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# The geometry you have studied thus far has been largely plane geometry.

In plane geometry
you have learned definitions and properties of the figures in plane.
However we live in three dimensional world. Therefore it is necessary to extend your study
of geometry to include figures having three dimensions, that is, figures having thickness as
well as length and width.
The geometry of three dimensional figures is called Three-dimensional geometry or Space
geometry.
In this chapter we will study lines and planes in space. We will state axioms, definitions, the-
orems about them. In proofs of theorems sometimes we will use theorems from plane geom-
etry and we will not prove them.

## Axioms of Space Geometry

In plane geometry you learned that two points determine a line. In space two points deter-
mine a line, too. That means, there can be drawn one and only one line passing through two
points. The points which are on the same line are called as collinear points and the points
which are not on the same line are called as non-collinear points. Now let us state three basic
axioms of space geometry which will be helpful to prove theorems.

Axiom
Three non-collinear points determine a plane.

That means if we have three non-collinear points there can be drawn one and only one plane
containing these points. Note that the points need to be non-collinear. If the points are
collinear there can be drawn infinitely many planes containing these points.
Axiom
A plane having two points in common with a line contains this line.

If two points of a line belong to a plane, every point on this line is in the plane. So, to show
that a line lies in a plane it is enough to find two points on the line belonging to the given
plane.
Axiom
The intersection of two intersecting planes is a line.

Therefore if two planes have one point in common then they have a line in common and any
point belonging to both planes is on this line.

10 Geometry 10
EXAMPLE 1 How many lines can we draw by using 7 non-collinear points, in space?

Solution A line can be drawn by using at least 2 non-collinear points. Therefore; by using combination
formula we can find:
1st way:
3
7! 7 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 5!
C(7,2) = = = 7 ⋅ 3 = 21 lines
(7 − 2)!⋅ 2! 5! ⋅ 2

1st way:
If we locate these 7 points on a circle, they will be
non-collinear.
Let's draw the lines which are passing through these
points. When you caunt the lines, result is 21 lines.

## EXAMPLE 2 How many planes can we draw from 9 non-coplanar points?

Solution A line can be drawn by using at least 2 non-collinear points. Therefore; by using combination
formula we can find:
3 4
9! 9 ⋅ 8 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 6!
C(9, 3) = = = 7 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 = 84 planes
(9 − 3)! ⋅ 3! 6! ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 1

EXAMPLE 3 ABCD is a trapezoid so that AB // CD, E is a point on the line segment DC, and P is a point
not in plane ABC. Q is the intersection point of line AE and plane PBC. If ∠CBA = 90°,
AB = 9 cm, EC = 3 cm, and BC = 8 cm, find EQ.

Solution Since points A and E are in plane ABCD, all points on line AE
P
are in that plane. Since the intersection of planes ABC and PCB
Q
is line BC, intersection of line AE and plane PCB is on BC. Since
D C
both AE and BC are in plane ABCD, they intersect. This inter- E

## section is given as Q. (Figure 1.1) From plane geometry we know

that DQEC and DQAB are similar.

QC EC QC 3 QC 1 A B
= ⇒ = ⇒ = ⇒ QC = 4 cm
So QB AB QC + BC 9 QC +8 3

## Hence, by applying the Pythagorean theorem in DECQ, we get

EQ = 5 cm.

Space Geometry 11
A. LINES AND PLANES IN SPACE
1. Determination of a Plane
In Axiom 1.1 we stated that three non-collinear points determine a plane. We have other pos-
sibilities to determine a plane.

a. Parallel Lines
From the definition of parallel lines we know that parallel lines lie in a plane. So two paral-
lel lines are coplanar.

Theorem
There can be drawn only one plane containing two parallel lines.

Proof Let m and d be two parallel lines in space. Let α and β be two different planes containing
both m and d. Since α and β have common points, which are the points on m and d, they are
intersecting planes. By Axiom 1.3 this intersection must be a line. But here the intersection
is the union of two lines m and n. There is a contradiction. So α and β are coincident

## b. A Line and a Point

Theorem
A line and a point not on this line determine a plane.

## Proof Let d be a line and A be a point not on line d. Let us take

points B and C on d. (Figure 1.2) Since points A, B, C are
A
three non-collinear points they determine a plane λ. Then
λ contains two points of line d. So d lies in λ. Therefore B C d

## Namely, there is only one plane, which is λ, containing

both point A and line d
(Figure 1.2)

## c. Two Intersecting Lines

Theorem
Two intersecting lines determine a plane.

Proof 1 Let d and m be two intersecting lines and A be their intersection point. (Figure 1.3) Besides
A, let us take two points B and C, on lines d and m, respectively. Since A, B, C are three non-
collinear points, they determine a plane λ. Then λ will contain both lines since it has two
points in common with each of the lines.

12 Geometry 10
Proof 2 Let d and m be two intersecting d

## on d. (Figure 1.4) By the previous A m

A
theorem d and A determine a l C l
plane. Since d lies in this plane, d
m
the plane contains the intersection
point of the lines. So line m lies (Figure 1.3) (Figure 1.4)
in the plane, because the plane
contains two points of m

EXAMPLE 4 Show that all sides of a triangle are in the same plane.

## Solution Let ABC be a triangle. Since AB and AC are intersecting

lines they determine a plane α. Since two points of line A a

## segment BC are in α, α contains all points on BC. So, all

sides of a triangle are in the same plane.
B C

(Figure 1.5)

EXAMPLE 5 A, B, C, D are four non-coplanar points. Can three of these points be on the same line?

Solution No. Because if three of these points are on a line then for the fourth point we have two cases:
a. It can be on this line. Then there can be drawn infinitely many planes containing these
four points.
b. If it is not on this line then the line and the point not on this line determine a plane, and
this plane contains all the given points.
In both cases the points will be coplanar. However it is given that points are non-coplanar. So
three of them can not be collinear.

## 2. Mutual Positions of Two Lines in Space

In space two lines may have infinitely many common points, one common point or no com-
mon point.

## a. Infinitely Many Common Points

Two lines have infinitely many common points if they are coincident. In this case all of the
points of one line will be on the other line. So their intersection is the set of the points on
any of these lines. Actually, if two lines have two common points, they are coincident.

Space Geometry 13
b. One Common Point
From plane geometry we know that if two lines are intersecting and not coincident then they
intersect each other at a unique point. That means they have only one point in common. By
intersecting lines we mean the lines having one common point.
We proved that two intersecting lines determine a plane. So intersecting lines are always
coplanar lines.

c. No Common Point
i. Parallel Lines
Parallel lines are defined as coplanar lines having no points in common. So, by the definition,
parallel lines have no common point.
From plane geometry we know that in a plane through a point not on a line there can be
drawn one and only one line parallel to the given line. We proved that a line and a point not
on this line determine a plane. Since this plane is unique and in this plane, through the given
point, there can be drawn one and only one line parallel to the given line it can be conclud-
ed that:
In space, through a point not on a line, a line parallel to the given line can be drawn and this
line is unique.

## ii. Skew Lines

Two lines are skew to each other if there is not any plane containing both lines. So, these lines
can not have any intersection. As it is proven, intersecting lines are always coplanar. By def-
inition skew lines cannot be coplanar. So, skew lines have no common point.

Let A, B, C be three non-collinear points. Then they determine a plane α. Let D be a point
not in α. (Figure 1.6) Then we have four non-coplanar points. When we take the union of
line segments AB, BD, CD and CA we get a quadrilateral called as a skew quadrilateral. Here
is its formal definition.

Definition

non-coplanar points.
a

A
B

(Figure 1.6)

14 Geometry 10
3. Mutual Positions of a Plane and a Line
There are three possible cases for mutual positions of a line and a plane.

## a. Line Lying in the Plane

As mentioned in Axiom 1.2 if two points of a line belong to a plane, then the line lies in the
plane. So, in order to show that a line lies in a plane we must find two points on the line
belonging to the plane. For this case, the intersection of line and plane is the line itself. In
other words, the set of the points on the line is a subset of the set of the points in the plane.

