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1. Why do living organisms respire?

Need __________ to move, excrete, grow, reproduce and maintain themselves.


Food contains ___________________ energy.
Respiration is the ____________________ of this energy when food (glucose)
is broken down in living cell.

2. Respiration is the _____________________ of food substances with the release


of _______________________ in living cells.

3. Define Aerobic respiration: The oxidation of food substances in the presence


of ______________________with the release of a large amount of energy. ________
____________________ and water are released as waste products.
Rounded Rectangle: Equation in words: Equation in symbols:

4. What is the energy used for?


1. _______________ division and growth
2. Synthesis of _____________________, fats and vitamins
3. Transmission of nerve ________________________
4. Maintenance of a constant ______________________ temperature
5. _______________________ transport in the absorption of food substances by
the small intestine
6. _____________________contractions e.g. heartbeat & respiratory movements.

5. Anaerobic respiration: It is the breakdown of glucose in the_____________


___ of oxygen to release energy.
Can take place in yeast as well as the muscles
Yeast

Muscles
Respires anaerobically when oxygen is absent.
Little energy is released.
Yeast cannot be very active under such situations.
E.g. Alcoholic fermentation
Equation:

Muscle cells normally respire aerobically.


Carry out anaerobic respiration when there is a shortage of oxygen.

Equation in words:

C6H12O6 ---- 2CH3CH(OH)COOH + 150 kJ

6. Differences:
Aerobic Respiration

Anaerobic Respiration

Uses ____________________
No alcohol or __________ acid made
_________amount of energy released
________________always released

Do not use oxygen


Alcohol or lactic acid made
Small amount of energy released
CO2 sometimes released

7. What happens during vigorous exercise?

· During vigorous muscular contraction , muscles first use _______________


____ to respire. (aerobic)
· __________________________ occurs to remove carbon dioxide and take in
more oxygen.
Heart beats _____________so that more oxygen can be brought to the muscles.
There is a LIMIT to the rate of breathing and heartbeat. They CANNOT keep o
n increasing.
To continue vigorous exercise, more energy needs to be released.
Muscle cells carry out _________________________________ respiration.
__________________acid is produced.
Lactic acid slowly builds up in the __________________________.
Muscle has an OXYGEN _______________________ .
Lactic acid cause ____________________________
Body needs to rest & recover
Muscular pain is due to the lactic acid.
Lactic acid slowly builds up in the muscles.
Muscle has an OXYGEN DEBT .

What happens during RESTING?


Lactic acid is removed from the muscles and transported to the liver.
Some of the lactic acid is oxidized to ___________________________.
Converts remaining lactic acid into glucose
. How do we know organisms respire?
1. To find out whether carbon dioxide is given off during respiration
2. To find out if carbon dioxide is given off during fermentation
3. To find out if heat is released during respiration

9. Gaseous exchange
Process of the transfer of oxygen from the air to the cells and the transfe
r of carbon dioxide and water from the cells back to the surroundings.
The Nose
Air enters through two external nostrils (nares)
Nasal passages lined with ______________and moist mucous membrane
Trap dust & foreign particles, including _________________________.
Air is warmed and moistened;
Detect harmful chemicals (by sensory cells).
The Trachea
lies in front of esophagus
supported by C-shaped rings of _______________________(which ensure it is a
lways kept opened)
Epithelium has gland cells to secrete mucus which traps dust particles
bears ________________to sweep dust particles upwards into pharynx
The Lungs
Each lung lies in the pleural cavity.
The pleural cavity is lined by 2 transparent pleural ______________________
Inner pleuron covers the lungs
Outer pleuron in contact with thoracic wall and diaphragm
The pleural fluid helps to reduce friction on the lungs when they rub again
st the rib cage during inspiration.
The lower end of the trachea divides into 2 bronchi (singular: bronchus), o
ne to each lung.
Within the lungs, the bronchial tubes divide into smaller tubes the bronchi
oles (*NO cartilage).
Each bronchiole ends with many air sacs called _______________________
lower end of the trachea divides into 2 bronchi (singular: bronchus), one
to each lung.
Within the lungs, the bronchial tubes divide into smaller tubes the bronchi
oles (*NO cartilage).
Each bronchiole ends with many air sacs called alveoli.
Adaptations of lungs for efficient gaseous exchange
Alveoli provide a large ________________________area
The wall of alveolus is very thin. Only_____________ cell thick. Allows eas
y diffusion of O2 & CO2.
A thin film of moisture covers the surface of the alveolus. O2 dissolves in
this liquid before diffusing across the wall of the alveolus.
The walls of the alveoli are richly supplied with blood capillaries. The fl
ow of blood maintains the concentration gradient of gases

