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Saudi Dental Journal (2020) xxx, xxx–xxx

King Saud University

Saudi Dental Journal


www.ksu.edu.sa
www.sciencedirect.com

REVIEW ARTICLE

All-ceramic restorations: A review of the literature


Abdulhadi Warreth a,*, Yaser Elkareimi b

a
Restorative Department, College of Dentistry, University of Science and Technology of Fujairah, Fujairah, United Arab Emirates
b
Restorative Department, College of Dentistry, Ajman University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates

Received 4 January 2020; revised 27 April 2020; accepted 12 May 2020

KEYWORDS Abstract Objectives: Ceramics can simulate the visual character of the tooth substance success-
Porcelain fused to metal fully and are biocompatible materials. However, a wide range of ceramic materials and systems
restorations; on the market are available for use in dentistry. Therefore, it is the aim of this article to provide
Ceramo-metal restorations; an overview of dental ceramics, their classifications, methods of construction, and clinically relevant
All-ceramic restorations; aspects that enable the reader to select the most appropriate ceramic for a particular clinical situ-
Dental ceramics; ation.
Zirconia Material and methods: The PubMed (MEDLINE) search engine was used to gather the most
recent information on dental ceramics. The search was restricted to a ten-year period (January 1,
2010–December 31, 2019) and only English-language studies. A Boolean search of the PubMed data
set was implemented to combine a range of keywords: (ceramics OR all-ceramics OR dental porce-
lain OR polycrystalline OR porcelain fused to metal OR ceramometal OR procera OR e max OR
zirconia OR In-ceram OR Inlays OR Onlays OR Overlays OR Endocrown) AND (survival rate OR
success rate OR clinical outcomes OR classification) AND (humans). Studies were also obtained by
manual searches and from Google Scholar.
Results: By using this process, 2173 articles and studies were obtained. More studies were also
obtained by manual searches and from Google Scholar. The most relevant published studies were
chosen and used in the current review.
Conclusion: All-ceramic restoration use has increased in recent years. This increase has been
attributed to patients’ demand for good aesthetics and an improvement in the materials’ mechanical
and aesthetic properties as well as to required minimally invasive tooth preparation and the meth-
ods of fabrication. The success of ceramic restorations depends on several factors, such as selection
of material, restoration design, occlusion, and cementation media.
Ó 2020 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University. This is
an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

* Corresponding author.
E-mail address: a.warreth@ustf.ac.ae (A. Warreth).
Peer review under responsibility of King Saud University.

Production and hosting by Elsevier

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sdentj.2020.05.004
1013-9052 Ó 2020 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Please cite this article in press as: Warreth, A., Elkareimi, Y. All-ceramic restorations: A review of the literature. Saudi Dental Journal (2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/
j.sdentj.2020.05.004
2 A. Warreth, Y. Elkareimi

Contents

1. Introduction and background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00


2. Materials and methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00
2.1. Porcelain fused to metal restorations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00
2.2. All-ceramic restorations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00
2.3. Classification of dental ceramics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00
2.3.1. Ceramic classification based on composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00
2.3.2. Ceramic classification based on its fabrications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00
3. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00
Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00