## b. Line Intersecting the Plane

In this case they have one common point and their intersection is this point.

## c. Line Parallel to the Plane

A line and a plane are said to be parallel if they have no point in common. After this defini-
tion let us state and prove some theorems about parallelity of a plane and a line.

Theorem
If a line is parallel to another line lying in a plane, the line will be parallel to the plane.

## Proof Let d be a line parallel to another line m lying in plane α.

Since d and m are parallel lines they lie in a plane λ. l

d
α and λ are intersecting planes along line m. So, if d and α
intersect each other, the intersection point must be on m. m

## have no common point, in other words they are parallel

(Figure 1.7)

Theorem
If a line is parallel to a plane, in this plane there are lines parallel to the given line.

## Proof Let d be a line parallel to a given plane α and A be any

point in α (Figure 1.8). Then d and A determine a plane b
d
β. β and α have a common point, that is A. So, they have
a common line. Let us name this line as m. Both d and
m are in β. Since d has no common point with α, it can A

a

## Therefore, a line is parallel to a plane if and only if it does

not lie in the plane and it is parallel to a line lying in that
plane. (Figure 1.8)

Space Geometry 15
Let d be a line parallel to a plane α and A1 be a point
in α (Figure 1.9). Then d and A1 determine a plane d

## β1. Let m1 be the intersection of α and β1. We proved b1

b2
that m1 // d. Let A2 be a point in α but not on m1. Line a A1
m1
A2
m2
d and A2 determine another plane β2. Let m2 be the
intersection of α and β2. Then m2 // d. Now let us
think about m1 and m2. They are both in α. If they (Figure 1.9)
have a common point, this point will be a common
point of planes β1 and β2. Since d is the intersection of β1 and β2 this common point must be
on d. This is impossible. Because d // m1 and d // m2. So m1 and m2 can not have any common
point. Therefore, they are parallel.
As a conclusion, if a line is parallel to a plane then in this plane there are infinitely many lines
parallel to the given line and these lines are parallel to each other

Theorem
Two lines parallel to the same line are parallel.

## Proof Let m, n and d be three lines in space so that m // d and

a
n // d (Figure 1.10). l
m

## Since m and d are parallel they determine a plane α, and d

k
n
since n and d are parallel they determine another plane β. b A
Let A be a point on n. Line m and point A determine a plane
λ. Since β and λ have a common point A they have a com- (Figure 1.10)
mon line k. We know that m // d. So, m is parallel to β. Then
lines d and k are two lines in plane β parallel to line m. So, k and d are parallel. Through
point A there can be drawn only one line parallel to d. So, n and k should be coincident lines.
Therefore, m and n are parallel lines

Conclusion
If one of two parallel lines is parallel to a plane the other is in the plane or parallel to the
plane.

Theorem
Two angles with respectively parallel arms in the same direction are congruent.

16 Geometry 10
Proof Let ∠ABC and ∠A1B1C1 be two angles with respectively A
M
parallel arms in the same direction. Let M and N be any
B
two points on arms BA and BC respectively. On B1A1 and N C

## B1C1 take two points M1 and N1 so that M1B1 = MB and

N1B1 = NB. (Figure 1.11) M1
A1

## Since BA // B1A1, BMM1B1 is a parallelogram.

B1 N1 C1
So BB1 // MM1 and BB1 = MM1 . (1)
Similarly BC // B1C1 and BNN1B1 is a parallelogram.
(Figure 1.11)
So BB1 // NN1 and BB1 = NN1 . (2)
From (1) and (2) we get NN1 // MM1 and NN1 = MM1 .
So MNN1M1 is a parallelogram and MN = M1N1 .
Then by S.S.S, ΔMBN and ΔM1B1N1 are congruent. That
means ∠MBN = ∠M1B1N1

Conclusion
1. If the corresponding arms of two angles are
A A
parallel and are in opposite directions, the
angles are equal.
2. If the corresponding arms of two angles are B C B C

## parallel and if one of corresponding arms is C1

B1
in the same direction while the other is in A1
C1
opposite then the sum of the angles is 180°. A1 B1

## ÐABC = ÐA1B1C1 ÐABC + ÐA1B1C1 = 180°

(Figure 1.12)

Theorem
If one of two parallel lines intersects a plane, the other intersects too.

## Proof 1 Let α be a plane and d, m be two parallel lines (Figure

m
1.13). Let d intersect plane α at a point A. We need to d

## show that m also intersects α.

Since d and m are parallel they determine a plane β. k A

## Planes α and β have a common point. So they have a a

common line k.
b
Lines k, d and m are in the same plane, d // m and k
intersects d. So k intersects m too. Since m intersects k
and k is in α, m intersects α. (Figure 1.13)

Space Geometry 17
Proof 2 Let α be a plane, d and m be two parallel lines and d intersect α. For m there are three
positions:
It lies in α or it is parallel to α or it intersects α.
If m is in α then d will be parallel to a line in α. So d is parallel to α. This is a contradiction.
If m is parallel to α then in α there will be a line (for example n) parallel to m. Since d // m
and m // n, it can be concluded that d // n. For this case again d will be parallel to α.
Hence m intersects α

EXAMPLE 6 Show that if one of two lines lies in a plane and the other intersects this plane at a point not
on the first line then these lines are skew to each other.

## Solution Let d be a line in a plane λ and m intersect λ at a point A.

m
(Figure 1.14)
Assume that there is a plane β containing both m and d. A d

## Then d and A will be in β. So β and λ will be coincident.

However λ does not contain m. So β can not contain m l
either. Hence there is no plane containing both d and m. It
means that they are skew.
(Figure 1.14)

## A is not in (BCD), B1C1 // BC,

D1
and C1D1 // CD. B1 C1

AB1 1 D
If = and the perimeter of ΔBCD is 24 cm, find the
BB
1 2
perimeter of ΔB1C1D1 .
B C

Solution Since B1C1 // BC, triangles AB1C1 and ABC are similar. (Figure 1.15)

## B1C1 AC 1 AB1 AB1 1 AB1 1

So = = . Since = , = .
BC AC AB B1B 2 AB 3
B1C1 AC1 1
So = = , BC = 3B1C1 .
BC AC 3
Moreover, since C1D1 // CD, ΔAC1D1∼ ΔACD .
So = = = , CD = 3C1D1 .

18 Geometry 10
Since = = , ΔAB1D1 ∼ ΔABD .
B1D1AB1 1
Therefore, = = , BD = 3B1D1 .
BD AB 3
PBCD = 24 cm, BC + BD + CD = 24 cm,
3(B1C1 + B1D1 + C1D1) = 24 cm, PB C D = 8 cm.
1 1 1

## Hence the perimeter of ΔB1C1D1 is 8 cm.

EXAMPLE 8 Show that the midpoints of the sides of a skew quadrilateral are the vertices of a parallelo-
gram.

## Solution Let ABCD be a skew quadrilateral and M, N, P, Q be the

D
midpoints of sides AB, BC, CD, DA, respectively (Figure 1.16).
AC
In ΔDAC and ΔBAC, QP // AC, MN // AC, QP = , and P
2 Q
AC
MN = .
2 C

So QP // MN and QP = MN. A
N
M
If we use the same logic in ΔABD and ΔBCD we will obtain that B
BD
QM // PN and QM = PN = . Hence QMNP is a parallelogram.
2 (Figure 1.16)

EXAMPLE 9 In Figure 1.17, A1C1 // AC, C1B1 // CB, and A1B1 // AB. C1

B1

## measure of angle DCB.

D
C

A B

(Figure 1.17)

Solution Since ∠A1C1B1 and ∠ACB are two angles with respectively parallel arms in the same direc-
tion, they are equal. In ΔA1B1C1 by cosine theorem we get
2 2 2
A1B1 = A1C1 + B1C1 – 2A1C1 ⋅ B1C1 ⋅ cos ∠C1 ,
1
39 = 25 + 49 – 2 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 7 cos ∠C1, cos ∠C1 = 2 .
So ∠A1C1B1 = 60°. Then ∠ACB = 60° and ∠DCB = 120°.

