive
pronouns), they can be modified by adjectives and be followed by a prepositional
phrase, e.g. This bad drawing of a dog is not acceptable for your project.
drawing - is a verbal noun. It functions as a noun. Just like any noun it has a
determiner This; it s modified by the adjective bad, and it is followed by a
prepositional phrase of a dog.

§12. Predicative constructions with the Gerund. The Gerundial and the
Half-gerundial constructions
The Gerund can have a subject of its own which is different from the subject
of the sentence. In this case the Gerund and its subject form a predicative
construction. There are two predicative constructions with a gerund: the Gerundial
27
Construction and the Half-gerundial construction (see Table 20).
The Gerundial Construction consists of two parts: the nominal part and the
verbal part. The nominal part is expressed by a noun/noun-pronoun in the Genitive
Case or a possessive pronoun. The verbal part is expressed by the Gerund. e.g.: Do
you object to our smoking here? Do you object to John's smoking here?
Since not all nouns in English can have the possessive form, the Gerundial
Predicative Construction is restricted entirely to nouns, denoting animate beings.
With inanimate nouns and pronouns that can’t be used in the Genitive Case
the Half-gerundial Construction is used. The Half-gerundial Construction consists
of two parts: the nominal part and the verbal part. The nominal part is expressed by
a noun in the Common Case or a pronoun in the Objective Case. The verbal part is
expressed by the Gerund.
e.g.: The realization of this plan depends on the document being signed in
time. Do you mind them coming too? I don't much like the idea of Mary going
home alone.
Besides, the Half-gerundial Construction is used when its nominal part is
expressed by more than one word.
e.g.: I insist on Mary and Cyril spending their vacation at a rest home.
Note. The Half-gerundial Construction is never used after the verbs avoid,
defer, delay, deny, enjoy, put off, postpone, risk, suggest. The Gerundial
construction is used only.
e.g.: I couldn't deny his having made a reasonable excuse.
The Half-gerundial Construction is used when the noun in the nominal part
is accompanied by attributes in post-position, e.g. There came the sound of the
door closing then being locked.
The Gerundial / Half-gerundial Predicative Construction is used in the same
syntactical functions as the Gerund.
● a complex subject. It is used either with or without the introductory it.
e.g. Your doing nothing won’t help anybody. It is no use your going there
now. It’s no good you hating it.
Note: the Half-Gerundial Construction can’t be used in the initial position of the
sentence.
 a complex predicative:
e.g. The only way out will be his taking the job. I am against your
interfering in their affairs.
 a complex object:
e.g. His mother liked his worrying about his wife. He insisted on my claims
being acknowledged.
 a complex attribute:
e.g. There is little sense in your staying here. The prospect of someone else
getting a job moved them to strong moral indignation.
● a complex adverbial modifier of time:
e.g. After his being away for some time the crisis came.
● a complex adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances:
28
The car slid away without my having to say anything.
● a complex adverbial modifier of concession:
In spite of it being cold the bushes swarmed with insects.

§13. The Participles


The Participle is a non-finite form of the verb. There are two forms of the
participle - Participle I (Present Participle) and Participle II (Past Participle).
Participle I is an active form and Participle II – a passive one. In Russian Participle
I corresponds to причастие (or деепричастие) действительного залога and
Participle II corresponds to причастие страдательного залога.

Participle I
Participle I is a non-finite form of the verb with some verb, adjectival and
adverbial features. It is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb.
The verb character of Participle I is manifested morphologically in the
categories of voice and time-correlation and syntactically in its combinability (see
Table 2). Thus, like any verb it may combine: a) with a noun or a pronoun as direct
object; b) with an adverb. E.g. Seeing Jane, I rushed to greet her. Rising early,
you’ll make your days longer.
The adjectival and adverbial features of Participle I are manifested in its
combinability with an adverb of degree and syntactical functions as an attribute
and an adverbial modifier.(see Table 4).
E.g. The silence was very frightening.
Do you know the man sitting in the middle of the first row?
We didn’t utter a word while listening to the story.

The category of time-correlation


The category of time-correlation in Participle I finds its expression in the
opposition of the non-perfect and perfect forms (see Table 1).
The non-perfect Participle I expresses an action simultaneous with that of
the finite verb. Thus, the time-reference of the action expressed by Participle I can
be understood only from the context, it is not absolute, but relative.
E.g.
you know your native tongue better.
Learning foreign I used to begin my day with repeating new words.
languages you will learn a lot about your native tongue.

The perfect Participle I expresses an action which is prior to that denoted by


the finite verb.
E.g.
I shall start upon French.
Having learnt the our students start upon French or German.
29
elements we started upon French.
of English

The meaning of priority may be accompanied by the notion of completion or


duration, depending on whether the meaning of the verb is terminative or durative.
E.g. Denny took the little packet, and having brought no bag, slipped it
down her dress.
Having waited several hours in the snow to see me, he was not likely to
show much patience when the house was thrown into darkness.

Non-perfect Participle I regularly expresses immediate priority and denotes


an instantaneous action if it is formed from terminative verbs, such as verbs of
motion (to come, to enter, to arrive, to turn, to leave), of sense perception (to see,
to hear, to find) and verbs of certain specific actions associated with motion (to
put, to put on, to take, to take off, to seize, to grasp, to open).
E.g Arriving at the station, he found his train gone.
Leaving the house, Andrew continued his round.
Turning the comer, you’ll see the house you are looking for.
Hearing a noise in the garden, I looked out of the window.
Taking off our shoes, we tiptoed into the nursery.

The perfect Participle I of the same verbs is used when there is a lapse of
time between the two actions, or when the action denoted by the Participle I is
durative. Compare the following examples:
E.g. Seeing Jane, I rushed to greet her. But: Having seen tine girl only
once, I didn’t recognize her.
Not having seen her for a long time, I didn’t recognize her.

Sometimes the perfect Participle I is used to emphasize priority. Compare:


E.g. Her husband, finding the right key, fits it into the lock of the bureau.
Having found the place he sought, Bateman sent in his card to the
manager.
Non-perfect Participle I may denote an immediate succession of the actions
in the sentence:
E.g Lizzy left the room, banging the door shut.
John fell, hurting his knee.
There may be a lapse of time between the first and the second (posterior)
action. This is evident from the context.
E.g I then hired a car and went home, arriving just before twelve о'clock.
We left at dawn, returning late.

As seen from the above examples non-perfect Participle I denoting a prior


action usually precedes the predicate verb. When it denotes a posterior action, it
stands always after the predicate verb. In both cases it corresponds to the Russian
perfective adverbial participle (деепричастие) (приехав, повернув, услышав,
30
сняв, поднявшись, найдя, хлопнув, вернувшись). (See Table 21)

The category of voice


Participle I of transitive verbs, both non-perfect and perfect, has voice
distinctions, which are realized in the opposition of active and passive forms (see
(see Table 1):
E.g.
Translating from English into Being translated into many
Russian, she should know well both languages, the novel is known all over
languages. the world.

Having translated the text into Having been translated long ago,
Russian, we handed it to the teacher. the novel is likely to be published again.

Participle I active shows that the subject/object of the sentence is the doer of
the action, so the action is directed from the doer of the action.
Participle I passive shows that the subject/object of the sentence is the
recipient of the action of the Participle I, so the action is directed towards it (see
Table 21).
E.g Do you know the students translating the text?
Have you read the text being translated by the students?

§14. Syntactical functions of Participle I

Participle I performs the syntactical functions characteristic of the adjective


and the adverb (see Table 22).

1. Participle I as part of a simple verbal predicate


In this function Participle I is used after the auxiliary verb to be (in the
required form) to build the Continuous Tense or the Perfect Continuous Tense: e.g.
My son is playing in the garden. He has been playing there since morning.

2. Participle I as predicative
Non-perfect active Participle I functions as predicative after linking verbs.
E.g. This story is really exciting.
Participle I in this function gives the qualitative characterization to the
person or thing used as subject.

3. Participle I as attribute
This function is peculiar to non-perfect Participle I. It corresponds to the
Russian imperfective participle, usually active: leading - ведущий, asking -
спрашивающий, sleeping - спящий. The passive Participle I corresponds to the
Russian imperfective passive participle: being asked - спрашиваемый, being
translated -переводимый, being built - строящийся.
31
E.g. We went along the street leading to the seashore. Another factor
concerns the formality of the language being taught.
As attribute Participle I can be used in preposition and postposition: e.g. The
whipping waves roared through the night. The waves, whipping the shore
savagely, roared through the night.

When a prior action is expressed no Participle I can be used as attribute, only


an attributive clause is used. Thus when we translate sentences with the Russian
perfective participle active with the suffix -вш into English we must use an
attributive clause: спросивший - who has asked, переводивший (ранее) - who
has translated or who has (had) been translating, уехавший -who has gone,
вернувшийся - who has (had) returned or who returned, depending on the context
or situation:
Я разговаривал со студентами, вернувшимися с практики. – I’ve just
talked to the students who have come back from their teaching practice.
Я разговаривал со студентами, вернувшимися с практики на прошлой
неделе. – I’ve talked to the students who came back from their school practice
last week.
Женщина, стоявшая на крыльце, вошла в дом. - The woman who had
been standing on the porch went into the house, (the action expressed by the
participle is prior to that of the finite verb) But: Я обратился к женщине,
стоявшей на крыльце. - I addressed the woman standing on the porch
(simultaneous actions).

Participle I non-perfect passive is not very often used as attribute. But when
it is used in this way, it should not be confused with participle II. Though both
participles express a passive action, there is still a certain difference in meaning:
Participle II expresses merely a state, while Participle I non-perfect passive
expresses rather a progressive passive action represented as a state. A participial
phrase with Participle II as its head word is usually rendered in Russian with the
help of a participial phrase, while a participial phrase with Participle I non-perfect
passive corresponds to a Russian attributive clause with the verb in the form of the
non-perfect aspects (несовершенного вида).Compare:
a) Letters written by my sister are difficult to read. – Письма, написанные
моей сестрой, трудно читать.
b) The letters being written by the engineer will be signed by the director. –
Письма, которые сейчас пишет этот инженер, будут подписаны
директором.

4. Participle I as parenthesis
Participle I as parenthesis forms the headword of a participial phrase, the
meaning of which is a comment upon the contents of the whole sentence or
sometimes part of it. The comment may take the form of a logical restriction or
personal attitude: generally (properly, roughly, legally, strictly) speaking, putting it
mildly, judging by (from), allowing for, taking everything into consideration, etc.
32
E.g Judging from what you say, he ought to succeed.
Strictly speaking, this is illegal.

5. Participle I as adverbial modifier


All the four forms of Participle I can function as adverbial modifiers of
different semantic types.
5.1 Participle I as adverbial modifier of time may denote a simultaneous or
a prior action. Here it corresponds to the Russian adverbial participle
(деепричастие).
Non-perfect Participle I active, when used as an adverbial modifier of time,
usually conveys the meaning of the motion or state. Most often it is a participle of
the verbs of motion (come, walk, go), or position in space (sit, lie, stand).
E.g. Walking along the track, Bowen burst into song.
Returning to London, Arthur had thrown himself into the work.
Standing there now on the corner of the stage, he went on as before.
Lying in the hospital with his rotting wound, he dictated his farewell letter
to his brother.
The notion of simultaneity may be expressed more explicitly by the
conjunctions when and while.
E.g He felt horrible while saying this.
Don’t forget articles when speaking English.
Participle I passive in this function usually denotes priority.
E.g. He enquired hurriedly whether Mrs. Forsyte was at home and being
informed that she was not, heaved a sigh of relief.
Being left alone, Paulina and I kept silence for some time.

Perfect Participle I as adverbial modifier of time always denotes a prior


action.
E.g. They wrote because they had to, and having written, thought only of
what they were going to write next.

5.2 Participle I as adverbial modifier of cause \ reason can be expressed by


all the four forms. The most frequently used non-perfect Participles I are those of
verbs denoting mental perception and emotions, for example, knowing, realizing,
remembering, expecting, hoping, fearing; also the participles being and having.
E.g. She knew that we were guilty. And knowing it, the child in her was
outraged. Being there, I could see all.
Having decided on this course of action some time ago, I was unable to stay
at home.
Another characteristic feature of participles functioning as adverbials of
cause \ reason consists in their combinability with negation.
E.g. I turned back, not knowing where to go.

5.3 The adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances


Participle I denotes some action or event parallel to the action or state
33
denoted by the finite verb.
E.g. Deb was silent, fidgeting with the spoon in her saucer.
5.4 Participle I as an adverbial modifier of manner is akin to an adverbial
modifier of attendant circumstances. The difference consists in the fact that an
adverbial modifier of manner characterizes the action of the finite verb, whereas
that of attendant circumstances denotes a parallel action or event.
E.g. He came in carrying a big parcel.

5.5 Participle I as an adverbial modifier of comparison


As an adverbial of comparison Participle I is always preceded by the
conjunction as if, as though:
E.g. As if obeying him, I turned and stared into his face.

5.6 Participle I as an adverbial modifier of concession


When Participle I is used as an adverbial modifier of concession with the
conjunction though \ although.
E.g. Somebody was waiting: a man who, though moving irregularly, was
making quite a speed in my direction.

5.7 Participle I as an adverbial modifier of condition


Participle I as an adverbial modifier of condition is recognized by its
syntactical surroundings. It is either the subjunctive mood or the future tense form
which allows Participle I to function as an adverbial modifier of condition:
E.g. She ought to be there and her absence might be resented, but being
there she wouldn’t know what to say (но, если бы она была там ... , ... но будучи
там ...).

§15. The Gerund and Participle I


Participle I coincides in form with the Gerund. Participle I and the Gerund
are alike in their verb characteristics, both morphological (the categories of voice
and time-correlation) and syntactical (verb combinability) (see Table 2).
There are some differences between Participle I and the Gerund.
1. Participle I has adjective features, while the Gerund has a noun nature. So
they perform different syntactic functions: the Gerund is used as a subject and an
object, Participle I can never have these two syntactic functions.
The function of predicative illustrates the following difference. Participle I as
predicative gives qualitative characteristics to the subject, thus tending towards an
adjective. E.g. The sound of the thunder was deafening. The Gerund as predicative
does not qualify the subject, it rather identifies the subject by revealing its
meaning. E.g. His favourite occupation is collecting stamps.
2.Both Participle I and the Gerund may occur as adverbial modifiers. The
difference between them in this case is that the Gerund is preceded by a
preposition, while Participle I is used in this syntactic function without any
preposition or is introduced by a conjunction.
34
The participle and the Gerund are interchangeable when used as adverbials
of time characterizing the verb through simultaneous or prior events:

E.g.
Discussing
the plan we heard a lot of helpful suggestions.
In discussing
the plan
Entering the
room he closed the door.
On entering
the room
After discussing
the plan we started carring it out.
Having
discussed the plan

Only the Gerund is possible when the starting or the final point of the action
is meant.
E.g. He has never been at his native town since leaving it in 1964.
You must get your parents’ permission before leaving for the mountains.
3.If an ing-form has a subject of its own, i.e. forms a predicative construction,
the subject of a Gerund is expressed mostly by a possessive pronoun or a noun in
the Genitive Case, while the subject of Participle I is expressed either by the
personal pronoun in the Nominative or Objective Case or by a noun in the
Common Case.
4. In the function of an attribute a Gerund expresses what a thing (or a
person) is meant for, while Participle I expresses an action performed by a person
(or thing). Compare:
a sleeping-car = a car where you can sleep
a sleeping man = a man who is asleep
5. Both not + Participle I and without + Gerund are translated into Russian
by means of не + деепричастие. But without + Gerund is used to express an
adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances (or manner), while not +
Participle I expresses an adverbial modifier of cause.
The basic differences between the Gerund and Participle I are summarized in
Table 23.

§16. Participle II
Participle II is a non-finite form of the verb with verb, adjectival and adverb
features. Participle II stands apart from the other non-finites because it does not
possess their morphological categories (see Table 1) The main meanings of
Participle II are those of a state as a result of some action or an action itself.
Participle II of a transitive verb is passive in meaning, Participle II of an
35
intransitive verb is active.
Thus the participles invited, told, taken are semantically passive and
correspond to the Russian passive participles приглашенный, рассказанный,
взятый. The participles arrived, gone, risen are semantically active and correspond
to the Russian active participles прибывший, ушедший, поднявшийся
(взошедший).
The verb character of Participle II is manifested in its combinability. Thus
Participle II of transitive verbs combines with a by-object denoting the doer of the
action: e.g. Jane entered the room followed by her brother.
Participles II of prepositional transitive verbs are followed by the
appropriate prepositions: a book often asked for, the article referred to, a man
much spoken of.
Ditransitive verbs keep their second object: That was the main question
asked her at the wedding.
One of the main verb features of Participle II is revealed in its functioning as
part of the analytical verb forms of the passive voice and the perfect tense.
The adjectival nature of Participle II manifests itself in the function of
either attribute or predicative. It may combine with adverbs of degree typical of
adjectives, such as very, too, slightly, so, much, more:
E.g I am very pleased with you. The children were too excited to notice the
newcomer. No man has ever had a more devoted sister than I.

§17. Syntactical functions of Participle II


As part of the sentence Participle II may function as an attribute,
predicative, or as an adverbial modifier (see Table 24).

1. Participle II as predicative
Participle II as predicative denotes a state: e.g. He looks perplexed and
troubled. The door remained locked.

2. Participle II as part of a simple verbal predicate


Participle II as part of a simple verbal predicate is used after the auxiliary verb to
have to build the Perfect Tense or after the auxiliary verb to be to build the passive
voice, e.g. The students have already written the test. The door was always locked
by Tom.

3. Participle II as attribute
Participle II as attribute can be used in preposition: e.g. First of all she went
to the bombed building.
In postposition Participle II is usually accompanied by a preposition, by an
agentive by-object, an adverb and prepositional phrases as adverbial modifiers.
E.g. The dictionary referred to is to be found in our library.
These are cities inhabited by their creators.
Two women dimly seen in the shadow are talking softly.
36
4. Participle II as adverbial modifier
The adverbial function of Participle II can be seen only from the general
meaning of the sentence. In the vast majority of cases, when used adverbially,
Participle II is preceded by a conjunction, which explicitly indicates the semantic
type of the adverbial modifier.
Participle II performs the following functions:
4.1 an adverbial modifier of cause \ reason:
E.g. Deprived of his wife and son by the Spanish adventure, Jolyon found
the solitude at Robin Hill intolerable.
4.2 an adverbial modifier of time, usually with the conjunction when,
until:
E.g. He is very affable when spoken to, but naturally silent.
He won’t stop arguing until interrupted.

4.3 an adverbial modifier of condition, mostly with the conjunction if,


unless:
E.g. I shall certainly give evidence on your behalf, if required.
John will speak for hours, unless interrupted.

4.4 an adverbial modifier of concession, with the conjunction though \


although:
E.g. Though asked in disarming sociability, Haldone’s question was loaded.

4.5 an adverbial modifier of comparison, with the conjunction as if \ as


though:
E.g. “I get off the train,” he repeated as if hypnotized.

§18. Predicative Constructions with Participles


If participles have a subject of their own, they form a predicative
construction. There are four predicative constructions with participles: the
Objective Participial constructions, the Subjective Participial construction, the
Nominative Absolute Participial construction, the Prepositional Absolute
Participial construction.

The Objective Participial Construction with Participle I


The Objective Participial construction with Participle I consists of two parts:
the nominal part and the verbal part. The nominal part is expressed by a
noun/noun-pronoun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case. The
verbal part is expressed by Participle I.
The Objective Participial construction is used in the function of a complex
object. In Russian it corresponds to a subordinate clause and is usually translated
into Russian by a subordinate object clause:
E.g. I saw John playing tennis. Я видел, как Джон играет в теннис.
37
The construction is generally used with non-perfect Participle I active, and
occasionally it occurs with Participle I passive: e.g. I could see the books being
taken away.
The construction with Participle I shows a processual character of the action.
The Objective Participial construction with Participle I is used after the
following verbs (see Table 26):
1) verbs of sense perception (to see, to watch, to notice, to observe, to hear, to feel,
to smell):
I saw the car stopping. Я видел, как машина останавливалась у ворот.
(Compare: I saw the car stop at the gate. Я видел, что машина, остановилась у
ворот. The Objective Infinitive construction emphasizes the fact of an action being
completed).
2) after verbs to hold, to keep, to take, to find, to catch, to leave, etc.
We found him working in the garden.

§19. The Objective Participial Construction with Partciple II


The Objective Participial construction with Participle II consists of two
parts: the nominal part and the verbal part. The nominal part is expressed by a
noun/noun-pronoun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case. The
verbal part is expressed by Participle II. The Objective Participial construction is
used in the function of a complex object. In Russian it corresponds to a subordinate
clause and is usually translated into Russian by a subordinate object clause.
The construction with Participle II expresses a passive meaning.
The Objective Participial construction is used after the following verbs (see
Table 26):
1) verbs of sense perception (to see, to watch, to notice, to observe, to hear, to feel,
to smell):
I heard Jane addressed by a stranger. Я услышал, как к Джейн обратился
какой-то незнакомец.
2) after verbs to hold, to keep, to take, to find, to catch, to leave, etc.
The drill left the team exhausted.
3) verbs of causative meaning to have , to get: He had/got the house painted.
4) verbs of mental activity to think, to consider, to expect, to know, to believe, to
prefer, to feel, to imagine, to find, etc.: I prefer your hair curled.
5) verbs of declaring to declare, to pronounce, to report, etc.: He reported the
watch stolen.
6) verbs of wish to wish, to want, to desire, to (dis)like, to hate, etc.: The
photographer wanted his film developed.

§20. The Subjective Participial Construction with Participle I


The Subjective Participial construction with Participle I consists of two
parts: the nominal part and the verbal part. The nominal part is expressed by a
noun/noun-pronoun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case. The
38
verbal part by Participle I (active voce only).
The Subjective Participial construction is used in the function of a complex
subject. The construction with Participle I shows a processual character of the
action.
The Subjective Participial construction is used after the following verbs (see
Table 27):
1) verbs of sense perception in the passive voice (to see, to watch, to notice, to
observe, to hear, to feel): He was heard mentioning the matter.
2) after verbs to hold, to keep, to take, to find, to catch, to leave in the passive
voice: She was found sitting on the grass.
The English sentence with the Subjective Participial construction
corresponds in Russian to a complex sentence with an object clause, with the main
clause being one-member indefinite: e.g. The pilot was heard singing. Было
слышно, как пилот поет.

§21. The Subjective Participial Construction with Participle II


The Subjective Participial construction with Participle II consists of two
parts: the nominal part and the verbal part. The nominal part is expressed by a
noun/noun-pronoun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case. The
verbal part by Participle II. The Subjective Participial construction is used in the
function of a complex subject. The construction with Participle II expresses a
passive meaning.
The Subjective Participial construction is used after the following verbs (see
Table 27):
1) verbs of sense perception in the passive voice (to see, to watch, to notice, to
observe, to hear, to feel): The matter wasn’t heard mentioned.
2) after verbs to hold, to keep, to take, to find, to catch, to leave in the passive
voice: The door was left locked.
3) after verbs to seem, to appear: His attention seemed absorbed by the book.
The English sentence with the Subjective Participial construction
corresponds in Russian to a complex sentence with an object clause, with the main
clause being one-member indefinite: e.g. The door was left locked. Было слышно,
как дверь заперли на замок.

§22. Absolute constructions. The Nominative Absolute Participial


Construction
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction consists of two parts: the
nominal part and the verbal part. The nominal part is expressed by a noun/noun-
pronoun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case. The verbal part
is expressed by Participle I or Participle II.
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction is widely used in
literature. It is always separated by a comma.
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction performs the following
39
functions:
1) a complex adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances
E.g. Mabel hurried out of the car and walked away, tears streaming down
her face.
She was smoking now, her eyes narrowed thoughtfully.
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction as a complex adverbial
modifier of attendant circumstances usually stands in postposition. It is translated
into Russian by a coordinate clause.
2) a complex adverbial modifier of cause \ reason
E.g. But I was a little on edge, there being something to report.
The ship’s band did not play in the morning, it being Sunday.
We began to talk, but my attention distracted by my surroundings, I took
small notice of him.
Sentences with the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction as an
adverbial modifier of cause \ reason are translated by complex sentences with the
corresponding subordinate clause: Я нервничал, так как было о чем сообщить...
3) a complex adverbial modifier of time
E.g. The work being finished, the two girls went into the shop.
The duster refolded and restored, he threw his legs across the saddle.
Sentences with the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction as an adverbial
modifier of time are translated by complex sentences with the corresponding
subordinate clause: Когда работа была закончена, девушки вошли в
мастерскую.
4) a complex adverbial modifier of condition
E.g. Conciliation falling, force remains.
He was a gentleman, but he was passionate, the cup once sipped, would he
consent to put it down?

Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction


The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction is introduced by the
preposition with. Its nominal part is mostly expressed by a noun in the common
case. It is not necessarily set off by a comma.
The main syntactical function of the construction is a complex adverbial
modifier of attendant circumstances:
E.g. Andrew went into the house with his heart beating fast.
Just now, with the harvest coming on, everything looks its richest.
She went on reading with her eyes fixed on the pages of the book.
It is unhealthy to sleep with the windows shut.
The construction is usually translated into Russian by a coordinate or a
subordinate clause, and sometimes by means of a prepositional phrase, or an
adverbial participle (деепричастие). (Когда) Эндрю вошел в дом, сердце его
сильно билось (с бьющимся сердцем). Теперь, когда приближается время
жатвы, все так красиво.

40
The Nominative Absolute Construction
There are two types of absolute constructions in which we find no Participle.
They are the Nominative Absolute Construction and the Prepositional Absolute
Construction.
The Nominative Absolute construction differs from the predicative
constructions described above in that its verbal part is verbless: it is expressed by
an adjective, a stative, an adverb or a noun with a preposition. They are
semantically in predicative relations to the nominal part of the construction.
Therefore in case of transformation an appropriate form of the link verb to be must
be supplied.
E.g. He stepped forward, his face red with anger -> ...and his face was red
with anger.
1. The Nominative Absolute construction with the adjective construction may
function as
1.1 a complex adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances: She stood under
the tree, her head full of strange ideas -> ...and her head was full...
1.2 a complex adverbial modifier of cause \ reason: Her heart full of despair,
she could not say a word ——> As her heart was full...
2. The Nominative Absolute construction with the stative usually functions as
2.1 a complex adverbial modifier of cause \ reason: The gallery door slightly
ajar, I could hear the steps of the soldiers -> As the gallery door was slightly ajar
2.2 a complex adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances\ manner: This
time the fish attacked from below. It hurtled up under the woman, jaws agape ->
...and its jaws were agape.
3. The Nominative Absolute construction with the adverb usually functions as
a complex adverbial modifier of time.
E.g. Tea over, she again summoned us to the fire -> When tea was over...
4. The Nominative Absolute construction with a prepositional noun usually
functions as
4.1 a complex adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances: I waited, every
nerve upon the stretch ———>...and every nerve was upon the stretch.
4.2 a complex adverbial modifier of time: All in the room, she called in Molly
-> When all were in the room...
In the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances the
Nominative Absolute Construction is translated either by a coordinate clause,
деепричастный оборот, or a noun (pronoun) with the preposition c.
E.g. Manston went homeward alone, his heart full of strange emotion.
(Hardy) - Мэнстон отправился домой один; душа его была переполнена
странными чувствами.
There he stood, his face to the south-east... his cap in his hand. (Hardy) - Он
стоял, повернувшись к юго-востоку... с шапкой в руке.

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The Prepositional Absolute Construction
The Prepositional Absolute Construction is introduced by the preposition
with. Its verbal part is verbless: it is expressed by an adjective, a stative, an adverb
or a noun. They are semantically in predicative relations to the nominal part of the
construction. Therefore in case of transformation an appropriate form of the link
verb to be must be supplied.
She hurriedly left the room with her eyes red ———> ...and her eyes were red.
He stood there trembling, with his face ablaze ——> ...and his face was ablaze.
He turned away, with his hand still up ——>...and his hand was still up.
They marched towards the square, with little flags in their hands ———> ...and
there were little flags in their hands.
The Prepositional Absolute Construction is mostly used in the function of a
complex adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances. In rendering this
construction in Russian a coordinate clause or деепричастный оборот is used.
E.g I found him ready, and waiting for me, with his stick in his hand.
(Collins) — Он был готов и ждал меня; в руке у него была палка.
E.g. Sikes, with Oliver’s hand still in his, softly approached the low porch,
and raised the latch. (Dickens) — Сайкс, все еще не выпуская руку Оливера из
своей, подошел потихоньку к невысокому крыльцу и поднял щеколду

42
II СИСТЕМА УПРАЖНЕНИЙ

§1. THE INFINITIVE. FORMS AND MEANINGS

Exercise 1. Read the following sentences. Define the meaning of the


Indefinite Infinitive. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. To see is to believe. 2. I was very tired. I tried to keep my eyes open but I
couldn’t. 3. The poor girl came across this entire country by bus only to be
completely ignored. (Rustand, 104) 4. Please remember to post the letter. 5. We
regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you this job. 6. Her parents don’t
let her go out alone. 7. The customs officer made the man open his case. 8. Can
you remind me to phone Ann tomorrow? 9. Who taught you to drive? 10. To settle
the problem appeared a difficult proceeding. 11. The union resolved to strike by 36
votes to 15. 12. You seem to know a lot of people here. 13. David tends to forget
things. 14. Our neighbour threatened to call the police if we didn’t stop the noise.
15. I have two children to take care of. 16. The best thing to do would be to go
back. 17. Some years ago he used to call on me. 18. This house seems to belong to
the Davidsons. 19. To live is to learn. 20. I forgot to shut the window and thieves
got into the house. 21. It has just started to rain. 22. At last I arrived at the airport
to learn that the flight had been cancelled because of the stormy weather.

Exercise 2. Read the following sentences. Define the meaning of the


Perfect Infinitive. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. It occurred to her that she ought to have wondered at this (Alice in
Wonderland).2. I doubt if even Miss Baker, who seemed to have mastered a certain
hardy skepticism, was able utterly to put it out of mind (Alice in Wonderland) 3.
You might have come a bit earlier.4. Anselmo must have known what he was
doing when he brought us here. (Ernest Hemingway. For Whom The Bell Tolls) 5.
I would like to have been to the Taj Mahal when I was in India. 6. You needn’t
have prepared all this. 7. The coach is happy to have made Sally goalkeeper after
Joanne left. 8. I hoped to have succeeded. 9. Mrs. Major, a long-term admirer of
Mr. Jarvis, is reported to have written to him expressing her admiration. 10. To
have got the job competing against several other companies for the contract was a
great achievement. 11. He was to have been rewarded for handing in the stolen
goods until it was discovered that he was involved with the criminal gang. 12. I
meant to have telephoned, but I forgot. 13. She claims to have met a number of
famous people, but I don’t believe her. 14. To have gone by air would have saved
our time. 15. If you had run a bit faster, you would have won. 16. He turned out to
have gone through all his money by the end of the first week of his holiday. 17. I
could have climbed that mountain when I was young, now it is too late. 18. I know
you had the best of intentions, but you should have consulted me first.

43
Exercise 3. Read the following sentences. Define the form of the Infinitive
and comment on its use. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example: He was sure that Rachel was about to tell him her secret.
to tell is the Non-Perfect, Non-Continuous, Active Infinitive. It is used to
express an action which refers to the future. Он был уверен, что Рашель уже
вот-вот и расскажет ему свой секрет.
1. The police broke into the house to find that the burglars had already gone.
2. I hoped to have met her at the concert but she changed her mind to come at the
last minute. 3. I find it difficult to go away without seeing all my relatives. 4. You
ought to have sent the letter by a sure hand. 5. The weather seems to be improving.
6. In his life Ramsey was asked which of his books he was most glad to have
written and he replied unhesitatingly “The Transfiguration”. 7. The contract was to
have been extended for another year but unfortunately things changed. 8. The
parents were lucky to have found this specialist for their sick child. 9. Eliza was
delighted to have been dancing all night. 10. She pretended to be listening to music
while her thoughts wandered elsewhere. 11. If we are unlucky to have inherited a
weak gene, then there is little to do. 12. He was to have signed in at the Royal
National Hotel but he never came. 13. The young princess didn’t want to be seen in
public with her new boyfriend. 14. It’s very noisy here. We should have booked a
back room. 15. He pretended to have been painting all day. 16. The Baudelaires sat
down in three huge chairs, grateful for the opportunity to rest their feet (Lemony
Snicket. The Erzatz Elevator). 17. What was it up there in the song that seemed to
be calling her back inside? (Alice in Wonderland) 18. He wants to be informed
about any problem if they should face any. 19. Mr. Murky was pleased to have
been approached for advice. 20. You must be joking. 21. There was no doubt: only
Alice did not like to be told so (Alice in Wonderland). 22. They seemed to be
quarrelling: I could hear angry voices from behind the door. 23. She is said to have
gone through the whole application procedure several times to start her business.
24. She appeared to have been leading a very busy life for the last two years. 25.
It’s nice to be sitting here with you.

Exercise 4. Use the Passive Infinitive from the verb in brackets and
comment on its use. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. I am expecting ____ (to give) a pay-rise next month. 2. The box seems
_____ (to unpack) by somebody. 3. The road over the mountains may ______ (to
close) if this rain turns to snow. 4. The children are happy ______ (to give) a lot of
presents that day. 5. But the rabbit was no longer _____ (to see) anywhere (Alice). .
6. The case is ______ (to decide) by a judge. 7. The car was clearly defective and
should never _____ (to rent out). 8. The answer to that mystery was not likely
_____ (to reveal) to me anytime soon. (Terry Phillips,Murder at the Altar. Hye
Books, 2008) 9. He had come home feeling heroic, and ready _____ (to reward).
Playing in the big leagues again had rejuvenated him. (Cynthia Hartwick, Ladies
With Prospects. Berkley Publishing, 2004) 10. That necklace is no longer in the
shop, it must _____ (to sell). 11. She is lucky _____ (to give) such an opportunity.
12. I hoped ______ (to meet) when I arrived at the station, but I couldn’t see
44
anybody on the platform waiting for me. 13. They wanted ______ (to tell) if
anything happened. 14. The goods were _____ (to deliver) last week. 15. The
prisoner will _____ (to hold) indefinitely in a maximum security jail. He will never
_____ (to release). 16. Jim’s father was looking for Jim, but he was nowhere
______ (to find).

Exercise 5. Use the appropriate form of the Infinitive from the verb in
brackets. Define the form of the Infinitive and comment on its use. Translate
the sentences into Russian.
1. A twelve-year-old girl was the first ___ (to attract) his attention. 2. – I was
following Mike closely. –You shouldn’t _____ (to follow) him closely; you should
_______ (to leave) a good space between the two cars. 3. She put on the hat and
turned round _____ (to admire). 4. I like ____ (to give) presents to my friends but
even more I like ____ (to give) gifts. 5. I wish I’d been there – I would like _____
(to see) Harry’s face when Nan walked in. 6. I meant ____ (to remind) you about
it earlier, but I forgot. 7. He only pretends ____ (to arrange) the books on the desk.
8. He’s trying ____ (to calm) down his excitement. 9. The case was urgent. The
man had ______ (to operate on). 10. Well, sir, I want ____ (to take) my words
back. I am sorry ___ (to hurt) you. 11. She’s lucky ____ (to have) such a family,
___ (to see) all love and care since childhood. 12. I hate _____ (to bother) you but
the student are still waiting _____ (to give) books for their work. 13. The only
sound ____ (to hear) was the snoring of the grandfather in the bedroom. 14. Ralph
walked in the rear of the house, thankful _____ (to escape) responsibility for a
time. (William Golding. Lord of the Flies )15. She said she would love ____ (to
come) and was simply delighted ____ (to ask) for a date. 16. She was probably
angry ___ (to reprimand) in my presence. 17. She only pretends _____ (to
frighten). She isn’t easy _____ (to frighten).

Exercise 6. Use the appropriate form of the Infinitive from the verb in
brackets. Define the form of the Infinitive and comment on its use. Translate
the sentences into Russian.
1. He is sorry ____ (to give) way to panic then. 2. I thought you and he looked
real happy together. But I did warn you, Leah. You should ____ (to tell) him the
truth. (Miranda Lee. Fugitive Bride) . 3. I didn’t expect ___ (to ask) this question.
4. Don’t talk too much if you want ___ (to listen to). 5. . How can you expect
_____ ( to rescue) if you don’t put first things first and act proper? (William
Golding. Lord of the Flies ). 6. You must _____ (to wait) for a long time already.
You look a bit tired. 7. Dan is happy ___ (to award) the first prize for this picture.
8. He is sorry ___ (not to follow) your advice then. 9. There are two tests _____
(to do), hurry up!. 10. According to the schedule the plane was _____ (to land)
long ago. 11. It’s sensible of John _____ (to give) Kate this advice. I hope she’ll
follow it. 12. There was no need ____ (to alert) the press about this killing (Dan
Brown. Angels and Demons). 13. Instead, he went over one of the shelves
thoroughly and pretended _____ (to search) for a book. 14. He claims ____ (to
meet) Elvis Priestly. Who’ll believe him? 15. Aren’t you supposed _____ (to look)
45
after your sister at the moment? 16. I am sorry _____ (to disappoint) you but I
didn’t mean anything of the kind. 17. His desire _____ (to recognize) was
insatiable.