1. Introduction and background Generally, the success of ceramic restorations depends on


several factors such as material selection, restoration design,
Ceramics are biocompatible and inert materials and have a and cementation media (Mizrahi, 2008; Sharkey, 2010;
high degree of intra-oral stability. Therefore, they can be safely Rekow et al., 2011).
used in the oral cavity. However, ceramics are brittle materials The aim of this article is to provide an overview of dental
that can be easily fractured (Jones, 1998; Sharkey, 2011). To ceramics and their classifications and methods of construction.
combat this weakness, ceramics are usually reinforced with This knowledge will enable the reader to select the most appro-
particles, supported by metal, or made purely of polycrys- priate ceramic for a particular clinical situation and aids com-
talline material. munication between the clinical and laboratory personnel.
When aesthetics are of utmost importance, dental ceramics
are the material of choice because they can visually simulate 2. Materials and methods
the character of the tooth substance successfully (Contrepois
et al., 2013). For instance, the use of all-ceramic restorations The PubMed (MEDLINE) search engine was used to gather
has increased in recent years (Zarone et al., 2011; Mitov the most relevant and recent information on dental ceramics.
et al., 2016; Zarone et al., 2019). Nevertheless, there is a wide The search was restricted to a ten-year period (January 1,
range of ceramic materials and systems on the market that are 2010–December 31, 2019) and only English-language studies.
available for use in dentistry (Kelly, 2004; Raigrodski, 2005; A Boolean search of the PubMed data set was implemented
Sharkey, 2010). to combine a range of keywords: (ceramics OR all-ceramics
All-ceramic restorations can be used as a bi-layered restora- OR dental porcelain OR polycrystalline OR porcelain fused
tion in which a core or framework is veneered by more aes- to metal OR ceramo-metal OR procera OR e max OR zirconia
thetic ceramics. They can also be used as full-contour OR In-ceram OR Inlays OR Onlays OR Overlays OR Endo-
(monolithic) restorations, which can be stained when required. crown) AND (survival rate OR success rate OR clinical out-
In general, monolithic restorations have good mechanical comes OR classification) AND (humans). By using this
properties but may not always provide the required aesthetic process, 2173 articles and studies were obtained. More studies
requirements. Monolithic restorations are more commonly were also obtained by manual searches and from Google Scho-
used in the posterior region of the mouth because the aes- lar. The most relevant published studies were chosen and used
thetic is less critical. On the other hand, bi-layered, all- in the current review. The selected articles are included in the
ceramic restorations provide outstanding aesthetic results references list.
and may be used in the aesthetic areas (Hermann et al.,
2006). 2.1. Porcelain fused to metal restorations
The predominantly glass-based ceramics such as feldspathic
ceramics are used as veneers to cover the metal coping and A porcelain fused to metal (PFM) restoration is composed of a
framework. They are also used in the bi-layered, all-ceramic metal coping that supports overlying ceramic (Fig. 1). PFM
restoration method when the aesthetic is considered a domi- restorations have a long clinical track record (Denry and
nant factor (Stappert et al., 2005). Although the predomi- Holloway, 2010). However, failure rates of the PFM fixed par-
nantly glass-based ceramic restorations are the most tial denture was 4% after five years, 12% after 10 years, and
aesthetic, they are also the weakest (Castelnuovo et al., 32% after 15 years (Valderhaug, 1991).
2000). The improved strength of highly filled glass-based Compatibility between the ceramic and the metal alloy is of
ceramics such as leucite- and lithium disilicate–based types paramount importance. Requirements for the metal alloys
are considered for use as inlays and onlays, anterior and pos- used in the construction of PFM restorations are presented
terior crowns, and veneers. They can also be used as a short- in Table 1.
span, three-unit, fixed partial denture (FPD). In addition, they PFM ceramic veneers consist of an opaque ceramic (e.g., a
can be used as monolithic or bi-layer restorations. Polycrys- titanium oxide glass) that is required to mask the color of the
talline ceramics such as zirconia are more commonly used as underlying metal and provides the bond with the metal alloy
monolithic restorations in posterior regions, but they can also (Terada et al., 1989). The opaque ceramic bonds to the metal
be used as cores or frameworks for bi-layer restorations. alloy by an oxide layer that is created on the metal surface

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j.sdentj.2020.05.004
All-ceramic restorations 3

A B
Fig. 1 A PFM crown: a metal coping (A) that is veneered with ceramics (B).

Table 1 Requirements for the metal alloys used with PFM restorations.
 The melting temperature of the metal alloy is greater than that of the firing temperature of the ceramic (greater than 100OC) to avoid melt-
ing and sagging of metal
 The metal’s coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is slightly greater than that of ceramic veneer to put the ceramic in slight compression
and prevent crack propagation on cooling
 Metal alloy has the ability to make a strong bond with the ceramic:
– through the chemical reaction between the metal surface and the ceramic (Chemically)
– through metal alloy surface roughness which can be achieved after metal surface treatment such as Air-borne abrasion (Mechanically)
– by the intentional mismatch in the CTEs between the metal alloy and ceramic
 Metal alloy should be stiff and strong enough to withstand imposed forces and resist distortion and bending
 Metal alloys should be thin enough to allow sufficient placement of the ceramic so as to mask it but still be able to resist deformation and
distortion during firing and when it is used.