Space Geometry 19
EXAMPLE 10 One side of a rhombus ABCD is 4 cm. Sides AB and AD intersect a plane α at points P and
Q respectively. AP = 1 cm and AQ = 3 cm are given.
a. Show that lines CB and CD intersect α.
b. If CB and CD intersect α at P1 and Q1, respectively, find the lengths of CP1 and CQ1 .

Solution a. In a rhombus opposite sides are parallel. So AB // CD and AD // BC (Figure 1.18). If one
of two parallel lines intersects a plane, the other intersects too.
It is given that AB and AD intersect plane α. Hence CD and CB intersect α too.
b. Points P1, Q1, P and Q are all intersections of planes α and ABC. So they are collinear.
Since AQ // P1B, triangles APQ and BPP1 are similar. A

BP1 AQ BP1 3
= , = , BP1 = 9 cm. P1 P Q Q1
BP AP 3 1 D a

## So CP1 = CB + BP1 =13 cm.

B
On the other hand, since AP // DQ1, we obtain
ΔAPQ ∼ ΔDQ1Q. Then
C

DQ1 AP DQ1 1 1
= , = , DQ1 = cm.
DQ AQ 1 3 3 (Figure 1.18)

1 13
So CQ1 = CD + DQ1 = 4+ = cm.
3 3

EXAMPLE 11 Show that when two parallel lines are intersected by a line, all these three lines lie in the
same plane.

Solution Two parallel lines determine a plane. The line intersecting these parallel lines have two points
in common with this plane which are the intersection points. So, it lies in this plane too.

EXAMPLE 12 Show that through one of two skew lines, there can be
m
drawn a plane parallel to the other.

## Solution Let m and d be two skew lines and A be a point on d. m'

Through A let us draw line m' parallel to m. d and m'
determine a plane α. Since m // m' and m' is in α, d
m // α .(Figure 1.19) A

(Figure 1.19)

20 Geometry 10
4. Mutual Positions Of Two Planes
Two planes can be coincident, intersecting or parallel.

a. Coincident Planes
If two planes have three non-collinear common points then these two planes are coincident.
So all points of these two planes are common.

b. Intersecting Planes
Two planes may intersect each other. According to Axiom 1.3 the intersection of two inter-
secting planes is a line.

Theorem
If a plane passes through a line parallel to another plane and intersects that plane then the
line of intersection of two planes is parallel to the given line.

## Proof Let d be a line parallel to a plane α, and β be a plane

containing d and intersecting α along line m b
d
(Figure 1.20).
Then, d and m lie in β. Since m is in α and d // α, d m

## and m can not intersect each other. Therefore they are

parallel a

(Figure 1.20)

Theorem
If two parallel lines lie in two intersecting planes, the intersection of the planes is parallel to
the given lines.

## Proof Let d and k be two parallel lines lying in two

a
intersecting planes α and β, respectively (Figure 1.21).
d
Let m be the intersection of α and β. Lines d and m
are in the same plane. Since d is parallel to one line m

## lying in β (line k) it is parallel to plane β. Since m is in

β, d can not intersect m. So d and m are parallel. By b k
analogy, k and m are parallel too

(Figure 1.21)

Space Geometry 21
Theorem
If a line is parallel to two intersecting planes, it is parallel to the intersection of these planes.

## Proof Let α and β be two planes intersecting along line d and

a
m be a line parallel to both α and β. (Figure 1.22)
n
Since m is parallel to α and β, in α and β there can be m

## found lines n and k parallel to m. d

Since n // m and k // m, n // k .
Then by the previous theorem, d // n and d // k . b k

Since d // n and n // m, d // m
(Figure 1.22)

c. Parallel Planes
If two planes have no common point, they are called as parallel planes.

Theorem
If two intersecting lines in a plane are respectively parallel to two intersecting lines in anoth-
er plane, the planes are parallel.

## Proof Let α and β be two planes. Let m, n be two inter-

secting lines in α and let m1, n1 be two intersecting m n
a

## lines in β so that m // m1 and n // n1(Figure 1.23).

We need to prove that α and β are parallel, namely
they do not have any common point.
n1 b
m1
Assume that they have a common point. Then they
will have a common line. Let d be this line. Since m
and n are parallel to m1 and n1 respectively both m
and n are parallel to β. So none of m and n can
(Figure 1.23)
intersect line d.
Since m, n and d are in the same plane, m // d and n // d. But in this case, m and n must be
coincident or parallel lines. However it is given that they are intersecting lines. So there is a
Hence α and β can not have any common point. That means they are parallel planes

Theorem
Through a point not in a plane there can be drawn one and only one plane parallel to the
given plane.

22 Geometry 10
Proof Let α be a plane and A be a point not in α. We need
d1 b
to prove that A
a. Through A, there can be drawn a plane parallel
m1
to α.
b. This plane is unique. a
d
a. The plane exists
Let d and m be two intersecting lines in α. m

## Through A there can be drawn a line parallel to

d and another line parallel to m. Let us name
(Figure 1.24)
these lines as d1 and m1. Lines d1 and m1 are
intersecting lines. So they determine a plane β
(Figure 1.24). By previous theorem α and β are
parallel.
b. The plane is unique
Assume that there is another plane β', containing A and parallel to α. β' can not contain
both d1 and m1. So at least one of d1 and m1 intersects β'.
Let d1 be this line. Since d and d1 are parallel, d also intersects plane β'.
This contradicts with the parallelity of β' and α. So plane β is unique

Conclusion
1. The lines parallel to a given plane and passing through a given point not in the given plane
lie in the plane parallel to the given plane, and containing the given point.
2. Through a line parallel to a given plane there can be drawn a unique plane parallel to the
given plane.
3. Any line in any of two parallel planes is parallel to the other plane.

Theorem
If a line intersects one of two parallel planes, it intersects the other too.

## Proof Let α and β be two parallel planes and d be a line intersecting α d

at a point A (Figure 1.25). We need to prove that d intersects β.
Line d can not lie in β, because d intersects α, and α // β. Any A

## parallel to β it lies in α. However we know that d is not in α.

Hence there is only one possibility: Line d intersects β b

(Figure 1.25)

Space Geometry 23
Conclusion
If a line is parallel to one of two parallel planes it is whether in the second plane or parallel
to the second plane.

## 5. Mutual Positions of Three Planes

Three planes may have no common point, one common point or one common line.

a. No Common Point
Three planes have no common point in three cases:
i. If three planes are parallel, they have no common point.

Theorem
The planes parallel to the same plane are parallel.

## Proof Let α, β, and γ be three planes such that α // γ and β // γ.

We need to prove that α // β (Figure 1.26).
Assume that α and β are not parallel. Then they have a
a
common line. Let m be this line. Through m we can draw
only one plane parallel to γ. This is a contradiction.
Hence α // β
b

(Figure 1.26)

Conclusion
If a plane intersects one of two parallel planes, it intersects the other too.

ii. When two planes are parallel and the third plane intersects these planes, the planes will
have no common point.

Theorem
If two parallel planes are intersected by a third plane, the lines of intersection are parallel.

24 Geometry 10
Proof Let α and β be two parallel planes and γ be a plane inter-
g
secting both α and β. Let m and d be the intersections of
α and γ, and β and γ, respectively (Figure 1.27).
Lines m and d are in the same plane. If m and d have a
common point, this point will be a common point of α and a

## β. However α and β are given as parallel planes. That m

means they can not have a common point. So, m and d can
not have a common point. Hence, they are parallel
b

(Figure 1.27)

Theorem
The parallel line segments whose end points are on two parallel planes are equal.