Exercise 7. Translate the sentences into English, using an appropriate


form of the Infinitive. Comment on the use of the form of the Infinitive.
1. Сара сожалела, что не предупредила родителей о том, что задержится.
2. Я была довольна, что посмотрела еще одну пьесу Шекспира. 3. Дети были
счастливы, оттого что их взяли в цирк. 4. Нужно было мне сказать, что ты
придешь. 5. Им повезло – их могли бы и убить. 6. Не может быть, чтобы он
все еще сидел в читальном зале. Уже очень поздно. Наверное, он уже ушел.
7. Она, должно быть, все еще гостит у своих друзей на даче. Почему бы не
навестить их? 8. Неужели она на вас рассердилась? 9. Я очень рад, что
проводил их на станцию. 10. Как мне повезло, что я побывала на этом
спектакле. 11. Ваша следующая задача заключается в том, чтобы поставить
этот эксперимент в нашей лаборатории. 12. Посмотрите на него! Он, кажется,
учится танцевать вальс. 13. Вряд ли они запомнили мой адрес. Они случайно
заходили ко мне как-то вместе с моим братом. 14. Об этом печальном
событии не следует упоминать в ее присутствии. Она может разволноваться,
а у нее больное сердце. 15. Кажется, они ждут, чтобы им дали необходимые
указания, связанные с выполнением этого задания. 16. Тебе лучше поставить
цветы на стол у окна. 17. Она сожалела, что сказала это. 18. Делегация
должна была прибыть ещё вчера, но, по-видимому, что-то случилось. 19. Я
хотела послать Мэри поздравление с днём рождения, но абсолютно забыла
об этом. 20. Они рассчитывали выбрать самый лучший проект, но что-то им
помешало. 21. Чтобы выступить на конференции, мне нужно было бы
получить приглашение. 22. Ей повезло, что ей дали такую возможность. 23.
Он попросил, чтобы ему сообщили об их приезде. 24. Он хочет, чтобы его
информировали о любых проблемах немедленно. 25. Все хотят, чтобы их
любили.

§2. THE INFINITIVE WITHOUT THE PARTICLE “TO”


(BARE INFINITIVE)

Exercise 1. Read the sentences and explain the use of the Bare Infinitive.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example: Make them come as early as possible.
The Bare Infinitive come is used after the causative verb “make”. Заставьте
их прийти как можно раньше.
1. I want to come and see your new house. 2. He should give her some
money. 3. The light from the street lamps made it impossible for Howe to describe
the man except say he looked strong and was medium height. 4. Would you like a
cup of coffee? 5. I might stay another night in the hotel. 6. I have never known
him break a rule; the boy was the best pupil in the school. 7. He saw her fall from
46
the cliff. 8. Call the police was all I did. 9. On his kissing me I smelt him smoke a
pipe. 10. She felt the spider crawl up her leg. 11. Her parents let her stay out late.
12. The neighbour helped me unlock the door. 13. Maybe you'd better tell me
here. Privately. (Rustand, 55). 14. I would rather reserve a room in the Royal
National hotel. 15. If you want to make God laugh, tell him about your plans.

Exercise 2. Read the sentences and explain the use of the Bare Infinitive.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Why waste a great Saturday morning just sitting around? (Rustand, 209) 2.
I won’t have you go with him. 3. Cassie couldn't help but smile at the way Darcie
described her fellow character. 4. I can’t decide whether to go or stay. 5. I would
sooner go there alone than stay here. 6. I dare say you’ve never met my brother
James. 7. I heard him leave the office by the back door. 8. The police observed the
man enter the bank. 9. I can’t make this car start. 10. I’m free!! They’ve let me go!
11. In my own research into books and reading I have had students of 15-year-olds
write essays on the subject of how they would feel about working in a bookshop.
12. The children noticed the cat steal the meat from the table. 13. I might not
particularly love fashion, but I’d rather do something “fun” all day long than get
sucked into a more boring job. (Lauren Weisberger. The Devil Wears Prada ) 14.
Nothing’s going to happen for maybe five, ten, fifteen, twenty years. But let me
give you a piece of advice: Whenever the doorbell rings, have somebody else
answer the door. (Kurt Vonnegut. Slaughterhouse-Five Or The Children’s
Crusade). 15. For families who can afford to pay the fees the poor record of state
schools makes private education seem attractive, even if in reality its quality is
poor.

Exercise 3. Read the sentences and explain the use of the Bare Infinitive
or a to-Infinitive after the verb HELP. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. What a thoughtful company are Ford Motors. They don’t only help to
sponsor Sky’s TV Soccer but close down a factory and various assembly lines so
that their workers will have time to watch TV! (BNC) 2. Joel helps Rita to make
some pretty cone decorations which are sprayed gold and wired together. (BNC:
C9X) 3. And there’s nothing like a poultice to help you get to sleep. (LOB) 4. I
help people stop smoking. 5. If I write a list, it helps me to remember all the things
I have to do in a day. 6. My mum used to help cook the meals for the children. 7.
Mrs. Child now confided that she had helped one of Henry Palfrey’s slaves escape
to Canada some years before (Brown) 8. Perhaps the book helped to prevent things
from getting even worse. 9. I thought I could help him to forget about the traffic
accident. 10. The whisky helped me not to stagger under this blow.11. We helped
him get to his feet. 12. These tablets will help you to sleep. 13. Savings can help to
finance other Community projects. 14. This is one device to help him pay those
bills. (CPSA) 15. Dams helped to reduce the flow of the river.

47
Exercise 4. Match the V causative with its meaning.
1 To make someone do something a This construction means “to
convince or coerce someone to do
something” or “to trick someone
into doing something.”
2 To have someone do something b This construction means “to make
somebody do something that they
do not want to do”.
3 To get someone to do something c This construction means “to force/
compel someone to do something
possibly against his own will”.
4 To force someone to do d This construction expresses the
something reason why some action takes
place.
5 To cause someone to do e This construction means “to make
something someone responsible for doing
something” or “to give someone
the responsibility to do
something”.

Exercise 5. Fill in the gaps using the correct V causative (make, have, get,
force, cause). Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The interview with a little girl who lost her family in the tragedy ____
everyone cry. 2. I can’t believe she _____ you look at her vacation pictures again
last night. We _____ to look at those stupid pictures every time we go to her house.
3. I don’t know how you convince your children to clean up their rooms. I couldn’t
____ my children to clean up their rooms if my life depended on it. 4. Professor
Barnard ____ each of her students write an essay describing their future goals in
life.
5. Professor Barnard ____ her students use a dictionary while they were
taking the test. 6. Debbie’s husband hates the opera. But after some days of
nagging she finally ____ him to go see the new production of La Boheme. 7. Sally
_____ me take off my shoes before I went into her house. She said she wanted to
keep the carpet clean. 8. She requested a copy of that expense report, so I ____ the
courier take one over to her last week. 9. Dr. Jefferson ____ the nurse monitor the
patient’s condition overnight. 10. Mr. Watson ____ his secretary call Ms. Lee and
reconfirm their meeting on Monday. 11. Jim didn’t want to wash her car, so with a
little smooth talk she ____ her boyfriend to wash it for her. 12. How did you ____
the doctor to make a house call? I haven’t heard of a doctor actually going to a
patient’s house in years. 13. My boss ____ me get him coffee, pick up his dry
cleaning and buy presents for his wife. He can’t do anything by himself. 14.
Tommy didn’t want to go to his cousin’s birthday party, but his mom ____ him go.

48
15. The contract was very detailed, and it was essential that the wording
should be absolutely correct. Therefore, I ____ the translator recheck his work
several times to make sure there would be no mistakes.

Exercise 6. Fill in the gaps using the correct V causative (make, have, get,
force, cause). Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. . The President was _____ to resign. 2. How can parents _____ their
children to read more? 3. . I’ll ______ my assistant to send you all the details. 4.
He always _____ people talk about these mad things that they probably won’t talk
about in public. 5. I _____ the mechanic check the brakes. 6. The government TV
commercials are trying to ____ people to stop smoking.. 7. I had no choice in the
matter because he _____ me sign the agreement. 8. Please _____ your secretary
fax me the information. 9. Due to the high cost of borrowing, many companies
have been _____ to close. 10. All that mess was intended to _____ you to panic.
(Erle Stanley Gardner. The Case of the Blonde Bonanza) 11. The storm _____ him
to swerve while he was driving the car. 12. He didn’t ______ me – I myself
wanted to go. 13. Government troops have _____ the rebels to surrender. 14. The
unexpected appearing of the cyclist at the road crossing _____ him to steer the car
immediately to the left. 15. Susie ____ her son to take the medicine even though it
tasted terrible.

Exercise 7. Read the sentences. Insert the Particle “to” before the
Infinitive where necessary. Explain the use of the Bare Infinitive. Translate
the sentences into Russian.
1. Both Brady and Tom had insisted that she stay here while they worked on a
rescue plan, rather than ____ risk having her inadvertently get in the way (Rustand,
267). 2. “But how will they _____ know that we are not Orcs?” he thought.”I
don’t suppose they’ve ever heard of hobbits down here. I suppose I ought _____ be
glad that the beastly Orcs look like being destroyed, but I would rather _____ be
saved myself.” [J. R. R. Tolkien. The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (1954)]
3. I’d sooner ___ die than ___ ask him for another penny. 4. They made me
______feel older than they were. They were like naughty children. Happy-with-a-
secret. (John Fowles. The Collector) 5. We must ____ get someone _____ paint the
roof. 6. You’d better ______ get some sleep. 7. Why not _____ make it up with
him? 8. To know all is ___ forgive all. 9. Arthur could not but ___ glance at Daniel
in silence. 10. He passed through hardships and sufferings in order to make their
dreams _____ become true. 11. It might _____ rain. We’d better ___ take an
umbrella. 12. I’m tired. I’d rather not ___ go out tonight. 13. Shall we _____ go by
train? – No, I’d prefer ___ go by car. 14. Get them ____ come as early as possible.
15. It’s easier to break it than _____ take it apart. 16. Why pay more at other
shops? We have the lowest prices. 17. The teacher made me ____ repeat it all over
again. 18. You needn’t ____ ask for permission, I let you ___ take my books
whenever you like. 19. This is an important trial that will help _____ define which
patients are appropriate candidates for this type of treatment. 20. He is expected
____ arrive in a few days.
49
Exercise 8. Read the sentences. Insert the Particle “to” before the
Infinitive where necessary. Explain the use of the Bare Infinitive. Translate
the sentences into Russian.
1. You had better ____ make a note of it. 2. I heard the door ___ open and
saw a shadow ____ move across the floor. 3. He told me ____ try____ do it once
again. 4. I’d rather ____walk a little before going to bed. 5. After that he let her
_____ decide which one she wanted. 6. You ought not____ show your feelings. 7.
Why not ____ wait a little longer? 8. I felt my pulse ____ quicken. 9. We should
love you____ stay with us. 10. You are not ____ mention this to anyone. 11. We
got Mother _____ cut up some sandwiches. 12. Rose wanted them ____ stop
laughing, wanted the curtain _____ come down. 13. I’ll have _____ go there. 14.
She was made ______ pay back the money. 15. She helped me ____ get over my
fear. 16. He was seen ____ make a note of it. 17. Nothing will make me _____
change my mind. 18. He was not able _____ explain anything. 19. British Prime
Ministers may ____ have ____ work extremely hard ____ get them [the
departments] ____ change course. 20. This made the accident _____ appear
reasonable, something which even they could have done.

Exercise 9. Translate the sentences into English. Explain the use of the
Bare Infinitive.
1. Зачем платить больше в других магазинах? У нас самые низкие цены.
2. Почему бы не взять отпуск? 3. Они только и делали, что гуляли по городу
и смотрели на афиши фильмов. 4. Вы хотите пообедать сейчас, или
подождать? 5. Слышали, как девушка спела песню. 6. Директора фабрики
заставили выплатить деньги рабочим. 7. Мать помогла ребенку поднять
коробку. 8. Мои друзья заставили меня ждать вчера. 9. Он заставил меня
помогать ему. 10. Я увидел, как она зажгла фонарик. 11. Позволь помочь тебе
с переводом текста. 12. Вам лучше сходить к врачу. 13. Она решила пойти и
купить что-нибудь на ужин. 14. Мы с этим справимся. 15. Нужно попросить
кого-нибудь покрасить нам крышу. 16. Можете идти. 17. Я бы предпочел
пойти один. 18. Я хочу приехать (и) посмотреть твой новый дом. 19. Ему
ничего не оставалось делать, как рассказать всю правду.

§3. SYNTACTICAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INFINITIVE

Exercise 1. Read the following sentences. Define the form of the Infinitive
and comment on its function. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. In order to catch the criminals the government closed the borders. 2. I’m
not permitted to give you an answer right now, at this stage of investigation. 3. It
isn’t necessary to be rich to be happy. 4. Afraid to move, she froze in terror. 5. The
first thing the students must do at the beginning of the academic year is to take all
the necessary books and manuals from the library. 6. Grizzly bears are impressive
animals to see in the wild. 7. The youngest person to enter the contest was just
fourteen. 8. Tomas Wolf is hard to read in the original. 9. They didn’t publish the
50
news so as not to frighten the public. 10. Alice was beginning to get very tired of
having nothing to do (Alice in Wonderland). 11. Was I stupid not to watch what he
did? (Walter M. Miller, Jr.. A Canticle For Leibowitz). 12. The government ceased
to provide free healthcare. 13. The last thing Olivia wanted was to be the center of
attention (Cooper, 60). 14. As you might like to try the thing yourself some winter
day, I will tell you how Dodo managed it (Alice). 15. Their company was the first
to launch this project. 16. She did nothing but agree to these terms. 17. It was too
dark to see anything (Alice). 18. Words did not come the same as they used to do
(Alice). 19. She hastily dried her eyes to see what was coming (Alice). 20. Not to
participate would be foolish. 21. She opened the door a few inches and peered
inside to find him sitting up in bed, fumbling for the glasses he kept on his
nightstand (Rustand, 38) 22. Paula says she would love to have a child but hasn’t
yet found the right man to have a child with. 23. Despite her grandfather’s obvious
excitement, Sophie wanted to go home. (Dan Brown. The Da Vinci Code (2003)
24. Collet had been blessed with a chance to redeem his skepticism and earlier
blunders. (Dan Brown. The Da Vinci Code (2003) 25. Sophie wasn’t sure whether
to feel relieved or disappointed. (Dan Brown. The Da Vinci Code (2003)

Exercise 2. Read the following sentences. Define the form of the Infinitive
and comment on its function. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. She turned around to find Lori cutting her way through the crowd (Copper,
51) 2. Our relief was not to last long. About an hour later somebody ran into the
room where we were just about to set down to lunch. [Winston Groom. Forrest
Gump (1986)] 3. They never looked round or took any notice of the humans till
Lucy and Tirian were almost near enough to touch them. [Clive Staples Lewis. The
Chronicles of Narnia. The Last Battle (1956)] 4. He had got his breath back too.
And his errand had succeeded. For the first time since the arrival at Tashbaan (how
long ago it seemed!) he was beginning to enjoy himself.[Clive Staples Lewis. The
Chronicles of Narnia. The Horse and His Boy) 5. Sure, nice to look at, but you can
have none of it.[John Steinbeck. The Grapes of Wrath 6. I’ve got to make a call,
see what we’re going to do. [Michael Connelly. City Of Bones (2002)] 7. If the
parents came in with a plausible explanation for the boy’s injury, what reason
would a doctor have to X-ray an arm or a leg or a chest? [Michael Connelly. City
Of Bones (2002)] 8. Even though the trees had made the street seem so gloomy, it
seemed a shame to tear them all down, leaving bare stumps that looked like
thumbtacks. [Lemony Snicket. The Erzatz Elevator (2001) 9. Psychologically, it is
actually easier to persuade people to ive their money than lend it, strange as this
may seem. 10. Teasers are usually rich kids with nothing to do.[Douglas Adams.
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (1978-1979)] 11. Jill was too frightened and
dizzy to know what she was doing, but two things she remembered as long as she
lived (they often came back to her in dreams). [Clive Staples Lewis. The
Chronicles of Narnia. The Silver Chair (1953)] 12. I am not too happy with him
right now, to tell you the truth. 13. She turned round to catch sight of a strange
face in the mirror, and then realized that the face was her own. 14. She leant
forward as if to make the facts clearer. 15. It provides an opportunity to broaden
51
your mind. 16. The offer really was too good to be true. 17. It was quite hard to
know who to believe. 18. The police are after you, it is not very clever of you to
come here in the day-time. 19. To touch it one would believe that it was the best of
furs. 20. To look at Montmorency you would imagine that he was an angel. 21.
“This is childish’, she snapped. “You’re old enough to communicate when
something’s wrong – not just sit here like an angry boy”. (Rustand, 177)

Exercise 3. Read the following sentences. Explain the syntactic function


of the Infinitive in the sentence. Define its meaning. Translate the sentences
into Russian.
Example 1: To say he looked good would have been an understatement
(Cooper, 62).
Сказать, что он выглядел хорошо, было бы просто недооценкой.
The Infinitive to say is used in the function of the subject in the initial position
of the sentence preceding the predicate. It is used to express a singular specific
action.
Example 2: It is a custom in many countries to send Christmas cards.
Во многих странах традицией является посылать поздравительные
открытки на Рождество.
The Infinitive to send is used in the function of the subject. It is introduced by
the formal introductory subject “it” and thus it follows the predicate. It is used to
express a habitual action.
Example 3: To educate a man in mind and not in morals is to educate a
menace to society (President Theodore Roosevelt).
The Infinitive to educate is used in the function of the subject in the initial
position of the sentence preceding the predicate. It is used in the quotation. It
expresses an action referring to unspecified time.
Example 4: То do well is better than speak well.
Хорошие поступки лучше хороших слов.
The Infinitive to do is used in the function of the subject in the initial position
of the sentence preceding the predicate. It is used in the saying. It expresses an
action referring to unspecified time.
1. To err is human, to forgive is divine (Alexander Pope). 2. To complete our
research on time was important for the project. 3. To know all is to forgive all. 4. It
was necessary to make a choice. 5. It has been found possible to render voting
perfectly secret and to provide for scrutiny. 6. To marry a knight in shining armor
is the dream of many girls. 7. To be on the alert is to live. 8. It is easy to find fault
with others. 9. It makes me angry to wait for people who are never punctual. 10.
To see the northern lights with your own eyes would be incredible. 11. To be lulled
into security is to die. 12. It is always an advantage to speak some foreign
languages. 13. It is better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all
(Alfred, Lord Tennyson). . 14. But it wasn’t in his power to change the past
(Cooper, 114). 15. To give lip service to someone requires little effort. 16. It must
be difficult to cope with three small children and a job. 17. It was probably a waste
of time to ever contact the DEA. (Rustand, 32) 18. How sad was it to live out a
52
whole life here, so far from everything that mattered? (Rustand, 44) 19. To be
angry is to revenge the faults of others on ourselves (Alexander Pope). 20. It’s
unfair to send the child away without telling her the truth (Rustand, 241). 21. To
try and fail is better than have never tried at all. 22. To win the big contract would
be a great success. 23. It was a triumph to have performed the play on fifty
consecutive nights. 24. It is a noble goal to help the poor people. 25. To understand
one woman is not necessarily to understand any other woman. 26. Maybe he'd
been much stockier and straighter in his younger days, but it was hard to imagine
that now. (Rustand, 74) 27. To know what we know and to know what we do not
know – that is understanding. 28. To speak with her about that incident seemed
rather unpleasant to him. 29. To think something does not cause as much trouble as
to say something. 30. It is better to die on your feet than live on your knees
(Emiliano Zapata). 31. To stumble once is better than be always tottering.

Exercise 4. Transform the following sentences using the Infinitive as


subject introduced by the formal introductory subject “it”. Translate the
sentences into Russian.
Example: Leaving the home town is very hard. → It’s very hard to leave the
home town. Очень тяжело покидать родной город.
1. Operating machinery after taking this medication is not safe. 2. Learning
foreign languages is necessary. 3. Killing animals is cruel. 4. Riding a bike without
a helmet is dangerous. 5. Interrupting people is impolite. 6. Watching comedies is
very amusing. 7. Drinking plenty of fluids is important. 8. Visiting art galleries is
enjoyable. 9. Being careless with money is foolish. 10. Taking medicines is
necessary to treat a disease or medical problem.

Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into English using the


Infinitive in the function of the subject.
1. Очень трудно ему верить после того, как он не сдержал опять свое
обещание. 2. Прекрасно любить и быть любимым. 3. Оставить его в
неведении было бы несправедливо. 4. Гулять в саду в солнечный день было
очень приятно. 5. Это моя обязанность – учить вас. 6. Спорить с ним
бесполезно. 7. Очень трудно переводить стихи с родного языка на
английский. 8. Будет большой неожиданностью застать его дома в такое
время. 9. Было просто невозможно пройти мимо витрины магазина. 10. Было
бы лучше подготовить его к этой новости.11. Давать советы легко, а
исполнять трудно. 12. Все преувеличивать было его страстью. 13. Играть на
гитаре его главное увлечение. 14. Жить – значит любить. 15. Непросто было
добраться до работы в этот день из-за метели. 16. Надо найти другое
решение. 17. Здесь можно заблудиться. 18. Переходить через мост ночью
было небезопасно. 19. Смеяться полезно. 20. Очень полезно прогуливаться
перед сном. 21. Продать мою старую машину было нелегко. 22. Курить
вредно. 23. Когда ее узнавали, она испытывала большую радость. 24.
Бесполезно обсуждать этот вопрос, когда все торопятся. 25. Много читать –
много знать.
53
Exercise 6. Read the following sentences and underline the Infinitive or
the Infinitive phrase used as predicative. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The plan was to test the new equipment and discuss the results. 2. My duty
will be to do the shopping and cook meals. 3. Their business is to sell foodstuffs. 4.
Her method is to make a child think and find his own solution. 5. The next thing is
to find an experienced nurse. 6. The problem was who to turn to for advice. 7.
What I must do is to have my Volvo fixed as soon as possible. 8. The order was to
pursue the man and catch him immediately. 9. Her habit is to put five lumps of
sugar in her tea. 10. My brother’s principle is to do everything himself and never
ask for anyone’s help. 11. Their purpose was to find a hotel and stay there. 12. Our
first thought was to leave the place as quickly as possible until we were caught in a
storm. 13. Kelly’s only chance was to give evidence against Julian. 14. Man’s true
vocation is to cultivate the ground. 15. My only concern was to get home after a
hard day’s work. 16. The question was how to find their house.

Exercise 7. Transform the following sentences using the Infinitive as


predicative. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example: It was his goal to become a well known writer. → His goal was to
become a well known writer. Его целью было стать известным писателем.
1. It is your duty to finish the work in time.
2. It was a great feeling to get finished on time.
3. It was a mistake to include his report in the conference.
4. It is my ambition to do the right thing.
5. It was David’s greatest aspiration to climb Mount McKinley.
6. It was my favorite experience on the trip to hang-glide.
7. It was my decision to depart.
8. It was the explorer’s aim to find a new land.
9. It was his hobby to collect ancient coins.
10. It is my intention to enter the contest and win.

Exercise 8. Complete the following sentences using the conjunctive words


what, whom, where, how, etc. before an Infinitive or an Infinitive phrase used
as predicative.
Example: The problem was ... – The problem was how to finish the project
on time.
1. The task is ... 2. The question was ... 3. Our problem will be ... 4. The
students’ difficulty is … 5. Everyone’s goal is ... 6. All parents’ problem is ... 7.
His aim is ... 8. My sister’s dream is ... 9. The trouble with my friend is ...

Exercise 9. Answer the questions using the Infinitive as predicative.


1. What’s your hobby?
2. What’s your aim in life?
3. What’s your duty in the family?
4. What’s your highest ambition?
54
5. What are your plans for the future?
6. What’s your dream?
7. What is the first thing to do if
– you’ve got a sore throat?
– you’ve lost your passport?
– you’ve stuck in the lift?
– a hurricane is approaching your region?

Exercise 10. Translate the following sentences into English using the
Infinitive as predicative.
1. Задача состояла в том, чтобы добраться в пункт назначения вовремя.
2. Единственным его желанием было учиться. 3. Его заветная мечта –
переехать в столицу. 4. Все, что ему хотелось, – это найти место, где можно
было бы остановиться на ночь. 5. Первое, что необходимо сделать, – это
посоветоваться с врачом. 6. Все, что ей удалось сделать, – это узнать его
номер телефона. 7. Наш план состоит в том, чтобы закончить проект в срок.
8. Ваша следующая задача – проверить результаты экспериментов. 9.
Наиболее удивительным чувством (experience) было увидеть себя в фильме.
10. Кто виноват? 11. Единственный способ поладить с ней – это уступить. 12.
Самое большее, что он мог сделать в тот момент, – это предложить мне
сигарету. 13. Его делом было заботиться о младших. 14. Самое страшное в
нашей работе – остановиться в своем росте. 15. Самым любимым моим
занятием было читать ей (матери) вслух. 16. Его мечта – стать моряком. 17.
Дом сдается внаем. 18. Наша задача состоит в том, чтобы сделать эту работу
лучше. 19. Главное – достичь цели.

Exercise 11. Read the following sentences and define the Infinitive or the
Infinitive phrase used as part of the predicative. Translate the sentences into
Russian. Say what the first part of the predicative is expressed by.
1. Sociable people are easy to deal with. 2. Sandy is pleasant to talk to. 3. This
armchair is very comfortable to sit in. 4. The story was amusing to listen to. 5. His
advice was hard to follow. 6. Responsible people are easy to rely upon. 7. The
cottage is quite convenient to live in. 8. Stubborn people are usually difficult to
persuade. 9. Her phone number was impossible to remember.

Exercise 12. Paraphrase the following sentences using the Infinitive in the
function of part of the predicative. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Extend the situation by giving the reason for the utterance.
Example: It’s interesting to talk to her. → She is interesting to talk to. She
has travelled a lot and has many things to talk about.
1. It’s comfortable to lie on this sofa.
2. It’s safe to drink this water.
3. It’s impossible to cure this disease.
4. It’s difficult to master the Chinese language.
5. It’s easy to learn this poem.
55
6. It’s easy to follow this instruction.
7. It was difficult to solve environmental problems.
8. It’s difficult to discuss this story.
9. It’s not easy to calm a person in panic.
10. It’s not difficult to operate this vehicle.

Exercise 13. Complete the following sentences using the Infinitive as part
of the predicative. Enlarge on the situation.
to grow to cure (2) to identify to read to learn to
live to manage to bake to catch ………..to iron
Example: These roses are difficult ____.
These roses are difficult to grow. They are very demanding.
1. The poem is easy _____.
2. The novel is easy _____.
3. The large house is comfortable ____.
4. The apple-pie is easy _____.
5. Chronic diseases are difficult _____.
6. The symptoms of flue are not difficult _____.
7. Measles and other common childhood diseases are easy _____.
8. This infection is easy _____.
9. Naughty children are difficult _____.
10. This cloth is easy _____.

Exercise 14. Translate the sentences into English using the Infinitive in
the function of part of the predicative.
1. В этом кресле удобно сидеть. 2. Это заболевание трудно лечить. 3.
Эти инструкции легко выполнять. 4. Эти громоздкие формулы невозможно
запомнить. 5. С моим соседом трудно иметь дело.. 6. Такие вещи трудно
объяснить. 7. Ее настроение легко понять. 8. Такую роль интересно играть. 9.
С надежными людьми приятно работать. 10. Яблочный пирог несложно
готовить. 11. В пьесе много сцен, ее нелегко поставить. 12. Ее почерк очень
трудно разобрать. 13. В креслах современных автобусов удобно сидеть. 14.
Это стихотворение легко запомнить. 15. Их язык не трудно было понять. 16.
У нее привлекательная внешность. 17. Говорить с ней было легко. 18. Эта
ткань легко стирается и гладится. 19. Пятна от ягод трудно выводятся. 20.
Этот ковер легко чистится.

Exercise 15. Read the following sentences and underline the Infinitive
used as part of a compound verbal predicate. State the type of the compound
verbal predicate. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. But I must be going now. 2. You will have to do it as you were told. 3.
Who could have done such a thing? 4. Jack ought to have stayed for tea with
them. 5. They were going to calm her. 6. Would you come in now? 7. With
the development of civilization man’s interference into nature started to
56
increase. 8. You had better go home. . 9. She came to realize that he had
deceived her. 10. Hardly had it ceased to rain when we .went out. 11. Mr.
Jackson used to smoke dozens of cigarettes a day and nobody expected that he
would give up smoking. 12. Could you possibly tell me where I can get the
information about trains? 13. He began to telephone her every hour but couldn’t
reach her. 14. He loved jazz music so much that he would go to the jazz club
every weekend. 15. After discussing the economy the minister went on to talk
about foreign policy. 16. I would rather read this story in the original. 17. She
was about to leave when the phone called. 18. I’ll give you a lift to the station so
you needn’t worry about booking a taxi. 19. Ann had given us good directions
and we were able to find her house. 20. She might have gone shopping.

Exercise 16. Translate the following sentences into English, using the
Infinitive as part of a compound verbal predicate.
1. Тебе не следовало откровенничать с ним. Он никогда не умел хранить
чужие тайны. 2. Опять пошел дождь. Придется сидеть весь день дома. 3.
Лизи продолжала умолять сестру не говорить матери об их приходе. Мать
могла ее наказать. 4. Зря ты сказал ей о нашем разговоре. Теперь она
перестанет доверять мне. 5. Мы, бывало, брали напрокат машину и уезжали
куда-нибудь в горы. 6. Если начинался дождь, мы прятались в домике у моря.
7. Сначала они не хотели идти с нами, но мы смогли их уговорить. 8. Полу
нравится его новая работа. Ему не нужно работать сверхурочно. 9. Тебе
лучше поторопиться, чтобы не опоздать. 10. Я, пожалуй, останусь здесь.

Exercise 17. Answer the following questions using the Infinitive as part of
the compound predicate.
1. What are you going to do
– tonight?
– when the academic year is over?
– when you graduate from the University?
2. What did you begin to do after
– you got up in the morning?
– had breakfast?
– came to the University?
– came home after work?
3. What did you use to be in your childhood?

Exercise 18. Read the following sentences. Define the Infinitive and its
function. Explain the syntactic position of the Infinitive in the sentence.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example 1: Gregory decided to get higher education.
Грегори решил получить высшее образование.
The Infinitive to get is used in the function of an object. It completes the
meaning of the finite form of the verb decide. It is a complement to the verb. It
stands immediately after the finite form of the verb decide.
57
Example 2: Jane was anxious to get home as soon as possible.
The Infinitive to get is used in the function of an object. It completes the
meaning of the adjective anxious. It stands immediately after the adjective
anxious. It is a complement to the adjective anxious.
Джейн очень хотелось добраться домой как можно быстрее.
Example 3: I think it useless to teach him mathematics.
Я считаю бесполезным учить его математике.
The Infinitive to teach is used in the function of an object. It stands after the
adjective useless which is an objective predicative. The Infinitive is preceded by
the formal object it.
1. She had learnt to dance at a boarding school. 2. He found it utterly
impossible to leave the place. 3. I decided to go home as soon as possible. 4. Ned is
not pleased to be given such simple work every time. 5. I think it really
unnecessary to bring anything to the party; we have lots of food, and plenty of stuff
to drink. 6. The woman pretended to be reading and not to have heard the bell. 7.
He found it difficult to explain what he meant. 8. She was reluctant to tell her
parents about her decision to quit the job. 9. She considered it impossible to change
her mind on this matter. 10. You can watch the film if you promise to go to bed
straight afterwards. 11. His last words made it possible to grasp the whole idea.
12. I wish to leave, and I would like to go home. 13. You need to see a doctor as
soon as possible. 14. He demanded to see the manager, so I agreed to let him in.
15. I fully expect to finish the job by this evening. 16. Alice quite forgot how to
speak good English (Alice). 17. I’m afraid that I fail to understand what you are
trying to say. 18. Mrs. Baker was fired and prosecuted under an unusual South
Carolina law that makes it a crime to breach test security.19. Alice was surprised to
find that she remained the same size (Alice). 20. I didn't plan to be in El Paso
overnight, but things took a little longer than I thought. (Rustand, 98) 21. Most of
the company’s employees were content to do what they were told [Kurt Vonnegut.
Hocus Pocus (1990)]. 22. We all wanted to have more English classes. 23. I should
rightly be more ashamed to have spoken as I spoke. 24. Now he claims to have lost
his car keys yesterday. 25. I’d like to have seen his expression, when he opened the
letter!

Exercise 19. Transform a complex sentence into a simple one using the
Infinitive as complement to a verb. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example: I promise that I’ll return as soon as I can. → I promise to return as
soon as I can.
1. The committee decided unanimously that they should accept the offer.
2. Ellen promised faithfully that she would not open her present until
her birthday..
3. He commanded that his men should retreat.
4. We strongly recommend that you should insure your luggage when
you travel.
5. We specifically requested that the police should press charges against
him.
58
6. The agreement requires that all parties should renounce the use
of violence.
7. The UN has urged that they should honour the peace treaty.
8. The judge ordered that Hill should serve five years in prison for
the robbery.
9. He instructed that his men should collect
information about troop movements.
10. I strongly advise that you should reject the offer.

Exercise 20. Read the following sentences. Define the Infinitive and its
function. Explain the syntactic position of the Infinitive in the sentence.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example: Jane was anxious to get home as soon as possible. It stands
immediately after the adjective anxious. It is a complement to the adjective
anxious.
1. He was free in his conversation, and his humour, of which he had a good
deal, was apt to take the form of rather coarse jokes. 2. I have noticed also that she
eats much less, a fact which troubles her father so much that he is anxious to get
her home. 3. In such a hurry, she was bound to leave something behind that she
would need later. 4. In any case, Yancey didn’t seem to be all that determined to
avoid a relationship. 5. And, conscious that his voice was not too steady, he was
careful not to speak; but a smile had become fixed on his thick lips. 6. I’m as
curious as you to find out what it is. 7. While I remained eager to discuss the
conversation, I couldn’t disagree with Martin’s logic. 8. A rumour circulated about
his having been poisoned by the cardinal Baldassare Cossa, impatient to be his
successor, who succeeded him in fact under the name of John XXIII. 9. She was
inclined to decline his offer. 10. The species most liable to be struck are oaks,
poplars and pear trees; beech trees are exceptionally safe. 11. He perceived that
Darwinism attributed too much to accident, and was also powerless to explain the
origin of life and of consciousness. 12. I am hardly prepared to decide that
question, or even give an opinion regarding it. 13. He’s quick to apologize but his
regrets sometimes lack sincerity. 14. Dulcet looked as if she were ready to break
into tears. 15. He was reluctant to commit to the additional expense. 16. If you are
keen to make an early start, the meeting could be brought forward to nine o’clock.
17. The next morning we were astonished to find that she remembered all of them,
and recognized everyone she had met the night before. 18. Neither of them is
working today, and I’m sure they’d be delighted to join you. 19. Now he is
frightened to go out at night. 20. She was hesitant to tell the coach of her plan. 21.
I’m pleased to announce the winners of the contest. 22. But she would not have
been content to play high school ball forever. 23. Sorry to bother you, but would
you mind moving your bag? 24. I wasn’t surprised to hear that they were splitting
up. 25. Those whose homes were damaged were just thankful to be alive. 26. If
you don’t know the answer, don’t be afraid to say so. 27. They are agog to know
what happened. 28. I am sorry to record the fact that Jim was not only ashamed of
his defeat but for a moment lost control of his temper. 29. He’d met Macy at
59
church at one of those group-counseling sessions for divorced people trying to
figure out how not to get themselves in the same predicament again. (Cooper, 73)
30. Sophia had taught her how to make homemade biscuits (Cooper, 73)

Exercise 21. Combine the two sentences using the Infinitive as


complement to an adjective. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example: She was annoyed. She discovered that her husband had taken her
car keys. → She was annoyed to discover that her husband had taken her car keys.
1. Ann was sorry. She had not followed her mother’s advice.
2. Freddy was pleased. At last he was alone in the room.
3. Nick was delighted. He found his brother at home.
4. I was astonished. I saw so many people in the street.
5. After the earthquake we felt grateful. We were alive.
6. I’m very proud. I have been involved in this project.
7. Charles is glad. He was invited to the party.
8. We were annoyed. We found out the plane was overbooked.
9. The police were horrified. They discovered a child’s body in the empty
building.
10. Irene seemed relieved. She found out the truth.
11. I am happy. I have witnessed lots of precious moments.
12. I was surprised. I learned that Amanda was going to marry Bob.

Exercise 22. Make up your own sentences using the Infinitive as


complement to the adjectives from the box below.
amazed determined pleased
anxious disappointed proud
apt eager ready
ashamed eligible reluctant
bound fortunate sad
careful glad shocked
certain happy sorry
content hesitant surprised
delighted liable upset
lucky

60
Exercise 23. a) Make up sentences by matching two columns. Use the
Infinitive as complement to an adjective. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example: 10e It’s nice of you to come here. С вашей стороны очень мило,
что вы пришли сюда.
1 kind a to start without waiting for me to come
2 clever b to give up her job when she needs money
3 sensible c to criticize me
4 mean d to do my shopping for me
5 silly e to come here
6 stupid f to take advantage of this chance
7 careless g to follow your parents’ advice
8 unfair h to invite me to stay with your сhildren while you are
away
9 considerate i to make the same mistake again and again
10 nice j to quarrel with her on this subject

b) Using this structure make up your own sentences so as to say what you
think of what your friend does.
Transform special questions into indirect speech using the Infinitive with
the interrogative word.
Example: How can I get to Bristol? →He asked me how to get to Bristol.
1. What do we do next?
2. How do I find out her address?
3. How do I recognize him?
4. When do we start?
5. Where do we go next?

Exercise 24. Read the sentences and fill in the gaps using an appropriate
conjunctive pronoun or adverb from the box. Comment on the function of the
Infinitive. Translate the sentence.
What who when where how

1. She asked me ______ to use the washing machine.


2. Do you understand _____ to do?
3. Tell me ____ to press the button.
4. I’ve forgotten _____ to put this little screw.
5. I’m not sure I know ____ to call.
6. It was quite hard to know _____ to believe.
7. I don’t know _____ to say.
8. Can you tell me _____ to get to the bus stop?
9. He knows ______ to find the key.