in a process known as degassing. The degassing process also 2.2. All-ceramic restorations
removes the contaminants from the alloy surface. A dentine/-
body ceramic is applied over the opaque ceramic. The dentine When a ceramic restoration is made completely of ceramic mate-
ceramics simulate natural dentine. An incisal ceramic is then rial, it is known as an all-ceramic restoration. In an all-ceramic
applied to the incisal third over the dentine/body ceramic. restoration, the ceramic material may be monolithic (uni-layer)
The restoration is also glazed either by the use of a low- and consist of a single ceramic material, or it may consist of a
fusing glazing ceramic or self-glazed, and it can be polished. ceramic core material that is covered with a ceramic veneer
One of the main disadvantages of a PFM restoration is its (Beuer et al., 2009; Sharkey, 2010) and is known as a bi-
inability to transmit light, thus having a negative effect on the layered, all-ceramic restoration. In the bi-layered, all-ceramic
aesthetic outcome of the restoration because it may appear restoration, the ceramic core supports the restoration and gives
dark in color (Sharkey, 2010; Sharkey, 2011). This drawback it strength, and the veneer provides the restoration with its final
is more noticeable at the cervical area of the restoration where shape, shade, and aesthetic. However, the core may also play a
it is sometimes not possible to get enough room. To mitigate part in the development of the final restoration’s shade. Never-
this effect, an adequate amount of the tooth structure should theless, the veneer-core bond strength is considered one of the
be removed to accommodate a ceramic material that can mask weakest links of the bi-layered all-ceramic restorations
the underlying metal without over-contouring the restoration. (Holden et al., 2009), because they are prone to delamination
In addition, the metal coping should stop 1 mm short of the and fracture (Rekow et al., 2011). The bi-layered, all-ceramic
buccal finish line, and a ceramic margin (shoulder ceramic) restoration is usually used when aesthetics is the prime motive
should be used (O’Boyle et al., 1997; Sharkey, 2011). for its use. The main drawbacks that are associated with this
Another disadvantage of a PFM restoration is allergic reac- kind of restoration include delamination and fracture of the
tions in some patients to metal elements such as nickel in the veneers. In addition, well-constructed occlusal contacts with
metal alloy. opposing teeth are sometimes challenging to achieve. However,
Examples of ceramics used in PFM restorations include to achieve long-lasting restorations, the compatibility of the
VM15Ò (Vita), and IPS InLine (Ivoclar Vivadent) represent core and veneer materials is crucial. Fig. 2 shows a bi-layer,
powder ceramics, whereas PM9Ò (Vita) and IPS InLine all-ceramic crown in which the zirconia core was veneered with
POMÒ (Ivoclar Vivadent) represent pressed ceramics. a glass-based ceramic.

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4 A. Warreth, Y. Elkareimi

A B
Fig. 2 An all-ceramic core on a die stone (A). The same core veneered with a high glass–ceramic (B).

Fig. 3 Classifications of ceramics according to their composition with examples of commercially available ceramic types.

On the other hand, because the monolithic restoration is crystalline particles. As such, the percentage of crystalline par-
composed of only one ceramic material, it is more durable than ticles may range from 40% to 70%. Furthermore, the ceramic
the bi-layered type (Holden et al., 2009). Furthermore, a may be purely polycrystalline and can contain up to 99.9%
proper occlusal morphology and occlusal contacts can be particles (Deany, 1996; Aboushelib et al., 2005; Denry and
achieved, especially when the pressable or computer-aided Holloway, 2010).
design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)
method is used. However, the aesthetic outcome of such
2.3. Classification of dental ceramics
restoration may be inferior to that obtained by the bi-
layering method (Hamza and Sherif, 2019). Hence, the mono-
lithic ceramic may be recommended when aesthetics is not an Several classification methods are used in categorizing dental
issue. Therefore, it is more appropriate for restoring posterior ceramics, one of which is based on their composition. The clas-
teeth than for anterior teeth. sification method, which is based for ceramics’ composition, is
Unlike ceramics used with PFM restorations, ceramics used simple to understand and provides essential information that
in fabricating all-ceramic restorations are made up of more helps dental personnel select a suitable ceramic. Classifications

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All-ceramic restorations 5

of ceramics according to their composition are displayed in


Fig. 3.
Dental ceramics can also be classified based on their
method of fabrication. This classification is also important
because it sheds light on the techniques by which dental
restorations are made.