Proof Let α and β be two parallel planes. Let AB and A1B1 be two
l
parallel line segments, such that points A, A1 in α and B,
B1 are in β (Figure 1.28).
A
Since AB and A1B1 are parallel lines, they determine a
A1
plane λ. A and A1 are two common points of λ and α. So a

## the line passing through A and A1 is the intersection of λ

and α. B

b B1
By the same logic the intersection of λ and β is the line
passing through B and B1.
Since α // β, AA1 // BB1 .
Additionally, it is given that AB // A1B1. Therefore, AA1B1B (Figure 1.28)
is a parallelogram and AB = A1B1

iii. If three planes intersect each other two by two and the lines of intersection are all paral-
lel then the planes will have no common point.

Theorem
When three planes intersect each other if two of intersection lines are parallel then the third
intersection line is parallel to these two lines.

Space Geometry 25
Proof Let α, β and λ be three planes, and m, n and d be the intersections n
m d
of α – β, α – λ and β – λ, respectively. Assume that m and n are
parallel lines. Let us prove that d // m (Figure 1.29). a

## then A will be a common point of planes λ and α. Because m is in

α and d is in λ.
So, A must be on line n. Then m and n will have a common point.
l
However m and n are given as parallel lines. So there cannot be
such a point.
Therefore m // d
(Figure 1.29)

## b. One Common Point

Three planes may intersect each other in such a way that their intersection lines are
concurrent.

Theorem
If two of intersection lines formed by three intersecting planes intersect each other, the third
intersects these lines at the same point.

## other. Let m be the intersection of α and β, n be

b
the intersection of α and λ, d be the intersection
l
of β and λ. Let m and n intersect each other at a
n
point A. We need to prove that d passes through A A
a
(Figure 1.30). m

## Since m is the intersection of α and β, A is in β,

and since n is the intersection of α and λ, A is also
in λ. So A is on d which is the intersection of β and
λ. So d intersects m and n at A (Figure 1.30)

## c. One Common Line

Three or more planes can intersect eachother along a common line.
Then these planes have a common line (Figure 1.31). Then such a fig-
ure is called as bunch of planes.

## 6. The Thales Theorem in Space

In plane geometry, the Thales theorem is stated with parallel lines and
lines intersecting them. Now, we will write the same theorem with paral-
lel planes and lines intersecting them. (Figure 1.31)

26 Geometry 10
Theorem
If two lines are intersected by parallel planes, the line segments between the planes are pro-
portional.

## Proof Let α, β, γ be three planes (Figure 1.32). Let d be a line

l
intersecting α at A, β at B and γ at C, and m be another line d m
d'
intersecting α, β, γ at points D, E and F respectively. We
D
need to prove, a
A

AB DE
= .
BC EF
B' E
B
b
Through point D there can be drawn line d' parallel to line
d. Since d intersects β and γ, d' also intersects these planes.
Let B' and C' be the intersection points. Since α, β and γ are
C' F
parallel, and d and d' are parallel, AB = DB', BC = B'C'. (I) g
C

## Lines m and d' are intersecting lines. So they determine a

plane λ. Since β and γ are parallel planes, the intersection
of λ and β is parallel to the intersection of λ and γ. So
(Figure 1.32)
B'E // C'F, and ΔDB'E and ΔDC'F are similar triangles.
DB′ DE
So = . (II)
B′C ′ EF
From (I) and (II),

EXAMPLE 13 Show that if two intersecting lines in a plane α are parallel to a plane β then α and β are par-
allel planes.

## Solution Let m and d be two intersecting lines in α parallel to plane

a
β. Then in β there can be found two lines m' and d' parallel m d

## to m and d, respectively (Figure 1.33).

d' and m' can not be coincident lines. Because in this case
d' b
m and d will be parallel to the same line which implies m'

their parallelity.
If d' // m' then since d // d', d and m' will be parallel. Then
d and m will be parallel to a common line, that is m'. So
(Figure 1.133)
d // m. However we know that they are intersecting lines.
So d' and m' are not parallel.
Hence d' and m' are intersecting lines in β.
Therefore α // β.

Space Geometry 27
EXAMPLE 14 ABC is a triangle and α is a plane. Show that if sides AB and BC are parallel to α then AC is
also parallel to α.

Solution AB and BC are two intersecting lines in plane ABC. Since they are parallel to α, planes ABC
and α are parallel. So AC is parallel to α.

## If PF = 2 cm, FC = 4 cm, and SDEF = 3 cm2, find the area

of ΔABC.
D
F

E
Solution Lines PB and PC are intersecting lines. So they determine
a plane. Since DEF and ABC are parallel planes which are A
intersected by plane BPC, the intersections will be parallel. C

## So EF // BC, and ΔPEF and ΔPBC are similar.

B
EF PF 2 1
So = = = . ( I)
BC PC 6 3 (Figure 1.134)
Similarly it can be obtained that ΔPDF ∼ ΔPAC and
ΔPDE ∼ ΔPAB.
DF PD PF 1 DE PD 1
So = = = (II) and = = . (III)
AC PA PC 3 AB PA 3
EF DF DE 1
From (I), (II), and (III), = = = , ΔDEF and
BC AC AB 3
ΔABC are similar triangles.
SDEF 1 1
Hence = ( )2 = . SDEF is given as 3 cm2.
SABC 3 9
So, SABC = 27 cm2 .

## EXAMPLE 16 In Figure 1.35, α and β areparallel planes. A plane parallel

to α is intersecting AB at P and CD at Q. If AP = 2 cm, a
A C
AB = 8 cm, and QD = 9 cm, find CQ.
P Q
AP CQ 2 CQ
Solution By the Thales theorem, PB = QD , 6 = 9 ,

so CQ = 3 cm. B D
b

(Figure 1.135)

28 Geometry 10
EXAMPLE 17 In the figure the planes are parallel to each other. Given
that AB = 8, PM = 6 and PN = 10. Find BC.

## Solution The planes are parallel to each other.

So, we can use Thales Theorem:

AB BC 8 x
= ⇒ =
PM MN 6 4
⇒ 6 x = 32
16 x 4
⇒x=
3

EXAMPLE 18 Side BC of ΔABC lies in a plane α. M and N are two points on sides AB and AC respectively.
Show that if M is not in α then N is not in α either.

## AC will be in α. Since AC is in α then point A is in α.

M N
Then two points on side AB, those are A and B, will be in
α. So all points on AB are in α. However we know that M
is not in α. So, N is not in α. B C
a

## a. CA and PB are skew lines.

M N
b. DE and d are skew lines.

B C
a

Space Geometry 29
Solution a. If a plane β contains lines CA and PB, this plane contains points C, P, A and B. Since C and
P are two points on d, β contains d and since A and B are two points on m, β contains m.
In this case there will be a plane containing both d and m which is impossible. Therefore,
there is no plane containing CA and PB. So they are skew lines.
b. Any plane containing DE and d contains points D, E and C. So this plane contains lines
CA and CB. Because C and D are on CA, and C and E are on CB. So this plane contains
m too. This is impossible, because m and d are skew lines. So DE and d are skew lines.

## EXAMPLE 20 In figure, A is not in (BCD), and P and Q are the centroids A

of ΔBCD and ΔACD, respectively. Is PQ parallel to plane
ABD?
Q D

B
P

## Solution Let CP intersect BD at M and CQ intersect AD at N.

A
CP CQ 2
Since P and Q are centroids, = = . N
CM CN 3
So ΔCPQ ∼ ΔCMN and PQ // MN. Since MN is a line in Q D

## (ABD), it can be concluded that PQ // (ABD). M

B
P

EXAMPLE 21 ABCD is a parallelogram, and A1, B1, C1, D1 are four coplanar points not in (ABC).
Show that if A1, B1, C1, D1 are on the same side of (ABC) and AA1 // BB1 // CC1 // DD1, then
AA1 + CC1 = BB1 + DD1 .