61
Exercise 25. Translate the sentences into English using the Infinitive as
object.
А 1. Каждая женщина хочет, чтобы ее любили. 2. Доктор рекомендовал
мне больше двигаться. 3. Он надеялся бросить курить, но не смог. Он
попросил поменять билет. 4. Он требовал, чтобы его выслушали. 5. Я очень
рад, что приглашен на вашу вечеринку. 6. Я прошу вас говорить по существу
дела. 7. Отец учил меня говорить правду, какой бы горькой она ни была. 8.
Вчера мы договорились поехать на дачу. 9. За неделю он научился кататься
на коньках. 10. Сестра быстро привыкла ухаживать за больной матерью. 11.
Он всегда готов помочь и советом, и делом. 12. Я не знаю, что ответить ему.
13. Я знал, где ее искать. 14. Он не мог решить, когда организовать собрание.
15. Я не хочет менять свое мнение. 16. Он потребовал, чтобы ему
предоставили возможность доказать это. 17. Почему вы не попросили, чтобы
вам дали копию? 18. Джек пообещал принять участие в соревнованиях, и
теперь он сожалеет, что сделал это. 19. Я притворился, что не заметил его
смущения. 20. Я постараюсь закончить эту работу сегодня. 21. Он не любил,
когда ему говорили об этом. 22. Джон был рад познакомиться с друзьями
Елены. 23. Туристы были довольны, что побывали в старинном замке. 24. Он
был рад, что посетил эту картинную галерею. 25. Мэри не любила, когда ей
напоминали об ее ошибках в присутствии друзей. 26. Джейн была
шокирована, узнав, что ее обманули.
В 1. C вашей стороны было бы глупо спорить с нами. 2. Со стороны
Джорджа было бы очень мило пригласить ее танцевать. 3. Как мило с вашей
стороны предложить мне эту поездку. 4. Я думаю, с вашей стороны было бы
беспечно оставлять своего ребенка на попечение соседей. 5. Для детей в
таком возрасте не характерно так себя вести. 6. Это невежливо с ее стороны
отклонять приглашение. 7. Это неразумно, что многие родители
вмешиваются в жизнь своих детей. 8. Глупо, что она не воспользовалась этой
возможностью. 9. Глупо с вашей стороны прощать ей все ошибки. 10 Вы
были очень добры, что оказали нам помощь. 11. C ее стороны было очень
разумно застраховать свою жизнь. 12. Для сильных людей типично думать,
что они могут преодолеть все трудности. 13. Безрассудно с вашей стороны
принимать участие в этом проекте. 14. С вашей стороны было бы нечестно не
предупредить его об этом.

Exercise 26. Read the following sentences and define the word which the
Infinitive modifies. Choose the sentences in which the Infinitive expresses 1) a
qualificative meaning; 2) a modal meaning of a necessary action; 3) a modal
meaning of a possible action. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Suddenly she felt the need to speak. 2. He was trying to find a way to earn
a little money. 3. Give me something to eat. 4. The best thing to do would be to go
back. 5. He was the first to realize the situation. 6. He is not a man to make a
woman happy. 7. The captain was the last to leave the ship. 8. Fred had everything
to make his life happy. 9. Have you got anything to declare? 10. Celia now had two
old guys to take care of and a ranch to run (Rustand, 88) . 11. The secretary gave
62
him some documents to be signed immediately. 12. That pride had led to the loss
of a good thirty pounds over the past six months, and he didn't have much more to
lose. (Rustand, 105) 13. With a thirteen-year-old daughter, livestock and a ranch to
protect, she had to take what she could get. (Rustand, 13) 14. But worst of all, he
was never able to tell anyone what happened that night, and there was never any
evidence to prove it. (Rustand, 34) 15. And despite his resolution to keep
everything on a professional level, his admiration for her grew. (Rustand, 37) 16.
Do you know of any good places to eat around here? (Rustand, 51) 17. He reached
over and turned the radio on, cranking up the volume so he wouldn't have to think
up anything to say on the long trip into town (Rustand, 89). 18. And now she was
apparantly delaying her plans to help at the ranch (Rustand, 95) 19. She needed
someone to be a father for her son. (Rustand, 297) 20. Maybe you know the way,
but you don’t have the training to do this (Rustand, 270) 21. There isn’t anything
to discuss. (Rustand, 237) 22. “It’s after two o’clock. Time to head back, I guess”,
he said. 23. A sixth sense told Brady that Nieto was no stranger to trouble 24. A
man down, with 20, 000 acres to search, could be almost impossible to find
(Rustand, 155). 25. Flora had witnessed her own mother’s extraordinary will to
live (Cooper, 29) 26. Judging from the number of cars parked outside at this late
hour, Ruby’s was still the place to go for a good, reliable meal and familiar faces
(Cooper, 88) 27. Having no way to refuse, she followed him to the campfire.

Exercise 27. Paraphrase the following sentences using the Infinitive in the
function of an attribute.
Example 1: We had no time that we could lose. → We had no time to lose.
1. We have no money with which we can start business.
2. I had several relatives who I should visit before I left Rome.
3. I have some news that I must tell you.
4. It is not the question that we should discuss now.
5. I have some work I must do.
6. He has many achievements in his life that he may be proud of.
7. The situation seemed desperate but fortunately I had some friends who I
could rely on.
8. Jerry has a lot of problems which he must solve before his departure.
Example 2: She had nobody in whom she could confide. → She had
nobody to confide in.
1. I hope I didn’t say anything that could hurt you.
2. Jane hasn’t got anybody who she could turn to.
3. There was nobody there who could show him the way out.
4. She’ll always find something that she can laugh at.
5. We have nothing that we could argue about.
6. Is there anybody here who can look after Freddy while I’m away for a
while?
7. He was through with the project and there was nothing that could keep him
at work late at night.
8. I feel lonely if there is nobody I can talk to.
63
9. You are not guilty, so you have nothing that you can be afraid of.
10. It is not your fault. You haven’t done anything that you can be ashamed
of.
Example 3: He was the second who came to the finish. → He was the second
to come to the finish
1. She was the last person who learnt the terrible news about the aircrash.
2. The captain left the ship after everyone else had.
3. The girl wasn’t used to walking long distances and she was the first person
in the group who began to complain.
4. The security was the first person who noticed the strange man in the
building.
5. They offered their help too. They did it after the managing director had
helped.
6. Mr. Eaton is the next person who will have an interview.
7. The guests arrived one after another. Mrs. Sullivan was the first one.
8. Who was the last person who saw the young man alive? And who was the
first person who found him dead?
9. The first ambulance which arrived at the scene of the accident was in
charge of the central hospital.
10. Two policemen were the first people who arrived at the scene of the
crime.

Exercise 28. Complete the following sentences using an Infinitive phrase


as attribute with a relative word.
Example: She has no idea … (what). She has no idea what to say.
1. Leo had an idea … (how). 2. Little children have no idea … (what). 3. His
suggestion ... (where) was approved of by everybody. 4. Dad always gives me
advice … (what). 5. This is the station … (where). 6. Could you give me an idea …
(whom). 7. We badly need the information … (when).

Exercise 29. Make up your own sentences using the Infinitive as attribute
to abstract nouns from the box below.
Example: The pilot requested permission to land.
advice opportunity refusal
appeal order reminder
command permission request
decision plan requirement
desire possibility suggestion
instruction proposal tendency
motivation recommendation wish

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Exercise 30. Translate the following sentences into English using the
Infinitive in the function of an attribute.
1. У нее есть друзья, которые могут навестить еe во время болезни. 2. Он
не был человеком, который быстро привлекал к себе внимание. 3. Она первой
прервала молчание. 4. Джек знал, что нельзя терять время. 5. Последний, кто
навестил Анну, был её сын. 6. У нас есть хороший анекдот, который мы
можем рассказать вам. 7. Я позже всех разгадал ее намерения. 8. Она тотчас
почувствовала, что у них есть что-то, что нужно сообщить ей. 9. Вот
проблема, которую надо решить немедленно. 10. Ему нечего было
стыдиться. 11. Тебе так многому надо научиться. 12. Ей нечего было сказать
в свое оправдание. 13. Он первый пожал мне руку и поздравил меня. 14.
Джон не тот человек, кто может сделать женщину счастливой. 15. Лестер
был не из тех, кого можно было легко запугать. 16. Она знала, что ни в чем
не виновата, ей нечего было скрывать. 17. Мне о многом нужно подумать. 18.
У них не было желания спорить с ним. 19. У меня жена и ребенок, о которых
я должен заботиться. 20. Вопрос будет обсужден на конференции, которая
вскоре откроется в Москве. 21. Он дал ей нож, чтобы нарезать хлеб. 22. Дай
мне попить воды. 23. Это единственное, что можно и нужно сделать. 24. Он
не тот, кто мог бы это сделать. 25. Мне нечего сказать вам. 26. Только
надежда спасти сына поддерживала ее. 27. Им руководило стремление
выяснить истину. 28. Девушка взяла с него обещание прийти за нею
вечером. 29. Неожиданно появилась возможность поскорее уехать из этого
города. 30. Они сели в такси с намерением ехать домой. 31. Благодаря
способности быстро запоминать слышанное, он выдержал экзамены
(М.Салтыков-Шедрин). 32. У него было большое желание путешествовать.
33. Это был сигнал остановиться. 34. У меня нет денег, чтобы купить билет.
35. Он старался найти способ заработать немного денег. 36. У детей есть
хороший садик для игр. 37. Я принес тебе бланки, которые надо заполнить.
38. Он не был человеком, способным лгать. 39. Дайте мне чего-нибудь
поесть. 40. У вас есть что-нибудь, что нужно вносить в декларацию. 41. Он
был первым, кто понял ситуацию. 42. Кто пришел последним? 43. Он
выразил желание помочь мне. 44. У меня нет времени ходить в кино.

65
Exercise 31. Read the Infinitive phrases which are used as parenthesis.
Match them with their meaning.
1 to begin with a used to say that smth is final and worst event
in a series of unpleasant or annoying events
2 to be more precise b used to emphasize that the information you are
giving is obvious
3 to be quite frank c used to say smth in a very clear way, using
few words
4 to be honest d used to show that you are giving more detailed
and accurate infomation about smth you have
just mentioned
5 to crown it all e used to show that you are honest and direct in
what you say, sometimes in a way that other
people might not like
6 to cut/make a long f using simple word to say smth in a direct and
story short honest way
7 to make matters g used to say smth without exaggerating at all
worse
8 needless to say h used to say the main points of smth in a short
and clear form
9 to put it mildly i used to show that what you are talking about is
much more extreme than your words suggest
10 to put it more j used for saying that you will tell the end or the
plainly main point of a story without giving all
the details
11 to put it in a k used for talking about smth that makes a bad
nutshell situation worse
12 to say the least l used to say what you really think
13 to speak frankly m used to show that you are being honest about
smth, even though people might not like what
you are saying
14 to sum up n used to introduce the first point you want to
make
15 sad to say o used when admitting smth
16 to tell the truth p used when talking about smth that makes you
unhappy

Exercise 32. Read the following sentences and define the Infinitive as
parenthesis. Define its meaning. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Sad to say, sport is more important than academic subjects at some
universities. 2. - What was it you didn’t like? - Well, to begin with, our room was
far too small. 3. To tell the truth, I fell asleep in the middle of her talk. 4. It was
cold and raining, and, to crown it all, we had to walk home. 5. To be honest, it was
66
one of the worst books I’ve ever read. 6. The problem, needless to say, is the cost
involved. 7. To sum up, there are three main ways of tackling the problem. 8. To
put it in a nutshell, we’re bankrupt. 9. To speak frankly, I couldn’t care less what
happens to him. 10. To be frank with you, I think your son has little chance of
passing the exam. 11. To put it plainly, he is a real crook. 12. The parcel arrived
late and, to make matters worse, it wasn’t what we had ordered. 13. To cut a long
story short, we both spent the night in jail. 14. The result was unfortunate, to put it
mildly. 15. The shelf is about a metre long – well, 98 cm, to be precise. 16. I was
surprised, to say the least.

Exercise 33. Translate the following sentence into English using the
Infinitive as parenthesis.
1. По правде говоря, ты недостаточно взрослый, чтобы решить, что
хорошо для тебя. 2. А теперь я лучше остановлюсь, чтобы не вызвать новых
проблем, мягко говоря. 3. Начнем с того, что миссис Андерсон была
единственной, кто помогла мне. 4. Короче говоря, он опоздал на поезд и не
смог прийти на свидание во время. 5. Сказать по правде, я читал эту книгу в
оригинале. 6. Это, по меньшей мере, ложь. 7. Начнем с того, что Эрику не
понравилось, как издатель разговаривал с ним утром. 8. Короче говоря, их
вина осталась недоказанной. 9. Но это странно, по меньшей мере. 10. В
довершении ко всему, пошел дождь, и мы все промокли до костей. 11.
Откровенно говоря, я против ранних браков. 12.Он не был очень умен, мягко
выражаясь. 13. Мягко выражаясь, он не сказал вам всей правды. Он был груб,
чтобы не сказать больше. He was rude, to say the least of it. 14. Точнее сказать,
он не хочет, чтобы мы вмешивались в его дела. 15. Откровенно говоря, я сыт
по горло ее жалобами. 16. Мягко говоря, он редко сочувствует ей. 17. Короче
говоря, оставим все разговоры и приступим к делу. 18. В общем, это стоило
нам дорого: дом, мебель, не говоря уже о гараже. 19. По меньшей мере, она
поступила неразумно. 20. Проще говоря, если хотите присоединиться к нам,
приезжайте утром рано, и мы вас отвезем туда. 21. Излишне говорить, что
она любит Вас и – ждет. 22. Если честно, мне хотелось бы съездить туда. 23.
Мягко выражаясь, она была невежлива. 24. Сказать по правде, я не люблю
бокс. 25. Начнем с того, что я занят. 26. Короче говоря, он не сдал экзамен.
27. Мы все были рады, не говоря уже о маме: она сказала, что это самый
счастливый день в ее жизни. 28. Это очень странно, по меньшей мере. 29.
Для начала, она открыла все окна. 30. По правде говоря, я очень устал. 31.
Мягко выражаясь, вы меня удивили. 32. Короче говоря, они поженились. 33.
По меньшей мере, мы были удивлены.

Exercise 34. Read the following sentences and define the Infinitive as
adverbial modifier of purpose. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Не came over here not to quarrel with you but just to warn you that they
might do you harm. 2. You need a lot of experience to do this job. 3. Jessie, sit
still not to fall down. 4. They invited me to come and look at their new picture. 5.
Switch off the light not to wake the baby up. 6. Your ranch is in financial trouble,
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and there've been cases where ranchers have cooperated with the drug runners just
to keep their ranches afloat (Rustand, 32). 7. Loco (the horse) bent his head around
to nose at her pockets. "Beggar! No treats today, buddy"(Rustand, 63). 8. We were
quiet and walked slowly not to frighten them. 9. We moved into that house to look
after our grandma. 10. I left a message to tell her about his call. 11. Sylvia gave a
loud cry so as to draw the man’s attention. 12. The guy stopped to light a cigarette
and noticed that somebody was following him. 13. Jack looked straight into her
eyes to understand whether she was lying or not. 14. The pop star hired two
bodyguards to protect her. 15. Would you go and tell the children not to be so
loud?

Exercise 35. Paraphrase the following sentences using an Infinitive or an


Infinitive phrase as adverbial modifier of purpose.
Example: Mother wanted to cook mushroom soup and for that she bought
some mushrooms, carrots and onions at the greengrocer’s. → Mother bought
some mushrooms, carrots and onions at the greengrocer’s to cook mushroom
soup.
1. 2. She has to write things down and use memo magnets or she may forget
something. 3. His desire was to justify himself and he persuaded her to give
evidence. 4. If you do not want to lag behind the group you’ll have to take all the
exams on time. 5. You will make your idea clear if you illustrate each point. 6.
She’d like to stay in good shape and she joined a sports club. 7. We should hurry
up, or we’ll miss the 5.00 train. 8. He scraped up the money as he wanted to start a
restaurant. 9. If you want to mimic Cockney speech you should know it quite well.
10. The spectators wanted to pay tribute to an outstanding performance and they
rose to their feet.

Exercise 36. Read the following sentences. Choose the sentences which
contain an Infinitive or an Infinitive phrase used as adverbial modifier of
purpose. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. To make a long story short, they left without saying good-bye. 2. To spend
a day off in the country would give you a good chance to relax. 3. To make them
laugh I had to act as a clown. 4. To identify the location of objects around them,
dolphins use echolocation. 5. То sum it up, I completely lost control of the
situation. 6. I hope they give us the funds to carry out the project. 7. To discuss
your plan in details is absolutely necessary. 8. To grow oranges in this region one
needs a hothouse. 9. I had the intention to take a vacation. 10. Not to offend her is
next to impossible as every critical remark seems to her very offensive.

Exercise 37. Answer the following questions using an Infinitive to show


the purpose of the action.
Example: Why are you going to the travel agency? I’m going there to book a
holiday.

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Why will you go to the butcher’s? to the baker’s? to the supermarket? to the
box office? to the optician? to the chemist’s? to hospital? to the post office? to the
police station? to a gym?

Exercise 38. Translate the following sentences into English, using the
Infinitive as adverbial modifier of purpose.
1. Постарайтесь не набирать вес, чтобы чувствовать себя в форме. 2. Я
пожалуй возьму такси, чтобы не опоздать в аэропорт. 3. Спортсмены много
тренировались, чтобы одержать победу на соревнованиях. 4. Он возвратился,
чтобы попрощаться. 5. Вы приехали, чтобы сдавать экзамен? 6. Отец шел по
комнате на цыпочках, чтобы не разбудить ребенка. 7. Туристы покинули
Африку, чтобы не заболеть малярией. 8. Они встретились опять, чтобы не
расставаться больше никогда. 9. Я встал в 6 часов, чтобы не опоздать на
поезд. 10. Ребенок выбежал, чтобы встретить мать. 11. Когда я шел домой, я
остановился у газетного киоска, чтобы купить газету. 12. Джон принимал
лекарство три раза в день, чтобы выздороветь как можно скорее. 13.
Секретарь вошла в кабинет, чтобы сообщить, что меня ждет посетитель. 14.
Летом и осенью мы ездим в лес собирать грибы. 15. Путники расположились
у реки отдохнуть и покормить лошадей. 16. На следующий год Невзоров
поехал учиться за границу. 17. Так как у нас были каникулы, каждый день мы
ходили в парк рисовать пейзажи. 18. Он ушел в комнату одеться и умыться.
19. Тетушка пригласила нас погостить к себе на две недели. 20. Чтобы понять
правило, я прочитал его несколько раз. 21. Я остался там, чтобы посмотреть,
что произойдет. 22. Я, пожалуй, запишу ваш номер телефона, чтобы не
забыть. 23. Сходи, пожалуйста, и скажи детям, чтобы они так не шумели.

Exercise 39. Read the following sentences and define the Infinitive as
adverbial modifier of subsequent event. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Не left her never to see her again. 2. Oscar left us only to realize soon that
he couldn’t live alone. 3. We saw him off never to hear from him. 4. She argued
with her mother only to find out she was wrong. 5. I heard some noise in the front
room and went downstairs to see that there was nobody there. 6. He got up to say
that he had to go. 7. The phone rang and he entered the room to find that his wife
was talking with Eliza. 8. He visited his aunt to see that she was seriously ill. 9.
She opened her purse only to find that it was nearly empty. 10. The police arrived
almost immediately only to find that the criminal had disappeared. 11. He managed
to obtain the concession only to find that no one really needed it. 12. He returned
home to find the window broken.

Exercise 40. Paraphrase the sentences using the Infinitive as adverbial


modifier of subsequent event.
Example 1: At last I reached the railway station and saw the train leaving.
→ At last I reached the railway station to see the train leaving.
1. Doris went to the mountains and caught a cold there.
2. The girl rushed up to the dog and realized that it could not move.
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3. Mother returned home and saw that the children had not come back yet.
4. She took up a receiver and heard a stranger’s voice.
5. He took his wallet and found out that there was no money in it.
6. A hot coal dropped from the fire and burnt a hole in the carpet.
7. We came into the house and found no signs of life.
8. He stopped and heard somebody crying.
9. I looked out of the window and saw the clouds gathering.
10. Jim arrived home and discovered that he had left his door key in the
office.
Example 2: She tried to persuade him not to do it. Soon she realized that she
failed. (only to realize) → She tried to persuade him not to do it only to realize that
she failed to.
1. She made Laura call the police but she understood it was too late. 2. He
managed to obtain the concession but he found that no one really needed it. 3. He
acted according to his conviction but he understood that nobody cared for his
opinion. 4. He married her but he understood that they couldn’t get along together.
5. They reached Le Havre in the early afternoon but they found that there was no
steamer. 6. She stopped at the corner but she understood that she had to go on.

Exercise 41. Translate the following sentences into English, using the
Infinitive as adverbial modifier of subsequent event.
1. Он поднял глаза и увидел, что она улыбается. 2. В возрасте сорока
пяти лет он подал в отставку и никогда не возвращался к общественной
жизни. . 3. Он проснулся рано утром и увидел, что комната была пуста. 4.
Она остановилась на углу, но поняла, что надо идти дальше. 5. Отец дал ему
совет, но лишь убедился, что сын не намерен прислушиваться к его совету. 6.
Он удивленно посмотрел на нее и обнаружил, что все сказанное им не
вызывало в ней даже раздражения. 7. Дети прибежали в комнату и увидели,
что там полно гостей. 8. Она сказала ему все об их отношениях и больше
никогда не возвращалась к этой теме. 9. Он повернулся и увидел
полицейского. 10. Мы добрались туда и как раз услышали, как Хью
выстрелил. 11. Он вышел на крыльцо и почти сразу исчез снова. 12. Он
добился уступки, но обнаружил, что это никому не нужно. 13. Они добрались
до гавани вскоре после полудня и обнаружили, что парохода нет.

Exercise 42. Read the following sentences and define the Infinitive as
adverbial modifier of result / consequence. Translate the sentences into
Russian.
1. Her little brother is clever enough to understand what you feel. 2. Jane is
too polite to insult anybody. 3. Phil and Sylvia were so kind as to support us when
we were pressed for money. 4. He is not such an idiot as to marry again. He is fed
up with his first marriage. 5. The house was small and cheap enough to be sold for
five thousand pounds. 6. The car is too slow to cover this distance in two hours’
time. 7. I was so lucky as to see the first night of this performance. 8. The journey
was too long to enjoy it. 9. It is too funny to be taken seriously. 10. My brother is
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not such a fool as to give up his job. 11. The story is too sad to be amusing. 12. Her
younger son is talented enough to get the first prize. 13. The girl is too weak to
carry such a heavy box. 14. My mother is getting too old to travel.

Exercise 43. Combine the two sentences using the Infinitive in the
function of an adverbial modifier of result / consequence.
Example 1: Mr. Roberts is very old. He can’t go climbing as he used to. →
Mr. Roberts is too old to go climbing as he used to.
Example 2: The weather is frosty. We can go skating. → The weather is
frosty enough to go skating.
1. She is very excited. She can’t speak.
2. The car is very small. It’s impossible to fit in all the kids.
3. Life is very short. You can’t lose time.
4. She is clever. She is at the top of the class.
5. My holiday is long. I will be able to visit many tourist attractions in
Europe.
6. He is very sick. He can’t eat anything.
7. The dog isn’t big. It can’t harm you.
8. The coffee isn’t strong. It won’t keep us awake.
9. She was very mean. She never gave to charity.
10. She’s quite mature. She can make up her own mind.
11. You’re not old. You can’t have grandchildren!

Exercise 44. Transform the complex sentences into simple ones using the
Infinitive as adverbial modifier of result / consequence according to the
example.
Example: I’m so excited that I can’t concentrate. →I’m too excited to
concentrate.
1. He was so experienced that he could solve any problem.
2. The box is so heavy that nobody can carry it.
3. The baby is so little that it cannot walk.
4. She is so busy that she can’t talk to you.
5. This coffee is so hot that I can’t drink it.
6. He is so old that he could be my grandfather.
7. You are so young that you can’t know about such serious things yet.
8. He is so tall that he can almost touch the ceiling.
9. The boy is so small that he can’t understand it.
10. The ship was so far from the shore that I could hardly see.

Exercise 45. Translate the following sentences into English using the
Infinitive as adverbial modifier of result / consequence.
1. Она набрала слишком много веса, чтобы сбросить его за такой
короткий срок. 2. Джон был слишком озабочен своим состоянием, чтобы
обратить внимание на сестру. 3. Недостаток жизненного опыта у Гарри был
достаточно очевиден, чтобы предлагать ему эту работу. 4. Я была слишком
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возбужденной, чтобы позвонить им и поблагодарить. 5. Дом казался
брошенным и достаточно старым, чтобы продать его за такую цену. 6. Ты и
так слишком худая, чтобы тебе садиться на диету. 7. Дети недостаточно
внимательны, чтобы контролировать свое поведение. 8. Вы пришли слишком
поздно, чтобы принять участие в соревнованиях. 9. Он был слишком
поражен, чтобы вымолвить хоть слово. 10. Все было сделано достаточно
быстро, чтобы спасти его. 11. Склоны холма были слишком крутыми,
чтобы быстро подняться наверх. 12. Он был достаточно смелым мужчиной,
чтобы не растеряться в трудную минуту. 13. Вопрос был слишком трудным,
чтобы решить его так быстро. 14. Он слишком ленив, чтобы вставать рано.
15. Он еще слишком молод, чтобы понять это. 16. Было слишком поздно
возвращаться назад.

Exercise 46. Read the following sentences and underline the Infinitive or
the Infinitive phrase used as adverbial modifier of exception. Translate the
sentences into Russian.
1. They do nothing but work all day long. 2. What can I do but buy another
suit? 3. There’s nothing to do except believe her that he is alive. 4. What can we do
but agree to take the business in our hands? 5. She does nothing but scold her
husband from morning till night for not earning enough money. 6. There was
nothing to do except leave them alone and wait till they realized that they needed
our help. 7. What could she do but forgive them and forget about what they had
done? 8. His parents did nothing but persuade him to go to college and get good
education. 9. She does nothing but make noise and disturb him. 10. There’s
nothing to do except watch her day and night. 11. After selling their summer
cottage what could they do but return to the hustle and bustle of the city life? 12.
Gossipy old women do nothing but spread rumours about the private affairs of
other people. 13. She is a lazy-bones and does nothing but grumble about having to
do any work. 14. He was the most frightful bore and did nothing but tell us about
his love affairs.

Exercise 47. Express the only action that is possible in the situation. Use a
prompt from the box.
Example: You can’t change the situation. There is nothing to do but wait.
to dye it blue to borrow money from the bank to swim in the sea and sail in
the boat to wait till somebody comes to let us out to pour it into the trash
to take it to the cleaner’s to go for a walk with Tuzik to talk for hours
to take them off and go barefoot to work out an alternative plan to wait
1. You are offered to buy a car second-hand. It is in good condition and doesn’t
cost much. But even though, you don’t have money.
2. The lock won’t open.
3. The heel in your shoes has broken.
4. You washed your white blouse with coloured things and it got faded.
5. The plan you had worked out didn’t appear to be effective.
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6. You have put too much salt in the soup. You can hardly eat it.
7. We enjoyed being at the seaside.
8. You couldn’t get rid of the stain on your favourite jacket.
9. After the usual family quarrel about who should take the dog out …
10. Some years have passed since you saw your parents, so when you met ….

Exercise 48. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English
using an Infinitive or an Infinitive phrase as adverbial modifier of exception.
1. Она только и делает, что ворчит. 2. Что я мог сделать, кроме как
пожалеть его и взять к себе? 3. Больше ничего не остается, кроме как занять
деньги и расплатиться с ним. 4. Что он может сделать, кроме как разрешить
им видеться с ребенком? 5. Они только и делали, что играли в казино (casino)
целыми днями. 6. Больше ничего не оставалось, кроме как молиться за него.
7. He оставалось ничего, кроме как выполнять указание. 8. Больше ничего не
оставалось, кроме как воспользоваться их приглашением и отправиться к ним
поужинать. 9. Они только и делают, что надоедают ему разговорами о своих
семейных делах, (to bother smb. with smth.) 10. Что еще мне оставалось, кроме
как согласиться.11. Она только и делает, что заставляет его решать свои
личные проблемы.

Exercise 49. Read the following sentences and underline the Infinitive or
the Infinitive phrase used as adverbial modifier of comparison. Translate the
sentences into Russian.
1. She waved her hand as if to give some sign to him. 2. He shook his hand as
though to show that he was dissatisfied. 3. Everyone knows that to tell the truth is
better than tell lies. 4. She paused for half a minute as if to drop a hint that she was
tired of talking. 5. To my surprise, Mrs. Philips gave her a look as if to ask her
about her wartime romance. 6. To buy a violin is much easier than rent a piano and
it won’t take up much room. 7. It’s a truly happy ending and to see them happy is
far better than find them all dead. 8. Marty stretched her hand towards him as if to
ask him for help. 9. Ben looked sadly at his mother as though to let her know that
he felt sorry for her. 10. Her voice trembled as if to prove her being nervous and
excited. 11. He was the first to break the silence and it was wiser on his part at that
moment than wait till they uttered a word. 12. He looked at me for a moment and
all of a sudden he screamed horribly as though to frighten me. 13. He clutched the
papers to his heart as if to show that there was nothing more important for him than
have them with him. 14. To go to Switzerland on business is more important than
stay here and talk things over with our partners.

Exercise 50. Paraphrase the following sentences using an Infinitive or an


Infinitive phrase as adverbial modifier of comparison. Make all the necessary
changes.
Example: He looked at me in such a way that I felt he wanted to shock me.
→ He looked at me as if to shock me.

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1. The man whistled. It seemed he wanted to attract my attention. 2. They
exchanged meaningful glances. The impression was they wanted to show us they
were together. 3. When being criticized he usually shrugged his shoulders.
Probably he wanted to say that it had nothing to do with him. 4. The lady came up
to me and gave me a strange look as if she wanted to say that I was inappropriately
dressed. 5. He sounded as a stranger as if he wanted to show that he couldn’t
master the local dialect. 6. She exclaimed that she had never done it and burst into
tears which might prove that she had told the truth. 7. He wanted to surprise
everybody and appeared quite unexpectedly. 8. She gasped and thus showed that
she heard it for the first time in her life. 9. She looked at him as if she wanted to
comfort him. 10. My sister giggled and it proved that she didn’t take his proposal
seriously. 11. The girl kept weeping and thus showed that she was really depressed
and miserable. 12. Susan didn’t phone him for a long time which might prove that
she didn’t need him. 13. He made an angry gesture with his fist and showed her
that he wasn’t going to forgive her.

Exercise 51. Express your preference and comment on it using the


Infinitive as adverbial modifier of comparison.
Example: Which is better for you: to travel by car or to have a walking
holiday? I prefer to have a walking holiday than go by car because the walker
leaves a dull highway and takes mountain paths where cars can’t go.
1. Which is easier for you:
• to speak English or to write in English?
• to reproduce a text by heart or retell it?
• to write a composition or translate a newspaper article?
• to study at the University or work with children at school?
2. Which is more interesting for you:
- to read a book or see its screened version?
- to go on an excursion or go to the party?
- to do the sights of the city you have never been to before or go shopping?

Exercise 52. Translate the following sentences into English using an


Infinitive or an Infinitive phrase as adverbial modifier of comparison.
1. Она покраснела и прошептала что-то, как будто хотела сказать, что ей
стыдно. 2. Он покачал головой, словно показывал, что он осуждает их. 3. Они
поднялись, как будто давая им понять, что разговор окончен. 4. Проводить
отпуск на море гораздо лучше, чем сидеть в душном городе все лето. 5. Она
шевелила губами,как будто хотела его предупредить. 6. Это было на нее не
похоже, но она разрыдалась, как будто показывая, что его слова
оскорбительны для нее. 7. С ее стороны, было бы гораздо разумнее
смириться с ситуацией, чем переживать и нервничать.8. Клер дотронулась до
его плеча, как будто хотела остановить его. 9. Глаза ее сияли, словно она
хотела сказать, что с нетерпением ждет встречи с ним. 10. Том не настолько
был глуп, чтобы поверить Вильяму.

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Exercise 53. Transform the complex sentences into simple ones using the
Infinitive as adverbial modifier of motivation.
Example: He will be foolish if he doesn’t accept their offer. → He will be
foolish not to accept their offer.
1. He will be stupid if he doesn’t take this chance.
2. Tommy must be very strong if he can lift such a heavy box.
3. Sally is a shallow girl if she watches such films.
4. You are silly if you don’t believe him.
5. She must be crazy if she is going to marry him.
6. Jerry is a fool if he goes to the police to report the theft.
7. He will be stupid unless he sees her joke.

Exercise 54. Transform the complex sentences into simple ones using the
Infinitive as adverbial modifier of condition. Translate the sentences into
Russian.
Example 1: You wouldn’t believe that he is a popular singer if you looked at
him.→ To look at him, you wouldn’t believe that he is a popular singer.
Вы бы никогда не поверили, что он известный певец, если бы взглянули
на него.
Example 2: Не would have got rid of his disease if he had given much
consideration to the problem of nutrition.→ Не would have got rid of his disease
to give much consideration to the problem of nutrition.
Он бы избавился от болезни, если бы уделял внимание проблеме
питания.
1. If you heard this little girl speak to people like that you wouldn’t believe
that she is 5 years old only.
2. If you read only some pages in this book you wouldn’t believe that it is a
bestseller.
3. If we had obtained a special permission we should have reproduced the
famous old map in the magazine.
4. If you saw her dress you wouldn’t believe that she has made it by herself.
5. If you saw their dog you wouldn’t believe that it can bite somebody.
6. If you tasted this cake you wouldn’t believe that baking soda was put in the
mixture.
7. If you touched this cloth you wouldn’t believe that it is waterproof.
8. If you smelt this tobacco you wouldn’t believe that it can add aroma to the
blend.
9. If you went to the sports club regularly you would be in good form.
10. If you walked about this capital city you wouldn’t believe that it was
founded many centuries ago.
11. He would have recovered long ago if he had consulted the doctor on time.
12. Jack would have emigrated already if he had applied for a visa at least a
month ago.
13. I should have bought that laptop computer if I had had enough money.
14. She would be unhappy if she married for money.
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15. Не would have given his head an awful smash on the stone if he had
jumped off the cliff.

Exercise 55. Translate the following sentences into English using an


Infinitive or an Infinitive phrase. Define its function.
1. Если посмотреть на его картины, можно было бы подумать, что Моне,
Мане и прочие импрессионисты никогда не существовали. . 2. Я не
предполагал, что меня прервут в самом начале речи. 3. Мне неловко, что я
причинил вам столько беспокойства. 4. Они довольны, что их пригласили на
конференцию. 5. Ему повезло, что он был в такой интересной поездке. 6. Я
очень рада пригласить вас на вечер. 7. Она всегда найдет, над чем
посмеяться. 8. Не о чем было беспокоиться. Больной чувствовал себя лучше.
9. Он тяжелый человек. С ним трудно иметь дело. 10. Вот женщина, с
которой можно поговорить на эту тему. 11. Он был так поражен, что не мог
вымолвить ни слова.12. Клайд не любил, когда ему напоминали о бедности
его родителей. 13. Единственное, что ему хотелось, – это поскорее закончить
эту работу. 14. Есть ли в доме кто-нибудь, кто мог бы присмотреть за
больным? 15. Дети обожали, когда им рассказывали страшные истории. 16.
Этим цифрам трудно поверить. 17. Есть несколько факсов, на которые
необходимо ответить сейчас же. 18. Ты будешь выступать следующим? –
Нет, я буду выступать последним. 19. Вот статья, которую нужно
просмотреть перед заседанием. 20. Он первый открыл это прекрасное место
для отдыха. 21. Я сказал вам всю правду. Мне нечего скрывать. 22. Инцидент
был слишком неприятный, чтобы говорить о нем. 23. Поздно спорить об
этом. Уже ничего нельзя сделать. 24. Слова этой песни легко запомнить. 25.
Все, что ей удалось сделать, - это узнать его номер телефона.

§4. PREDICATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS.


THE OBJECTIVE-with-the-INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION

Exercise 1. Read the following sentences and define the Objective-with-


the-Infinitive Construction. Comment on its use. Translate the sentences into
Russian.
Example: They didn’t expect us to come back so soon.
us to come back is the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction used in the
function of a complex object. It is used after the verb of mental activity expect.
Они не ожидали, что мы так скоро вернемся.
1. I won’t have you talk to your father in such a way. 2. The pilots were
experienced and everyone knew them to be very competent. 3. Outside he allowed
her to examine the bird. 4. When Danny heard the alarm clock buzz, he slapped the
snooze button and burrowed under the covers for ten more minutes of sleep. 5. I
was pretending to read a newspaper so I didn’t see her get up. [John Fowles. The
Collector) 6. Because Freddie had never touched a snake, I removed the cover of
the cage and let him pet Squeeze, my seven-foot python. 7. Hoping to lose her fear
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of flying, Rachel went to the airport to watch passenger planes take off and land,
but even this exercise did not convince her that jets were safe.8. He was so soft-
hearted, he hated anyone to cry. 9. Since Jose had destroyed Sylvia’s spotless
kitchen while baking chocolate-broccoli muffins, she made him take her out for an
expensive dinner. 10. “Bob”, said Tessa, when he had put the phone down again.
“Do you want me to come to the funeral or not?” 11. The Arctic was everything I
expected it to be and much more in the way of high seas than I had bargained for.
12. I’d prefer you to drive, if you don’t mind. 13. We will require the gas and
electricity companies to invest in insulation and other energy-saving measures. 14.
She felt the boat dig deeper into the water, moving under it like some wild creature
straining against a leash. 15. I urge you to seriously consider this offer and to
ensure that you reply before the closing date. 16. She turned when she heard the
door close. 17. One held a knife to his throat while forcing him to drive to the
bank. 18. As a child he loved to watch the trains go by. 19. Can you get your
husband to mend the lock? 20. He heard the door slam shut.