2.3.1. Ceramic classification based on composition


This classification can be split into three categories: glass-
based, glass-infiltrated, and non-glass-based (polycrystalline)
ceramics.

2.3.1.1. Glass-based ceramics. According to the percentage of


added particles, glass-based ceramics may also be divided into
three subclasses: predominantly, moderately-filled, and highly-
filled glass. Fig. 4 A schematic representation of a cross-section of an In-
2.3.1.1.1. Predominantly glass (feldspathic glass). Felds- Ceram crown which consists of a glass-infiltrated core and a
pathic class consists of ceramic materials that are principally veneering ceramic.
glass with trace amounts of various kinds of particles. They
are commonly known as feldspathic porcelain because they
principally contain silica- and alumina-based feldspar. The Examples of a leucite-based highly filled glass include IPS
percentage of added particles is less than 17%. Their flexure Empress AestheticÒ (Ivoclar Vivadent), Optec OPCÒ (Jeneric
strengths are the weakest among ceramic materials, because Pentron), AuthenticÒ (Jensen), and Finesse All-Ceramic
they range from 70 to 90 MPa (Powers and Wataha, 2017). (Dentsply). IPS EmpressÒ CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) is an
They are one of the most aesthetically pleasing ceramic types. example of CAD/CAM leucite-based ceramics.
They are usually used as veneers, inlays, and onlays as well as Examples of lithium disilicate-based ceramics include IPS
veneers for cores and frameworks for all-ceramic restorations e.maxÒ Press and IPS e.maxÒ CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) and
(bi-layered). 3GÒ (Jeneric Pentron).
This type of ceramic is brittle and needs support during fab-
rication and in service. They can be fabricated by using a plat- 2.3.1.2. Glass-infiltrated ceramics (In-Ceram group). This type
inum foil or a refractory die. They are also available as blocks of ceramic is usually considered a glass-based ceramic. How-
that are used with the CAD/CAM systems. Examples of pre- ever, in this article, it is classified separately because it is based
dominantly glass ceramics include VM 13Ò from Vita and All- on particles such as alumina, magnesium, or zirconia that are
CeramÒ from Degudent. then infiltrated with glass (Lekesiz, 2014). This ceramic type is
2.3.1.1.2. Moderately filled glass ceramics. This is also a known as In-Ceram ceramics and consists of a sintered mass
glass-based ceramic and has a higher percentage of particles that is infiltrated with a low-viscosity glass. They include In-
than that of predominantly glass ceramics. As such, it may CeramÒ Alumina, In-CeramÒ Spinell (magnesium aluminate
contain 17–25% of particles such as leucite (Kelly and spinel), and In-CeramÒ Zirconia from Vita. In-Ceram Alu-
Benetti, 2011). The increased percentage of particles is associ- minaÒ contains about 70 vol% alumina and about 30% glass
ated with an improvement in the mechanical properties of this matrix. Its fracture toughness and strength are close to that of
ceramic class. However, it may lead to ceramics that are less 100% polycrystalline alumina (Aboushelib et al., 2005; Rekow
aesthetically pleasing than the predominantly glass–ceramic et al., 2011). Therefore, In-Ceram Alumina is not a highly aes-
types. thetic material (Heffernan et al., 2002). In-Ceram Alumina has
The ceramics in this class can be used as veneers, inlays, a flexural strength of about 600 MPa and, hence, can be used
onlays, and veneers for metal copings and framework as single crowns and three-unit anterior bridges.
(Rekow et al., 2011). Examples of this type of ceramic include In-CeramÒ Spinell is a modification of In-Ceram Alumina.
VMK 95Ò (Vita) Ceramco IIÒ (Dentsply) and IPS d.SIGN It is mainly composed of magnesium spinel with trace amounts
(Ivoclar Vivadent). of alumina. It provides a more translucent but weaker ceramic
2.3.1.1.3. Highly filled glass ceramics. These are glass-based restoration than In-Ceram Alumina and In-Ceram Zirconia
ceramics in which the percentage of particles ranges from 45 to because its flexure strength is approximately 350 MPa
70 vol%. Crystalline particles such as leucite and lithium disil- (Shenoy and Shenoy, 2010). Therefore, its use is limited to
icate are the most commonly used particles in this category. anterior crowns. Fig. 4 shows a schematic representation of
The flexure strength of leucite-based glass ceramics ranges a cross-section of an In-Ceram crown.
between 120 and 160 MPa, whereas lithium disilicate–based In-CeramÒ Zirconia is a mixture zirconia and alumina (~20
ceramics ranges between 300 and 500 MPa (Powers and and ~ 50 vol%, respectively) (Rekow et al., 2011). However, it
Wataha, 2017). is opaque, which limits its use to posterior restorations.
They can be used as inlays, onlays, veneers, and crowns (an- In general, In-Ceram ceramic is usually used as a core for
terior and posterior) (Fradeani and Redemagni, 2002). They crowns and anterior three-unit FPDs (Guazzato et al., 2004).
can also be used as short-span, three-unit FPDs (Wolfart
et al., 2009 or as core materials for crown and three-unit ante- 2.3.1.3. Non-glass-based ceramics (polycrystalline ceramics).
rior FPDs (Guess et al., 2009). Ceramics in this class do not contain glass. They may be