30 Geometry 10
Solution Let O be intersection of diagonals AC and BD. Through O
D1
let us draw a line parallel to AA1. C1
O1
Let O1 be the intersection of this line and (A1B1C1).
A1
Since AA1 // OO1 // CC1 and A, O, C are collinear, AA1, OO1, B1

## CC1 are coplanar. Since AA1 // CC1 , ACC1A1 is a trapezoid.

O is the midpoint of AC. So OO1 is the midsegment.
AA1 + CC1 D
Thus, OO1 = (1) C
2
O
If we use the same logic in trapezoid DBB1D1, we get
A B
BB1 + DD1
OO1 = (2)
2
From (1) and (2), we get AA1 + CC1 = BB1 + DD1.

## For any three points P, Q , R on d, show that if PB = PC P

and QB = QC , RB = RC.
Q

R
a
Solution Since PB = PC and QB = QC, ΔPBQ ≅ ΔPCQ . (S.S.S.) A

## Then since QB = QC, ΔBQR ≅ ΔCQR. (S.A.S.)

Therefore, RB = RC .

EXAMPLE 23 Show that any line in any of two parallel planes is parallel to the other plane.

a
α. m

## m and β can not have any common point because in this

case that point will be a common point of α and β which
b
contradicts with the parallelity of α and β. Therefore, it can
be concluded that m // β.

Space Geometry 31
EXAMPLE 24 Show that there can be drawn a unique plane containing one of two given skew lines and par-
allel to the other line.

## Solution In Example 1.10, it is proven that there can be drawn a

plane containing one of two skew lines and parallel to the a
m
d
other line. So we need to prove that this plane is unique. b

## Let m and d be two skew lines. Assume that there can be

drawn two planes α and β containing d and parallel to m.
But in this case, according to Theorem 1.11, m should be
parallel to d. This is a contradiction, because m and d are
skew lines.
Therefore there can not be drawn more than one plane
satisfying the given conditions.

## EXAMPLE 25 In figure P is not in (ABC).

P
PB1 A1C1
If = and C1
PB AC
A1 B1
A1C1 // AC then show that (A1B1C1) // (ABC).
C

A B

Solution Since A1C1 // AC, ΔPA1C1 and ΔPAC are similar triangles.
PC1 A1C1 PB1 A1C1
So = (I). It is given that = (II). From (I)
PC AC PB AC
PC1 PB1
and (II), we get = . So ΔPC1B1 and ΔPCB are similar.
PC PB
So C1B1 // CB.
Then two intersecting lines in (ABC) (which are AC and CB) are parallel to two intersecting
lines in (A1B1C1).
Therefore, (A1B1C1) // (ABC).

32 Geometry 10
26
E
EXAMPLE Trapezoid ABCD (AB // CD) and triangle ABE have a
common side AB and lie in distinct planes. M, N, P, Q are N

M

## kind of quadrangle is MNPQ? Q

P D

B C

AB
Solution In ΔEAB, NP is the midsegment. So NP // AB (I) and NP = . In ΔECD, MQ is the
2
midsegment.
DC
So MQ // CD (II) and MQ = . Since AB // CD and from (I) and (II), we get NP // MQ.
2
Therefore, MNPQ is a trapezoid.

EXAMPLE 27 m and n are two skew lines. Show that if both m and n are
a
parallel to planes α and β then α and β are parallel.

n
m

## Since m // α and m // β, in α and β there can be found lines

Solution m1 and m2 parallel to m. Since n // α and n // β, in α and β m1 a

## there can be found lines n1 and n2 parallel to n. Then n1

m1 // m2 and n1 // n2. n
m
It is given that m and n are skew. So m1 and n1 can not be
b
parallel lines. Since m1 and n1 are coplanar, they are m2

## we can conclude that m2 and n2 are intersecting lines too.

Then since m1 // m2 and n1 // n2, it can be concluded that
α // β.

Space Geometry 33
EXERCISES 1 .1
B. Determination of a Plane
A. Axioms of Space Geometry
1. State the followings as true or false 6. How many planes can be determined by three
parallel lines? (Write all possible cases)
a. Three points determine a plane
b. If the endpoints of a line segment are in a
plane its midsegment is in the same plane
c. There can be drawn two planes whose inter-
section is a unique point 7. How many planes can be determined by three
intersecting lines? (Write all possible cases)

## 2. There are n non-coplanar points (n ≥ 4). Show

that n – 1 of them can not be collinear.
8. In figure, AB // CD, points D C

## A, B and E are collinear.

Show that all points in the
3. In figure, A, B, C are D
figure are coplanar. A B E
non collinear points,
E and F are on DA E F

and DC respectively. a

## Can EF intersect DB?

A
B C
9. m, n and d are three lines in space such that m
and n are intersecting at point A, and n and d are
intersecting at point B. Do m, n, d always lie in
the same plane?

## 4. α and β are two intersecting planes. In α there is

a line m intersecting β at point A and in β there is
a line n intersecting α at point B where A and B
are distinct points. Show that α and β intersect C. Mutual Positions of Two Lines in Space
along line AB.
10. In the adjacent figure, m d

## lies in α and d intersects C

B
α at point P which is not a

## on m. Show that BC and

5. Given that points A1, A2, A3..., A25 determine only P
m
D
m are skew lines.
one plane. At most how many of these points can
be collinear?

34 Algebra 10
11. State the followings as true or false. 15. In the adjacent figure, M

## a. If lines m and n pass through points M and N, ABCD is a parallelogram.

then m and n are coincident. M is not in (ABC).
D C
b. If two lines have no common point, they are
parallel.
c. Skew lines can be coplanar or non-coplanar A B
lines.

## 16. State the followings as true or false

a. Two lines parallel to the same plane are always
D.Mutual Positions of A Line and A Plane parallel.

12. ABC is a triangle and P is a point not in (ABC). b. If two lines m and n are parallel to a given line
Show that the line joining the midpoints of PC d then m // n
and AB and the line joining the midpoints of PA
and CB are intersecting lines.

## 17. m and n are two parallel lines not lying in a plane

α. Show that if m // α, line n is parallel to α, too.

## ABCD and AEFD are

E. Mutual Positions of Two Planes
parallelograms. Show D C

that ΔEAB and ΔFDC are 18. α and β are two intersecting planes and A is a
E
congruent triangles. point not in α or β. Show that through A there can
be drawn one and only one line parallel to both α
and β.
A B

## 19. α and β are two intersecting planes and m is a line

intersecting α and β at distinct points.
14. ABCD is a trapezoid (AB // CD). AB is in a plane
α and CD is in a plane β. α and β are intersecting a. Show that through m there can be drawn a
along the line m. Show that MN // m where plane λ whose intersections with planes α and
M and N are the midpoints of AD and BC β are parallel.
respectively. b. Show that λ is unique.

Space Geometry 35
20. Line m is parallel to α and intersects plane β. 24. In the adjacent figure, ΔABC A

Show that α and β are intersecting planes. and ΔBCD are equilateral.
If ∠ACD = 20° find ∠BDA. B

C
21. In the adjacent figure, C a

## ΔABC lies in α and A B

ΔA1B1C1 lies in β.
If AC // A1C1, AB // A1B1 b
C1
25. α and β are two parallel planes. Plane λ intersects
AC AB
and = then α and β along lines m and n, and plane γ
A1C1 A1B1 A1 B1
intersects planes α and β along lines m and d,
show that
respectively. Show that n // d.
a. ΔABC and ΔA1B1C1 are similar.
b. BC // B1C1.

## 26. ΔABC and ΔA1B1C1 are two triangles in two

parallel planes. If AA1 // BB1 // CC1 then show that
ΔABC and ΔA1B1C1 are congruent triangles.