Exercise 2. Open the brackets inserting the particle “to” before the
Infinitive where necessary. Define the Objective-with-the-Infinitive
Construction. Comment on its use. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. She always makes me _____ (laugh). 2. He won’t have her ____ (go) by
car in such stormy weather. 3. Why do you let him _____ (shout) at the children?
4. I’d like him ____ (go) to the university but I can’t get him _____ (do) it. 5. He
wanted you _____ (think) he’d come in by mistake.(Salinger. The Catcher in the
Rye ) 6. I felt the house ____ (shake) with the explosion. 7. Dornberger had the
paper now. What do you want me _____(do) about this? O’Donnell glanced at the
others, seeking confirmation.(Arthur Hailey. The Final Diagnosis) 8. I saw the
plane _____ (crash) into the hill. 9. He knew he was going crazy, when he
proposed to her, when he begged her ____ (take) the diamond ring and _____ (be)
his companion for life.(Kurt Vonnegut. Slaughterhouse-Five Or The Children’s
Crusade). 10. She only allows the children _____ (watch) TV at weekends. 11. Her
parents didn’t want her _____ (marry) him. 12. The policeman asked me if I had
heard the baby ____ (cry). 13. I won’t let you _____ (read) the messages in my
mobile phone. 14. Aunt Annie is a Nonconformist, she never forced me ______
(go) to chapel or such like (John Fowles. The Collector) 15. The referee declared
Sarah _____ (be) the winner.

Exercise 3. Open the brackets using the Objective-with-the-Infinitive


Construction where possible.
1. I want (my brother, to take) some precautions. 2. I heard (she, to open) the
door and (to slam) it behind her. 3. They have heard (something, to happen) to
Julia. 4. John saw (his brother, to pick up) something and (to put) it in his bag. 5.
Why don’t you get (he, to go) to bed immediately? 6. I won’t have (they, to think)
ill of her. 7. Teachers expect (many changes, to happen) in education system in the
near future. 8. Each of us told a story that made (the time, to pass) quickly. 9. We
expected (they, to come) by the 4.30 train. 10. Your enthusiasm makes (I, to feel)
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young again. 11. I saw (he, to realize) the danger. 12. I want (you, to explain) to
me how to use this gadget. 13. The telephone ringing made (she, to start). 14. Did
they expect (we, to show) them the city? 15. I have never known (she, to speak)
with a slight accent. 16. She heard (he, to call) her name. 17. Mary noticed (her
brother, to be) displeased. 18. I’m sure I’ll get (he, to finish) the work on time. 19.
My parents won’t have (I, to marry) a foreigner. 20. She made (I, to feel) special.

Exercise 4. Complete the following sentences using the Objective-with-


the-Infinitive Construction where possible.
1. He hated (когда онa опаздывалa). 2. We want (чтобы они были
счастливы). 3. We saw (как он припарковал машину и пересек) the road. 4. He
felt (как что-то тяжелое стукнуло его по ноге). 5. He felt (как его голос
задрожал от волнения). 6. Mother used to consider (что он был неправ). 7. They
heard the woman (вскрикнула) and saw (как она упала на землю без сознания).
8. Have you heard (что ваш друг заболел и не сможет посещать занятия две
недели)? 9. The doctor ordered (чтобы палату проветривали каждые 2 часа).
10. The newcomer had (чтобы портье принес его вещи немедленно). 11. His
remark made (всех чувствовать себя неловко). 12. Let us try to get (чтобы он
присоединился к нашей компании). 13. People consider (что она была
женщиной с сильным характером). 14. He saw (что она недовольна
достигнутым соглашением). 15. He saw out of the corner of his eyes (как она
ухватилась за край стола, чтобы не упасть). 16. Paul heard (как телефон
позвонил дважды). 17. If you want (чтобы мы добрались) there before dark you
should let (нам выехать) at once. 18. We don’t allow (гостям курить) in the
living-room.

Exercise 5. Transform the complex sentences into simple ones using the
Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction.
Example: I expect that he will come.→ I expect him to come.
1. You can’t expect that she will work if she’s not well. 2. We considered
that he was a genius. 3. We found that she was sincere. 4. They didn’t know that
she was a German spy. 5. The experts considered that the plan was unwise. 6. I
know that their house is for sale now. 7. Several critics have declared that the law
is poorly designed. 8. I expected that the operation would be over soon. 9. We
consider that the young man is a promising writer. 10. Most medieval Europeans
believed that the world was flat. 11. They proved irrefutably that he was a liar.

Exercise 6. a) Combine the two simple sentences into one sentence using
the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction.
Example: He dropped his bag. I saw it. → I saw him drop his bag.
1. He slipped and fell down. I saw it. 2. I heard it. She suddenly cried out
loudly. 3. He opened the door and left the room. I saw it. 4. They turned round the
corner and disappeared. We noticed them. 5. Jane saw her neighbour. He opened
the door of his flat and went in. 6. I heard him. He shut the door of the study. 7. I
noticed it. Henry went up and spoke to the stranger. 8. The doctor touched the
78
boy’s leg. The boy felt it. 10. The man dropped an envelope into the letterbox. The
sluice saw it. 11. I saw something strange: the plate slipped from her hands and fell
on the floor. 12. They entered the room, stayed there a minute and then left. We
noticed it. 13. Somebody mentioned her name. Lily heard it. 14. I never smoke
indoors. My mother doesn’t like it. 15. Don’t read my letters. I hate it.
b) Imagine that you happened to be a witness to some accident, for
example, a traffic accident. Describe what you saw.
Example: I saw a taxi-driver drive through a red light. I heard a police
officer order the taxi-driver to stop the car. But he didn’t obey his order. Then I
watched the police car chase the taxi.

Exercise 7. Answer the following questions using the Objective-with-the-


Infinitive Construction.
1. What subject do you consider to be the most difficult this term? Why?
2. Whom do you think to be the most outstanding scientist (composer, writer)
of the last century?
3. What did your parents make you do when you were a schoolgirl
(schoolboy)? How has the situation changed by now?
4. What do your parents let you do at weekends?
5. What do parents usually get their children to do?

Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences into English using the


Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction where possible.
1. Мы увидели, как он выбрал цветы и подарил их своей девушке. 2.
Мать позволила детям организовать вечеринку. 3. Врач сказал, что рана
легкая. 4. Я не позволю вам говорить такие вещи в моем присутствии. 5.
Поручите вашему секретарю сделать копии этих документов. 6. Почему вы
заставили нас сказать неправду? 7. Я почувствовал, как у меня заколотилось
сердце. 8. Он видел, что она его не понимает. 9. Они не видели, как я взял
кольцо. 10. Все слышали, как профессор упомянул об этих фактах в своей
лекции. 11. Я слышал, что он уже уехал за границу. 12. Дети увидели, что
отец взволнован и спросили его, в чем дело. 13. Мы видели, что он не
заметил нас. 14. Я не хочу, чтобы работа делалась в спешке. 15. Ты не
хочешь, чтобы это происшествие было забыто? 16. Жителям города хотелось,
чтобы на месте заброшенного дома был разбит парк. 17. Студент не ожидал,
что его выступление с новым проектом прослушают с таким вниманием. 18.
Хотите ли вы, чтобы их познакомили с вами? 19. Мы заметили, как
мальчишки забрались в чей-то сад. 20. Он ожидал, что ему помогут друзья.
21. Она почувствовала, как кто-то коснулся ее плеча. 22. Я не позволю вам
плохо обращаться с детьми. 23. Она почувствовала, что его слова
неискренни. 24. Я никогда не слышал, как она говорила по-английски. 25. Я
слышал, что она говорит по-китайски очень хорошо. 26. Я видел, как студент
вошел в читальный зал, взял книги и принялся за работу. 27. Он заставил
меня снять пальто и выпить чашку чаю. 28. Преподаватель распорядился,
чтобы студенты выписали все незнакомые слова из словаря. 29. Добейтесь,
79
чтобы он обратился к врачу. 30. Дождь заставил их вернуться домой. 31.
Отец хотел, чтобы его сын стал врачом. 32. Я всегда считал их своими
друзьями. 33. Преподаватель видел, что ученик не понял правило и объяснил
его еще раз. 34. Джон заставил жену повиноваться ему во всем. 35. Мисс
Бетси почувствовала, что Давид сказал неправду. 36. Преподаватель ожидал,
что студенты успешно сдадут экзамен. 37. Все знали его как опытного врача.
Я слышал, что она нашла работу. 38. Я думаю, не случится ничего плохого,
если мы позволим ему прийти. 39. Я видел, что он не осознает опасность.

§5. THE SUBJECTIVE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION

Exercise 1. Read the following sentences and define the Subjective


Infinitive construction. Comment on its use. Translate the sentence into
Russian.
Example: She didn’t seem to have heard the noise from the dining-room.
She to have heard is the Subjective Infinitive construction used in the
function of the complex subject. It is used after the verb seem. Казалось, что она
не услышала шум из столовой.
1. The discussion appears to have been friendly and fruitful. 2. He seems to be
sincere but I don’t completely trust him. 3. To our surprise the stranger turned out
to be an old friend of my mother’s. 4. If you happen to find it, please let me know.
5. She was reported by the hospital spokesman to be making excellent progress.
6. His private life is unlikely to influence his career as a manager. 7. His decision
proved to be a good one. 8. The handwriting is widely known to change as people
get older. 9. Despite his established reputation, Harris was made to quit the job. 10.
The agreement was declared void.11. He’s sure to get nervous and say something
stupid. 12. The painting was declared to be a forgery. 13. Praise is said to develop
in children a sense of self-confidence. 14. The campaign was considered to have
failed. 15. Mr. Rochester is known to have been running the family business for
over 20 years. 16. Hiccups are said to be cured by a sudden shock. 17. The
hurricane is expected to reach our region in a few days. 18. Joan Rowling is
considered to be the wealthiest woman in the world. 19. The President was
reported to have lost control of the army. 20. The painting has been reported to be
missing. 21. Many changes in school education are expected to happen in the
nearest future. 22. Sailing across the Atlantic in a small boat is considered to be
dangerous. 23. He is known to have been working in the field of nuclear physics
for many years. 24. The injured were taken to hospital. They were said to be
suffering from shock and minor cuts and bruises. 25. The prisoners are expected to
be released today.

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Exercise 2. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate form
of the Infinitive from the verb in brackets. Translate the sentences into
Russian.
1. There seems _______ (to be) a mistake in the numbers in your yesterday’s
report. 2. The building appears ______ (to use) as a hospital during the war. 3. He
appeared ______ (to lose) patience. His face was getting red. 4. She seems
_______ (to change) her mind. 5. The storm turned out ____ (to break) many trees.
6. Melvin turned out _____ (to speak) fluent Japanese. 7. William’s words seemed
______ (to calm) her down a little. 8. She is likely ______ (to find out) the truth
sooner or later. 9. George is believed _____ (to arrive) last night. 10. In the last
two years Debbie seems ______ (to do one’s utmost) to realize her full potential as
a scholar. 11. The kitten is so helpless. It is unlikely _____ (to do) without our
care. 12. This medicine is sure _____ (to help) the poor woman. 13. The ancient
city is known _____ (to exist) in this region. 14. He didn’t answer at once. He
seemed ____ (to clear) his throat. 15. You always seem ____ (to leave) your things
around the place. 16. She looks sad. She doesn’t appear _____ (to hear) the news.
17. They seem _____ (to use) this method for years. 18. She doesn’t seem ____ (to
look) at me but at somebody behind. 19. She heard the remark, but she didn’t
appear ____ (to hurt). 20. He is certain ____ (to fail) his new job. 21. Why did he
rush away so suddenly? He seems _____ (to have) some business to attend to. 22.
Nothing seems ____ (to gain) by moving to a metropolis. 23. The letter doesn’t
seem ____ (to reach) him. 24. Good work. Your chances for a promotion seem
_____ (to enhance).

Exercise 3. Transform the complex sentences into simple ones using the
Subjective Infinitive construction.
Example 1: It is reported that scientists have discovered a new star. →
Scientists are reported to have discovered a new star.
1. It is supposed that the students of our University will visit at least some
European countries next year. 2. It is reasonable to assume that the economy will
continue to improve. 3. It is reported the automobile show will be held next
summer. 4. They say the first night of the performance has caused a great stir in the
capital. 5. It is regarded that many teenagers of today lack ambition. 6. It’s known
that many jobs involve hard work, long hours and no security. 7. It is reported that
as a result of the discussion an important agreement has been reached. 8. We
expect that everybody will contribute to the discussion of this urgent question. 9. It
is announced the conference has been of great international importance. 10.
Experts say that the consumption of meat was very high last year. 11. Rumour has
it (people say) that he was murdered. 12. It is generally assumed that stress is
caused by too much work. 13. The local authority considered that the school did
not meet requirements. 14. It is believed that the couple have left the country. 15. It
was once thought that the sun travelled around the earth. 16. The court declared
that the strike was illegal.

81
Example 2: It seems that she knows everything about it.→ She seems to
know everything about it.
He apparently did not know the truth. → He didn’t seem to know the truth.
1. It seemed that he had lost interest in the subject. 2. It seemed that the house
hadn’t been lived in for a long time. 3. It doesn’t seem the customers are served
here properly. 4. It seems he has been collecting stamps since he was a boy. 5. It
appears that a lot of immigrants have been involved in squattering. 6. He was silent
for a moment. It seemed that he was searching his memory. 7. It seemed that there
was no risk in asking him the question. 8. It turned out that the language of the
article was quite easy. 9. Apparently this job offers alluring opportunities. 10. It
seems that he has been looking forward to meeting you all the time. 11. I am not
sure that anyone has gained experience by being idle. 12. It seems that they haven’t
made any changes in the plan. 13. It appears that his new book attracted
everybody’s attention. 14. It seems that there is a great difference between these
two samples. 15. It appears that there are different opinions on this subject. 16. It
appeared that they had lost the way. 17. It seems they know all about it. 18. It
seems they have heard all about it. 19. It seemed that the discussion was coming to
an end. 20. It seems that you don’t approve of the idea. 21. It seemed that the house
had not been lived in for a long time. 22. It appeared that he had not heard what
had been said. 24. It turned out that my prediction was correct.
Example 3: It so happened that I took the wrong turning. → I happened to
take the wrong turning.
1. It so happened that they missed the five o’clock train. 2. Do you know, by
any chance, who contributed their money to Children’s Fund? 3. Unexpectedly a
passing car picked up us on the motorway. 4. It was quite unexpected for them to
wander into slums. 5. Do you by any chance know where such things are sold? 6.
As luck would have it, the book dealt with the problem that interested me very
much. 7. Accidentally he recalled my telephone number just in time. 8. By
coincidence I was present at the opening ceremony. 9. He got the job by a fluke.
10. But if they unintentionally placed obstacles in my way, I have the consolation
of knowing that I overcame them all.
Example 4: One thing is certain - the management will employ more people
to do the work. → The management is certain to employ more people.
1. The weather is bound to be sunny again tomorrow. 2. It is impossible that
she will forget her promise. 3. It is highly probable that the winter will be very
severe this year. 4. Don’t worry. I’m sure they will take care of the matter. 5. I
don’t doubt that you’ll get fringe benefits if you are promoted to that position. 6. It
seems probable that the situation will only get worse. 7. It is unlikely that the 8
o’clock train will stop here. It is a fast train. 8. It is likely that the new book by the
famous writer will attract the attention of the public. 9. There is a great possibility
that this decision will be challenged by the Mayor of the city. 11. The election in
June seems increasingly probable. 12. Redundancies seem increasingly probable.
13. The police seem certain that they will find the people responsible for the
attack. 14. One thing is certain – she won’t resign willingly. 15. It is by no means
certain that we’ll finish the project by June. 16. I will definitely be back by ten.17.
82
You’ve done so much work – you are bound to pass the exam. 18 It is probable
that share prices will fall even more. 19. Knowing Jim, he is bound to be late.

Exercise 5. Transform the sentence with the Objective with the Infinitive
Construction into the sentence with the Subjective Infinitive construction.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example: They made her scrub the floor. → She was made to scrub the
floor.
Note: The verb let is not used in the passive.
They didn’t let me go to town. → I wasn’t allowed to go to town.
1. He made her promise that she would come back. 2. The parents let their son
take the dog inside. 3. The headmaster let the boys leave the school. 4. I
encouraged my father to try Chinese food. 5. I believe him to have very strong
emotions. 6. They didn’t let me cover my travel expenses. 7. They forced the
employees to stop the strike. 8. They saw him approach the house. 9. She heard
him sing a popular tune. 10. They require government officials to attend state
dinners. 11. The circumstances forced me to start my own business at my own risk.
12. If you suppose him to be a liar, why do you consult him? 13. Because of the
accent, they thought him to be an American. 14. The Captain ordered the sailors to
come on deck at 5 o’clock. 15. They allowed us to enter the house.

Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into English using the


Subjective Infinitive construction. Comment on its use.
1. Все, казалось, было в полном порядке. 2. Кажется, ее брат копит
деньги на автомашину. 3. По-видимому, они использовали эти сведения. 4.
Известно, что этот ученый работал в области ядерной физики в течение
многих лет. 5. Его родители, по-видимому, живут в этом доме уже очень
давно. 6. Кажется, она пытается управлять твоей жизнью. 7. У нее, по-
видимому, хороший вкус. 8. Вероятно, преподаватель был не доволен ее
ответом. 9. Мне кажется, он испытывает сильнейшую боль. 10. Я что-то не
помню всех частностей этого дела. 11. Похоже на то, что эта история вызвала
отрицательную реакцию в обществе. 12. Ожидают, что он даст нам ответ
завтра. . 13. Вы непременно наберете достаточно опыта, если не будете
лениться. 14. Вы, случайно, не знаете причину его отсутствия? 15. Лишь
случайно я узнала, что он получает пособие по безработице. 16.. Так
оказалось, что он был причиной моих неприятностей. 17. Нам уже случалось
иметь дело с такими людьми. 18. Книга оказалась такой интересной, я прочел
ее за день. 19. Его ответ оказался правильным. 20. Мы случайно встретились
незадолго до его болезни. 21. Случилось так, что они оказались замешены в
этом деле. 22. Если вы случайно встретите его, скажите ему, что он мне
нужен. 23. Мы случайно остановились в одной и той же гостинице. 24.
Красота города, говорят, определяется его географическим положением. 25.
Предполагается, что здание на углу улицы было построено в Х веке. 26.
Токио считается одним из самых больших городов мира. 27. Известно, что
она пишет статьи для студенческой газеты. 28. Полагают, что товары не были
83
тщательно упакованы. 29. По-видимому, этот факт уже был упомянут. 30.
Полагают, что инфляция вызвана большим ростом заработной платы. 31. Он,
наверняка, знает как вести себя в подробных ситуациях. 32. Известно, что
пренебрегать техникой безопасности весьма опасно. 33. Если вы не
поторопитесь, вы, наверняка, опоздаете на автобус. 34. Вряд ли разумный
человек пойдет на такой риск. 35. Вероятно, он уже нашел какое-нибудь
жилье в городе. 36. Вряд ли вы ее застанете в это время. 37. Если ты будешь
так много есть, ты, наверняка, наберешь вес.

§6. THE FOR-TO-INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION

Exercise 1. Read the sentences and define the For-to-Infinitive


Construction. Comment on its function. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example: The teacher was waiting for Jack to raise his hand.
for Jack to raise is the for-to-Infinitive construction. It is used in the function
of a complex object. Учитель ждал, пока Джек поднимет руку.
1. The policeman spoke slowly for me to understand each word. 2. This is the
matter for you to attend to. 3. I slowed down for the car behind to able to overtake
me. 4. It would be better for you to stay in bed. You are running a high
temperature. 5. The ice was too thin for the boys to go skating. 6. The best thing is
for you to play this melody once again. 7. She was quite obviously waiting for him
to go. [Ray Bradbury. Fahrenheit 451 (1953)] 8. I hope for him to win the
presidential race. 9. This made it impossible for me to accept Sally’s offer. 10.
And that was something for me to treasure. 11. We were anxious for him to come.
12. There was no need for you to give me a birthday present at all. 13. Was it
possible for a young girl to have got from a single experience so much bitter
knowledge? 14. I left the luggage at the station for him to collect. 15. It is the basic
fabric of our Universe that makes it necessary for energy to be conserved. [Isaac
Asimov. The Gods Themselves (1972)] 16. It is very important for him to see our
new flat. 17. We bought a comfortable armchair for Granny to sit in. 18. They
arranged for the woman to get the best medical treatment. 19. It’s impossible for
me to give you a definite answer right now.20. I’m eager for the party to be a
success.

Exercise 2. Transform the complex sentences into simple ones using the
For-to-Infinitive Construction. Comment on its function. Translate the
sentences into Russian.
Example: Jack waited till she leaves. → Jack waited for her to leave.
for her to leave is the For-to-Infinitive construction. It is used in the function
of a complex object. Джек ждал, когда она уедет.
1. She held out the telegram so that I might see it. 2. It’s quite natural that you
should think so. 3. The first thing he must do is to ring them up. 4. Let us wait till
they settle this matter. 5. This is a problem you should solve all by yourself. 6. I
shall bring you the article that you may read. 7. I gave an umbrella to the children
84
lest they should get wet through. 8. I’ve put on weight so much that I can’t wear
this dress any longer. 9. It is unbelievable that a man should go so far beyond his
limit. 10. He spoke loudly so that everyone might hear him. 11. There is nothing
that I may add. 12. It is very unusual that he should have said such a thing. 13.
Open the window so that he can get a breath of fresh air. 14. This is a boy you can
play with. 15. The best thing that he can do is to refer to this article. 17. It’s
necessary that all speakers at the meeting should stick to the point. 19. The guide
stopped the coach so that the tourists might get on. 20. He held the door open to let
his parents come in. 21. The traffic was so heavy that we couldn’t cross the road.
22. He is just the man whom you should consult. 23. It will be a mistake if we
interfere. 24. He put the brooch on the table so that all could see it. 24. There are
three more items on the agenda that the audience must consider. 25. We were
anxious that the film should begin. 26. Here is something that you ought to see. 27.
The problem is so difficult that we can’t understand it. 28. It would be disastrous if
John did it. 29. Here are the instructions you have to follow. 30. The fog is so thick
that we can’t go on.

Exercise 3. Translate the following sentence into English using the For-
to-Infinitive Construction. Comment on its function.
1. Самое лучшее, что вы можете сделать летом – это поехать на море и
хорошо там отдохнуть. 2. Этот текст достаточно легкий, чтобы вы могли
прочитать его без словаря. 3. Сейчас не время нам об этом говорить. 4. Эта
работа несложная, она для моего помощника. 5. Вопрос был слишком
неожиданным, чтобы я мог на него ответить без подготовки. 6. Учитель
подчеркнул несколько предложений, чтобы ученики проанализировали их. 7.
Он подождал, пока я сяду в кресло. 8. Не вам ставить условия! 9. Нам
ничего не остается делать, как ждать. 10. Мой дом всегда готов к тому,
чтобы любой мог войти и чувствовать себя комфортно. 11. Дорогой мой,
сейчас не время нам спорить. 12. Через какое-то время Гарри понял, что
Луиза была той самой женщиной, на которой он должен жениться. 13.
Секретарь принесла ему несколько документов, которые ему надо было
срочно подписать. 14. Не было никаких шансов, чтобы она нашла хорошую
работу. 15. Вам вредно столько курить.

REVISION

Exercise 1. Translate the following sentences into English using an


Infinitive or an Infinitive phrase. Define its function.
1. Он требовал, чтобы ему предоставили возможность доказать это. 2.
Она попросила, чтобы ей дали прочесть это письмо. 3. Все было сделано,
чтобы спасти его. 4. Вы приехали, чтобы принять участие в конференции? 5.
Не предупредить его об этом было бы нечестно. 6. Мы притворились, что не
заметили его ошибки, чтобы не смущать его. 7. Он был рад, что посетил эту
картинную галерею. 8. Мне жаль, что я причинил вам так много хлопот. 9.
85
Короче говоря, мы не смогли доказать их вину. 10. По правде говоря, ваша
сестра – самая очаровательная женщина, которую я когда-либо встречал. 11.
Они не знают его достаточно хорошо, чтобы довериться ему. 12. Было уже
слишком поздно, чтобы что-то поменять. 13. Ничего не оставалось делать,
как ждать. 14. Кушая этот салат, и не скажешь, что в нем много перца. 15. Он
не такой сумасшедший, чтобы это делать. 16. Очень необычно видеть этих
птиц в наших лесах. 17. Составить текст поздравительной телеграммы не
всегда легко. 18. Прогуливаясь по улицам этого города, ты не веришь, что
городу несколько сотен лет. 19. Он начал просматривать фотографии в
семейном альбоме. 20. Когда я в отпуске, для меня нет ничего лучшего, чем
отправиться в путешествие на машине. 21. Он дал строгое приказание не
выпускать ее из комнаты и смотреть за тем, чтобы с ней никто не говорил.
22. Вскоре солнце спряталось, на небе начали собираться тучи, и пошел
дождь. 23. Поначалу мой друг продолжал спорить, однако вскоре понял, что
это бесполезно и перестал проявлять интерес к беседе. 24. Радушный хозяин
принялся меня угощать пирогами. 25. По вечерам мой друг, бывало,
рассказывал забавные истории, которые с ним приключились.

Exercise 2. Read the sentences and define the predicative construction


with the Infinitive. Comment on its function. Translate the sentences into
Russian.
1. When are you supposed to be watching the trail? [Walter M. Miller, Jr.. A
Canticle For Leibowitz] 2. Oil prices are certain to rise following the agreement to
limit production. 3. Do you think it natural for the child to get so tired? 4.
Everything seemed to have changed since her swim in the pool (Alice). 5. They
declared the election to be invalid. 6. Some drugs are known to cause damage to
unborn children. 6. Carmen waited for him toleave, but he stood there as if wanting
to talk. 7. Life was empty without him and no one seemed to be anxious to replace
him - especially her parents. 8. I think that it’s late enough for us to put Philip to
bed. 9. These kinds of dogs are said to be very aggressive. 10. The important thing
is for you to think about protecting the people here (Rustand, 201) 11. She was
nearly to the fence surrounding the yard when she heard him call her name
(Rustand, 245). 12. When Lori suggested meeting at the café in the center of town
for pie and coffee, Olivia had been glad of the opportunity for the two of them to
have some time to talk. (Cooper, 88). 13. He proved to have been teaching English
for ten years. 14. The Mayor of the city declared the bridge open. 15. If you drink
much from a bottle marked “poison”, it’s almost certain to disagree with you
sooner or later. 16. Her early trauma made Mary seek therapy later in life. 17. A
couple of hundred people came, and all of them seemed to stay overnight. 18. He
expected her to push him away and slap him, and he was prepared to leave and
remain furious at her for the next week or two. 19. The vases are believed to be
worth over $20000 each. 20. I f you work hard you are sure to succeed. 21. The
population explosion is certain to cause widespread famine. 22. He wanted all his
friends to come to his party. 23. Many of the elderly suppose the children of today

86
to be undisciplined. 24. I saw the wind move the trees. 25. I heard the window
break.

Exercise 3. Translate the following sentence into English using an


appropriate predicative construction with the Infinitive.
1. Я договорился, что у тебя будет отдельная комната. 2. Его заставили
обратиться к врачу. 3. Оказывается, он ничего об этом не слышал. 3. Кажется,
вы расстроены. Что-нибудь случилось? 4. Я никогда не видела, как танцует
Джейн Бак. 5. Они ждали, когда им подадут обед. 6. Я спала и не слышала,
как они ушли.7. Родители всегда хотят, чтобы их дети выросли честными
людьми. 8. Я считаю, что это было несправедливо с вашей стороны. 9. Кто
позволил вам распоряжаться моими вещами? 10. Первое, что мы должны
сделать – это заказать билеты. 11. Он почувствовал, как силы возвращаются
к нему. 12. Ничто не могло заставить его изменить принятое решение. 13.
Ожидается, что зима в этом году будет суровая. 14. Я случайно услышала
последнюю фразу, сказанную вами. 15. Не им обсуждать этот вопрос. 16.
Они наверняка поженятся. 17. Я хочу, чтобы мы все встретились еще раз. 18.
Она почувствовала, что кто-то дотронулся до ее плеча. 19. Маловероятно, что
он выздоровеет к понедельнику. 20. Не позволяйте детям играть со спичками.
21. Оказалось, что мы уже знакомы. 22. Она побледнела, и я почувствовала,
как она вздрогнула. 23. Детям не с кем играть. 24. По его мнению, тебе лучше
оставаться здесь. 25. Ему было трудно сказать тебе правду из-за твоего
отношения. 26. Нет необходимости им здесь больше оставаться. 27. Машина
достаточно большая, чтобы в ней могло ехать шесть человек.

§7. THE GERUND. FORMS AND MEANINGS OF THE GERUND

Exercise 1. Read the following sentences. Define the form of the Gerund
comment on its use. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example: The idea is worth considering.
considering - is non-perfect, active Gerund. It is used to express a future
action.
Эту идею стоит рассмотреть (обсудить)
1. Travelling abroad can be exciting enough, but just now it is more exciting
being here. 2. She stopped answering my letters and I wondered what the matter
might be. 3. Can you recall having mentioned the fact to anyone? 4. Thorpe was
terrified, terrified of having to touch something, and even more, of being touched.
(S H.) 5. Young Jolyon, on the point of leaving the club, had put on his hat, and
was in the act of crossing the hall, as the porter met him. (Glsw.) 6. After having
been rejected by a dozen magazines, they (the stories) come to rest in The Globe
office. (J.L.) 7. I wonder at Jolyon’s allowing the engagement. (Glsw.) 8. I
understand perfectly your wanting to leave. (F.F.) 9. People will talk, there is no
preventing it. (Ph. Sh.) 10. The host broke the awkward silence by inviting the
guests to proceed to the dining-room. 11. This is laying the blame at the wrong
87
door. 12. On being told the news she gave a gasp of surprise.

Exercise 2. Use the appropriate form of the Gerund using the verb in
brackets. Define the form of the Gerund and comment on its use. Translate
the sentences into Russian.
1. Stark sat down without __ (to speak). 2. He did not go without __ by Amy.
(to congratulate) 3. After __ more closely than usual and __ his hair, he took the
bus uptown. (to shave, to brush) 4. At South Square, on __ that Michael and Fleur
were out, he did not dress for dinner, but went to the nursery. (to discover) 5. I had
to sound as if I didn't mind __, as though I had no temper of my own. (to insult) 6.
She kept on __, her voice low and controlled. (to talk) 7. In the morning light, she
was, ashamed of herself for __ so __ the night before. (to elate) 8. The house
wanted __ (to do up) 9. Even a criminal must be told the nature of his crime before
__ .(to convict) 10. She showed none of the usual feminine pleasure at __ hard to
understand, inscrutable, mysterious. (to be) 11. I still reproached myself for not __
open with Douglas Osbaldiston from the start, when he had invited me to do so.
(to be) 12. No woman looks her best after __ up all night. (to sit) 13. His legs were
somewhat stiff from not — or __ for days. (to hike, to climb) 14. I'm tired of __
like a silly fat lamb. (to treat) 15. I know everyone who's worth __ .(to know) 16.
After __ this, he; cursed himself for not __ the opposite, so that he might have
used the expected guest as a lever to get rid of Misha. (to say, to say) 17. There is
vivid happiness in merely __ alive. (to be) 18. "Your tie needs ___," Mrs. Simpson
said. (to straighten).

Exercise 3. Use the appropriate form of the gerund.


Excuse me for _____ (to give) you so much trouble. 2. You never mentioned
______ (to speak) to them on the subject. 3. He was proud of ________ (to award)
the prize. 4. I don’t remember ever ______ (to see) you. 5. I don’t remember
_______ (to ask) this question. 6. The boys were punished for (to break) the
window. 7. The boy was afraid of _________ (to punish) and hid himself. 8. He
was quite serious in _______ (to say) that he was leaving the place for good. 9. She
seemed sorry for ______ (to be) rude to me. 10. He confessed to ________ (to
forget) that he was to come on Friday. 11. The old man could not stand ______ (to
make) fun of. 12. Letters were no use: he had no talent for _______ (to express)
himself on paper. 13. After thoroughly _________ (to examine) by the doctor, the
young man was admitted to the sports club. 14. Soon she could not help
_________ (to attract) by the fact that she was being looked at. 15. The camera
wanted _________ (to adjust). 16. They accused me of ___________ (to mislead)
them. 17. She was so eagerly looking forward to _________ (to give) the leading
part to play that she was greatly disappointed at not even ____________ (to offer)
it. 18. She reproached me for not _________ (to keep) my promise. 19. After
________ (to look) through and________ (to sort) out, the letters were registered
and filed. 20. He liked to do things without _________ (to disturb) anyone or
_________ (to disturb). 21. Most celebrities have as much interest in _________
(write) about as newspapers have in ________ (fill) their pages. 22. Act so that
88
every one of your actions is capable of _______ (make) into a universal rule. 23.
Sophia could not remember ever ________ (see) her mother cry. 24. Julia ought to
have guessed that she couldn't go far in London without _________ (recognize).
25. It came to her as a shock now to realize that without ever ______ (possess)
him. she had lost him. 26. He distracted his mind by ________ (go) to as many
parties as he could. 27. She couldn't hide her disappointment at ________ (leave
out) of the team. 28. In the present circumstances they are unlikely to risk
_________ (hold) an election. 29. _________(Understand) the bonds of family in
Shakespeare's plays is important to an understanding of his art as a whole. 30. Her
tenderness for Michael and her ever - present sense of ________ (be) for years
unjust to him filled her with contrition __________ (раскаяние). 31. There is no
point in ___________ (give) him a false impression. 32. Corbett helped himself
liberally despite already _________ (eat). 33. The Duchess is very active in spite
of _______ (not be) in particularly good health of late.

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English.


1. Нельзя ли попросить вас повторить, что вы только что сказали? 2. Я
помню, что видел этого актера в какой-то другой пьесе. 3. Я настаиваю на
том, чтобы меня выслушали. 4. Он и виду не показал, что узнал нас. 5. Он
подозревал меня в том, что я выдал его секрет. 6. Не стоит упоминать об
этом. 7. Странно, почему она избегает говорить на эту тему. 8. Терпеть не
могу, когда со мной разговаривают таким тоном. 9. Внимательно посмотрев
мои часы, часовщик сказал, что они в порядке и нуждаются только в чистке
и смазке. 10. Он боялся, что его неправильно поймут. 11. Он признался, что
неверно информировал нас. 12. Я думаю, он несерьезно сказал, что хочет
переменить профессию. 13. Он напомнил мне, что уже как-то отказался от
этого предложения, и дал мне понять, что бесполезно снова поднимать этот
вопрос. 14. Она боялась испортить свое первое впечатление, посмотрев
картину снова. 15. Меня упрекнули в том, что я опоздал и заставил всех
ждать. 16. Услышав гудок автомобиля, сторож пошел открыть ворота.

§ 8. FUNCTIONS OF GERUND

Exercise 1. State the syntactic functions of Gerunds in the following


sentences.
1. Reading is a great habit. 2. He likes going to the cinema once a week. 3.
Please leave the room without banging the door. 4.1 don’t believe in having a good
time at her place. 5.1 never have an opportunity of going to work on foot, because
I’m always in a hurry. 6.1 don’t feel like laughing over it. 7. After leaving his
friend, Francis went to a shop and bought his fiancee a necklace. 8. It’s bad best-
selling such stuff as this author writes. 9. His eyes began travelling slowly around
the lawn. 10. Dancing gracefully was her major accomplishment 11. Tom was
standing in riding clothes on the front porch. 12. Joseph could not help admiring
that man. 13. The small room in the attic was sometimes used for sleeping. 14. In
89
spite of being busy he did all he could to help her. 15. She preferred to keep
silence for fear of being laughed at. 16. He didn’t dare to come without being
invited. 17. The only thing I can do now is going to bed immediately.

Exercise 2. Use the verbal phrases in brackets as the subject of the


sentence, expressed by a Gerund.
Example: (buy presents) – Buying presents for people always makes her feel
excited.
1.(observe faults in others) is sometimes helpful for ourselves. 2. (see a big
boy hit a small one) makes me angry. 3. (wear a grey shirt) suits him. 4. (wash too
much) will make your skin rough. 5. (play recklessly with fire) is dangerous. 6. It
was no use (look for the book in bookshops). 7. It will be worth (try to get a ticket
at the entrance). 8. It’s useful (get up early in the morning). 9. There is no (deny
the fact). 10. It will make you healthy (have a cold shower in the morning).

Exercise 3. Fill in the gaps, using Gerunds in the function of the subject
in the following sentences.
1. _________ will improve my chances of promotion at work. 2. _________
was one of her greatest satisfactions. 3. _________ is not my idea of fun.4.
__________ was very tiring.5. __________ is intellectually stimulating.6.
__________ lakes a lot of time and effort.7. __________ keeps you up to date with
current events. 8. __________ only complicated my life. 9. __________ is hardly
worth trying.10. __________can be very interesting.

Exercise 4. Make up sentences of your own with gerundial phrases or


gerundial constructions after: it is (was, will be) no good; it is (was, will be) no
use.

Exercise 5. Compose 5 sentences of your own with to feel like + gerund.

Exercise 6. Develop the situations, using Gerunds in the function of the


subject or predicative.
1.Why go into every detail?
– I think it’s no use ... .
2. Did he realize what risk he was running when he tried to land the plane on
such a small clearing in the wood?
– He knew only too well that ... was ..., but there was no alternative.
3. Now you keep strict hours of meals.
– ... must do you a lot of good.
4. The children watched the monkeys go through different tricks.
– It was such fun ... .
5. We could not get in that night.
– All tickets were sold out, there was no ... .
6. I see you are going to assemble your bicycle.
– Is it worth while ... so long before the beginning of the season?
90
7. It was so very pleasant to be free and alone.
– What I enjoyed most in that quiet corner after the noise of the city and the
strain of the last two months was ... .
8. The boy cried over the broken toy.
– “Is it any good...?” the mother said to the child. “Tears are no help in
sorrow.”
9. I did not expect to find you there.
– It was quite unexpected ... .
10. You distort facts and turn things upside down.
– This is ..., it is ...
11. He liked to collect postage stamps.
– a) ... was a hobby with him. b) His hobby was ... .
11. When one reads without paying attention to the language, one robs
oneself of great intellectual pleasure.
– ... is ... .