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6 A. Warreth, Y. Elkareimi

alumina- or zirconia-based types. Both materials are character- 2010). An example of the commercially available products
ized by their high mechanical properties. For example, alu- used with the press technique includes IPS Empress ceramics.
mina has flexure strength of about 650 MPa, whereas The lost-wax technique is displayed in Fig. 5.
zirconia’s flexure strength ranges from 800 to 1500 MPa.
Therefore, they are stronger and tougher than glass-based 2.3.2.3. Slip-casting and the glass-infiltration (infusion) method
ceramics. However, this type of ceramics is less translucent (In-CeramÒ ceramic group). This technique involves the appli-
and more opaque than glass-based ceramics (Rekow et al., cation of ceramic slurry to a porous refractory die. The die
2011). absorbs water from the slurry by capillary action, which leads
to compaction of the particles (Aboushelib et al., 2005). In-
2.3.2. Ceramic classification based on its fabrications Ceram crowns can also be made by the CAD/CAM method,
Several methods are used to fabricate ceramic restorations. by which ceramic blocks are milled to the desired copings
These methods range from a simple conventional technique and then infiltrated with glass.
in which a ceramic slurry is applied to platinum foil or a refrac-
tory die, to a relatively new method in which computer soft- 2.3.2.4. Dry-pressing method (ProceraÒ ceramics). This
ware (e.g., CAD/CAM) is used to design and make the method represents one approach by which polycrystalline (alu-
restoration. mina or zirconia) restorations are made. In this approach, a
die stone is made from a conventional impression. The die is
2.3.2.1. Conventional technique (stacking and sintering). In the then scanned to obtain several thousands of measurements
conventional method, ceramic powder is mixed with a liquid by which a computer-made enlarged (oversized) die is gener-
such as water or a water–glycerin mixture to form a malleable ated. A ceramic powder such as alumina is pressed on the
mass which is then applied to a platinum foil, a refractory die, enlarged die. The pressed powder is then heat treated and con-
or a metal coping to form a restoration (Puri, 2005; Sharkey, sequently shrinks to the required dimension. The die is over-
2011). The excess liquid is drawn to the surface by a vibrating sized to compensate for shrinkage that occurs as a result of
motion and then removed by absorbent tissue to form a ‘‘green the sintering process. As the die is precisely enlarged (i.e.,
state” that can be shaped and carved to the shape of the 12–20%), a core that is polycrystalline in nature would fit
prospective core or restoration. The formed mass is then the prepared tooth with a reasonable degree of accuracy.
exposed to a high temperature, which allows the ceramic par- Examples of this method are ProceraÒ Alumina and Pro-
ticles to attach at their borders and coalescence. Examples of ceraÒ Zirconia from Vita (Andersson and Oden, 1993). The
ceramics made by this method include VMÒ 13 from Vita, second method by which polycrystalline ceramics are fabri-
and Ceramco 3Ò from Dentsply. cated is the CAD/CAM method.