## 22. m and n are skew lines. Show that there can be

drawn two parallel planes α and β such that α
contains m and β contains n, and show that these
α and β are unique. 27. In the adjacent a
A
figure, α // β // λ. C

Moreover AB // A1B1, B

BC // B1C1, A1
b

C1
AC // A1C1. Find the
perimeter of ΔA2B2C2
B1

figure, D is not in l
K
if perimeters of A2
(ABC). C2
ΔABC and ΔA1B1C1
AC = AB, DC = DB, B2
are 6 cm and 9 cm,
and BK ⊥ DA . C

respectively, and
If KD = 3 cm and A B
BB1 3
DB = 6 cm, find = .
KC. B1B2 5

36 Algebra 10
A. PERPENDICULAR LINES
Definition
Two lines a and b are perpendicular to each other if the angle between them is 90°.

If the lines are intersecting, it is very easy to determine whether they are perpendicular or
not. If they are skew to each other, we take any point on one of the lines, and through this
point, we draw a line parallel to the other one. If the angle between these two intersecting
lines is 90° then the given skew lines are said to be perpendicular.

Theorem
If one of two parallel lines is perpendicular to a third line, the other is perpendicular too.

## be perpendicular to c (Figure 1.36).

Through any point A, let us draw lines m1 c

## m ⊥ c, the angle between m1 and c1 is

90°. On the other hand, since m1 // m
c1
and m // b, we get m1 // b. So the angle A

## between b and c is also 90°. That means

b and c are perpendicular lines Q

(Figure 1.36)

## B. LINE PERPENDICULAR TO A PLANE

Definition
A line is said to be perpendicular to a plane if it is perpendicular to every line in this plane.

## If a line m is perpendicular to every line in a plane α then m is perpendicular to α and it is

shown by m ⊥ α. So if it is given that m ⊥ α then m is perpendicular to any line in α.

Space Geometry 37
If m ⊥ α then m intersects α. To prove this statement let us assume that m does not inter-
sect α. In this case there are two possibilities for m and α :
1. m is in α. Then since it is not perpendicular to a line in α, that is itself, m is not perpen-
dicular to α.
2. m is parallel to α. In this case in α there can be found a line parallel to m. So m can not
be perpendicular to α. In both possibilities m is not perpendicular to α. Therefore, m
intersects α.

Definition
If a line intersects a plane but not perpendicular to the plane it is called an inclined line.

Theorem
If a line is perpendicular to two intersecting lines lying in a plane then it is perpendicular to
the plane.

## Proof We need to prove that if a line is perpendicular to two d

intersecting lines in a plane it is perpendicular to
any line in this plane. Let d be a line perpendicular
x
to two lines m and n lying in α. Let A be the m

## is perpendicular to every line in α which is n

a
parallel to either one of m or n (Figure 1.37).
So we should check for the lines which are not
parallel to neither m nor n. d

## have to prove that d is perpendicular to x too. Let

c m
us shift lines d and x so that A is on d and x. Let x
C
c be any line in α intersecting m, n, x at points C,
D, E respectively.
A
On line d let us take two points B and B' so that D
BA = B'A. Then triangles BAC and B'AC are n
E
congruent (S.A.S.). So BD = B'D and BC = B'C.
Then triangles BDC and B'DC are congruent
B'
(S.S.S.). That means ∠BDC = ∠B'DC. Then
triangles BDE and B'DE are congruent triangles
(S.A.S.). So BE = B'E and triangles BAE and
(Figure 1.37)
B'AE are congruent (S.S.S.).
Hence ∠BAE = ∠B'AE = 90°. So d is perpendi-
cular to x. Therefore d is perpendicular to any
line in α. So d ⊥ α Q

38 Geometry 10
Theorem
Through any given point in space, there can be drawn one and only one plane perpendicu-
lar to a given line.

## 1. The point is on the line.

Let d be a line and A be a point on d. Let us
A
take two distinct planes α and β containing
l
d. (Figure 1.38) m n

## Let m be the line lying in α and perpendicular

a b
to d at A and n be the line lying in β and
perpendicular to d at A. Then m and n
determine a unique plane λ perpendicular to (Figure 1.38)
d.

## 2. The point is not on the line.

Let d be a line and A be a point in space not
b
on d. Line d and point A determine a plane α
n
(Figure 1.39). In α there can be drawn a line
m passing through A and perpendicular to d
a
at a point B. Let β be another plane containing l

## line d. In β, through point B, let us draw a

line n perpendicular to d. Since m and n are B
A
intersecting lines, they determine a plane λ. d
m

## Since d is perpendicular to two intersecting

lines in λ (those are m and n), d is perpendicular
to λ. (Figure 1.39)

## Let d be a line and A be a point not on d.

Assume that through A there can be drawn a
A B

## more than one plane perpendicular to d

(Figure 1.40).
Let α and β be two ofthese planes. Let B be
the intersection of d and α, and C be the C
intersection of d and β. Then d ⊥ AB and b
d ⊥ AC which is impossible Q

(Figure 1.40)

Space Geometry 39
Theorem
If one of two parallel lines is perpendicular to a plane then the other line is also perpendicular
to the same plane.

## such that m ⊥ α. We need to show that d ⊥ α.

(Figure 1.41)
Since m ⊥ α, m is perpendicular to every line in α.
It is proven that if one of two parallel lines is a

## perpendicular to a third line then the other one is

perpendicular to the same line. So d is perpendicular
to every line in α too. Therefore d ⊥ α Q

(Figure 1.41)

Theorem
Two lines perpendicular to the same plane are parallel.

## (Figure 1.42). On b, take a point B which is not in

α and through B, draw a line b1 parallel to d. If b and
B
b1 are not coincident they determine a plane β. Let
m
m be the intersection of β and α. Since b1 // d and a
d ⊥ α, b1 ⊥ α. So b1 ⊥ m. Since b is perpendicular
to α, b is also perpendicular to m. However through
B there can be drawn only one line perpendicular to b1
α. Hence b1 and b are coincident. That means lines
d and b are parallel Q (Figure 1.42)

## Theorem Three Perpendiculars

A line drawn in a plane through the foot of an inclined line is perpendicular to the projec-
tion of the inclined line if and only if it is perpendicular to the inclined line itself.

## Proof In this theorem we need to prove that

1. If a line drawn in a plane through the foot of an inclined line is perpendicular to the pro-
jection of the inclined line, it is perpendicular to the inclined line.
2. If a line drawn in a plane through the foot of an inclined line is perpendicular to the
inclined line, it is perpendicular to the projection of the inclined line.

40 Geometry 10
3. Let m be the line lying in a plane α perpendicular to
the projection of an inclined line d onto α at point d
A
B which is the intersection of d and α. Let A be any b
point on d and let the perpendicular drawn
through A intersect α at C (Figure 1.43).
Point C is on the projection of d. CB and d
determine a plane β. Since AC ⊥ α, AC ⊥ m. Given
that m ⊥ CB, so m ⊥ β and m ⊥ d. C B

m

## if m ⊥ d then m ⊥ CB. Since m is perpendicular

to two intersecting lines in β which are d and AC, (Figure 1.43)
it is perpendicular to β. So it is perpendicular to
CB Q

Theorem
Through a point in space, there can be drawn a line perpendicular to a given plane.

## Proof Let α be a plane and A be a point. In α take a line m

(if A is in α take m in such a way that A is not on m) C
b
(Figure 1.44). Through A there can be drawn a plane A

## β perpendicular to m. α and β are intersecting planes

a
because m intersects β at a point B and m is in α. So
b
α and β have a common line b. In β through A there B

## c ⊥ b and c ⊥ m, it can be concluded that c ⊥ α.

Now let us prove that this line is unique. (Figure 1.44)
Let α be a plane and A be a point not in α. Assume
that through A there can be drawn more than one
c c'
line perpendicular to α. Let c and c' be two of these A
lines. Since c and c' perpendicular to α, they inter-
sect α. Let B and C be the intersection points. B and B C
n
C determine a line n. (Figure 1.45) a
Since c ⊥ α, c ⊥ n and since c' ⊥ α, c' ⊥ n. Then
ΔABC is a triangle with two right angles which is
impossible. So through A we can draw only one line
(Figure 1.45)
perpendicular to α Q

Space Geometry 41
Theorem
If a line is perpendicular to one of two parallel planes, it is perpendicular to the other.