Exercise 7. Translate the sentences into Russian. Memorize the verbs


after which gerunds are used as direct objects.
1.He seemed to enjoy being deliberately impolite. 2. Caroline liked going with
Elgin to the Museum of Fine Arts. 3. She couldn't help noticing the shabbiness of
his jacket. 4. Would you mind horribly seeing me home? 5. I remembered being
here with my grandmother. 6. I hate entering a crowded room and feeling a whole
gallery of faces focused upon me. He was anxious just to avoid looking at her and
to collect his wits. 8. Fancy having to get anyone’s consent to getting married! 9.1
couldn’t resist buying such good apples. 10. I tried doing the same. 11. This
method is not worth discussing. 12. My father studied painting like a scientist. 13. I
tried writing with my left hand. 14. I shall never forget seeing the Alps for the first
time. 15. She loves buying clothes and jewelry. 16. You should not risk going out
if you have a cold. 17. John denied entering the house. 18. You had better not
delay washing up. 19. He will postpone writing the fatal letter. 20. Don’t put off
sending the invitation. 21. They are considering holding the classes in the evening
instead of the morning. 22. She can’t stand staying in the cold for a long time. 23. I
prefer seeing a play to reading it.

Exercise 8. Complete the following sentences, using gerunds in different


functions:

a) as a DIRECT non-prepositional object.


1. Don’t put off ... . 2. You should avoid ... . 3 He hates ... .4. The book
(poem, picture, film, proverb) is worth ... . 5. She does not seem to mind .... 6. I
don’t think he remembers ... . 7. I don’t regret ... . 8. Do you intend ... ? 9.
Everyone enjoyed ... . 10. The car (stockings, house, shoes) wants (want) ... . 11.
They denied ... . 12. The father suggested ... . 13. He never mentioned ... . 14.
Just imagine ... . 15. They don’t seem to have attempted ... .

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b) as a prepositional object.
1. He never thought of .... 2. The boy is very clever at .... 3. I don’t insist on
.... 4. Does anyoneobject to ...? 5. His friends accused him of .... 6. Children
ought to be prevented from .... 7. I am not used to .... 8. Nobody suspected us
of.... 9. He was quick in 10. Did he confess to ...? 11. We were tired of ... . 12.
Why do you persist in ...? 13. We are most grateful to our guide for ... . 14. Who
would have thought him capable of ...? 15. Did you succeed in ...? 16. I found
them engaged in ... . 17. Who is responsible for ...?

Exercise 9. Complete the following sentences, using gerunds as an


attribute.
1.It was very kind of you to have taken the trouble of .2. The idea of ... was
extremely exciting. 3. I can’t make out the reason for .... 4. There was little hope of
.... 5. He is well known for his skill in .... 6. Insummer you will have the ! chance
of ... . 7. Do you have any objections to ...? 8. At the party I had the pleasure of ... .
9. He displayed no interest in .... 10. He very quickly got into the habit of ... .11.
You shouldhave seen her surprise at ... . 12. They snatched at the opportunity of ...
. 13. I’ve got no experience in ... 14. We took precautions against .... 15. This is the
most useful instrument for ... . 16. What is the most effective method of ...?

Exercise 10. Use these collocations with gerunds in the attributive


function in sentences of your own.
a fishing-rod, a hiding-place, a walking-stick, a reading-lamp, a running-
competition, a sleeping-carriage, a swimming-pool, a knitting-needle

Exercise 11. Complete the following sentences, using gerunds as an


adverbial modifier
1. His outlook has broadened after .... 2. In ... she missed a line. 3. She took
far too much upon herself by ... . 4. He produced his pass on .... 5. I don’t want to
raise false hopes by .... 6. You will have to take my words on faith before .... 7. He
was so much irritated that on ... he banged down the receiver without .... 8. In ...
the geological party struck upon a new oil deposit. 9. He could tell the funniest
joke without ... . 10. In spite of... the sportsman pulled through to the finish. 11. He
was afraid he might upset all their plans by .... 12. But for ... the play would not
have enjoyed such popularity. 13. On ... the young man did not trouble himself to
reply. 14. Take your time before .... 15. On... she suddenly felt her nerves were at
breaking point. 16. The matter cannot be so easily dismissed without ....

Exercise 12. Fill in the gaps with necessary prepositions: by, without, on,
in.
1. The government has decided to ban tobacco advertising and _____ doing
so has made a great contribution to the nation's health. 2. I'd like to start the speech
_____ dispelling a few rumours that have been spreading recently. 3. The band
disappointed thousands of fans _____ cancelling their concert at the last moment.
4. You shouldn't drive for more than three hours _____ having a break. 5. The
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government has responded to public pressure _____ abolishing the new tax. 6. I've
done something rather foolish _____ coming here tonight. 7. _____ arriving in
Montpellier I found a job as an English teacher. 8. _____ waiting for her answer,
he stood up and walked away. 9. He replied to the threats _____ going to the
police. 10. They put out the fire _____ pouring water on it. 11. You could hardly
look at him, so grave and self-confident _____ laughing. 12. He looked at her for a
moment _____ understanding, and when he caught what she meant he laughed
aloud. 13. _____ hearing the news of the air attack most foreigners headed for the
border. 14. _____ criticizing the boss he risked losing his job. 15. He couldn't pass
a mirror _____ looking into it. 16. Elliot told me that, _____ stirring a finger, he
was twice as rich in 1926 as he had been in 1918. 17. _____ choosing her
coronation stamp Queen Elizabeth examined sixty-three designs.

Exercise 13. Translate the following sentences into English, using the
gerund in different functions:

a) as subject or predicative.
1. Бесполезно звонить ему; его в это время никогда не бывает дома. 2.
Сон на открытом воздухе очень полезен. 3. Он не только хороший певец, но
и прекрасный актер; его стоит послушать в опере. 4. Нет смысла делать
перерыв, нам всего на полчаса работы. 5. Переходить реку в этом месте
опасно. 6. Когда после долгого подъема достигаешь вершины горы,
испытываешь чувство необычайного удовлетворения. 7. Спорить с ним —
это только понапрасну терять время. 8. Так приятно встречаться со старыми
друзьями! 9. Слушать его рассказы — это еще раз переживать волнующие
события тех дней. 10. Я не вижу в этом логики; по-моему, это все равно что
ставить телегу впереди лошади.

b) as part of a compound predicate.


1. Когда вы кончите одеваться? Ведь мы можем опоздать. 2. Дождь
пошел как раз, когда мы выходили из дому. 3.Клайд продолжал лгать
матери, говоря, что у него мало денег, хотя он знал, как она нуждалась в его
помощи. 4. После ухода миссис Чивли Мейсон стал тушить свечи в
гостиной. 5. Услышав кашель Сэма, мистер Потт перестал читать газету и
посмотрел в его сторону.

с, d) as object (prepositional or non-prepositional).


1. Простите, что я опять напоминаю вам об этом. 2. Секретарь сейчас
занята перепечаткой срочного материала. Не позвоните ли вы минут через
двадцать? 3. Не полагайтесь на то, что достанете билеты накануне; лучше
закажите их заранее. 4. Надеюсь, вы не возражаете, если ей все расскажут? 5.
Все сердечно поздравляли пилота с установлением нового рекорда. 6. Мы
очень благодарны вам, что вы избавили нас от стольких хлопот. 7. Я не
привыкла, чтобы со мной так обращались. 8. Забудьте об этом; не стоит из-за
этого так огорчаться. 9. Когда Роберта пришла на почту, она была очень
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расстроена тем, что не нашла там письма от Клайда. 10. Клайд не хотел
признаваться, что убил Роберту из боязни, что она может помешать ему
жениться на Сондре Финчли, и пытался отрицать, что он имел какое-либо
отношение к ее гибели.

е) as attribute
1. Его опыт вождения машины пригодится ему в будущей работе. 2. Он
никак не мог свыкнуться с мыслью, что ему придется пробыть там еще
полгода. 3. В такое время года есть только одна возможность добраться туда
— это самолетом. 4. Он очень обрадовался перспективе поработать
несколько лет под руководством такого известного ученого. 5. Представьте
себе их восторг, когда они узнали, что он получил первую премию за свой
проект. 6. Он пытался найти удобный предлог, чтобы уйти пораньше. 7.
Истинная причина столь поспешного возвращения миссис Чивли в Лондон
заключалась в ее личной заинтересованности в том, чтобы сэр Роберт снял
свой доклад в парламенте. Она понимала, что только страх быть разоблачен-
ным может заставить его согласиться на это. 8. Метод обучения мистера
Броклхерста убивал у детей всякую инициативу и желание учиться. 9. Когда
Мейсон получил возможность разобраться в деле Клайда, у него были все
основания потребовать для Клайда смертного приговора по обвинению в
убийстве Роберты.

f) as adverbial modifier.
1. Он вышел из зала, не дожидаясь окончания спектакля. 2. Увидев
приближающийся поезд, мы поспешили на платформу. 3. Просматривая
журналы, он натолкнулся на очень интересную статью по экономике
Англии. 4. Прежде чем писать об этих событиях, он решил съездить в те
места, где они происходили. 5. Мы уговорили его прийти, сказав, что никого
из посторонних не будет. 6. Проверяя годовой отчет, бухгалтер обнаружил
ошибку. 7 Он ушел, не сказав ни слова, даже не простившись. 8. Кто мне
может сказать, куда ушел Андрей, закончив работу? 9. Не буду утомлять вас
перечислением всех деталей. 10. Он выглядел бодрым и веселым как всегда,
несмотря на то, что провел бессонную ночь у постели больного. 11. Если бы
он не был таким раздражительным, с ним было бы гораздо легче работать.
12. Он начал с рассказа о том, как он попал сюда. 13. Вы бы меня очень
обязали, если бы передали посылку по адресу. 14. Увидев почтовый ящик, я
остановился, вспомнив, что уже два дня ношу с собой 'письмо. 15.
Граммофонные пластинки не могут быть посланы по почте без
соответствующей упаковки. 16. Услышав крик ребенка, мать вскочила и
бросилась в детскую. 17. При объяснении этого физического явления
преподаватель продемонстрировал несколько опытов.

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§ 9 COMBINABILITY OF THE GERUND WITH VERBS,
ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS

Exercise 1. Complete these sentences, using a gerund.


1. Is she in the habit of...? 2. The old gentleman is in danger of.... 3. He
stopped me when I was just on the point of.... 4. She went white at the thought
of… 5. Is there any hope of...? 6. There was no possibility of.... 7. You need have
no fear of... . 8. He left home with the idea of... . 9.1 had no intention of... . 10. He
took a special pleasure in .... 11, I was faced with the prospect of.... 12. It’s no use
pretending you are taking no interest in....

Exercise 2. Use different forms of Gerunds in the following sentences.


1. I disapprove of so much (drink). 2. Helen insisted on (pay) for the theatre
tickets. 3. She was known for (play) in movies. 4. From that night on, she limited
her dating and threw herself into (study). 5. He was afraid of (fail) his courses. 6.
Both of them were on the verge of (speak). 7. They took to (read) stories aloud,
preferring Chekhov and Mansfield. 8. Elgin was nervous about (open) the
champagne. 9. I’m deliberately refraining from (express) sympathy. 10. We were
interested in (know) other people, no matter where we met them. 11. I don’t care
for (box). 12.1 thought of (try) to get hold of Jane after dinner. 13. This prevented
me from (take) a taxi. 14. She is not good at (make) decisions. 15. After a day or
two I got used to (see) him. 16. I’m very bad at (understand) these things. 17. At
length she succeeded in (make) the dog jump through the hoops. 18. You had
better see to (get) the dinner ready.

Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences into English


1. Экзаменатор заподозрил мальчика в том, что он пытался списывать. 2.
Немногие люди мирятся с тем, чтобы с ними обращались неуважительно. 3.
Сын извинился за то, что был груб с ней и пообещал быть более
сдержанным. 4. Не могу винить тебя за то, что ты не хочешь участвовать в
этом проекте, но вынужден настаивать на том, чтобы ты хотя бы помогла нам
с расчетами. 5. Он мечтал поступить в университет, но не прилагал к этому
больших усилий. 6. Мать пыталась отговорить Диану от брака с Чарльзом. 7.
Отсутствие университетского образования не помешало Трумэну стать
президентом. 8. В статье журналист обвинил компанию в том, что она вводит
в заблуждение общественность.

Exercise 4. Transform the following sentences so as to use the gerunds


with prepositions
Example: Somebody must make the sandwiches, (look after)
Will you look after making the sandwiches?
1. They tried to climb the mountain, (succeeded in) 2. My friend felt sick
during the storm, (complained of) 3. She drinks gallons of medicine, (believes in)
4. Uncle Fred is going to retire next year, (looks forward to) 5. Mother doesn’t
want to move to a different district, (won’t think of) 6. Somebody ought to wash
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the tea-things, (see to) 7. He treats his sister badly, (isn’t ashamed of) 8. Kate
promised to buy some flowers for the occasion, (is responsible for) 9. She is going
to buy a new bag. (doesn’t agree to) 10. Harry regarded his fellow-passengers with
interest (took to).

Exercise 5. Introduce the required preposition wherever necessary.


1. I hope you don’t object ... our singing. 2. The old man insisted ... getting
into the car. 3. Will you see ... the fire, while I see ... getting some water? 4. Of
course he wouldn’t dream ... being rude to you. 5. How much did they charge ...
parking the car? 6. She was frightfully pleased ... being the first to hear the news.
7. Society as a whole is responsible ... bringing up children. 8. I had succeeded ...
putting off the lecture. 9. Florence got used ... getting birthday presents from him.
10. He has become ill... eating too much. 11. ... coming into the room she switched
on the light. 12. My programme this morning consists ... waiting two letters and
attending a lecture. 13. She took ... typing his papers over for him because he was a
poor and careless typist. 14. Will you refrain ... making loose statements about the
matter? 15. My friend is very good ... translating things from Russian into English.

Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into English.


1. Идея об отмене (to abandon) вступительных экзаменов кажется мне
неудачной. 2. У него была привычка перебивать других, не дослушав до
конца. 3. Традиция отмечать день Благодарения восходит (to go back to) к
семнадцатому веку. 4. Я всецело за то, чтобы он заработал деньги, чтобы
оплатить свое обучение в университете. 5. Поскольку Саймон хорошо знал
предмет, у него не возникло трудностей со сдачей экзамена. 6. В чем причина
ее отказа поехать с нами? 7. Какой смысл откладывать на черный день, если
деньги могут девальвироваться (to be devalued)? 8. Он не хочет подвергать
себя риску быть исключенным из университета и никогда не пропускает
занятия. 9. Я не вижу никакого вреда в том, что подростки работают во время
летних каникул. 10. Лучший способ избежать кровопролития (bloodshed) и
конфликтов – относиться ко всему (to take things) с иронией.

§ 10. INFINITIVE OR GERUND

Exercise 1. Use the verbs in brackets either in the form of a Gerund or an


Infinitive. Explain the choice.
1. I don’t like (read) very much. This book is dull; I don’t like (read) it. 2. Do
you prefer (travel), or (stay) at home? We won’t go, if you prefer (stay) at home. 3.
If you are going to buy a car, you’ll have to learn (drive). I’d learnt (drive) the car
long before I bought it. 4. I teach (ride) in my spare time. I’ll teach you (ride) a
horse. 5. I should hate (break in) on your conversation. She hates (wash up). 6. Do
you like (look) at pictures? Would you like (look) at these photos of our holiday?
7. He is hungry; he wants (finish up) the cold meat. Is anybody hungry? The cold
meat wants (finish up). 8. Surely you don’t need (work) so late at night. Those
96
spoons need (wash) in soap and water. 9. Do you mean (take) this exam? If so, it
means (work) very hard.

Exercise 2. Use the verb in brackets either in the from of a Gerund or an


Infinitive. Give both variants where possible. Write out the verbs after which
only gerunds are used. Memorize them.
1. She wants to begin (work) regularly next term. 2. It’s time for us to start
(Walk). 3. What made you decide to stop (work) at the factory? 4. Why does he
keep (repeat) the same thing? 5. I can’t bear (be) alone for long. 6. We started
(load) our bags with food. 7. It seemed she would never stop (run). 8. Soon she
finished (cook). 9. They left off (study) at the library earlier in the afternoon. 10.
He gave up (smoke). 11. She turned and burst out (laugh). 12. They paid no
attention to the noise and went on (work). 13. The board members went
on…………. (discuss) the next item on the agenda. 14. If you don’t
stop....................... (make) that noise, I’ll send you outside. 15. I would like to
propose ............. (discontinue) this line of equipment since it is selling so badly.
16. She was sorry ..................... (inform) us of the bad news. 17. Let’s try
................. (mix) these two ingredients and see what happens. 18. They don’t really
like ................. (eat) in restaurants. 19. Generally I prefer................... (go) to the
cinema to ............. (watch) films on TV. 20. She hated ........... (tell) her parents that
she had used up all the money in her account. 21. He dressed very warmly as he
was afraid .................. (catch) a cold. 22. I’m sure he didn’t mean
.................................... (cause) us all this trouble.

Exercise 3. Use a gerund or an infinitive instead of the verb in brackets


according to the meaning of the sentence. Explain your choice.
Example: I want (go out) this evening. — I want to go out this evening. She
doesn’t remember (see) him in the street yesterday. — She doesn’t remember
seeing him in the street yesterday.
1. Please remember (wipe) your feet before coming in. 2. I completely forgot
(lock) the front door last night. 3. These stockings need (mend). 4. We regret
(inform) you that your subscription is overdue. 5. Don’t forget (bring) your
bathing suit with you. 6. What is he doing? He’s just trying (open) the tin. 7.
Although he is only five, he learnt (write) veiy quickly. 8. You should try (use)
petrol, if you can’t get it off with water. 9. I’ve been learning (skate) for three
years and I still fall down all the time. 10. Do you really need (buy) all that stuff?
11. Do you remember (meet) Michael in my office last year? 12. Does your car
need (wash)? I certainly need (wash) mine. 13. Just try (be) a little more
cooperative. 14. This room wants (repair).

Exercise 4. Complete the following sentences, using a gerund or an


infinitive.
1. It’s hardly worth while ... . 2. They are quite incapable of. 3.1 wouldn’t
dare ... . 4. Let me know if you decide ... . 5. We are sick and tired of... . 6. Never
in my life did I expect.... 7. He congratulated me on .... 8. The company undertakes
97
... . 9.1 hope you don’t mind ... . 10. They tried to keep on .... 11.1 know my work
is not good but I mean .... 12. He always avoids .... 13. He won’t risk ... . 14. You
will never regret.... 15. We must try to stop ....

Exercise 5. Translate the sentences into English using the Infinitive or


Gerund.
1. После того, как его друзья ушли из библиотеки, Майкл занимался
еще два часа. 2. Мы с сожалением сообщаем вам, что наш компьютер не
принял вашу кредитную карточку. 3. Ты не забыла позвонить няне по поводу
следующего субботнего вечера? 4. Извините, я не хотел прерывать ваше
совещание, господин Джексон. 5. Ты должен попробовать больше ходить
пешком. Это отличная форма тренировки. 6. Я никогда не забуду как я
выиграл свою первую награду.7. Зря я купила эти дорогие туфли. Они
натирают мне ноги. 8. Я попыталась приспособиться к жизни в большом
городе, но темп жизни здесь для меня слишком быстр. 9. Ну, попробуй
ударить меня, посмотрим что из этого выйдет. 10. Она изложила свою
теорию, а затем перешла к пояснениям (explain the details).

§11. GERUNDIAL and HALF-GERUNDIAL CONSTRUCTIONS

Exercise 1. Define the Gerundial and Half-gerundial constructions in the


following sentences. Comment on its function. Translate the sentences into
Russian.
Example: I cannot remember my father talking of the book.
my father talking – is the half-gerundial construction, used in the function of
a complex object.
Я не помню, чтобы отец говорил об этой книге.
1. Hardly a day passed without their thinking of a visit to the Russian
Museum. 2. The possibility of their both being widowed came forcibly upon her. 3.
Don’t mind my saying it. It’s not a criticism. 4. It was one of the reasons for my
not having definitely refused the offer. 5.1 thought of her cooking in the evenings
like this, alone in the neat, silent apartment. 6. His being engaged to Katherine
prevented me from talking frankly with him about the matter. 7. He had voted
against our giving her a birthday present. 8. This will lead to his avoiding us. 9.1
dislike the idea of Uncle Percy’s going to London without me. 10. Also there was a
possibility of your running into Ann. 11. Do you mind me asking you about your
work? 12. I can remember him teaching me to swim. 13. I heard the sound of a car
starting. 14. Fancy you buying this book! 15. The next moment I was conscious of
James shaking my hand. 16. This scene concluded with him calling Uncle Felix a
silly ass. 17. I said something about it being a bit early. 18. The fact that she was
young didn’t seem to be any excuse at all for her not being like other women. 19.

98
Exercise 2. Transform a complex sentence into a simple one, using the
gerundial comstructions.
Example: We enjoyed how the band played very much. → We enjoyed the
band playing very much.
1. I couldn’t understand why he didn’t want to go. 2. You took the time to
help us. I appreciate that fact. 3. The boy resented the fact that we talked about him
behind his back. 4. I will no longertolerate the fact that you are late to work every
morning. 5. Helen is here to answer our questions about the company’s insurance
plan. We should take advantage of this fact. 6. We must postpone the question till
later. I agree to it. 7. She must take more responsibility. We should consider it. 8.
This explains why he was fired from his job. 9. My mother will never approve of
our plan. I can’t imagine it. 10. She didn’t answer our invitation again. I can’t
excuse you.

Exercise 3. Combine the two simple sentences into a sentence with a


Gerundial construction.
Example: She has to give interviews. She can’t stand it.→
She can’t stand having to give interviews.
1. We could swim easily several miles in the sea. I remember it. 2. We could
talk with her for hours without being interrupted. I miss it. 3. She can bring anyone
to her way of thinking. She enjoys it. 4. She has to smile to all customers all day
long. She can’t stand it. 5. She is in receipt of housing benefit. She has got used to
it. 6. Joan says she didn’t cause any damage to the car. She denies it. 7. They are
both on the dole. They have got accustomed to it. 8. Going on holiday now would
mean I’d miss the exams. It involves. 9. You have been neglecting your work
lately. You keep on it. 10. She might be offered an alluring job. She looks forward
to it. 11.If you put your money into that business you might lose every penny. You
risk it. 12. My friend has made an important contribution to the class discussion. I
have difficulty in it. 13. In recent years big corporations have contributed large
sums of money to the President’s campaign funds. They are involved in this
process. 14. Emigrants experience the hostility from some sections of the media.
They can’t get used to. 15. He expressed his admiration at the sight of a new
building. He couldn’t help it. 16. I object to the way she changes all my designs. I
resent it. 17. He will be given a chance to run a new department in the company.
He looks forward to it.18. He finds it hard not to eat sweets when they are offered
to him. He can’t resist it.

Exercise 4. Transform the sentences with the Gerundial phrases into the
sentences with gerundial constructions. Use the Half-gerundial constructions
where possible.
Example: You must not put off going to the doctor any longer.
You must not put off the children's going to the doctor any longer.
1. I suggest going to that film tonight. 2. I remembered now having seen
something about the film in the papers. 3. You should really avoid і going out with
a cold like that. 4. I hate reading aloud. 5. I cannot permit wasting his time like
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that. 6. I don’t deny having dined out tonight. 7. If you delay coming, our friends
will be disappointed. 8. We are considering going to the South for the holidays. 9.
Would you mind giving me a lift? 10. It will be most unwise to risk crossing the
street here. 11. She doesn’t enjoy singing. 12. Don’t postpone learning the piano
till too late.

Exercise 5. Make up sentences of your own using a gerundial phrase or a


gerundial construction after the givern verbs and phrases.
1. to succeed in; 2. to complain of; 3. to look forward to; 4. to see to; 5. to
believe in; 6. to be afraid of; 7. to be interested in; 8. to be ashamed of; 9. to get
used to; 10. to be tired of; 11. to be in the habit of; 12. to be on the point of; 13. to
be in danger of; 14. to have an objection to; 15. to put up with

Exercise 6. Use gerundial constructions (or phrases) to substitute the


Russian parts of these sentences.
1. (To, что ее дочь заболела корью) also gave Ann plenty to do in the house.
2. (Тот факт, что вы просите меня поехать с вами), puts me in an awkward
position. 3. (To, что Джон ушел) was a signal for my return. 4. (To, что он
сказал это) is proof enough of his views on the matter. 5. (To, что он
поправился) was a surprise. 6. (To, что они ушли так рано) broke up the party.
7. (Совершить такой поступок) will be a great mistake. 8. (To, что Мария
рассмеялась) was out of place.

Exercise 7. Complete the following sentences in your own words by


adding gerund constructions.
1. He insisted on .... 2. They are thinking of.... 3. It is a question of.... 4. He’s
not interested in ... . 5. She is very fond of... . 6. He left without.... 7. She is tired
of... . 8. There’s no use of... . 9. We both enjoy .... 10. We went straight home
instead of .... 11. I don’t feel like... . 12. He has no intention of ... . 13. We
congratulated him on ... . 14. Do you mind ... ? 15. Thank you for .... 16. The driver
couldn’t avoid .... 17. We are considering .... 18. There is little chance of.... 19.
You can’t blame him for 20. We finally succeeded in ....

Exercise 8. Translate the sentences into English.


1. Я против того, чтобы вы пошли туда одни. (be against) 2. Я не могу
помешать ему делать ошибки. (can't help) 3. Ничего, если я подожду здесь?
(mind) 4. Маме не нравится, что он поздно приходит. (not like) 5. Многое
зависит от того, возьметесь ли вы за это дело. (depend) 6. Теперь тебе не к
чему здесь оставаться. (little sense) 7. Он настаивал, чтобы я регулярно писал
статьи в эту газету. (insist) 8. Нам придется извиниться за то, что вся команда
оказалась втянутой в эту неприятную ситуацию. (apologize) 9. Терпеть не
могу то, как этот рабочий безответственно относится к своим обязанностям.
(hate) 10. Я не вижу вреда в том, чтобы газета опубликовала статью об этой
семье. (see no harm).

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REVISION

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the infinitive or gerund forms of


the verbs in brackets.
Whatever else Christmas may (1) ...stand for...(stand for), one thing it still
means is (2) ......... (eat). Christmas has traditionally been a time of the year when
people have tried (3)............. (cheer) themselves up during the cold months of
winter. Last year more than 10 million turkeys were bought in Britain alone during
the festive season (4) .............. (satisfy) the nation’s appetite. Health experts may
continue (5).............. (complain) about all this self-indulgence, but they fail
(6)......................... (realise) that there is nothing new about celebratory feasting,
particularly at this time of year. The Roman Saturnalia, which was supposedly a
festival (7) ............ (honour) the god of agriculture, started on 19 December.
Among other things, the Saturnalia involved (8)..................... (light) candles
and (9) ................. (give) gifts. People who had spent the whole year (10)
................ (save) money suddenly became extravagant. In addition to (11)
................. (exchange) gifts, this time of year was also an occasion for masters and
slaves alike (12)................... (eat) excessively. At one Saturnalia feast an emperor
is reported (13)................. (spend) the equivalent of £600,000 on a dinner for
twelve guests which consisted of twenty courses and lasted all day. So, when
mealtime comes round on 25 December, there’s no point in (14) .........................
(have) a guilty conscience. In fact the occasional seasonal feast may promote good
health and stop year-round(15)............. (overeat).

Exercise 2. Use (a) the Perfect Gerund and (b) the passive gerund to
complete these sentences.
E x a m p l e : (You’ve read this book.) You talk about...
You talk about having read this book.
(a) 1. (He had met her.) He didn’t mention.... 2. (I missed the concert at
the Palace of Culture.) I don’t mind ... .3. (She switched out the light before she
left.) She remembers ... .4. (Granny hasn’t slept all night.) She complains of not....
5. (We’ve built the biggest power plant in the world.) We were proud of....

E x a m p l e : (Julia was often photographed on the beach.) She liked...


She liked being photographed on the beach.
(b) 1. (We mustn’t wake her up in the night.) The old woman can’t stand
... . 2. (I was fascinated by his manners.) I couldn’t help ... . 3. (It was time for
them both to be parted from me.) They both seemed to have no intention of ... . 4.
(They shouldn’t be disturbed.) They must work without ... . 5. (They will invite
Jane to the birthday party.) Jane looks forward to....

Exercise 3. Use the correct form of the gerund instead of the verbs in
brackets.
1.She got into the habit of suddenly (break off) conversations with her
friends. 3. I suspected Ann of (be sweet) on me at one time. 4. He was unaware of
101
(do) so. 5. He detested (look at) by strangers. 6. He apologized for (be rude) to her.
7. The dog was whining after (hurt) by the car. 8. Do you mind (ask) a few
questions? 9. They were pleased at (trust) with this interesting work. 10. She was
thankful for (warn) beforehand.

Exercise 4. Use the verbs in the correct (passive or active) gerund form.
1.Jane’s opinions won’t bear (repeat) in public. 2. His brave action certainly
deserves (reward). 3. Your friend’s idea is worth (go into) more carefully. 4. It is
well known that small children need (look after) more than older ones. 5. Your hair
wants (cut). 6. The definition needed (tidy up). 7. There is one kind of fiction that
will not stand (read). 8. Three points are worth (quote) for our purpose. 9. This
material wants (look through) before being given to the students. 10. Her
suggestion requires (discuss) at the meeting. 11. I’m angry at him for (tell, not) me
the truth. 12. Sometimes adolescents complain about not (understand) by their
parents. 13. Jin Won had a narrow escape. He was almost hit by a car. He barely
avoided (hit) by a speeding automobile. 14. Jack Welles has a good chance of
(elect). I know I’m going to vote for him. 15. You must tell me the truth. I insist on
(tell) the truth. 16. I feel guilty about (write, not) to you sooner, but I’ve been
swamped with work lately. 17. You know Jim Darcy, don’t you? – Jim Darcy? I
don’t think so. I don’t recall ever (meet) him. 18. Mr. Gow mentioned (injure) in
an accident as a child, but he never told us the details. 19. I’m annoyed about
(lose) all that money. 20. I appreciate (tell) the news yesterday by someone.

Exercise 5. Use the gerund or gerundial construction with a suitable


preposition.
Example: He was in the habit (jog) in the morning. —He was in the habit of
jogging in the morning.
1. Anyone travelling without a passport runs the risk (be) arrested. 2. He
doesn't like the prospect (have) to live alone. 3. She didn't see any harm_(let) the
children stay up late on Saturday nights. 4. His over-protective wife took the
precaution »_(burn) all the letters addressed to him. 5. There's no interest (go) to a
concert when you don't understand music. 6. What's your reason (want) to leave
the country? 7. The custom (kiss) people under the mistletoe is ancient, dating back
to pre-Christian times. 8. The idea (to be abandoned) in the house alone horrified
her. 9. They were speaking in a whisper for fear (wake up) the sleeping child. 10.
Do you have any excuse (be) late for classes two days in a row? 11. What was the
point (work) for a degree when there were no jobs available. 12. I'm all in favour
(people, go out) and (enjoy) themselves as long as they don't disturb other people.
13. She could not bear the thought (her son waste) his life over her. 14. There is a
risk (another accident, happen) in the fog. 15. She had great difficulty (understand)
his heavily accented English.

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§12 FORMS AND MEANINGS OF PARTICIPLE I

Exercise 1. Read the following sentences. Define the form of Participle I


and comment on its use. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example: Not wanting to go deeper into the matter, he abruptly changed the
conversation.
Not wanting is the Non-Perfect, Active Participle. It is used to express an
action which is simultaneous with the action of the verb-predicate. Не желая
вдаваться в подробности дела, он резко поменял тему разговора.
1. Having traversed seven hundred miles he was now travelling toward the
border of the United States. (Horgan) 2. There was a tiny smile playing about the
corners of his mouth. (Stone) 3. He had a beautiful old house in Queen Anne
Street, and being a man of taste, he had furnished it admirably. (Maugham) 4.
Dona Carlotta covered her face with her hand, as if swooning. (Lawrence) 5.
Turning in anger, she gave John a shove, spilling his tea. (Lindsay) 6. To Maggie,
the new protective gentleness of her son was sweet, and also very frightening.
(Lessing) 7. Judging him by his figure and his movements, he was still young.
(Collins) 8. Placing his drink upon the mantlepiece the ex-convict stood for a
moment observing the young man out of the corner of his eye. (Cronin) 9. Being
very tired with his walk however, he soon fell asleep and forgot his troubles.
(Dickens) 10. He raised his eyes, looked at her as though peering over the top of
spectacles. (Stone) 11. There were four girls sitting on the wooden benches of the
agency's front room. (Shaw) 12. Having shaken hands with them, he brought his
own hands together with a sharp slap. (Priestley) 13. Manuel went in, carrying his
suitcase. (Hemingway) 14. While pondering this problem, I sat in the dormitory
window-seat. (Ch. Bronte)

Exercise 2. Use the appropriate form of Participle I from the verb in


brackets. Define the form of Participle I and comment on its use. Translate
the sentences into Russian.
1. Derek, who had slept the sleep of the dead, ____ none for two nights, woke
____ of Nedda. (to have, to think) (Galsworthy) 2. The street was full of people,
l____ and ____ home, (to laugh, to go) (Greene) 3. The gypsy smiled, ____ his
teeth, (to show) (Hemingway) 4. While ____ my directions, he glanced at me now
and then, suspiciously, from under his frost-white eye-lashes. (to obey) (Ch.
Bronte) 5. ____ them, he raised his coffee cup. (to watch) (Cronin) 6. It (the letter)
contained very little matter, ____ in haste; but the meaning was bulky enough, (to
write) (Hardy) 7. He went upstairs again, ____ past the door, and, ____ his room,
switched on the light, (to tiptoe, to enter) (Galsworthy) 8. The missionary, ____
daily opportunities of looking at this seascape for thirty years or so, pays no heed
to it, ____ in trimming a huge red geranium bush. (to have, to absorb) (Shaw) 9.
____ my back on him I started down the steps. (to turn) (Clark) 10. At that
moment he was plunged in the depth of an easy-chair, ____ to by Mr.
Vandernoodt. (to talk) (Eliot) 11. There was only one candle ____ on the rough
103
board table. (to ficker). (Stone) 12. Boldwood, ____ her comparatively isolated,
came up to her side. (to see) (Hardy) 13. On the sultry platform of Grand Central
he opened the bulky Times..., ____ the valise on his feet. (to set) (Priestley) 14.
Young Herndon had done preparatory work at Illinois College for a year but, not
____ to the college proper, had returned home. ____ (to admit) (Stone) 15. ____
his hands and ____ a towel over his face, he followed her down the stairs of the
hushed house. (to wash, to pass) (Galsworthy) 16. They put up for the night at a
temporary camp, ____ (to leave) it at dawn. 17. The friends went out into the city
____ (to leave) their cases at the left luggage department. 18. ____ (to write) and
____ (to leave) a note with the porter, he said he would be back in a half-hour. 19.
____ (to write) in an archaic language, the book was difficult to read. 20. ____ (to
write) his first book, he could not go far beyond his own experience. 21. ____ (to
be) away so long he was happy to be coming back. 22. ____ (to be) so far away he
still felt himself part of his community. 23. The children looked wonderingly at the
elephant, never ____ (to see) such a huge animal.

Exercise 3. Connect the two sentences using different forms of Participle


I.
Example: The children had nothing to do. They were bored. → Having
nothing to do, the children were bored.
1. I knew that he was poor. I offered to pay his fare. 2. She became tired of
my complaints about the programme. She turned it off. 3. The criminal removed all
traces of his crime. He left the building. 4. He realized that he had missed the last
train. He began to walk. 5. He was exhausted by his work. He threw himself on his
bed. 6. He had spent all his money. He decided to go home and ask his father for a
job. 7. He escaped from prison. He looked for a place where he could get food. 8.
She didn’t want to hear the story again. She had heard it all before. 9. They found
the money. They began quarrelling about how to divide it. 10. She entered the
room suddenly. She found them smoking. 11. I turned on the light. I was
astonished at what I saw. 12. He offered to show us the way home. He thought we
were lost. 13. He found his revolver. He loaded it. He sat down facing the floor.
14. She asked me to help her. She realized that she couldn’t move it alone. 15. He
addressed the congregation. He said he was sorry to see how few of them had been
able to come. 16. He thought he must have made a mistake somewhere. He went
through his calculations again. 17. I have looked through the fashion magazines. I
realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. 18. The tree had fallen across the
road. It had been uprooted by the gale. 19. People were sleeping in the next room.
They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 20. I knew that the murderer
was still at large. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. 21. We were soaked
to the skin. We eventually reached the station. 22. I sat in the front row. I used
opera glasses. I saw everything beautifully. 23. One evening you will be sitting by
the fire. You will remember this day. 24. I didn’t like to sit down. I knew that there
were ants in the grass. 25. She believed that she could trust him absolutely. She
gave him a blank cheque. 26. Slates were ripped off by the gale. They fell on
people passing below. 27. The lion found his cage door open. He saw no sign of
104
his keeper. He left the cage and walked slowly towards the zoo entrance. 28. The
government once tried to tax people according to the size of their houses. They put
a tax on windows. 29. I had heard that the caves were dangerous. I didn’t like to go
any further without a light. 30. She wore extremely fashionable clothes. She was
surrounded by photographers and pressmen. She swept up to the microphone.

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English using different forms of


Participle I.
1.Получив телеграмму, моя сестра немедленно выехала в Москву. 2.
Войдя в класс, учительница спросила дежурного, кто отсутствует. 3. Мать
улыбалась, глядя на детей, играющих в саду. 4. Взяв перо и бумагу, мальчик
стал писать письмо отцу, уехавшему на Дальний Восток. 5. Услышав голос
товарища, я вышел из комнаты, чтобы встретить его. 6. Увидев незнакомого
человека, я извинился и вернулся в свою комнату. 7. Будьте осторожны,
переходя улицу. 8. Приехав в Москву, мы, прежде всего, сдали вещи на
хранение (to leave something in the left luggage room). 9. Прожив много лет в
Англии, он хорошо говорит по-английски. 10. Читая эту книгу, я встретил
несколько интересных выражений (to come across). 11. Прочитав книгу,
мальчик вернул ее в библиотеку. 12. Проведя лето в деревне, больной
совершенно поправился (to be fully recovered). 13. Студенты, читающие
английские книги в оригинале, легко овладевают языком. 14. Увидев своих
друзей, пришедших проводить его, он подошел к ним.