12. The Chest cavity


Chest wall is supported by ribs
Two sets of intercostal muscles (internal and external) control the movemen
t of the ribs
The diaphragm separates the thorax from the abdomen
The intercostal muscles and the diaphragm contract and relax, causing the
volume of thoracic cavity to change

13. Mechanism of Breathing


Inhalation

Exhalation
Your diaphragm ______________ and flattens

Your diaphragm________________ and arches upwards.


Your external intercostal muscles _______________while your internal intercostal
muscles relax.

Your internal intercostal muscles contract while your external intercostal muscl
es _____________________.
Your ribs move ________________and outwards. Your sternum also moves up and forw
ard.
Your ribs move________________ and inwards. Your sternum also moves down to its
original position.
The volume of your thoracic cavity ___________________

The volume of your thoracic cavity


_______________________.
Air pressure in your lungs causes them to. expand to fill up the enlarged space
in your thorax. Expansion of your lungs causes the air pressure inside them to__
___________________.

Your lungs are compressed and air pressure inside them __________________as the
volume decreases.

Atmospheric pressure is now ____________________than the pressure within your lu


ngs. This causes air to rush into your lungs.

Air pressure within the lungs is now higher than atmospheric pressure. The air i
s _____________________out of your lungs to the exterior.

RICE ERIC

Alveolar air contains _________________________ concentration of oxygen th


an the blood.
Oxygen dissolves in the moisture lining and ____________________into the bl
ood capillaries.
Oxygen combines with haemoglobin to form _______________________________.
Tissue cells produce carbon dioxide during aerobic respiration.
Carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood and enters red blood cells.
Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid catalysed by carboni
c_________________________.
Carbonic acid converted into ________________________ions which diffuse out
of the red blood cells into the plasma.

Hydrogencarbonate ions diffuse back into the red blood cells


Converted into carbonic acid and then into water and carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide diffuses out of blood capillaries into the alveoli and out o
f the lungs
15. Effects of Tobacco Smoke on Human Health

Chemicals in tobacco smoke

Effects on the body


Nicotine

Addictive drug
Heart disease
Nicotine stimulates release of _________________
Increases blood pressure and heart rate
Increases chance of blood____________ and plaque deposit on the walls of co
ronary arteries
Heart attacks and death

Reduces the efficiency of oxygen transport in red blood cells


Increases rate of deposition of fatty substances in arteries and damages the
lining of blood vessels
Tar

Lung cancer
Carcinogenic compound, benzopyrene causes cancer cells to be produced
Blockage of air sacs and reduction in gas exchange efficiency
Shortness of breath
Coughing up of mucus and blood
* Paralyses cilia lining the air passages
Irritants

Bronchitis
Paralyses cilia lining of air passages
Dust and harmful chemicals are able to move past the bronchi and invade the
alveoli
Air passages become irritated and clogged with mucus and dust
Lots of phlegm and coughing
Emphysema
Violent coughing breaks partition walls between air sacs
Alveolar sacs may become less elastic
________________surface area for gaseous exchange
Lungs become inflated with air
Difficulty in breathing, wheezing

Smoking during Pregnancy


Mother s blood contains carbon monoxide and ____________________
Restricts blood vessels reducing amount of nutrients and ___________to baby
________________ birth weight of baby
Prone to illness
Increase potential for birth defects and abnormalities
Increased chances of a miscarriage
Increased chances of a premature birth
Has a greater risk of baby being born dead