## Proof Let α and β be two parallel planes and m be a line

m
perpendicular to α. (Figure 1.46)
d
Since m is perpendicular to α, it intersects α at a point A

## intersects the other too. So m intersects β at a point B.

In α, let us take two lines d and b intersecting at A. Let B
d'

## d' be the intersection of β and the plane determined by

b b'
d and m, and let b' be the intersection of β and the
plane determined by m and b. When two parallel planes
are intersected by a plane the intersections are parallel.
(Figure 1.46)
d' // d and b' // b. Since m ⊥ α, m ⊥ d and m ⊥ b. So
m ⊥ d' and m ⊥ b'. Since m is perpendicular to two
intersecting lines in β, m is perpendicular to β Q

EXAMPLE 28 ΔABC is an isosceles right triangle such that AB = BC = 4 cm. P is a point not in plane ACB
and M is the midpoint of AC. If PB ⊥ AB, PB ⊥ BC and PB = 2ñ2 cm, find PM.

## BM = 2ñ2 cm. Since PB ⊥ BC and PB ⊥ AB,

PB ⊥ (ABC).
M
So PB ⊥ BM.
B
Then PM2 = PB2 + BM2 = 8 + 8 = 16, PM = 4 cm.

(Figure 1.47)

EXAMPLE 29 Show that if two planes α and β are perpendicular to a line m then they are parallel.

Solution Since m is perpendicular to α and β, it intersects both planes. Let A and B be the intersections.
Assume that α and β are not parallel. Then they will have a common point P. Since AP is in
α, m ⊥ AP and since BP is in β, m ⊥ BP. So ΔAPM is a triangle with two right angles which is
impossible. Therefore α and β can not have any common point which means α // β.

42 Geometry 10
C. PERPENDICULAR PLANES
If a plane contains a line perpendicular to another plane then it is perpendicular to that
plane. Every line on any of two parallel planes is parallel to the other plane. So, if a plane is
perpendicular to another plane, it intersects the plane.
Let α and β be two planes so that α ⊥ β. Then in α there can be found a line m perpendicular
to β. Then line m is perpendicular to the intersection of α and β because this line lies in β.
Moreover in α through every point there can be drawn a line parallel to m. Since m is
perpendicular to β all these lines are perpendicular to β. Therefore, it can be concluded that
in α through every point there can be drawn a line perpendicular to β.

Theorem
If one of two planes is perpendicular to the other then the other is perpendicular to the first
one too.

## Proof Let α be a plane perpendicular to a plane β. Then in α

there is a line m so tha m ⊥ β (Figure 1.48). a

## Let d be the intersection of α and β. Since m ⊥ β, m

m d
intersects β. Since m is in α, m intersects β at a point
which is on d. So m and d are two intersecting lines. b
n
Let n be any line in β which is perpendicular to d.
Since m ⊥ β, m ⊥ n. So n is perpendicular to two
intersecting lines in β which are m and d. So n ⊥ α.
Hence β ⊥ α Q

(Figure 1.48)

Theorem
Any plane perpendicular to one of two parallel planes is perpendicular to the other.

Proof Let α and β be two parallel planes and λ be a plane perpendicular to α. Then in λ there is a
line perpendicular to α. This line will be also perpendicular to β . So λ ⊥ β Q

Theorem
If a line is perpendicular to a plane and parallel to another plane, these planes are
perpendicular.

Proof In the plane parallel to the line, there will be a line parallel to the given line and this line will
be perpendicular to the other plane. So the planes are perpendicular Q

Space Geometry 43
D. DISTANCE
1. Distance Between a Point and a Plane
Let A be a point and α be a plane. Through A let d
us draw line d perpendicular to α. Let d intersect A

## plane α at point H. Then the length of line segment

AH will be the distance between A and α. Let us
H
show that the length of AH is indeed the shortest B
a
distance between A and α.
Let B be another point in α. Then B and H (Figure 1.49)
determine a line in α (Figure 1.49). Since d ⊥ α,
d ⊥ BH. So triangle AHB is a right triangle with
hypotenuse AB. So AH < AB.
If point A is in α, the distance between A and α is zero.

## 2. Distance Between a Plane and a Line Parallel to the

Plane
Let d be a line parallel to a plane α. Let A and B
m n
be two distinct points on d, and m and n be the
lines perpendicular to plane α drawn through A A B d

## and B. Let m and n intersect plane α at points H

and C (Figure 1.50). So the lengths of line
segments AH and BC are the distances from
points A and B to α. a
H C

## Since m and n are parallel, they are coplanar. So

A, B, C, H are coplanar points and quadrilateral (Figure 1.50)
ABCH is a rectangle. Therefore AH = BC.
So the distance from every point on line d to plane α is constant.
Hence to find the distance between a plane and a line parallel to the plane, we simply find
the distance between any point on the line and the plane.

## 3. Distance Between Two Parallel Planes

Let α and β be two parallel planes. Let A and B be two points in α, and A1 and B1 be two
points in β so that AA1 ⊥ β and BB1 ⊥ β (Figure 1.51). Since AA1 and BB1 are perpendicular
to the same plane they are parallel and determine a plane. When two parallel planes are
intersected by a plane the intersections are parallel. So ABB1A1 is a rectangle and AA1 = BB1.
In other words the distance from any point in one of α or β to the other plane is constant.

44 Geometry 10
To find the distance between two parallel planes, we
a
simply find the distance from any point in any plane B
to the other plane. A

b
B1

A1

(Figure 1.51)

## 4. Distance Between Skew Lines

To find the distance between two skew lines, we find
m
the distance from one of these lines to the plane P
B b
containing the other and parallel to the first line.
This distance is equal to the length of the line segment
perpendicular to both lines. Now let us show this.
a
Let m and n be two skew lines (Figure 1.52). We m'

## proved that we can draw a unique plane parallel to m Q

A
and containing n. Let α be this plane. Through any
n
point P on m, there can be drawn a unique line per-
pendicular to α and let Q be the intersection of this
line and α. (Figure 1.52)
Through Q let us draw line m' parallel to m. m' is in α.
Since m // m', they determine a plane β. Let A be the intersection of m' and n. Through A
there can be drawn a unique line parallel to PQ. This line will be in plane β. So it intersects
line m at a point B.
Since PQ ⊥ α, PQ ⊥ m'. Since m // m', PQ ⊥ m. So BA ⊥ m. Since PQ ⊥ α and BA // PQ,
BA ⊥ α. So BA ⊥ n. Therefore, BA is perpendicular to both m and n.
Hence BA is called as common perpendicular of m and n.

## Definition Common Perpendicular

The line segment perpendicular to two given skew lines is called as the common perpendicular
of the given skew lines.

Space Geometry 45
Theorem
The common perpendicular of two skew lines is unique.
m

## perpendicular. Let C be a point on n (Figure 1.53).

Since ∠ABC = 90°, AC can not be perpendicular to n.
So there can not be drawn any other common
perpendicular containing A or B. n
B C
Now let us show that there is not any other common
perpendicu lar except AB. C m

A
Assume that CD is a line segment perpendicular to
both m and n. Let m' be the line parallel to m and
passing through B. Since n and m' are intersecting
lines, they determine a plane α. So AB ⊥ α . Since CD a m'

## ⊥ m, CD ⊥ m' . So CD ⊥ α too. Since AB ⊥ α and

B
CD ⊥ α, AB // CD . Then points A, B, C, D will be D n

## coplanar which is impossible.

Hence the common perpendicular is unique Q
(Figure 1.53)

## Now, let us show that the length of the common m

P
perpendicular is the smallest distance between
two skew lines. A

## Let m, n be two skew lines and α be the plane a

m'
containing n and parallel to m. Let AB be the
Q
common perpendicular of m and n, and m' be
n
the line passing through B and parallel to m. Let B R

## P and R be any two other points on m and n.

(Figure 1.54)
Through P let us draw a line parallel to AB and (Figure 1.54)
let Q be the intersection of α and this line.