§13 FUNCTIONS OF PARTICIPLE I

Exercise 1. Define the form of Participle I and its function. Translate the
sentences into Russian. (See table 15)
1. The returning troops marched up Fifth Avenue. (F. F.) 2. It was a pleasant
room overlooking the garden with French windows that opened on it. (A. Chr.) 3.
But this morning he viewed it (his medal) less with pride than with a queer secret
entreaty as though trying to restore his confidence in himself. (Cron.) 4. Ashenden,
standing in front of the fire to warm himself, a cigarette between his lips, made no
reply. (S. M.) 5. "Sit down, sit down," she said, waving her hand towards one of
the couches. (D. Rob.) 6. Using a direct outside line, Mel dialed his home number.
(A. H.) 7. Turning to his sister, he grasped her hand and said in a tone of
command: "Well, Juley." (Galsw.) 8. It was a small oil painting representing a pale
pink house standing adjacent to a canal. (A. Chr.) 9. Coming out of the dining-
room, we met the other day nurses coming in for the ordinary breakfast. (M. D.)
10. There were fleecy white clouds, hovering above Table Mountain, and nestling
on the slopes below, right down the sea was the sleeping town gilded by the
morning sunlight. (A. Chr.) 11. Being an actress, she was able to make her point.
(A. Chr.) 12. I put on my hat and went out intending to buy a few souvenirs. 13.
He sat for a long time watching the flames leap up into the darkness. (Cus.) 14.
From it you looked down on the big waves lashing against the black rocks. (A.
105
Chr.) 15. Desolate, he stood in front of the automobile gate with a crowd of staring
children, feeling that he had reached the end at last. (F. F.) 16. In this instance my
attention wandered to the four people sitting at the next table. (A. Chr.)

Exercise 2. Translate what is given in brackets, using Non-Perfect, Active


Participle I as attribute where possible.
1. We came up to the man (стоявший на углу) and asked him the way. 2. Go
to the corner and ask the militiaman (стоящий там) to show you the way. 3. The
man (стоящий у расписания) was our teacher last year. 4. Did you see in what
direction the man (стоявший здесь) went? 5. He wants to write a book (которая
бы подытожила) his impressions of the trip. 6. A new power plant is to be built
here (которая будет снабжать электричеством) three districts in two years’
time. 7. The people (ожидающие доктора) have been sitting here for a long time.
8. The people (ожидавшие вас) have just gone.

Exercise 3. Make up sentences using the following phrases with Participle


I in the function o f an attribute.
1. in a trembling voice; 2. a shining face; 3. with smiling eyes; 4. the passing
crowd; 5. admiring eyes; 6. the street leading to; 7. a letter announcing; 8. the
children playing; 9. the people sitting; 10. the house standing; 11. the conference
taking place; 12. the road joining; 13. the crying child; 14. a sleeping dog; 15. the
rain pouring; 16. the trees bursting into leaf; 17. the rising sun.

Exercise 4. Change the following sentences using Participle I in the


function of an attribute instead of the given attributive clauses.
Example: To hide the tears which were coming from her eyes she turned
away and walked homewards. → To hide the tears coming from her eyes she
turned away and walked homewards.
1. The photograph which had so excited the young man was the large one that
stood in the centre of the mantelpiece. 2. Going upstairs she woke the woman who
lived on the floor above her. 3. She went with her long, rigorous stride to the steps
that led down from Oxford Street. 4. They got into the car which smelt of hot
leather and petrol. 5. It was very dark with a gusty wind and a fine spatter of rain,
which blew into their faces at street corners. 6. I don't suppose he ever lived in a
house that had a bathroom till he was fifty. 7. I noticed as we walked along the
street that sometimes the men who passed us stared at my girl-friend. 8. It was a
long, wide, straight street that ran parallel with the Vauxhall Bridge. 9. He
followed her across the lawn to the table which stood in the shade of a fine tree. 10.
He saw in the garden a solemn young man in a brown suit who was striding up and
down the lawn. 11. The ship, which had arrived at the dock that afternoon, had
taken fourteen days to cross the Atlantic. 12. I caught sight of a lean man of
mournful appearance, who was moving in the opposite direction. 13. In the interval
which had elapsed since his parting from Mr. Brown a striking, change had taken
place in his appearance. 14. He looked up. Over the fence which divided the
garden from the one next door a familiar face was peering.
106
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into English using either
Participle I in the function o f an attribute or an attributive clause.
1. Девушка, оставившая эту записку, обещала зайти через 2 часа. 2.
Студенты, принимающие участие в научных конференциях, всегда узнают
много нового и интересного. 3. Студенты, выступившие с содержательными
докладами на конференции, были награждены грамотами и дипломами. 4.
Человек, вошедший в приемную Мэнсона, представился как доктор Денни. 5.
Идя по улице, Том Сойер заметил незнакомую девочку, глядевшую на него
из окна дома Тетчеров. 6. В комнате было очень тихо; единственным звуком,
нарушавшим тишину, было тиканье часов. 7. Нельзя не смеяться, читая о
приключениях трех друзей, путешествующих вниз по Темзе. 8. Говорящая по
телефону девушка, наконец, повесила трубку. 9. Это один из студентов,
принимающих участие в конференции. 10. Белое здание, строящееся
недалеко от парка, будет отдано городскому музею. 11. Забор, окружающий
сад, недавно покрашен. 12. Мы любовались звездами, мерцавшими на небе.
13. Он вернулся и в нерешительности стоял на лестнице, которая вела наверх.
14. Они решили обедать на террасе, выходившей прямо в сад, пышно
цветущий этой весной. 15. Его очень заинтересовала работа, предложенная
ему в быстроразвивающейся международной компании. 16. Он сразу же
обратил внимание на картину, висевшую на противоположной стене и
совершенно не подходившую интерьеру комнаты. 17. Жена, знавшая его
любовь к порядку и чистоте, никак не могла понять, почему он вошел и, не
раздеваясь и не снимая ботинок, уселся в кресло посередине комнаты.

Exercise 6. Transform a complex sentence into a simple one using


Participle I. Define its function. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example: Though I felt sorry for him I could not help laughing. → Though
feeling sorry for him I could not help laughing.
Feeling is Non-Perfect Active Participle I. It is used in the function of an
adverbial modifier of concession. Хотя мне его было и жаль, я не мог не
рассмеяться.
1. Be careful when you are crossing a street. 2. When you are leaving the
room, don't forget to switch off the light. 3. When you begin to work with the
dictionary, don't forget my instructions. 4. When they were travelling in Central
Africa, the explorers met many wild animals. 5. When you are copying English
texts, pay attention to the articles. 6. You must have much practice when you are
learning to speak a foreign language. 7. When he arrived at the station, he didn't
find anyone to meet him. 8. When you are taking risks, you should keep in mind
the consequences you are to bear. 9. When the editor learned that his newspaper
had been taken over by another publisher, he resigned from his position. 10. I
declined his offer of a loan and said that I didn't like owing people money. 11.
When the shop assistant discovered that he had a talent for music, he gave up his
job to become a professional singer. 12. As he had been warned that bad weather
lay ahead, the ship's captain changed course. 13. As he had witnessed the crime, he
was expected to give evidence in court. 14. He was exhausted by his work. He
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threw himself on the bed. 15. He offered to show us the way home. He thought we
were lost. 16. As he was certain that he was right, he felt calm and unworried. 17.
He decided to change his job because he was not fit for it. 18. She turned to me for
help, not knowing how to deal with the problem. 19. As she had been walking
most of the night she felt tired and sleepy. 20. As I had never seen anything like
that before, I was eager to see the performance. 21. As the housekeeping money
had run out, she reluctantly decided to go home. 22. Though Alec had many loyal
friends, he also had enemies. 23. Liza, when she was left alone, began to turn
things over in her mind. 24. I saw a light in your window as I was passing. 25.
When I heard he was in town, I used to send a boy to find him and make him come
to dinner with me. 26. When he had finished his tea, Andrew left the kitchen. 27.
After the uncle had once consented to the boy's going out with the Browns, he
made no further objection to his association with them. 28. When he got to Euston
he paid off the taxi and inquired for the next train to Dover. 29. When I went
upstairs, I found him asleep, with all his clothes on. 30. "I knew Tom well," he
said, as he leaned back in his chair and lit the cigar, I had offered him. 31. When I
arrived, a little late, I found the party already over. 32. When his first picture was
exhibited they came to Amsterdam to see it, his father and his sister and his
mother, and his mother cried, when she looked at it. 33. And while she waited for
him to come, her pride began revolting. 34. After we left the bears, we left the Zoo
and crossed over this little street in the park. 35. As Andrew pulled on his coat he
reflected miserably that he had not exchanged a word with Ada.

Exercise 7. Transform a complex sentence into a simple one using


Participle I. (Non-Perfect Participle I of the verb to be does not function as an
adverbial modifier of time)
Example: When he was in St.Petersburg he did a lot of sightseeing. →When
in St. Petersburg he did a lot of sightseeing.
Because he was in St. Petersburg for the first time he did a lot of sightseeing.
→ Being in St.Petersburg for the first time he did a lot of sightseeing.
1. a) When she was a child, she was fond of skating
b) Because she was still a child she could not be allowed a skating holiday.
2. a) When they were in the Treyakov Gallery they discovered a
new world for them.
b) Because they were in the Treyakov Gallery not for a long time, they
wanted to see only the paintings by Repin.
3. a) When Donald was on holiday he could go on trips to the mountains.
b) Because he was on holiday, he could go where he wanted.
4. a) When he was a youth of twenty five, he became a teacher.
b) As he enjoyed teaching, he did it very well.
5. a)When he was in the library, he heard somebody speaking very
loudly in the reading-hall.
b) As he was busy looking for a book, he did not pay attention to the
conversation.

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Exercise 8. Translate what is given in brackets, using Participle I as
adverbial modifier where possible.
1. (Рассказав все, что он знал), the witness left the box. 2. (Постучав
дважды и не получив ответа), he decided that there was nobody in. 3. (Толкнув
дверь), he felt that it was not locked, and (открыв ее), he looked inside. 4. (Тихо,
закрыв за собой дверь), he tiptoed into the room. 5. Each time (рассказывая об
этом случае), he could not help a smile. 6. (Приехав в гостиницу), she found a
telegram awaiting her. 7. (Приехав сюда) only a few years before, he knew those
parts as if he had always lived there. 8. We took a trip in a motor-launch down the
river and spent the whole day on the water, (приехав обратно) when it was dark.
9. I felt very tired, (пророботав целый день) in the sun. 10. (Опустив монету и
подняв трубку), he began to dial the number. 11. (Уронив монету на пол), he did
not care to look for it in the darkness and took another one.

Exercise 9. Translate what is given in brackets, using Participle I as


attribute or adverbial modifier where possible.
1.The conference (проходящая сейчас) at the University is devoted to
problems of nuclear physics. 2. Unable to attend the conference (проходившую
тогда) at the University, we asked to be sent the type-written reports. 3. They are
now at a conference (которая проходит) at the University. 4. They stood (у
заправлявшейся машины) and watched the meter. 5. The sight of
(накрываемого стола) made my mouth water. 6. Suddenly I heard a sound of a
key (поворачиваемого) in the lock. 7. (Когда их поставили в воду), the flowers
opened their petals. 8. (Так как их долгое время держали без воды) the flowers
faded.

Exercise 10. Translate the sentences into English using Participle I.


Define its function.
1. Успешно сдав все экзамены, студенты решили работать летом гидами.
2. Войдя первый раз в класс, молодая учительница увидела десятки
любопытных глаз, глядящих на нее. 3. Играя в шахматы, Стрикленд обычно
подсмеивался над своими партнерами. 4. Придя к заключению, что они
серьезно больны, трое друзей решили, что они нуждаются в отдыхе. Уложив
свои чемоданы и захватив собаку, они отправились вниз по Темзе. 5.
Прочитав несколько страниц, девочка отложила книгу и стала задумчиво
смотреть в окно. 6. Услышав слова Давида Копперфильда «я ваш
племянник», тетя Бетси была ошеломлена. 7. Проходя мимо этого дома
вчера, я слышала, как кто-то прекрасно пел. 8. Подходя к дому, мать увидела,
что дети ждут ее, стоя у калитки. 9. Видя, что Чарли в отчаянии, мать
всячески старалась успокоить его. 10. Услышав чьи-то шаги и голоса, Том и
Гек спрятались за деревом. Они были очень испуганы, узнав в одном из
приближающихся к ним мужчин индейца Джо. 11. «Проходя мимо, я увидел
свет в окне и решил заглянуть к вам и познакомиться», сказал Денни. 12.
Когда Джо увидел, что Том красит забор, он направился к нему. Заметив

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друга, Том начал весело работать, делая вид, что эта работа доставляет ему
большое удовольствие.

§14. DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN GERUND, PARTICIPLE I AND


VERBAL NOUN

Exercise 1. Read the following sentences. Define the Ving form. Comment
on its form, function and combinability. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example: Liza was able to make her own living by working at the factory.
working is Non-perfect, Active Gerund used in the function of an adverbial
modifier of manner. It combines with the preposition “by” (the right-hand
combinability).
Living is a Verbal Noun. It combines with the Demonstrative Pronoun “her”
(the left-hand combinability).
Лиза могла заработать себе на жизнь, работая на фабрике.
1. Now... you stop crying, like a good girl, and powder your nose and all that.
(P. W.) 2. Strickland was indifferent to his surroundings, and he had lived in the
other's studio without thinking of altering a thing. (S. M.) 3. Because of the
skating she began to be easier as she walked... . (Bates). 4. "Where is Ogilvy
Street?" "Up the road, the first turning to the left." (P. W.) 5. The poor woman lay
quite still, refusing to speak, with her eyes intent, as though she watched for the
coming of death. (S. M.) 6. And so absorbed was she in this pursuit that a
knocking on the outer door did not penetrate to her consciousness. (S. M.) 7. The
longing in his voice was very sad. (Cron.) 8. He discovered... one morning that an
idea had come to him for making a series of water-colour drawings of London.
(Galsw.) 9. Then there was a rattling of plates and cups. (Cron.) 10. He was
interrupted in this task by the opening of the door, and looking up, was surprised
to see his niece. (P. W.) 11. I mustn't keep you standing here for another instant.
(P. W.) 12. He disliked being called brother, but he made no comment. 13. A good
beginning is half the battle. 14. A good beginning makes a good ending. 15. After
dinner comes the reckoning. 16. Every cloud has a silver lining. 17. The proof of
the pudding is in the eating. 18. A witty saying proves nothing. 19. It is very hard
undertaking to seek to please everybody. 20. Everything must have a beginning.
21. Constant dripping wears away the stone. 22. It’s a long lane that has no
turning. 23. A little learning is a dangerous thing. 24. A tale never loses in the
telling. 24. Not having found the book in its usual place, I went on searching for it
around the room. 25. This lady had become expert in removing every speck of
dust without disturbing the position of any object. 26. Not wishing to discuss this
problem, he left the room indignantly. 27. Not getting any answer to her knock,
she stepped back on to the pavement to look up at the closely curtained windows.
28. He hired this room for her, without his own name mentioned. 29. Not caring if
her steps were heard, she kept running till she reached the street. 30. These happy
events occurred without any recommendation having been made by Jackson, and
indeed without his having been officially informed. 31. Not pausing to ask for
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explanations, he seized my arm and hurried me down the slope.

Exercise 2. Define the functions of the Gerund and the Participle.


Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. After saying this, he cursed himself for not having said the opposite. 2.
Instead of decreasing the sound seemed to be coming nearer. 3. At any other time
he would have felt joy at having this person in his house. 4. Remembering the
incident later, he could recall only a confused impression of fear and sorrow. 5.
Having answered her with rudeness he felt very bitter indeed. 6. Some six months
ago he had turned cold on receiving a polite and regretful notification from the
local council on the confiscation of a plot of land from his garden. 7. She went
over to the cabinet, picking her way between the cushions, footstools, and
occasional tables with which the floor was strewn. 8. Having knocked several
times and getting no answer she stepped back and looked up at the closely
curtained windows. 9. Being too particular about her behavior, she felt herself
incapable of doing so. 10. He waited for about three quarters of an hour before
departing.

Exercise 3. a) Define the Ving form by transforming the phrases.


Example: a reading child – a child who is reading. Reading is Participle I.
a reading lamp – a lamp for reading. Reading is the Gerund.
1. a writing girl – a writing table
2. walking women – walking shoes
3. a resting worker – resting place
4. a swimming child – swimming pool
5. a dancing ball – a dancing girl
6. boiling water – boiling point
7. a freezing river – a freezing point
8.a dancing bear - a dancing-teacher;
9. a travelling circus - a travelling- rug;
10. a sleeping child - a sleeping-carriage;
11. running water - a running- track

b) Make up sentences of your own, using the phrases above.

§15 FORMS AND MEANINGS OF PARTICIPLE II. FUNCTIONS OF


PARTICIPLE II

Exercise 1. Read the following sentences. Define Participle II and


comment on its function. Translate the sentences into Russian. (See table 16)
Example: He looked at her for a moment as though amazed at her
friendliness.
Amazed is Participle II used as adverbial modifier of comparison. Он
взглянул на нее так, будто был поражен ее дружелюбностью.
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1. Stirred by the beauty of the twilight, he strolled away from the hotel.
(Cronin) 2. All the country near him was broken and wooded. (Aldington) 3. For a
moment the trio stood as if turned to stone. (Murdoch) 4. Through the dark hall,
guarded by a large black stove... I followed her into the saloon. (Mansfield) 5. If
left to myself, I should infallibly have let this chance slip. (Ch. Bronte) 6. He spoke
when spoken to, politely and without much relevance. (Hansford Johnson) 7. Miss
Brodrick, though not personally well known in the county, had been spoken well of
by all men. (Trollope) 8. Prepared, then for any consequences, I formed a project.
(Ch. Bronte) 9. Thus absorbed, he would sit for hours defying interruption. (Stone)
10. As directed, I took the lead, almost happily. (Salinger) 11. He cast upon her
one more look, and was gone. (Hichens) 12. Fancy a married woman doomed to
live on from day to day without one single quarrel with her husband. (Jerome K.
Jerome) 13. He bowed low when presented to Dinny. (Galsworthy) 14. Displeased
and uncertain Brande gazed from his son to the Spanish gardener. (Cronin). 15.
Rosie looked round with delight at the great dark smoky house, crowded to the
ceiling with the inhabitants of South London. (S. M.) 16. Carried away by the
melody, Marie went so far as to dance a step or two herself. (P. W.) 17. "Let's
skate again," she said, "Shall we? With crossed hands." (Bates) 18. They had gazed
sadly on the pitted surface of the once smooth lawn. (A. Chr.) 19. Sam looked up,
relieved. Dear Old Bates was standing in the lighted doorway. (P. W.) 20. I had
been seated at the desk a long time, lost in thought (H. R.) 21. Again there was a
silence in the wooden shed, broken only by the drumming of the rain upon the tin
roof. (Cron.) 22. I laughed, embarrassed, but not wholly displeased with the role
thrust upon me. (A. Chr.) 23. Mr. Wrenn, startled, dropped his hat. (P. W.) 24.
Embarrassed he didn't know what to say. (Cron.) 25. Poirot shook his head in a
dissatisfied manner. (A. Chr.) 26. With a smile he looked across at Christine,
seated on the opposite seat. (Cron.) 27. Surrounded by difficulties and uncertainty,
he longed for Christine. (Cron.) 28. The owner was named Horn, with a native
wife surrounded by little brown children, and on the ground-floor he had a store
where he sold canned goods and cottons. (S M.)

Exercise 2. Translate the sentences into English, using Participle II where


possible.
1 .На листе бумаги было несколько строк, написанных карандашом. 2.
Если меня спросят, я скажу правду (to tell the truth). 3. В вазе было несколько
увядших роз. 4. Я не люблю смотреть на посаженных в клетку животных (to
cage). 5. Книга будет здесь, пока ее не спросят (to ask for). 6. Муж ее был
отставным полковником. 7. Хотя он был очень удивлен, он не сказал ни
слова. 8. Вот новые учебники, присланные для нашей школы. 9. Оставленный
один в темноте, ребенок заплакал. 10. Студенты писали сочинение о системе
образования в Англии, как она описана Диккенсом. 11. Солнце село, и
деревья казались темными, как будто высеченными (to cut) из черного
мрамора.

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Exercise 3. Transform a complex sentence into a simple one with
Participle II in the function of an attribute where possible.
Example: The opinions that were expressed by the critics greatly differ. →
The opinions expressed by the critics greatly differ.
1. The animals that were caught in the snare struggled furiously. 2. There
was a peculiar silence in the room, which was broken only by the crackle of paper.
3. The melancholy tune which is being played by the band brings back all the
sweet memories of my youth. 4. The long-playing records that are produced by
the local factory are of exceptionally fine quality. 5. He specialized in treating
occupational lung diseases, which are mainly caused by dust. 6. And the answer
that had so long been expected came at last. 7. The newspapers carried reports of a
storm that had devastated several villages. 8. The machinery which has been
ordered from abroad will be delivered by ship. 9. There were a lot of foreign
guests at the conference that was held in May. 10. The first thing that attracted his
attention was a big vase that was filled with beautiful roses. 11. We sat down on
the ground that was covered with dry leaves. 12. I reached for the glass that was
held out to me. 13. He looked around the coffee-shop that was packed with people
and moved to the table that was marked "Reserved". 14. Entering the station I saw
a hurrying man who was followed by a porter. 15. They all had to obey the
instructions that were given by the head clerk. 16. He acted on a plan that had
been worked out a long time ago. 17. She didn't want to see him for reasons that
have already been mentioned.

Exercise 4. Use the appropriate form of Participle I or Participle II from


the verbs in brackets.
1. Success in one’s work is a _____ (satisfy) experience. 2. The dragon was a
____ (terrify) sight for the villagers. The ____ (terrify) villagers ran for their lives.
3. I found myself in an ____ (embarrass) situation last night. 4. I elbowed my way
through the ____ (crowd) room. 5. The thief tried to pry open the ____ (lock)
cabinet. 6. The ____ (injure) woman was put into an ambulance. 7. That ____
(annoy) buzz is coming from the fluorescent light. 8. The teacher gave us a ____
(challenge) assignment, but we all enjoyed doing it. 9. The ____ (expect) event
didn’t occur. 10. A ____ (grow) child needs a (balance) diet. 11. We had a ____
(thrill) but hair-raising experience on our backpacking trip into the wilderness. 12.
The ____ (abandon) car was towed away by a tow truck. 13. I still have five more
____ (require) courses to make. 14. I don’t have any furniture of my own. Do you
know where I can rent a ____ (furnish) apartment? 15. The invention of the ____
(print) press was one of the most important events in the history of the world.

Exercise 5. Use the appropriate form of Participle I or Participle II of the


verb in brackets.
1. It was a windy day, and the air ____ on Little Dorrit's face soon brightened
it. (to stir) (Dickens) 2. He took a ____ strip of paper from his vest and gave it to
the reporter. (to fold) (Faulkner) 3. There was one bright star ____ in the sky. (to
shine) (Dickens) 4. He reminded you of a ____ sheep ____ aimlessly hither and
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thither. (to frighten, to run) (Maugham) 5. At one end was a group of beautiful
women exquisitely ____, ____ diamonds on their heads and bosoms... (to gown, to
wear) (Stone) 6. Maxim stooped, and picked up a ____ petal and gave it to me. (to
fall) (Du Maurier) 7. They came to the quiet little station ____ by a single bulb,
almost ____ in a mass of oleander and vines and palmettos. (to light, to hide)
(Faulkner) 8. She remained silent but her silence was like a question ____ in the
dark between them. (to hang) (Lessing) 9. With ____ eyes he leaned back on the
bench. (to close) (Байт) 10. We walked down the hall and down the wide thickly
____ stairs. (to carpet) (Hemingway) 11. There were ____ candles on the table. (to
light) (Hemingway) 12. There was a long line of ____ trucks and carts on the road
____ up the bridge. (to abandon, to lead) (Hemingway) 13. A tall, thin man with a
sharp pointed face sat at a table ____ for dinner. (to lay) (Greene) 14. The voice
had something ____ in it. (to appeal) (Dreiser) 15. There was a balcony along the
second floor ____ by the columns. (to hold up) (Hemingway) 16. On the next
afternoon Horace went out to his sister's, again in a ____ car. (to hire) (Faulkner)
17. She stayed ____ (to lock) in her room, ____ (to refuse) to come downstairs. 18.
He had a good practical knowledge of the language, ____ (to work) as an
interpreter for many years. 19. The boys on the fence looked like swallows ____
(to perch) on a telegraph wire. 20. They went out as they had come, ____ (to see)
and ____ (to see) by no one on their way. 21. “I like it here,” she said, ____ (to
seat) herself at the table nearest to the window. 22. Except for the grand piano and
the pianist ____ (to seat) unobtrusively before it, the stage was empty. 23. He
looked so beautiful and peaceful, ____ (to sit) in that chair under the tree. 24. He
looked at the scene ____ (to shake) to the depth of his heart. 25. The boy came out
of the water, all blue and ____ (to shake) from head to foot. 26. ____ (To plunge)
headlong into that enterprise, he was now desperately looking for a way out of it.
27. ____ (To plunge) in thought, he did not seem to notice what was going on
around him. 28. ____ (To arrive) at the airport where he was to change, he had to
wait for three hours for the connection. 29. ____ (To arrive) in the town about
twenty years before, he had succeeded thereafter beyond his wildest expectations.
30. He introduced me to a friend of his, recently ____ (to arrive) after a cruise
around Europe. 31. ____ (To support) by her elbow, Mary listened to their talk. 32.
____ (To support) her by his arm, he helped her out of the carriage.

Exercise 6. Insert the appropriate conjunction when, while, if, as if, as


though, though, unless, until, once, as. Define the syntactical function of the
Participles.
1. She was about to take a step which, ____ mistaken, might lead to further
complications. 2. ____ so occupied, he vaguely gathered the impression of
somebody darting silently across the road. 3. The man stood still for fully a minute
____ debating with himself. 4. I think we now may regard the matter ____ settled.
5. A promise accounts to little ____ kept. 6. ____ resolved to do something, he
wouldn’t swerve. 7. ____ proof read several times the text contained a number of
misprints. 8. It can’t go to press ____ signed by the editor. 9. She screamed ____
badly hurt. 10. ____ waiting for you I have looked through all the newspapers and
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magazines. 11. Your assistant called you leaving a message where he could be
found ____ needed. 12. The article described him ____ having attempted nearly
every kind of writing and ____ adorning them all. 13. He did not hurry ____
pressed for time. 14. He was in a hurry ____ pressed for time. 15. He wouldn’t
hurry ____ pressed for time.

Exercise 7. Paraphrase the following, using Participles where possible.


1. He went over to the window; he stood there and listened to the hum of
voices which was coming from the outside. 2. He was deafened by the noise and
did not at once notice when it stopped. 3. I couldn’t ring him up as I did not know
his telephone number. 4. After I had tried various topics of conversation I asked
her to tell me who all the people at table were. 5. When it was put to vote, the
resolution was carried unanimously. 6. Several items of the plan that was agreed
upon require certain changes. 7. “These are pretty,” she exclaimed as she picked
up a bouquet of violets and pinned them on. 8. She lay awake all night and thought
of what had happened. 9. He may forget it, unless he is reminded. 10. From a
notion which he once took into his head, he parted very slowly. 11. The light
which was streaming from the half open door dazzled him. 12. We went to see our
friends who had just returned from a far voyage. 13. He plunged into the great
heap of letters which had long been waiting for him. 14. He hailed a cab and told
the man to drive to Park Lane. 15. He was not happy. The thought worried him.

Exercise 8. Translate the sentences into English, using Participle I or


Participle II as attribute where possible.
1. Количество школ, построенных в стране за последние годы (of late
years), очень велико. 2. Школа, строящаяся на нашей улице, откроется к 1
сентября. 3. Рабочие, строящие эту школу, обещали закончить ее к началу
учебного года. 4. Девушка поставила в вазу цветы, присланные ей в день
рождения. 5. Человек, приславший ей цветы, был ее старым школьным
товарищем. 6. В Публичной библиотеке есть рукописи, написанные много
столетий тому назад. 7. Имя человека, написавшего эту рукопись,
неизвестно. 8. Он вошел в комнату и увидел письмо, лежащее на столе. 9.
Письма, опущенные в ящик до 12 часов, доставляются (to post, to deliver) в
тот же день. 10. Люди, проводящие много времени на открытом воздухе,
обычно сильные и здоровые. 11. Молодые музыканты говорили о днях,
проведенных в Москве во время конкурса имени Чайковского (the
Tchaykovsky music contest). 12. Оставив вещи в камере хранения, мы пошли
осматривать город. 13. Оставляя пальто в гардеробе, вы получаете номер. 14.
Человек, оставивший свой чемодан в вестибюле, прошел к администратору.
15. Пассажиры, оставляющие свои вещи в камере хранения, получают
квитанцию. 16. Вещи, оставляемые в камере хранения, хранятся там двадцать
дней. 17. Вещи, оставленные в трамвае, могут быть получены в любое время
на станции у дежурного. 18. Оставшись один, он начал распаковывать вещи.
19. Я не мог переодеться, так как оставил вещи на вокзале. 20. Мы пробыли
весь день в городе, уехав вечером. 21. Купив билеты и оставив вещи на
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вокзале, мы решили навестить друзей. 22. Я еще долго лежал с закрытыми
глазами, стараясь вспомнить до мелочей события того дня. 23. Это была
комната, предназначенная не для постоянного проживания в ней хозяев, а
для гостей, которые все реже и реже появлялись в этом доме. 24. В глубокой
задумчивости он извлек из кармана аккуратно сложенную телеграмму,
открыл и перечитал ее. 25. Он был настолько разгневан таким поступком
своего брата, что едва произнес слова приветствия сквозь стиснутые зубы.
26. Он стоял со склоненной головой, молчаливый, потерянный, казалось, что
он был совершенно не готов к тем словам, которые услышал от матери и
которые прозвучали как приговор.

§16 OBJECTIVE PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTION

Exercise 1. Define the Objective Participial Construction in the following


sentences. Comment on its use. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example: In the next room he could hear his mother breathing heavily.
his mother breathing is Objective Participial Construction with Participle I
used in the function of a complex object. It is used after the verb of sense
perception “hear”.
Ему было слышно, как в соседней комнате тяжело дышит его мать.
1. I saw him walking briskly through the crowd wearing a tan raincoat. (F.
F.) 2. She could hear Bart moving about outside, whistling as he worked. (Cus.) 3.
He felt his heart pounding and his mouth was dry again, but it was excitement, not
fear. (E. H.) 4. Then I heard someone weeping. (Gr. Gr.) 5. Aswald could feel his
heart beating. (P. Aid.) 6. "I hear you've seen Blanch," he said. "How on earth did
you find out?" "I was told by someone who saw you sitting with them." (S. M.) 7.
He felt Bill coming up to the fire. (E. H.) 8. He leaned back watching Jan working
with passionate absorption on the pullover. (Cus.) 9. I could hear two people
talking in the room. (A. Chr.) 11. I found myself wondering about what he was going
to do. 12. In the silence I could hear the clock ticking. (J. Ch.). 13. I fancied I could
hear a baby screaming. 14. Jane watched her grandmother and her aunt unpacking her
mother's clothes. 15. Mrs Honey will have the ceiling of her room whitewashed. 16.
"She had her mail sent to some friend of hers, I suppose. 17. You must get your watch
fixed. 18. She is going to have her dress fitted. 19. The man wished to have his whiskers
trimmed. 20. I'll have this letter typed for you.

Exercise 2. Form the Objective Participial Construction with Participle I


using the words in brackets. Comment on its use.
1. He saw _____ ____ (a young girl, to be driven) away from the door in
tears. (S. M.) 2. I turned my head over my shoulder and saw ____ ____ (she, to
stand) in front of the house. (A. Chr.) 3. He felt ____ ____ (her eyes, to rest) on
him with a strange, touching look. (Galsw.) 4. Renata watched ____ ____ (he, to
smoke). (E. H.) 5. That set ____ ____ (one's heart, to thump). (J. Ch.) 6. It would
never do for her to come out and see ____ ____ (he, to talk) there with them. (J.
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L.) 7. She thought she heard ____ ____ (he, to groan). (S. M.) 8. And Michael saw
____ ____ (his father-in-law, to stare up) at the Lincoln statue. (Galsw.) 9. Jolly
was anxious that they should see ____ ____ (he, to row) so they set forth to the
river. (Galsw.) 10. June saw ____ ____ (Soames, to stand) just behind her.
(Galsw.) 11. Wilkins had heard ____ ____ (we, to row), and looked at me, and
motioned me on. (Cain) 12. Yet their conviction that they had that very moment
heard ____ ____ (somebody, to move) in the room had amounted to a certainty.
(H. W.) 13. Giving a side glance at Betty, he saw ____ ____ (she, to watch) him
with a warm look of admiration. (Lind.) 14. You'd only to see ____ ____ (she, to
look) at him when she was off guard. (A. Chr.)

Exercise 3. Transform the following using the Objective Participial


Construction with Patriciple I .
Example: The children were running towards the forest (she, to see). → She
saw the children running towards the forest.
1. She was looking round eagerly (he, to see). 2. She was watching him (he,
not to see). 3. Someone was shouting (I, to hear). 4. The water was sucking at the
piles beneath the house (they, to hear). 5. She was scrutinizing me closely (I, to
see). 6. My cheeks were going red (I, to feel). 7. His ears were glowing (he, to
feel). 8. Her little maid was starching and pleating her linen dresses... (she, to
watch). 9. The gardeners were watering beds of young lettuce (he, to watch). 10.
My sister was signalling to me from another table (I, to see). 11. The corner of a
three-penny detective novel was protruding from Albert's pocket (he, to note). 12.
The rain drops were pattering against the leaves (I, to hear). 13. His father was
moving around in the living room (he, to hear). 14. He was hurrying through the
hot June forenoon, up the hill and on to the open downland (they, to imagine). 15.
He was standing there, the light glittering on his spectacles, his white cruel face
expectant (they, to see). 16. He was waiting about five minutes (they, to keep). 17.
They were sitting in the sunshine (she, to find).

Exercise 4. Transform the following complex sentences into simple ones


using the Objective Participial Constructions.
Example: I could feel that the room was rocking under my feet. → I could
feel the room rocking under my feet.
1. I noticed that now his eyes were resting on me with a faint smile of
amusement. 2. At the corner of the street I now saw that a small crowd was
collecting, attracted by the fire. 3. So as I strode now along Bake street I felt that I
was doing something useful. 4. Then Frank's eyes lit up, he saw that Martha was
cutting an enormous plum cake. 5. When I opened my eyes I saw the others were
dozing so I sneaked out. 6. I noticed that Constance was sitting close against
Freddy's chair, and that he broke across what he was saying. 7. I could see that
Dave was still standing in the door-way. 8. I felt I was getting hot under the collar,
and all my romantic humour was gone. 9. When he got on the sand he saw that
Arthur was looking at the boat. 10. He could see that a man was standing on the
pavement, facing the swing doors. 11. When he opened the window he heard how
117
the birds were singing in the garden. 12. In a minute or two I noticed that her eyes
were stealthily peeping at me over the top of the book. 13.It was a black day when
London heard how the enemy was bombarding Chatham. 14. In the evenings I used to
hear how he was playing passages of his own compositions.15. He saw that drinks
were being served an hour after the permitted hours. 16. Nothing will surprise her more
than to hear how this was said of her. 17. They noticed that the two small children
were plastered against the big window. 18. The stewardess watched how the
passengers were climbing the ramp. 19. They heard how the public-address system
announced it was necessary to buckle the safety-belts. 20. He felt how the plane was
losing altitude on the approach to the aerodrome. 21. I noticed that you were looking
at the drawings upstairs. 21. He was allowed to watch how the instruments were being
prepared for the operation.

Exercise 5. Read the sentences and tell about yourself using the Objective
Participial Construction with Participle II after the verb have.
Example: - Kate made a new dress last week.
- Unfortunately, I’m not good at making clothes so I had a dress made
at the dressmaker’s
1. Ann has washed the walls of her room. 2. Ann’s mother will make a
cake for the birthday party. 3. Last week my friend papered the walls in my room.
4. She has knitted a warm sweater for her son. 5. She has altered her warm coat. 6.
She has fitted her dress. 7. My mother dyed her hair yesterday. 8. My father is
building the garage. 9. My brother will repair the bicycle. 10. He always cleans his
watch.

Exercise 6. Use the Objective Participial Construction instead of the


Russian subordinate clause.
1. Once in the plane he saw (как его жена и дети махали ему на
прощание). 2. Those who stayed outside watched (как самолет набирал
скорость для взлета). 3. Because of the tremendous noise in the waiting-hall he
did not hear (как объявили посадку на самолет). 4. It is very pleasant to find (что
эти проблемы обсуждаются в вашем журнале). 5. They were surprised to hear
(что письмо читали уже второй раз). 6. I always imagine (как она тщательно
укладывает волосы перед зеркалом). 7. Nobody of their community desired
(чтобы его так обманули). 8. They observed (как он осторожно входил в
комнату). 9. I found (что все поспешно собирали свои вещи). 10. Then she
heard (как стулья отодвинули) and understood that the guests were leaving. 11. He
heard (как был отдан последний приказ) and realized that this night the soldiers
would attack the fortress. 12. In the afternoon her friend invited her to have a look
(как она будет примерять свадебное платье).