2.3.2.2. Heat-/hot-pressing technique (lost-wax technique). In 2.3.2.5. CAD/CAMxx. CAD/CAM is an acronym for
principle, the restoration is made by the lost-wax technique computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing
by which cast metal restorations are fabricated. Hence, a (or computer-assisted machining) and is a technology used to
wax pattern of the planned core or restoration is made and produce different types of dental prostheses. CAD/CAM
invested in refractory die materials (Puri, 2005; Sharkey, methods represent techniques in which the design and fabrica-
2011). The wax is then eliminated, and a mold is produced. tion of ceramic restorations are carried out using computer
A ceramic ingot (block) is heated and pressed into the mold software and have become an important part of dentistry
under high temperature. Restorations made by this method (Mörmann, 2006).
are also known as pressable ceramics. Because this method is The advantages of the CAD/CAM methods also include a
based on the application of external pressure at high tempera- decrease in clinical time as well as cross-infection between the
tures to produce the restoration, it is also known as the hot- clinic and the laboratory, particularly when intraoral scanning
pressing technique. One of the advantages of the hot- (digital impression) is used, and the degree of discomfort may
pressing method is that dental technicians are familiar with be substantially reduced or eliminated. The digital impression
most of the fabrication steps such as investing, wax- can be sent immediately to the laboratory, and communication
elimination, and casting method. Two major, highly filled glass with the dental technician is improved. The CAD/CAM sys-
ceramic restorations are made using the heat-pressing method: tems enable the clinician and/or the technician to examine
leucite- and lithium disilicate–based ceramics (Ritzberger et al., the preparation from different sides for accuracy and verify

A B
Fig. 5 Two wax patterns attached to a sprue. Devested all-ceramic pattern replicating the two wax patterns.

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All-ceramic restorations 7

interocclusal clearance before the milling procedure begins. restorations depends on several factors such as material selec-
Use of the CAD/CAM systems can prevent some human tion, restoration design, occlusion, and cementation media.
errors. Restorations made with CAD/CAM technology can The presented information is important because sound knowl-
be made chairside (in office) or in a dental or manufacturer’s edge about different ceramic materials enables the dentist to
laboratory (centralized) (Poticny and Klim, 2010). select the most appropriate ceramic for a particular clinical sit-
Several drawbacks are associated with the use of CAD/ uation and improves communication between the clinical and
CAM systems, including but not limited to the cost of the laboratory personnel.
machines and the price of investment and maintenance
(Baroudi and Ibraheem, 2015). Hence, the overall cost of the Acknowledgement
CAD/CAM systems is usually higher than other fabrication
techniques. The authors would like to thank Dr David McReynolds,
2.3.2.5.1. Use of CAD/CAM techniques in fabrications of Assistant Professor, Division of Restorative Dentistry and
restorations. In general, the use of CAD/CAM systems Periodontology, Dublin Dental University Hospital, for pro-
involves three steps. First, an impression of the prepared tooth viding Fig. 5.
and the surrounding tissue is taken either digitally or by a con-
ventional method. If the conventional method is used, a stone References
replica is usually obtained and then scanned to develop a dig-
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cessed by a computer. Third, the processed information Microtensile bond strength of different components of core
controls and guides a milling machine that is connected to a veneered all-ceramic restorations. Dent Mater. 21, 984–991.
computer, thereby creating the planned restoration (Baroudi Andersson, M., Oden, A.A., 1993. new all-ceramic crown. A dense-
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