Exercise 7. Translate into English, using the Objective Participial


Construction.
1. Из окна своего кабинета он увидел такси, подъехавшее к крыльцу, и
поспешил вниз. 2. Она чувствовала, как сердце ее трепетало от страха перед
118
этим коварным и жестоким человеком, одним взглядом подавлявшим ее
волю. 3. Сумерки застали их в саду, сидящих, тесно прижавшись, и
наслаждающихся теплым летним вечером и близостью друг друга. 4. Он
услышал, как где-то в глубине дома раздался телефонный звонок, и его
сестра заговорила с кем-то быстрым, взволнованным шепотом. 5. Было
слышно, как какой-то человек спускался по ступенькам, тяжело ступая и
ругая того, кто придумал такие узкие крутые лестницы. 6. Она слышала, как
музыканты в оркестровой яме настраивали инструменты, и предвкушала
волшебство, которое через несколько минут начнется на сцене. 7. Я
переделала свое зимнее пальто. 8. Когда вы, наконец, настроите свой рояль?
Он совсем расстроен (to be out of tune). 9. Я не починил вчера часы, так как
мастерские были закрыты. 10. Когда вы оклеили комнату? 11. Вам уже
побелили потолок? 12. Где вы снимались? 13. Вам следует переплести свои
книги 14. Где вы делали себе это платье? 15. Я выкрасила свое платье, и
теперь оно совсем как новое (выглядит совсем новым). 116. Где вы починили
велосипед?

§17 SUBJECTIVE PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTION

Exercise 1. Define the Subjective Participial construction in the following


sentences. Comment on its use. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example: They were heard talking together.
They talking is the Subjective Participial construction with Participle I used
in the function of a complex subject. It is used after the verb of sense perception
hear in the passive voice. Было слышно, как они разговаривали.
1. He was seen making his way to the house. (Cart.) 2. Here the nurse's voice
was heard calling from the top landing. (Cron.) 3. Many students with blood
streaming down their faces were seen running down the side streets to avoid arrest.
(M. S.) 4. He suffered from dyspepsia, and he might often be seen sucking a tablet
of pepsin. (S. M.) 5. At times he was seen driving with her by people who knew
him in a social and commercial way. (Dr.) 6. The boots of Albert could be heard
racing upstairs. (A. Chr.) 7. You're found hanging around the grounds of a big
house after dark. (Cron.) 8. ...in a few moments during the launching of the boats,
Danvers was seen speaking to a young American girl. (A. Chr.) 9. Jennie was seen
wearing the gold watch. (Dr.) 10. While Miss Cutler was in the room dispensing
bacon, the day's post could be heard arriving. (Amis.) 11. He could often be seen
walking with his eyes fixed anxiously on Dartie's little sailing-boat. (Galsw.) 12.
«Go home, Joan,» people could be heard saying in one house or another. 13. Some
of the birds can be spotted sitting in the trees. 14. Once one of my aunts was seen
painting a straw-coloured hat navy blue. 15. It was some ten minutes later that a
voice was heard calling his name. 16. This night my aunts could be observed
running back and forth in the carpeted hall. 17. The man was found killed on the
doopstep of his luxurious house. 18. “The meeting is considered finished if no one
has any questions”, the chairman announced.
119
Exercise 2. Transform the sentences with the Objective Participial
Construction into the sentences with the Subjective Participial Construction.
Example: We have often heard his name mentioned. → His name was often
heard mentioned.
1. I could see the visitor walking restlessly backwards and forwards. 2. I've
often heard his sister singing some popular tune. 3. We observed them walking
down the street. 4. One summer morning they found him painting the door of his
house green. 5. I hope she didn't notice me leaving the house so late. 6. The girl
watched him going slowly and cautiously up the stairs. 7. The rescue helicopters
found the ship drifting in the North Sea. 8. She saw a little sprinkle of gray parting
his hair in two halves. 9. They could observe her figure pleasantly displayed by a
modest grey suit.

Exercise 3. Define the predicative construction with Participle I and


Participle II.
1. In the midday quiet of the bush she heard a small bird singing. (Young) 2.
The taxi could be seen waiting outside. (Murdoch) 3. His face clouded when he
heard his name spoken. (Greene) 4. She had the drawing-room redecorated.
(Maugham) 5. All the while she felt her heart beating with a vague fear. (Eliot) 6.
The darkness found him occupied with these thoughts. The darkness found Mr. and
Mrs. Plornish knocking at his door. (Dickens) 7. Somewhere a long way off a
telephone bell rang and a voice could be heard speaking. (Greene) 8. For their New
Year's Eve party she had all the furniture moved out of the parlor and sitting-room.
(Stone) 9. Get your things packed. (Cronin) 10. Temple heard the woman fumbling
at the wall. (Faulkner) 11. The two men were heard descending. (Dickens) 12. Two
days later she heard sleigh bells coming up the drive. (Stone) 13. The car paused
momentarily at the door of the commissary. Pat saw blank eyes staring at him and
he stared back at them blankly from the rear seat. (F. F.) 14. He watched them
eating, and decided that they ate like pigs. (J. L.) 15. I saw her going off in that
direction about a quarter of an hour ago. (A. Chr.) 16. One Yankee businessman
had been overheard asking the police why they didn't use tear-gas. (Lind.) 17. In a
moment I heard Stroeve's voice asking if I was in. (S. M.) 18. He braced himself
against the slope and felt his feet moving within his swollen boots. (J. Aid.) 19.
And in the slight pause young Nickolas was heard saying gently that Violet... was
taking lessons in pastel. (Galsw.) 20. Shut up in her room she could be heard
chattering away hour after hour... (S. M.) 21. My door happened to be ajar, and I
heard her talking to someone in the passage. (A. Chr.) 22. The test was considered
completed as soon as the last student gave in his paper to the examiner and left the
classroom.23. He saw his bags put into the trunk of a large car and hurried to it
looking at his watch all the time. 24. She saw several participants arrested during
the demonstration against the decision of the authorities to build a new
supermarket instead of the playground for children. 25. Her fear of height was kept
hidden though she was absolutely terrified by her friend’s suggestion to go to the
South by plane.
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Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into English, using the
Objective or the Subjective Participial Construction.
1.Была тихая летняя ночь. Мы сидели в саду и наблюдали, как луна
медленно поднимается из-за деревьев. 2. Мы услышали, что кто-то поет
вдали. 3. В детстве я часто слышал, как моя мать пела эту песню. 4. Мы
увидели, что по дорожке сада идет сын нашего соседа. 5. Мы не видели его
уже много лет, но часто слышали, как его имя упоминалось в доме его
родителей. Мы не раз слышали, как его мать говорила о нем и его работе 6.
Она резко обернулась, так как почувствовала, что кто-то на нее пристально
смотрит. 7. Мэри чувствовала, что именно в этот момент ее сестра принимала
какое-то важное решение, которое изменит не только ее жизнь, но и жизнь
всей семьи. 8. Придя домой, она обнаружила, что ее кровать передвинута, а
остальные вещи лежат не на своих привычных местах. 9. Упакуй вещи и будь
готов к тому, что машина придет в любой момент, и времени на сборы не
будет. 10. В полуденной тишине сада было слышно лишь пение какой-то
маленькой птички в густой листве деревьев. 11. Его лицо помрачнело, когда
он услышал, как упомянули его имя среди тех, кто оказался в тот день на
площади в числе митингующих. 12. Она решила поменять интерьер гостиной
к приезду мужа, сделав ему сюрприз. 13. Подходя к церкви, он увидел, что
народ уже расходился после окончания утренней службы. 14. Я вчера видела,
как ты садилась в такси в сопровождении высокого, элегантно одетого
мужчины.

Exercise 5. Translate the text into English, using the necessary form of
the verbal or predicative construction.
— Ну и мальчишка! Казалось бы, пора мне привыкнуть к его фокусам.
Или мало он выкидывал со мной всяких штук? Могла бы на этот раз быть
умнее. Но, видно, нет хуже дурака, чем старый дурень. Говорят, что старого
пса новым штукам не выучишь. Впрочем, господи боже ты мой, у этого
мальчишки и штуки все разные: что ни день, то другая — разве тут
догадаешься, что у него на уме? Он будто знает, сколько он может мучить
меня, покуда я не выйду из терпения. Он знает, что стоит ему на минуту
сбить меня с толку или рассмешить, и вот уж руки у меня опускаются, и я не
в силах отхлестать его розгой. Не исполняю я своего долга, что верно, то
верно, да простит меня бог. Знаю, что он сущий бесенок, но что же мне
делать? Ведь он сын моей покойной сестры, бедный малый, и у меня духу не
хватает пороть сироту. Я слышала, что сегодня он не пошел в школу: будет
лодырничать до самого вечера, и мой долг наказать его, и я выполню мой
долг — заставлю его завтра работать. Это, конечно, жестоко, так как завтра у
всех мальчиков праздник, но ничего не поделаешь, больше всего на свете он
ненавидит трудиться. Простить ему на этот раз я не вправе, не то я
окончательно сгублю малыша.
Том и в самом деле не ходил нынче в школу и очень весело провел
время. Он еле успел вернуться домой, чтобы до ужина помочь негритенку
121
Джиму напилить на завтра дров и наколоть щепок или, говоря более точно,
рассказать ему о своих приключениях, пока тот исполнял три четверти всей
работы. Младший брат Тома, Сид (не родной брат, а сводный), к этому
времени уже сделал все, что ему было приказано (собрал и отнес все щепки),
потому что это был послушный тихоня: не проказничал и не доставлял
неприятностей старшим. (М. Твен «Приключения Тома Сойера»)

Exercise 6. Translate the text into English, using the necessary form of
the verbal or predicative construction.
Антуан де Сент-Экзюпери (1900 – 1944)
Антуан де Сент-Экзюпери - выдающийся писатель современности,
произведения которого наполнены раздумьями о современном мире: о
неповторимости и хрупкости красоты, о беспредельных духовных
возможностях человека, о необходимости объединения людей на основе
любви, взаимопонимания и уважения, об ответственности каждого человека
за свои поступки и за свою планету. Поэтизация подвига, всепоглощающая
любовь к жизни во всех ее проявлениях, гордость за человека, который
является мерилом всех ее ценностей, умение раскрыть героическое в
будничном, стремление осмыслить свое время и свое место в нем отличают
творчество французского гуманиста.
Сэнт-Экзюпери - выходец из аристократической семьи - с детства
увлекался искусством, литературой и техникой. Детские мечты воплотились
в реальность. Сент-Экзюпери стал известным летчиком и писателем с
мировым именем. В 20-е годы он учился в Школе изящных искусств, откуда
был призван в армию, где приобрел профессию пилота. Мудрый мечтатель в
своих литературных произведениях, Сент-Экзюпери и в реальной жизни не
расставался с романтикой. Прокладывая и осваивая новые воздушные трассы
над Сахарой, Атлантикой и Южной Америкой, он испытывал новые
самолеты, несколько раз оказывался в авариях, был тяжело ранен, но не
потерял веры в свои духовные, физические и творческие силы. Все свое
свободное время Сент-Экзюпери уделял журналистике и литературе.
Профессия авиатора обуславливала внимание писателя к теме неба в своих
литературных работах. И это касалось не только тематики, вращающейся
вокруг летных тем, но и того особого, отстраненного от обыденности
ощущения окружающего мира, которое может испытать только человек,
половину жизни проводящий в небе, близкий к звездам.
Первый свой рассказ "Летчик" (1926) Сент-Экзюпери посвятил любимой
авиации, людям, сидящим за штурвалом самолета, и до конца жизни он не
уходил от этой темы. "Для меня летать и писать - одно и то же... Авиатор и
писатель сливаются: оба в равной мере познают мир", - писал Сент-
Экзюпери. События современности, человеческие поступки писатель
рассматривал с точки зрения нравственных общечеловеческих проблем.
Его произведения зачастую соединяют в себе документальный репортаж
с философскими размышлениями о человеке, с психологическим анализом
его поступков, с поэтическими пейзажными зарисовками. В романе "Ночной
122
полет" (1931) рассказано о трагической гибели экипажа самолета почтовой
авиации из-за мощного циклона, неожиданно обрушившегося на Южную
Америку. Бытовые подробности уступают в нем место рассказу о
человеческом мужестве, о духовной силе, побеждающей страх смерти. За
этот роман писатель был удостоен премии "Фелина".
Книга "Планета людей" (1939) отмечена Большой премией Французской
академии искусств. Произведение наполнено лирическими раздумьями
автора о пережитом, мыслями и высказываниями о летчиках и о земле,
которая открывается перед ними в полете. Небо заставляет человека
почувствовать свою хрупкую уязвимость и глубокую связь со всем
человечеством. Писатель отрицательно относился к современной
цивилизации, где машины ценятся больше людей. Человек в таком мире
сталкивается с опасностью потерять свое лицо, связь с окружающими.
Нравственное совершенствование, деятельность, направленная на службу
людям сделают человечество защищенным от этого.
С ненавистью воспринял Сент-Экзюпери пришествие в Европу
фашистов. В 1937 году он пишет ряд репортажей с фронтов сражающейся за
свою свободу Испании. Он разоблачает фашистский режим, все те
неисчислимые бедствия, которые несет его идеология. В годы Второй
мировой войны Сент-Экзюпери сражается с фашистскими оккупантами как
летчик и как писатель. В "Военном летчике" (1942) и "Письмах к заложнику"
(1943) он с уверенностью предрекает победу демократических сил над
фашистской диктатурой.
31 июля 1944 года Сент-Экзюпери трагически погиб, выполняя боевое
задание - разведывательный полет над Средиземным морем.
Всемирную известность принесла Сент-Экзюпери философская сказка
"Маленький принц" (1943). Эта мудрая притча обращена и к детям, и к
взрослым. С глубоким страданием взирает писатель на пороки окружающего
мира, наполненного жестокостью, отсутствием идеалов, непониманием
между людьми. Однако Сент-Экзюпери уверен, что красота и чистота
человеческих отношений могут победить мировое зло. С грустной,
мечтательной улыбкой повествует писатель о радостях и огорчениях своего
героя - Маленького принца, хозяина маленькой планеты. Его образ - это
средоточие всего лучшего в человеке, особенно отчетливо проявляющегося в
душе ребенка. Сказка "Маленький принц", как и другие произведения Сент-
Экзюпери, говорит о важности взаимопонимания между людьми, об
ответственности каждого человека за все добро и зло, что творятся в мире.

§18 ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTIONS

Exercise 1. Read the following sentences. Define the Nominative Absolute


Participial Construction and its function. Translate the sentences into
Russian.
Example: Mrs. Maylie being fatigued, they returned more slowly home.
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Mrs. Maylie being fatigued is the Nominative Absolute Participial
Construction used in the function of adverbial modifier of cause.
Так как Миссис Мэйли устала, они возвращались домой медленнее.
1. The weather being dark and piercing cold, he had no great temptation to
loiter. (Dickens) 2. Out in the shadow of the Japanese sunshade she [Irene] was
sitting very still, the face on her white shoulders stirring with the soft rise and fall
of her bosom. (Galsworthy) 3. His tale told, he put his head back and laughed.
(Stone) 4. She had put some order into the drawing-room by now, her housewifely
instincts having got the better of her dismay. (Maugham) 5. This being understood,
the conference was over and Lufkin got up to join his guests. (Snow) 6. The next
morning, it being Sunday, they all went to church. (Buck) 7. They went down the
stairs together, Aileen lingering behind a little... (Dreiser) 8. For the moment the
shop was empty, the mechanic having disappeared into a room at the back.
(Hansford Johnson) 9. She paused listlessly, her head dropping upon her breast.
(Crown) 10. No one having as yet expressed any such opinion, this was the more
readily assented to. (Galsworthy) 11. Sir Henry was deep in his papers, his long,
white hands moving nervously in rhythm with his thoughts. (Greene) 12. The
constraint caused by Timothy's presence having worn off a little, conversation took
a military turn. (Galsworthy) 13. Abraham too looked well, his cheeks filled out,
his eyes cheerful. (Stotjie) 14. Then, with her heart beating fast, she went up and
rang the bell. (Galsworthy) 15. She sat on the steps, with her bare arms crossed
upon her knees. (Wilson) 16. Mr. Pickwick's mouth and chin having been hastily
enveloped in a large shawl, his hat having been put on his head and his great coat
thrown over his arm, he replied in the affirmative. (Dickens) 17. He stood
shamefully, hesitating, the strength of his resolution exhausted in his words. 18.
Each of them being my friend, the news that they were engaged had interested me
very much. 19. I ran very lightly, my toes hardly touching the ground. 20. This
question settled, the reunion was on again. 21. It being one of those situations
where you must think quickly, I decided that I had better plunge into the burning
house. 22. The last train having gone, we had to walk home. 23. Heated words
followed, quite a few of them being contributed by my friend. 24. Weather
permitting, the football match will take place on Wednesday. 25. Peter acting as
guide, we shall easily find the caves. 26. All the essays having been written and
collected, the teacher sent the class home. 27. Edwin was advancing through the
undergrowth, his gaze fixed upon the ground.

Exercise 2. Transform a composite sentence into a simple one using the


Nominative Absolute Participial Construction. Define its function.
Example: His brain was inactive, almost dull. and He felt that he knew
nothing. →. His brain being inactive, almost dull, he felt that he knew nothing.
His brain being inactive is the Nominative Absolute Participial
Construction used in the function of adverbial modifier of attendant
circumstances.
1. When a fortnight of his notice to Mrs. Grant had expired Mike really began
to worry. 2. The rain showed no sign of stopping, and at length with umbrellas and
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waterproofs they set out. 3. When the door-bell rang, Lesley rose and left the room.
4. At last his preparations were complete: the flowers, the food, the wine upon the
ice; his eyes surveyed the scene with shining intensity. 5. Now that the
examination was so close at hand, a queer calmness had settled upon him. 6. 7.
Now that the moment had come he found it difficult to speak. 8. After tea when all
the lamps were lit, work went more briskly. 9. After Oscar had gone, Liza stood for
a moment in the hall. 10. After it was settled that Joy should come down to
Blackstable, Mrs. Grey had thought much how she should treat him. 11. When it
was finished assuming my best company manners, I turned to Mrs. Driffield. 12.
When Julia and Simmy had decided to try their luck in London, Jimmie Field had
written to her asking her to do what she could for them. 13. When the massage was
finished Evie brought Julia a cup of tea. 14. After she had gone he got to thinking
the matter over. 15. When she faced him, her eyes were blazing and her voice was
ringing with emotion. 16. He didn't understand them when they spoke since his
knowledge of their language was derived from his public school. 17. If all these
precautions are taken, you can go and stay at your aunt's. 18. After all I the
necessary preparations had been made, the friends could start on their journey
without delay. 19. Peter, whose face was flaming, cautiously crept to the attic. 20.
She crossed the street and ran down the tunnel; her footsteps were echoing loud in
her ears. 21. Since no agreement had been reached, the strike went on. 22. When
the introduction to Winifred was accomplished, they spoke of the war. 23. As there
is no refrigerator in my flat, I can't buy much food. 24. If the classes are over by 2
p.m., we shall go boating.

Exercise 3. Complete the sentence using the Nominative Absolute


Participial Construction using the words in brackets.
1. 1 put on a warm coat (так как был сильный ветер). 2. (Так как было
слишком рано), we had to wait. 3. (Когда поезд проходил мимо станции) they
saw a crowd of people trying to get on. 4. The red cat was upside down (а ее
колеса все еще вертелись). 5. (Если этот вопрос будет поднят /to raise a point/
вовремя), the same mistake will not occur again. 6. (Так как только что подошел
поезд), the No.1 Platform was crowded. 7. We continued our discussion (причем
ораторов постоянно прерывали вопросами). 8. (После того как срок его
службы /the duration of his engagement/ подошел к концу), he was demobilized.
9. He put on his dark glasses (так как солнце светило очень ярко). 10. (После
того как он зарегистрировал свой багаж), he rushed toward the ramp.

Exercise 4. Define the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction


and its function. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. We stood there for a while with the water lapping our feet. 2. He looked
thoughtfully across the table at Beatrice, who was sitting with her lips compressed
tightly. 3. Madge watched me as I sat there with my head drooping. 4. Adela
entered the drawing-room with her lips set tightly together and her heart beating at
twice its usual speed. 5. She looked especially pretty this morning with her hair
and nails carefully done. 6. He left the office early the next morning and played a
125
set of tennis, but, with his body toned up by exercise and a shower, he realized that
he might better have stayed at his desk. 7. On Fifth Avenue, passing Atlas with his
shoulders bent under the weight of the world, Francis thought of the bracelet he
had bought. 8. It was a lovely morning, with a keen breeze whipping the water. 9.
Now we could see the wood ahead of us, huge and dark, with the sun going down
behind the trees.

Exercise 5. Translate into English, using Absolute Constructions.


1.Так как было очень тепло, дети спали на открытом воздухе. 2. Корабль
медленно плыл вдоль берегов Белого моря; сотни птиц кружились над ним. 3.
Когда солнце село, туристы развели костер. 4. Поскольку нам выдали
словари, мы смогли перевести статью без труда. 5. Как только я закончу
делать домашнее задание, я смогу пойти на встречу с друзьями. 6. Я начну
читать эту книгу, как только я ее куплю. 7. Поскольку профессор заболел,
лекцию отменили. 8. Так как была суббота, библиотека была закрыта. 9. Из-
за сильного шторма корабль не мог выйти из порта. 10. Если завод будет
обеспечен хорошим сырьем, качество продукции повысится. 11. Так как в
комнате было темно, я не видел его. 12. Бензин закончился, и мотор заглох
прямо на безлюдной проселочной дороге.

Exercise 6. Read the sentences and define the Nominative/Prepositional


Absolute Construction and its function. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The child lay on the bed, its eyes shut, flushed and sweating, breathing in
short, whistling gasps. (Faulkner) 2. Then she [Becky] sprang away and ran around
the desks and benches, with Tom after her, and took refuge in a corner at last, with
her little white apron to her face. (Twain) 3. In the afternoon, with the wind from
the south, the big canoes... had come drifting across the waters. (Lawrence) 4. The
concert over, the lottery... came next. (Ch. Bronte) 5. Dinner being over,
Bathsheba, for want of a better companion, had asked Liddy to come and sit with
her. (Hardy) 6. Now he sat down in an armchair opposite Charlie, sat bolt upright,
with his hands on his knees, and looked hard at Charlie. (Priestley) 7. Abraham too
looked well, his cheeks filled out, his eyes cheerful. (Stotjie) 8. She sat on the
steps, with her bare arms crossed upon her knees. (Wilson) 9. With the watch in
her hand she lifted her head and looked directly at him, her eyes calm and empty as
two holes. (Faulkner) 10. Catherine looked at me all the time, her eyes happy.
(Hemingway) 11. I admired her, with love dead as a stone. (Hansford Johnson) 12.
The first bustle of installation over, time hurig heavy on his hands. (Galsworthy).
13. There was no bus in sight and Julian, his hands still jammed in his pockets and
his head thrust forward, scowled down the empty street. 14. The man stood
laughing, his weapons at his hips.

Exercise 7. Translate the sentences into English, using the Absolute


Constructions.
1. У ней [Долли] похолодело (turned cold) сердце, когда она увидела
Кити, сидевшую на низеньком... стуле и устремившую неподвижные глаза на
126
угол ковра. (Л. Толстой) 2. Когда все приготовления были закончены,
пионеры отправились в поход. 3. Было очень темно, на небе не было ни
одной звездочки. 4. Когда торжественное заседание (grand meeting)
окончилось, начался концерт. 5. Мистер Пиквик увидел, что в саду стоит
мистер Уордль с ружьем в руке. 6. Когда все приготовления были закончены,
друзья отправились в грачевник. 7. Мистер Уинкль подбежал к мистеру
Тапмену, лежавшему на земле, его глаза закрыты. 8. Она [Анна Сергеевна]
стояла к нему спиной, руки скрещенные на груди. Услышав шаги, она
тихонько обернулась.

127
III. ПРИЛОЖЕНИЯ. ТАБЛИЦЫ.

FORMS OF VERBALS
Table 1
Verbal Aspect Voice
Active Passive
Time
correlation
Non- Perfect Non- Perfect
perfect perfect
Non- write have be written have been
continuous written written
Infinitive
(or
Common)
Continuous be writing have been ___ ____
writing
Gerund \ ____ writing having being having been
Participle I written written written

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VERB CHARACTERISTICS OF VERBALS
Table 2
Characteristics of a finite Infinitive Gerund Participle I Participle II
verb
1. Combinability with I would like to meet my I like meeting my friends. Seeing my friend off, I went home.
friend.
Ncom\Pron obj (as a direct I like meeting them. Seeing him off, I went home. _____
object) I would like to meet him.

Adverb I would like to read aloud. I like reading aloud. She was sitting reading aloud. _____

2. Categories
Time Correlation I’m glad to meet him. She stopped speaking to ____
him.
(Non-Perfect- Perfect) I’m glad to have met him
She denied having spoken
to him.
Aspect It seems to rain soon.
(Non-Continuous (or It seems to be raining now. ____ ______ ____
Common) – Continuous)

Voice We are sure to publish this The child likes reading Everybody understanding the
article. aloud. matter, the meeting was over.
(Active – Passive) ____
This article is sure to be The child likes being read That being understood, the meeting
published. aloud to. was over.

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NOMINAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INFINITIVE AND GERUND
Table 3
LEFT-HAND NOUN INFINITIVE GERUND
COMBINABI
LITY
Prep I am afraid of ___ I am afraid of going to the
horses mountains. I can feel sick
Ngen/Pronposs She insisted on her ____ She insisted on her brother’s
brother’s going to London.
departure.
She insisted on his going to
She insisted on her London.
departure.
FUNCTIONS MEANING
SUSBSTANCE- SPECIFIC/SINGULAR GENERAL/RECURRENT
NAMING ACTION ACTION
FUNCTION
subject Moscow is my To go to the Crimea is Getting to sleep on time is
native city. my intention. my problem.
object I like the Crimea. I’d like to go to the I like going to Crimea each
Crimea this summer summer
predicative My native city is My intention is to go to My problem is getting to
Moscow. the Crimea. sleep on time.

ADJECTIVE AND ADVERB CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPLES


Table 4

LEFT-HAND
ADJECTIVE\ADVERB PARTICIPLE I PARTICIPLE II
COMBINABILITY
She was so beautiful. The silence was very I never saw a woman
Adv degree
He went out so soon frightening so altered
Functions
He looked through the He looked at the He answered through
open window playing children the locked door
A

attribute
Adverbial
Answering my When answered he
Adv

modifier of Soon he went out


questions he went out went out
time

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MEANINGS OF THE FORMS OF THE INFINITIVE
Table 5
Form of the Meaning Example Note
Infinitive
Non-Continuous a singular specific To quit now
(or Common) action (an action would be a
Non-Perfect taking place on a mistake.
Active Infinitive particular occasion) I’d like to go to
(or Indefinite the seaside this
Active summer.
Infinitive)
an action / state They seem to * It is usually expressed
referring to have plenty of ● by the Infinitive of Verbs statal:
unspecified time* money. to be, to have, to belong, to
We know contain, to cost, to exist, etc.
aluminium to be
● in sayings: To live is to
one of the lightest
struggle.
metals.
a repeated habitual George has a After used to and would the
action tendency to talk Infinitive expresses a repeated
too much. habitual action in the past.
He used to
smoke.
an action which Banks actively
**It is usually expressed
refers to the future** encourage peopleafter Verbs describing
to borrow money.
potential future actions:
Verbs wish: to wish, to long,
etc.; Verbs request/order: to tell,
to ask, etc.; Verbs mental
activity: to expect, to plan, to
hope, to decide, to resolve,
to intend, etc.; Verbs
commissive: to promise, to
swear, to vow, etc.; Verbs
recommendation: to offer, to
propose, to advise, etc.;
Verbs causative: to cause, to
force, to induce, to
encourage, to persuade, to
convince, etc.
The government **The meaning is typical of the
closed the Infinitive in the function of the
borders in order Adverbial Modifier of Purpose.
to catch the
criminals.
a successive action She woke up to It is expressed by the Infinitive
132
see that the sun in the function of the Adverbial
was shining Modifier of Subsequent Event.
She tried to It denotes an action that takes
persuade him not place after the action of the
to do it only to predicate. It gives some
realize that she additional information about the
subject and is semantically
failed to.
relatively independent. That’s
why it can be transformed into a
homogeneous predicate and is
translated into Russian by a
finite verb form as a
homogeneous predicate joined
by the conjunction и / но: Она
проснулась и увидела ...; Она
попыталась убедить его не
делать этого, но поняла ….
a simultaneous action We want to learn.
with the action of the
finite form of the
verb-predicate
a qualificative Just think – It is expressed by the Infinitive
meaning you’ll really have in the function of an Attribute.
a chance to ride, In Russian it is rendered by
out in the open. means of the Infinitive.

a modal meaning of a I have brought In Russian it is rendered by


necessary action you the forms to means of the attributive clause
fill in. with a modal verb: Я принес
тебе бланки, которые надо
заполнить.
a modal meaning of a This is a book to Это книга, которую можно
possible action read before going почитать перед сном.
to bed.
Continuous an action in progress The woman
Infinitive which is seemed to be
simultaneous with listening.
the action of the
finite form of the
verb-predicate
Perfect Infinitive an action which is prior І am pleased to ● After Vmodal should, ought to, be
to the action of the have met you here. to and Verbs to hope, to mean, to
finite form of the verb- intend, to claim, to like, to love, to
predicate *** prefer the Perfect Infinitive can be
used to express an action which
was not carried out:
I meant to have telephoned, but I
forgot. I would prefer to have
stayed at a small, family-run hotel
than a big international youth

133
hostel. (I prefer to stay at a small
hotel, but I didn’t).
● After Vmodal might the Perfect
Infinitive is used to express
reproach: You might have asked me
about it.
● After V modal needn’t the Perfect
Infinitive is used to express an
action which was carried out but it
was not necessary:
You needn’t have hurried. The
lecture is put off till tomorrow.
● The Perfect Infinitive can be
used to express a hypothetical
action that might have happened in
the past:
To have won the race would have
been fantastic, but even coming
second was a great achievement.
(The person did not win the race.)
If I had known you were coming I
would have baked a cake. (The
person did not bake a cake.)
Perfect an action which lasted She appeared to
Continuous for some period of time have been leading
Infinitive before the action of the a very busy life for
finite form of the verb- the last two years.
predicate
Active Infinitive the subject is the doer Karen likes to
of the action of the praise her sister
Infinitive when she does well
in class.
Passive Infinitive the subject is the Karen likes to be Though the subject is the recipient
recipient of the action praised when she of the action of the Infinitive, the
of the Infinitive does well in class. Infinitive Active Voice is always
used if it functions as Part of the
Predicative: He is pleasant to deal
with.
The Infinitive Active Voice is
preferable after the phrases the first
(next, only) thing and in the
construction There is: The first
thing to do is to warn them. There
is nothing to watch on TV.

134
INFINITIVE WITHOUT THE PARTICLE “TO”
(BARE INFINITIVE)
Table 6
Usage Example Note

After Vauxiliaries He doesn’t know the truth. The Infinitive is used as Part of the Simple
Did they help you? Verbal Predicate.
do / did, shall / will,
should / would

After Vmodals He dare not go on Exception: ought to, have to, be to.
vacation now.
can / could, may / might, You ought to call him.
must, needn’t, shall / She can’t speak to you.
The Infinitive is used as Part of the Compound
should, will / would, dare
Verbal Modal Predicate.

After Vsense perception* I heard him come up the *The Infinitive is used as part of the Objective-
stairs. I felt her touch my with-the-Infinitive Construction.
see (notice, watch,
hand. I smelt the pie burn
observe), hear, feel, smell In passive constructions Vsense perception is
in the kitchen. They saw
followed by a to-Infinitive: He was heard to
me enter the house.
say it.

After Vcausative ** I made both of them take a ** If MAKE is used in the passive voice it is
break from the housework. followed by to-Infinitive: He was made to pay
make, have
back the money.
Mary had John vacuum
the carpets. After Vcausative get, cause, force, etc. a to-
Infinitive is used:
John got Mary to clean up the kitchen.
The pepper in the food caused me to sneeze.
Though sometimes HAVE and GET are
interchangeable they do not mean exactly the
same thing. Compare: I got the mechanic to
check my brakes. = At first the mechanic didn’t
think it was necessary, but I convinced him to
check the brakes.
I had the mechanic check my brakes. = I asked
the mechanic to check the brakes.
Have somebody do something is more common
in AmE. In BrE get somebody to do something
is more preferable.
The Infinitive is used as part of the Objective-
with-the-Infinitive Construction.
After Vpermission She let the children play in After Vpermission allow, permit a to-Infinitive is
the garden. used: We allowed them to leave early.
let
The Infinitive is used as part of the Objective-
with-the-Infinitive Construction.

135
After the verb know in the I’ve never known it snow The Infinitive is used as part of the Objective-
meaning of “to in July before. with-the-Infinitive Construction.
experience”

After the modal You had better have some The Infinitive is used as part of the Compound
expressions: rest. Verbal Modal Predicate.
had better/ had best, I’d rather spend my
would rather/ would holidays at the seaside.
sooner

After the prepositions I can’t but ask this The Infinitive functions as Adverbial Modifier
question. of Exception.
but and except
We had nothing to do
except look at the cinema
posters.

In the rhetorical Why not call him right The Infinitive is used in one-member Infinitive
questions: now? sentences beginning with adverbs “why” and
“how”.
Why (not)…? How leave her there
alone?
How…?
If the Infinitive expands Turn off the gas was all I The Infinitive functions as Subject.
the meaning of the verb did.
“to do”
All I did was (to) turn off
“To” is optional if the Infinitive functions as
the gas.
Predicative, though the Bare Infinitive is
preferred.

After the conjunction I have more important The Infinitive functions as Adverbial Modifier
things to do than (to) talk of Comparison. In this function “to” is
than
with you. optional, though the Bare Infinitive is
preferred.

After the conjunctions I told him to sit down and If two Infinitives used next to each other are
rest. connected by conjunctions and / or, the second
and / or
infinitive is often used without the particle
She didn't know whether to
“to”.
go or stay.

After the verb While Christina helped ***Bare Infinitive is used when
Celia empty the basket in
help *** 1) ‘‘helping’’ means the speaker’s direct or
the kitchen, Stephen put
active involvement into the action denoted by
the barbecue in the store-
the Infinitive: Mrs. Arthur Goldberg paints
room at the back of the
professionally and helps sponsor the
house.
Associated Artists’ Gallery.
2) the verb help itself is preceded by the
particle “to”: They took on an estate manager
and wine-maker to help run the business.
A to-Infinitive is used after HELP
1) when ‘‘helping’’ means a condition which

136
enables the helpee to realize the action denoted
by the Infinitive. Thus, the verb help means “to
enable” or “to facilitate”: This book will help
you to see the truth.
2) in passive constructions: They were helped
to do it.
Sometimes two variants are possible, though
there is a subtle semantic difference between
them. Compare:
He helped me finish on time by doing the
bibliography for me = He actually did some of
the work. He helped me to finish on time by
taking the children away for the week-end =
He just enabled me to do it myself.
Bare Infinitive after HELP is more common
in AmE than BrE. Compare: Regular physical
activity can help control your weight and can
help protect you against heart disease (AmE).
A flu vaccination can help to protect you from
flu (BrE).

137
FUNCTIONS OF THE INFINITIVE
Table 7
Function Example Note
1) The Infinitive is used in the initial position of the sentence preceding the
predicate:
To pretend that the accident never happened
would be absolutely foolish. ● when the speaker refers to a specific occasion

Subject
To live is to struggle. ● in sayings which express an action referring to unspecified time. In
Russian it is rendered by means of the Infinitive or the Noun. Жить
значит бороться. (Жизнь – это борьба.)
To be or not to be that is the question. ● in quotations
It is necessary to do it. 2) The Infinitive can be introduced by the formal introductory subject “it”
and thus it follows the predicate.
Predicative My dream is to go on a sea voyage around The Infinitive is always used after Vlinking. In Russian it is rendered by means
the world. of (значит (заключается в том, чтобы)) + Infinitive: Моя мечта –
отправиться в кругосветное путешествие.

All parents’ problem is how to avoid The Infinitive as Predicative can be used with the сonjunctive words how,
misunderstanding with their children. what, whom, which, when, why, where.
Part of the Predicative He is pleasant to talk to. The Infinitive is used after Vlinking + Adj, the subject is the recipient of the
action of the Infinitive.
The Indefinite Infinitive Active Voice is used only.

138
Part of the Compound He must do it. The Infinitive is used after Vmodal can / could, must, may / might, will /
Verbal Modal Predicate would, shall / should, needn’t, dare, ought to, be to; the modal equivalents
have to, to be able to; the modal expressions had better, would rather /
would sooner, be going to, be about to.
Part of the Compound The student began to read the text. The Infinitive is used after Vaspect to begin, to start, to commence, to
Verbal Aspect Predicate continue, to proceed, to go on, to cease, used to/ would.
You never cease to amaze me!
These verbs can be followed by Ving with little or no difference in the
meaning: go on to do smth_ = to do or say smth new: After discussing the
economy the minister went on to talk about foreign policy.
go on doing smth = continue doing the same thing: The minister went on
talking for two hours.
Part of the Simple I don’t love him. The Infinitive is used after V aux. do, does, did, will, would, should to form
Verbal Predicate negative and interrogative forms in Present and Past Simple, Future Simple
He didn’t come.
and Conditional Mood..
I will do it.
He would do it tomorrow.

Object Please don’t hesitate to call us if you have The Infinitive as Object is a complement to a Verb, Adjective, Stative and
any problems. thus it completes the meaning of these parts of speech.
I’m proud to say we made the right decision.
If you don’t know the answer, don’t be afraid
to say so.
I don’t know what to answer him. The Infinitive as Object can be used with the сonjunctive words how, what,
whom, which, when, why, where.

The doctor finds it necessary to inform the After the Verbs point of view to find, to consider, to believe, to think the

139
patient about the diagnosis of his illness. Infinitive may be preceded by the formal object it, which is not translated
into Russian: Врач счел необходимым проинформировать пациента о
диагнозе его заболевания.
Attribute He had a great desire to travel. The Infinitive modifies the Nounclass/ abstract / material. In Russian it is rendered
by means of the Infinitive: У него было большое желание
Give me some water to drink.
путешествовать.
There is nothing to do. The Infinitive modifies the Pronouns indefinite / negative (somebody/someone,
something, anybody/anyone, anything, nothing, nobody, etc.) and Pronouns
Their only hope was that there would be
quantitative: much / a lot, little.
someone to let them in when they arrived.
A man in your position has so much to lose.
He was the first to realize the situation. The Infinitive modifies the substantivized Numerals ordinal and the
Adjectives “last”, “next”. In Russian it is rendered by means of an
Who was the last to come?
attributive clause: Он был первым, кто понял ситуацию. or the finite
form of the verb-predicate: Кто пришел последним?
There was nowhere to go. The Infinitive modifies the Adverbs somewhere, anywhere, nowhere.

Alice had no idea what to do. The Infinitive as Attribute can be used with the relative words how, what,
whom, which, when, why, where.
Parenthesis To be honest, I watched this film but I didn’t The Infinitive as Parenthesis is always separated by a comma.
like it.

Purpose He will come to talk about it. The action of the Infinitive refers to the future. The Infinitive can be used
MODIFIER OF
ADVERBIAL

both in the final and initial position of the sentence.


To be there on time, we must hurry.
He will come in order to talk about it. The Infinitive may be introduced by the conjunctions in order to or so as. In
Russian it is rendered by means of the conjunctions чтобы (для того
I hired a taxi so as not to miss the train.
чтобы) + the Infinitive: Он придет, чтобы поговорить об этом.

140
Stay and have dinner. After the Verbs to come, to go, to stay, etc. the idea of purpose can be
expressed by the conjunction and + Bare Infinitive. This structure often
occurs in Imperative sentences where the Bare Infinitive may sound
ambiguous as it resembles in form the verb in the Imperative mood.
Subsequent event The children woke up to find no food in the The Infinitive in this function is usually expressed by the following verbs:
house. ● by Verbs denoting discovery: to find, to discover.
She looked up to see a stranger coming up to ● by Verbs sense perception: to see, to hear, to feel
them.
He went to America to die of a heart attack. ● by Verbs denoting a change in a state or position: to die, to sink, etc.
She made him confess only to understand In this function the Infinitive is often preceded by the Particle only. In
that his confession didn’t move her. Russian it is rendered by means of a finite form of the verb as a
homogeneous predicate joined by the conjunction но + лишь: Она
заставила его признаться, но лишь поняла, что его признание ее не
трогает.
She rushed home to find a thief exploring the In this function the Infinitive is often used after the verb-predicate expressed
house. by a Verb motion: to come, to run, to rush, to leave, to return, to arrive,
etc.
The Infinitive in this function should not be confused with the Infinitive as
Adverbial Modifier of Purpose. Though they may have much in common
from the point of view of their position, their meaning is quite different. She
rushed home to find her purse and pay for the purchase. (= She rushed
home in order to find her purse and pay for the purchase.) Она бросилась
домой, чтобы найти кошелек и расплатиться за покупку.
She rushed home to find a thief exploring the house. (= She rushed home
and found that a thief was exploring the house.) Она бросилась домой и
обнаружила, что ее дом обыскивает вор.
The action expressed by the Infinitive as Adverbial Modifier of Subsequent
Event is usually unexpected or unpleasant.
Result / He is too small to understand it. The Infinitive denotes an action which became possible or impossible due to
Consequence some action or state expressed by the words it refers to. The Infinitive
She’s old enough to make up her mind.
depends on the Adjectives modified by the Adverbs too and enough. In

141
Russian it is rendered by means of the Adverb слишком + Adjective + the
conjunction чтобы+ the Infinitive: Он слишком маленький, чтобы
понять это. In this meaning the Infinitive often implies negation. Or by
means of the Adverb достаточно + Adjective + the conjunction чтобы+
the Infinitive: Она достаточно взрослая, чтобы принять решение.
She was so kind as to listen to us. The Infinitive can be introduced by the conjunctions so … as, such … as.
He is such a fool as to let it out of his hands.
Exception She does nothing but grumble. The Infinitive is used after the prepositions but, except. It expresses the only
action that is possible in the situation. In this case only a Bare Infinitive is
There was nothing to do except follow the used.
instruction.
Comparison They were sitting hand in hand as if to The Infinitive is introduced by the conjunctions as if / as though, than.
support each other.
I’d rather go away than stay here.
Motivation She was silly to have married him. The Infinitive refers to a predicative expressed by Adj evaluative denoting
assessment of someone’s intellectual faculties, morals or other qualities.
Condition You wouldn’t believe to look at him that he The Infinitive is used to explain the condition on which the action of the
is a famous singer. predicate depends. The conditional meaning of the Infinitive is supported by
the form of the Vpredicate in the Conditional Mood.
In this function the Infinitive is used but seldom.
Time He died to be ninety-five. The Infinitive denotes an action which marks out the moment of time up to
which or at which the action of the predicate is performed. The Infinitive
has adverbial temporary relations with the Vpredicate . Compare: He died when
he was ninety-five.
In this function the Infinitive is used but seldom.

142
OBJECTIVE-with-the-INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION
TYPE I
Table 8
Nominal Part Verbal Part

N common case / Pron. objective case + Bare Infinitive

Usage Example Note


After Vsense perception*: She saw him enter the room. * Only the Indefinite Active Infinitive is used. It denotes a completed action. In
I felt my pulse quicken. Russian it is rendered by a complex sentence with the verb-predicate in the
to see**, to hear**, to smell, to feel, to She heard the clock strike eight. perfective form: Она видела, как он вошел в комнату.
notice**, to watch, to observe
**If the verb to see means “to understand”, an object clause should be used: I
saw that he knew everything.
**After the verbs to see and to notice the Infinitive of the verb to be is not
used. Instead, an object clause is used: I saw that she was pale.
**If the verb to hear means “to be told”, an object clause or a gerundial
construction is used: I hear that he left for Moscow. / I hear of his leaving for
Moscow.

After Vpermission to let They let us examine the documents.


After Vcausative Dr. Smith made the nurse take the patient’s *** HAVE in negative sentences, especially after will not / cannot means
temperature twice a day. allow / tolerate and rendered into Russian as Я ни за что не допущу, чтобы
to make, to have*** I’ll have the gardener plant some trees. …
***I won’t have you leave so soon.
After V to know**** I have never known him lose his temper ****KNOW is used in the Present Perfect Tense. In Russian it is rendered Я
before. никогда не видел (не слышал), чтобы … .
in the meaning “to experience”

143
OBJECTIVE- with-the-INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION
TYPE II
Table 8a
Nominal Part Verbal Part

N common case / Pron. objective case + to-Infinitive

Usage Example Note


After V request Christian asked him to stay to dinner.
to ask, to beg, to beseech, to implore
After V order I keep telling him to cut his hair but he takes no Сompare tell, order, require, instruct, direct, command. TELL is the
to tell, to order, to require, to instruct, to direct, to notice. most generally used verb. It is not very strong and it is used in
command, etc. everyday situations.
The policeman ordered the motorist to stop. ORDER / REQUIRE is stronger and is used by people in authority who
expect to be obeyed.
The judge directed the defendant to answer. INSTRUCT / DIRECT suggest giving a precise description of a
necessary action. They are used in impersonal and official situations.
The officer commanded his men to open fire. COMMAND is mainly used in military situations.
After Vpermission For a while she allowed her thoughts to wander.
to allow, to permit, to forbid , etc.
After Vcausative The noise caused her to awaken.
to get, to cause, to force, etc.
After Vmental activity Everyone supposes him (to be) poor, but he is really After the Verbs to consider, to find, to think the Infinitive to be is
to think, to consider, to know, to suppose, to believe, quite wealthy. optional.
to find, to expect The firm expects interest rates to remain unchanged
at least in the first half.
After Vdeclaring The surgeon pronounced the wound to be a serious
to report, to declare, to pronounce one.
After Vwish He only wished you to be near him.
to wish, to want, to desire, etc.
After Vemotion Mary would like Nick to smoke less.
to like, to dislike, to hate, to prefer, etc. I would prefer you not to complain all the time.
After Vwith a prepositional object You can rely on me to keep your secret.
to count on, to rely on, to listen to

144
SUBJECTIVE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION
Table 9
Nominal Part Verbal Part

N common case / Pron. nominative case + to-Infinitive

Usage Example Note


1 After Verbs in the Passive Voice: *After Vsense perception the Indefinite Infinitive is
Vsense perception*: used only. The Infinitive denotes a completed
to see, to observe, to hear action. In Russian it is rendered by means of a
complex sentence with the verb-predicate in the
perfective form: Слышали, как он упомянул эту
He was heard to mention the matter. проблему. Видели, как машина исчезла
The car was seen to disappear in the вдалеке.
distance.
Vsaying \ declaring**: Ann is said to resemble her sister. **Any form of the Infinitive can be used. In
to say, to report, to declare The man was reported to have stolen Russian it is rendered by means of a complex
the money. sentence: Говорят (говорили), что …;
Сообщают (сообщили), что …
Vmental activity***: He is known to live in this house. ***Any form of the Infinitive can be used. In
to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to The manuscript is believed to have Russian it is rendered by means of a complex
suppose, to expect been written in the 15th century. sentence: Известно, что …; Считают
(считали), что …Ожидают (ожидали), что
….

Vcausative****: to make, to force He was made to pay for the damage ****The Indefinite Infinitive is used only. In
he had done. Russian it is rendered by means of a simple
sentence: Его заставили заплатить за
нанесенный ущерб.

145
2 After Verbs in the Active Voice He seems /doesn’t seem to have left *****Any form of the Infinitive can be used. In
to seem / to appear***** for London a week ago. Russian it is rendered by means of a complex
sentence: Кажется (казалось), что … .
to turn out / to prove****** They all turned out to be good friends ******Any form of the Infinitive can be used. In
The experiment proved to be a Russian it is rendered by means of a complex
failure. sentence: Оказывается (оказалось), что … .

to happen / to chance ******* *******The Indefinite Infinitive is used only. In


Russian it is rendered by means of a simple
sentence with the adverb случайно: Только вчера
Only yesterday we happened to see мы случайно встретили Энди.
Andy.
3 After expressions******** ********The Indefinite Infinitive is used only.
to be likely to V / to be unlikely to V The action of the Infinitive refers to the future. In
to be certain to V / to be uncertain to V Russian it is rendered by means of a simple
to be sure to V sentence with modal words наверное (по-
видимому), несомненно (бесспорно),
обязательно:
It is likely to rain soon. Наверное (по-видимому), скоро пойдет дождь.
Этот пожар, несомненно (бесспорно) вызовет
This fire is certain to produce a panic утром панику.
in the morning. Мы обязательно решим эту проблему.
We are sure to solve this problem.

146
FOR-to-INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION
Table 10
Nominal Part Verbal Part

for + Ncommon case / Pron.objective case + to-Infinitive

Function Example Note

It was difficult for him to find It usually occurs in sentences


any words to express his with the formal introductory
Complex Subject feelings. subject It, though it is
occasionally placed in the
For Robert to say such a thing initial position of the sentence.
is nonsense.

The idea is for us to give a It is mostly used after the Verb


Complex Predicative special concert in the Festival linking to be.
Hall.
They waited in silence for the It is used as complement to a
boy to answer. Verb, Adjective, Stative.
I’m so glad for you to have
Complex Object come at last.
His family were anxious for
him to do something. Occasionaly the construction
I think it necessary for you to correlates with the formal
take a taxi. object it
There are several people for It modifies the Noun,
Complex Attribute you to consult. Pronoun.
I think I can find something
for you to do.
The children came up to the It is used as complement to a
Complex Adverbial Modifier mother for her to kiss them. Verb with adverbial relations
of Purpose of purpose “What for did they
do it?”
Complex Adverbial Modifier The bridge was too narrow for It depends on the Adjectives
of Result / Consequence the truck to cross. modified by the Adverbs too,
I was young enough for the enough.
children not to feel shy.

147
MEANINGS OF THE FORMS OF GERUND
Table 11
Form of the Meaning Example Note
Gerund
Non-perfect General action I like dancing.
Gerund I hate arguing with
you.
A simultaneous action Tom suggested going Non-perfect gerund can refer
with that of the finite back to our tents. to the same time as that of
form of the verb the finite form of the verb
An action which refers I entered the
to the future university for
mastering English.
An immediate On seeing us she
succession of the stopped.
actions in the sentence
Perfect A prior action to that I regret having wasted Note: After the verbs
Gerund of the finite form of so much time on that ‘remember’, ‘forget’,
the verb. boring book. ‘forgive’, ‘thank’ the Non-
perfect Gerund is used, in
spite of the priority of its
action to that of the finite
form of the verb.
I remember going to the
British Museum once.
Active Gerund The subject/object of She denies having met Note: Though the subject of
the sentence is the him before. the sentence is the recipient
doer of the action of of the action of the Gerund,
the Gerund Gerund Active voice is
used after ‘be worth’,
‘deserve’, ‘need’, ‘require’,
‘want’.
The TV needs repairing.
Passive The subject/object of Do you prefer The gerund of intransitive
Gerund the sentence is the teaching anybody or verbs has no passive forms.
recipient of the action being taught?
of the Gerund

148
FUNCTIONS OF GERUND
Table 12
Function Prepositions Examples
Subject ___ Translating such texts is rather difficult.
It’s no use translating this text without a
dictionary
Predicative - / like ** My problem is getting to sleep on time.
I don’t feel like going to bed yet.
Part of a compound verbal ___ began
aspect predicate He kept on translating the novel.
stopped
Direct object* ___ He suggested going to the museum.
He denies having met her.
Prepositional object* Of, about, on, in, for, He insisted on going home.
from, at, to, etc. She was not conscious of having shown my
special interest in Tom.
Attribute Of, about, in, at, for, He was busy and gave up the idea of going to
to ** the seaside.
time After, before, on, in, She looked at him before answering.
at
purpose For, for fear of, for He wants to visit a solicitor tomorrow for the
the sake of, for the purpose of making a new will.
purpose of
condition Without, but for He won’t go without saying good-buy.
cause*\ reason For, though, owing Though being left out all night in the rain,
to, or fear of, due to, the metal hadn’t rusted.
because of
Adverbial modifier of

attendant without, instead of He went away instead of working. He


circumstances* arrived at the age of forty-five without
having once appeared upon the stage.
concession In spite of, despite In spite of being busy, she managed to
translate the text.
manner In, by Her evening was spent in reading.
comparison ____ The country is much better or you than
working in the hot city all summer.
*In this case Perfect Gerund may occur
**The choice of these prepositions is determined by V, Adj, N

149
RIGHT-HAND COMBINABILITY OF SOME VERBS

V + preposition + Ving
Table 13
V + of + Ving (dis)approve
Be on the point
Beware
Come
Complain
Consist
Despair
Dream
Give up the idea
Like the idea
Make a point
Miss the/an opportunity
Speak
Talk
Tell, etc
V + like + Ving Feel
Look, etc
V+ about + Ving Arrange
Bother
Care
Complain
Forget
Grumble
Hesitate
Talk
Think
Worry
Have no doubt, etc
V + on + Ving Agree
Concentrate
Count
Decide
Insist
Plan
Reckon, etc
V+ in + Ving Believe
Consist
Delight
End
Lose time
Persist
150
Result
Succeed
Take pride
Take risk, etc
V + at + Ving Aim
Arrive
Play
Scream, etc
V+ with+ Ving Threaten, etc
V+ to + Ving Admit
Agree
Apply
Be up
Come
Come round
Confess
Consent
Fall
Feel up
Get
Get down
Get round
Get back
Lead
Look forward
Plead guilty
Point, etc
V + into + Ving Drop, etc
V + from + Ving Abstain
Despair
Escape
Refrain
Result
Save
Shrink
Shy away, etc.
V+ for + Ving Account
Apologize
Alone
Find excuses
Long, etc.
V+by+Ving Mean, etc.

151
RIGHT-HAND COMBINABILITY OF SOME VERBS

V + (N/preposition+N) + preposition + Ving


Table 14
V+N+of+ Ving Accuse smb
Exasperate smb
Remind smb
Suspect smb, etc
V+ N+ on+ Ving Compliment smb
Congratulate smb
Pride oneself
Spend smth, etc
V+N+with+ Ving Amuse smb
Charge smb, etc
V+N+in+Ving Waste smb’s time, etc
V+N+against+Ving Warn smb
insure smb, etc
V+N+about+Ving Ask smb
Mutter smth
Question smb
Say smth
Tell amb/smth
V+N+from+Ving Discourage smb
Hinder smb
Keep smb/smth
Prevent smb
Prohibit smb
Protect smb/smth
Rescue smb/smth
Save smb
Stop smb, etc
V+N+by+Ving Amuse oneself
Oblige smb, etc
V+N+to+Ving Accustom smb
Attribute smth
Give smth
Limit oneself
Reduce smth/smb
Restrict oneself, etc
V+N+into+Ving Bribe smb
Coax smb
Deceive oneself/smb
Frighten smb
Hypnotize smb
Invite smb
Persuade smb
Pester smb
Talk smb
152
Trap smb
Trick smb, etc
V+N+out of + Ving Argue smb
Make an occupation
Talk smb, etc
V+N+for+Ving Blame smb
Bless smb
Criticize smb
Excuse smb
Forgive smb
Give smth
Honor smb
Pardon smb
Praise smb
Punish smb
Reprimand smb
Reproach smb
Respect smb
Reward smb
Scold smb
Scorn smb
Thanks smb, etc
V+prep+N+prep+Ving Apologize to smb for
Come to smb for
Co-operate with smb in
Laugh at smb for, etc

153
RIGHT-HAND COMBINABILITY OF SOME ADJECTIVES
Adj + preposition + Ving
Table 15
Adj+of+Ving Afraid
Ashamed
Aware
(in)capable
Certain
Confident
Conscious
Fond
Guilty
Hopeful
Proud
Sure
Tired
Weary
worthy
Adj+about+Ving Angry
Careful
Concerned
Doubtful
Excited
Happy
Hesitant
Hopeful
Mad
Sensible
Thrilled
Worried, etc
Adj+with+Ving Acquainted
Contented
Satisfied, etc
Adj+at+Ving Angry
Annoyed
Astonished
Bad
Brilliant
Clever
Clumsy
Delighted
Disappointed
Excited
Expert
Good
Gratified
Hopeless
Indignant
154
Pleased
Prompt
Relived
Shocked
Stupid
Surprised, etc
Adj+in+Ving Busy
Careless
Experienced
Expert
Fortunate
Happy
Interested
Justified
Late
Mistaken
Occupied
Patient
Ready
Skillful
Slow
Successful , etc
Adj+for+Ving Convenient
Eminent
Famous
Favourable
Notorious
Remarkable
Responsible
Sorry
Thankful, etc
Adj+on+Ving Dependent
Determined
Insistent
Intent
Keen
Mad, etc
Adj+to+Ving (Un)accustomed
Averse
Close
Opposed
Reluctant
Subsequent
Used, etc
Adj+from+Ving Different
Exempt, etc

155
RIGHT-HAND COMBINABILITY OF SOME NOUNS

N + of + Ving
Table 16
end interest policy standard comparison
enjoyment interference possibility state complication
enterprise intimacy power strain conception
evidence issue practice subject consequence
evil job precaution success consideration
exhilaration joke pretence support consolation
expenditure joy pride surprise (in)convenience
expence knack privilege symptom cost
experience labour process talent custom
fact lecture proof talk danger
fascination lightness prospect task day
fate limit purpose terror defence
favour love question thought delay
fear luck rapture torment delight
feeling luxury relief trick desirability
flavour madness reputation trouble destiny
fuss magnificence result use difficulty
game manner reward verge (in)dignity
genius means risk accident disappointment
gesture medium ritual accuracy disease
gift memory role action disgrace
grief merit routine (dis)advantage dislike
guilt method rule adventure dreariness
hell misery satisfaction aim effect
honour misfortune savour air embarrassment
hope mistake scruple appearance emotion
hopelessness moment sensation art
horror motion sense attitude NOTE: In this
humiliation movement shame burden pattern the Gerund
idea necessity shock business functions as
ignorance noise sight capacity attribute.
illusion notion sign carelessness
impertinence object signal case
importance opinion sin challenge
impression opportunity slavery chance
incident pain sorrow charge
initiative participation sort charm
instant pity speciality choice
instinct platitude sport (dis)comfort

156
RIGHT-HAND COMBINABILITY OF SOME NOUNS

N + preposition + Ving
Table 17
N+for+Ving capacity
cause
excuse
genius
gift
grounds
liking
mania
motive
opportunity
passion
preference
pretext
propensity
reason
regret
reputation
talent
taste
time, etc.
N+in+Ving advantage
amusement
belief
believer
difficulty
experience
harm
hesitation
ingenuity
Interest
meaning
object
participation
pleasure
point
purpose
sense
skill
success
tact
time
use, etc.
N+at+Ving amazement
annoyance
astonishment
157
attempt
chance
delight
dismay
effort
embarrassment
excitement
expert
hand
irritation
pleasure
practice
pride
proficiency
regret
relief
satisfaction
shyness
surprise, etc.

N+to+Ving alternative
liking
means
objection
preparation
tendency, etc..
N+about+Ving doubt
fantasy
obsession
scruples, etc
Note! In this pattern Gerund functions as attribute

158
INFINITIVE or GERUND
Table 18
MEANING INFINITIVE VERB GERUND NOTE
=wish, have a I want to have a WANT My hair wants =require, to
desire hair-cut cutting. be in need
of
=be under a He didn’t need to NEED This chapter =want,
necessity or be reminded needs require
obligation about it. rewriting.
=demand, insist You are required REQUIRE This flat = need, depend on
upon as a right or to be there by requires white- for success,
by authority nine o’clock washing. fulfilment, etc
(often passive)
=intend, have in I mean to leave MEAN This illness will = signify
mind as a purpose tomorrow. mean going to
or plan: ‘to have hospital.
I meant to have
+ Ven’ is used to
left yesterday but
denote an action
fell ill.
which was not
carried out in the
past
=run that risk, be What do we STAND She can’t stand = can’t bear, endure
in a position stand to gain by being kept
where one is the agreement? waiting.
likely to win
=don’t want I hate to trouble HATE She hates = can’t bare, have a
you. getting to the strong dislike on/for
theatre late. smth
a I’d like to go to LIKE I like going to a general/recurrent
particular/singular the South this the South each action
PREFER
action year. year.

=worried, filled She is afraid to BE AFRAID She is afraid of = doubtful/anxious


with wake her waking her about the
apprehension husband. He may husband. consiquences
be angry
=want to do very I am anxious to BE I am anxious = afraid of the
much, have a hear your news. ANXIOUS about leaving consequences
great desire Jimmy alone in
the house.

159
=attempt, use Try to behave TRY Try knocking = make that
one’s utmost better -> Try and at the back experiment and see
efforts; ‘try+to V’ behave better door, whether it is
is often replaced satisfactory
by ‘try+ Vinf’,
esp. in the
Imperative
=put an end to the We stopped to STOP We stopped = cease, give up
movement or have a talk. talking.
progress of a
person, thing,
activity for some
purpose
The action of the Remember to REMEMBER Do you The action of
Infinitive takes close the remember Gerund took place
FORGET
place after the act window. closing the before the act of
o remembering, REGRET window before remembering,
forgetting, or leaving? forgetting, or
regretting regretting

160
GERUND and VERBAL NOUN

Table 19
Gerund Verbal Noun
Art –––– It’s the only way I got to make
a living.
Left-hand

Pron dem –––– This drawing of a dog is not


acceptable for your project.
Adj –––– This bad drawing of a dog is
not acceptable for your
project.
COMBINABILITY

Ncom/Pronobj He doesn’t have any


(as a direct object principles, he doesn’t
after Vtr) think about anything
but making money.
of+N (after Vtr) ––– The ringing of the bell grew
louder.
Right-hand

Adv Would you mind our –––


running fast to catch
And +N the train?
––– She pretended to pick clothing
and jewelry from the
advertisements in the paper
and to dress herself with these
things.
NUMBER ––– This building’s just as
(Singular - Plural) important as those buildings
over on Park Avenue.
CORRELATION You know she is never –––
CATEGORIES

(Non-perfect - silent. She keeps on


Perfect) talking.
It’s such a boring
book. I regret having
wasted so much time
VOICE on it.
(Active - Passive) Do you prefer –––
teaching anybody or
being taught?

161
GERUNDIAL and HALF-GERUNDIAL CONSTRUCTIONS
Table 20
GERUNDIAL HALF-GERUNDIAL CONSTRUCTION
CONSRTUCTION
(prep+) Ngen/Pronposs+Ving (prep+) Ncom/Pronobj+Ving NOTE
––– There came the sound of 1. The construction is
the door closing then common:
being locked. a) with inanimate nouns
and pronouns that are
––– Fancy a woman of taste not used in the Genitive
buying a hat. Case;
––– She objected to children b) with nouns
and women smoking. accompanied by
attributes in post-
I remember Mary’s telling It’s no good you hating it. position;
me that. (The action is c) when the Ving is
emphasized.) - preceded by more than
She denies his knowing one noun;
anything about our plan. d) when the speaker
- wants to emphasize the
Your crying isn’t going to doer of the action/.
do us any good. 2. The construction
can’t combine with the
verbs: to avoid, to
defer, to delay, to deny,
to enjoy, to postpone, to
put off, to risk, to
suggest.
3. The construction
functioning as subject
can’t be used in the first
position in the sentence.

162
MEANINGS OF THE FORMS OF PARTICIPLES
Table 21
Form of the Meaning Example Note
Participle
Non-perfect A simultaneous Emma sat in the
Participle I action with that of armchair
the finite form of facingthe door
the verb
An immediate Seeing us she
succession of the stopped.
actions in the
sentence
Perfect An action which is They were, indeed,
Participle I prior to that of the old friends,
finite form of the having been at
verb school together.
Active The subject/object We went along the
Participle I of the sentence is street leading to
is the doer of the the seashore.
action of
Participle I
Passive The subject/object Another factor
Participle I of the sentence is concerns the
the recipient of the
formality of the
action of the language being
Participle I taught.
Participle II Participle II of The broken cup Participle II of some
transitive verbs
was on the floor. transitive verbs may
has got a passive denote ‘passing into a
meaning new state’: arrived,
come, faded, fallen,
flushed, gone, grouped,
poised, retired,
returned, risen, shrunk,
vanished, withered, etc.
Her uncle is a retired
colonel.
Participle II of He has just come.
intransitive verbs
is used only as
part of Perfect
forms

163
FUNCTIONS OF PARTICIPLE I

Table 22
FUNCTIONS CONJ EXAMPLES
PART OF A SIMPLE My son is playing in the garden
VERBAL He has been playing there
PREDICATE since morning
The Fada road is finished, the
PREDICATIVE great idea is realized.

The whipping waves roared


through the night
ATTRIBUTE The waves, whipping the shore
savagely, roared through the
night.
Generally speaking, he is a
PARENTHESIS
satisfactory student.
(While) waiting for another
question, he went silent.
time when/while/whilst
Having finished the repairs, the
plumber is preparing to leave.
ADVERBIAL MODDIFIER OF

Being late for classes, I ran up


the stairs.
Cause/reason Having sold their house, they
were free to leave.

attendant
He lay in bed reading.
circumstances
Though knowing what was
there, he took the paper out
concession though/although
and walked to the window to
read.
He spent his morning reading
manner
“The morning Star”.
For a moment he stood as if
comparison as if/as though
waiting for another question.
Well, we’ll be in Scotland
condition before we know where we are,
going at this speed.
*

164
DIFFERENTIATION between GERUND and PARTICIPLE I
Table 23
LEFT-HAND
GERUND PARTCIPLE I
COMBINABILITY
In translating the text he
Prep
consulted the dictionary.
While translating the text
Conj
he consulted the dictionary.
I suggested my friend’s
N’s / Pron poss translating the text
straight away.
I saw him translating the
text. (After Vsense
I don’t mind him
N /Pron obj perception and to hold, to
translating the text.
keep, to take, to catch, to
leave, etc.)
FUNCTIONS
There is no translating
SUBJECT this text without a
dictionary.
His intention is
His story is very surprising.
PREDICATIVE translating such texts
(emotional meaning)
every day.
PART of a
COMPOUND He began translating this
VERBAL ASPECT text.
PREDICATE
He suggested translating
OBJECT
this text.
a hunting dog – a dog for a hunting dog – a dog that
hunting is hunting
ATTRIBUTE
a dancing room – a room a dancing girl – a girl that
for dancing is dancing

165
FUNCTIONS OF PARTICIPLE II
Table 24
FUNCTIONS CONJ EXAMPLES
The door was locked.
PREDICATIVE The doll lay deserted on the
porch.
PART OF A SIMPLE The door was always
VERBAL locked by Tom.
PREDICATE
The answered through the
ATTRIBUTE locked door.
There was no evidence left.
Overcome by grief, he sat
cause \ reason
speechless.
ADVERBIAL MODDIFIER OF

when
time till He spoke when spoken to
until
if He didn’t usually utter a
condition
unless word unless spoken to.
Though/although
even if/even Though addressed to, he
though sat silent.
concession
even when Whether telecast or not, the
wherever game isn’t worth missing.
whether…or
For a moment he stood as if
comparison As if \ As though
puzzled.

166
FUNCTIONS of VERBALS
Table 25
FUNCTIONS INFINITIVE GERUND PARTICIPLE I PARTICIPLE II
It is good translating such
To translate this text is
SUBJECT texts without any
easy.
dictionary.
My intention is to go to My intention is going to
PREDICATIVE The door was locked.
Moscow this year. Moscow next year.
This text is easy to
PART OF A PREDICATIVE
translate.
PART OF A COMPOUND
He must have translated
VERBAL MODAL
this text.
PREDICATE
PART OF A COMPOUND He began to translate this
He is absent, but I know he
VERBAL ASPECT text and is sure to finish it
began translating this text.
PREDICATE soon.
PART OF A SIMPLE He will translate this text The text hasn’t been
Now he is translating a text.
VERBAL PREDICATE tomorrow. translated yet.
He planned to go to He suggested going to
DIRECT OBJECT
Moscow. Moscow.
He insisted on going to
PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT
Moscow.
He was busy and gave up
Singing people filled the I like sports connected with
ATTRIBUTE Was he the last to leave? the idea of going to
street. the sea.
Moscow.
To tell the truth, he will Generally speaking, he is a
PARENTHESIS
not accept our offer. satisfactory student.

167
After answering my Answering my questions, he
time When answered he went out.
questions he went out. went out.
This room is used for
purpose He stopped to smoke.
smoking.
To hear him talk, you
He won’t go away without He didn’t usually utter a
condition would think he went to
translating this text, word inless spoken to.
London many times.
What would he do but
exception translate this text at
ADVERBIAL MODDIFIER OF

least?
He didn’t even try to
Being away, he didn’t Overcome by grief, he sat
cause translate the text for fear of
translate the text. speechless.
making a fool of himself.
The boys were very cruel
reason to laugh at such a sick
man.
Though knowing what was
In spite of being busy, he Though addressed to, he sat
concession there, he took the paper out
translated this text. silent.
to read.
His evening was spent in He spent the evening
manner
translating a text. translating a text.
He doesn’t know English
result well enough to translate
such a difficult text.
I’ve got more important
She stated it as a fact rather For a moment he stood as if
things to do than For a moment he stood as if
comparison than putting it as a waiting for another
translate this unnecessary puzzled.
question. question.
text.

168
OBJECTIVE PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTION
Table 26
LEFT-HAND PATTERN EXAMPLES NOTE
COMBINABILITY
Vsense perception* I smell the pie Participle I is used to
(to see**, to watch, Ncom Ving burning. denote an action in
Pronobj + Ven
to observe, to notice, She heard its process.
to hear**, to feel, to herself called. Participle II has a
smell, etc. ) passive meaning.
V oblique causality**** Ncom Ven He had/got the
(to have , to get) Pronobj + house painted.
V mental activity ***** I prefer your
(to think, to Ncom Ven hair curled.
Pronobj +
consider, to expect,
to know**, to
believe, to prefer, to
feel, to imagine, to
find, etc.)
V declaring He reported the
(to declare, to Ncom + Ven watch stolen
Pronobj
pronounce, to report,
etc.)
V wish/intention The
(to wish, to want, to Ncom + Ven photographer
Pronobj
desire, to (dis)like, wanted his film
to intend, to mean, developed.
to choose, to hate,
etc.)
V – to have, to hold, George had us
to keep, to take, to Ncom Ven all laughing.
Pronobj + Ving
find, to catch, to The drill left the
leave, etc. team exhausted.

169
SUBJECTIVE PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTION
Ncommon case /Pronounnominative case + ….. + Ving / Ven
Table 27
COMBINABI
PARTICIPLE I PARTICIPLE II NOTE
LITY
V sense perception in
Passive Voice He was heard The matter wasn’t
mentioning the matter heard mentioned

V to hold
to find
to keep Non- perfect
She was found sitting The door was left
to take Participle I denotes
on the grass. locked.
to catch an action in its
to leave, process. Participle
etc. II has a passive
to seem** meaning.
His attention
to appear
seemed absorbed
Vact
by the book.

170
ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTIONS
Table 28
PREPOSITIONAL
NOMINATIVE NOMINATIVE PREPOSITIONAL
ABSOLUTE
FUNCTIONS ABSOLUTE PARTICILIAL ABSOLUTE ABSOLUTE
PARTICILIAL
CONSTRUCTIONS CONSTRUCTIONS CONSTRUCTIONS
CONSTRUCTIONS
The game having ended, the
COMPLEX ADVERBIAL MODDIFIER OF

streets were crowded.


The concert over, the
time A letter home finally written,
lottery came next.
he went to supper.

He lay in bed, dressed,


“Walter”, she whispered, her with the light burning,
attendant lips trembling. He sat on the steps, until he heard the clock With the moon in its
circumst She stood motionless, her his hands in his strike three. waxing phase, it is hard
ances head bent. pockets. He sat straight in his bed to observe the stars.
with his feet tucked under
him.
I found the house empty, my
Cause\
mother being at the shops.
reason

conditio Conciliation falling, force


n remains.

171
FUNCTIONS OF PREDICATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS
Table 29
Function Objective Subjective For-to- Gerundial/ Nominative Nominative Prepositional
Infinitive/ Infinitive/ Infinitive Half-gerundial Absolute Absolute Absolute
Participial Participial Consrtuction Construction Participial Construction Participial
Consrtuction Consrtuction Construction Construction
Complex subject - It seemed to It would be It’s no use your - - -
have taken place madness for writing or
lately. The dog me to go. telephoning.
was found tied
to a tree.
Complex predicative - - It’s not for us The only thing - - -
to stop and I’m afraid of
listen and be tonight is
soft. everybody being
too sure of
themselves.
Complex direct object I’ve seen it happen - They waited in It’s only that I - - -
in another place. I silence for the can’t help the
didn’t see the car boy to answer. water running
approaching us. out of my eyes.
Complex - - - She agrees my - - -
prepositional object marrying John.
Complex attibute - - There are I couldn’t bear - - -
several people the idea of your
for you to living at a hotel.
consult.

172
Time - - - After your breaking This done The concert -
your appointment I Margot over, the lottery
am never going to travelled back came next.
speak to you again. to fetch the boy.
Purpose - - She put up her - - - -
face to Philip for
him to kiss her.
Condition - - - There is no Conciliation - -
teaching at school failing, force
Complex adverbial modifier of

without your loving remains.


children.
Cause\ reason - - - He felt better for I found the - -
Mary’s having house empty,
written the letter. my mother
being at the
shop.
Attendant - - - He felt season She stood back He sat on the He sat straight
circumstances passed without the and looked at steps, his hands in his bed with
perfect suitor him, her face in his pockets his feet tucked
presenting himself. radiantly under him. I
smiling. stood there with
the door half
open.
Concession - - - In spite of it being - - -
cold, we went for a
walk.
Manner - - - He was wakened - - -
by someone
knocking at the

173
door.
Result - - The bridge was - - - -
too narrow for
the truck to
cross.
Comparison - - - She was not sure - - -
why it was so
awful, even more
awful than Hugh’s
knowing that she
had returned.

174
IV ЛИТЕРАТУРА

Основная литература
1. Крылова И.П. Сборник упражнений по грамматике английского языка:
Учеб. Пособие для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз. \ Крылова И.П. – М.:
Книжный дом «Университет», 1999. – 432 с.
2. Крылова И.П. Грамматика современного английского языка / Крылова
И.П., Гордон Е.М. – М.: Книжный дом «Университет», 1999. – 448с.
Дополнительная
1. Аракин В. Д. Практический курс английского языка для 2 курса:
учебник [для студ. пед. вузов] / В. Д. Аракин. – М. : Высшая школа,
1973. – 480 с.
2. Блох М.Я. Практикум по английскому языку: Грамматика. Сборник
упражнений / М.Я. Блох. – М.: Просвещение, 1985. – 175 с.
3. Каушанская В. Л. Грамматика английского языка. Пособие для
студентов пед.институтов / В. Л. Каушанская, Р. Л. Ковнер, О. Н.
Кожевникова и др. – М.: Айрис-пресс, 2008. – 384 с.
4. Кобрина Н.А. Грамматика англ. языка. Морфология. Синтаксис. \
Кобрина Н.А, Корнеева Е.А, Оссовская М.И, Гузеева К.А. – С.-
Петербург: «Союз», 1999. – 496 с.
5. Кобрина Н.А. Грамматика современного английского языка:
Морфология. Учеб. пособие для студентов пед. институтов по спец. №
2103 «Иностр. яз.»\ Кобрина Н.А, Корнеева Е.А, Оссовская М.И,
Гузеева К.А. – М.: Просвещение, 1985. – 79 с.
6. Крутиков Ю. А. Упражнения по грамматике современного английского
языка / Ю.А. Крутиков. – М.: Высшая школа, 1964. – 268 с.
7. Alexander L.G. Longman English grammar practice (intermediate level). –
Longman, 2003. – 296 p.
8. R. Murphy English Grammar in Use (Intermediate) – Cambridge, 1988. –
328 p.
9. Thomson A.J. A Practical English Grammar. – Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1997. – 383p.

175