## Since AB ⊥ α and PQ // AB, PQ ⊥ α.

So, we have that PQBA is a rectangle and AB = PQ.
Since PQ ⊥ α, PQ ⊥ QR. Therefore PR > PQ and since PQ = AB, PR > AB.
So we can conclude that any line segment drawn between two skew lines is longer than their
common perpendicular.
(To summarize: the length between two skew lines is the length of the common perpendicular
of these lines. This length is equal to the distance from one of them to the plane containing
the other and parallel to the first line.)

46 Geometry 10
EXAMPLE 30 From a point P to a plane α , perpendicular 0PA P

## and two inclined line segments PB and PC are

drawn.
If PB = PC,
C
∠BPA = 45°, A

B
∠BPC = 60°, and
a
PA = 2ñ2 cm, find BC.

(Figure 1.55)

## Solution Since PA ⊥ α, PA ⊥ AB, and since ∠BPA = 45°, P

PB = PA ⋅ ñ2 = 2ñ2 ⋅ ñ2 PB = 4 cm.
Since PB = PC and ∠BPC = 60°,
a A
ΔPBC is an equilateral triangle.
So BC = PB = 4 cm.
B C

(Figure 1.56)

## EXAMPLE 31 A line segment AB intersects a plane α at a point C. If

AC 5
= and the distance between B
AB 6
and α is 2 cm, find the distance between A and α.

## Solution Let BP ⊥ α and AQ ⊥ α where P, Q are in α.

A
Then BP // AQ. They determine a plane β and
the intersection of this plane and α is line PQ
(Figure 1.57).
a P
Since A and B are in plane β, line AB is in β. C Q

## So AB and PQ intersect and this intersection is

B
in α. Since AB intersects α at C, the intersection
point is C. So P, C and Q are collinear.
(Figure 1.57)
Since PB // AQ, ΔBPC ∼ ΔAQC. So we have
BP BC 1
= = .
AQ AC 5

AQ = 5 ⋅ BP = 5 . 2 = 10 cm.

Space Geometry 47
EXAMPLE 32 From a point A to a plane α, perpendicular AB is
A
drawn. If the distance from B to m is 6 cm and
AB = 8 cm, find the distance from A to m. (m is a
line in α) m

(Figure 1.58)

## Solution Let BP ⊥ m (Figure 1.59). Then BP = 6 cm. Since A

AB ⊥ α and BP ⊥ m, by the three perpendiculars
theorem, AP ⊥ m. So the distance from A to m is
AP. Since AB ⊥ α, AB ⊥ BP.

So AP = AB + BP = 8 +6 =10 cm.
2 2 2 2 m

P
a

(Figure 1.59)

## EXAMPLE 33 In the adjacent figure, ΔABC is in α,

P
PC ⊥ α, and AC ⊥ CB.
If ∠CAB = 30° and
∠PBC = 45°, find the cosine of angle APC. a
C

A B

## Solution Since PC ⊥ α, PC ⊥ CA and PC ⊥ CB. A

a a 3
If AB = a then CB = and CA = .
2 2
a
Since ∠PBC = 45°, CP = CB = . m
2
B
1
So ∠APC = 60° and cos ∠APC = . P
2 a

48 Geometry 10
EXAMPLE 34 Line m is inclined to a plane α. Show that through m, there can be drawn one and only one
plane perpendicular to α.

## Solution Let m intersect α at A, and B be another point on

d
m. There can be drawn a line d passing through b
m
B and perpendicular to α. Then since d and m B

## are intersecting lines they determine a plane β.

In β there is a line (line d) perpendicular to α. A
A
a
Therefore, β ⊥ α.

## Now, let us prove that this plane is unique.

Assume that there are planes β1 and β2 containing m

## m and perpendicular to α. Then through a point B

on m there can be drawn line segments AB and
B
BC perpendicular to α (A and C are in α). Then
b1 b2
BA ⊥ AC and BC ⊥ AC which is impossible. C

A

## plane perpendicular to α through m.

EXAMPLE 35 ABCD is a rhombus and P is a point not in (ABC) so that PA ⊥ (ABC). Find the distance
between lines PC and BD if PA = AB = 4 cm and ∠DAB = 60° .

## Solution Let M be the intersection point of diagonals AC P

and DB. Let MN be perpendicular to PC. Let us
show that MN ⊥ DB too.
N
Since PA ⊥ (ABC), PA ⊥ AB and PA ⊥ AD.

(S.A.S.)
M
So PD = PB.
A B
Since PD = PB and DC = BC , ΔPDC ≅ ΔPBC
(S.S.S.)
So ∠NCD = ∠NCB.
Then ΔNCD ≅ ΔNCB (S.A.S.). So ND = NB,
DM = MB, and ΔNDM ≅ ΔNBM (S.S.S.).
Thus we get ∠NMD = ∠NMB = 90°.

Space Geometry 49
Hence NM is the common perpendicular of DB and PC. So the distance between PC and
DB is the length of MN.
Now let us find MN.
∠DAB = 60°, AB = 4 cm, and PA = 4 cm are given.
Then AM = 2ñ3 cm and MC = 2ñ3 cm.
Since PA ⊥ (ABC), PA ⊥ AC. Then PC = PA 2 + AC 2 = 8 cm, ΔCMN ∼ ΔCPA (A.A.A.)

MN CM MN 2 3
So = , = , MN = 3 cm.
PA PC 4 8

EXAMPLE 36 Show that if two lines are parallel to the same line they are parallel.

## Solution We proved this. Here we will give a different proof. m n d

In this proof we will use perpendicularity. Let m, n
and d be three lines. Let m // n and d // n. We need
to prove that m // d. A
a
Let A be a point on n. We can draw a plane α
perpendicular to n at A.
So n ⊥ α.
Since m // n , m ⊥ α .
Since d // n , d ⊥ α .
Since m and d are perpendicular to α, they are
parallel.

## EXAMPLE 37 In figure, PC ⊥ (ABC), P

∠ACB = 90° ,
PM ⊥ AB, and AM = MB.
Find ∠CAB.
C

A M B

50 Geometry 10
P
Solution PA = PM2+ AM2 ,

PB = PM 2+MB2 .
Then, since AM = MB, PA = PB.
C
Since PC ⊥ (ABC), PC ⊥ AC and PC ⊥ CB.
Then,
CA = PA 2 – PC2 , A M B

CB = PB2 – PC 2 .
Since PA = PB, CA = CB.
So ΔACB is an isosceles right triangle and
∠CAB = 45° .
This problem can be also solved by using the
three perpendiculars theorem.

## EXAMPLE 38 In figure, A, B, C are on d, A1, B1, C1 are in α

C d
such that AA1 ⊥ α, BB1 ⊥ α and B
A
CC1 ⊥ α .
Show that A1, B1, C1 are collinear.
a

A1 B1 C1

Solution Since AA1, BB1 and CC1 are perpendicular to α, they are parallel lines. Since AA1 // BB1, they
determine a plane β. Since A and B are in β, d is in β. So C is in β. Since BB1 // CC1, CC1 is
in the plane containing BB1 and C. So CC1 is also in β.
Since A1, B1, C1 are intersections of α and β, they are collinear.

EXAMPLE 39 Side AB of triangle ABC is in a plane α. Find the distance from C to α if the distance from
the centroid to α is 2 cm.

Space Geometry 51
Solution Let G be the centroid of ΔABC, GQ ⊥ α, and CP ⊥ α (Q C
and P are in α). Let M be the midpoint of AB.
C, G, M are collinear. Since GQ ⊥ α and CP ⊥ α, GQ
G
and CP are in the same plane. Since G and C are in A

## this plane, M is also in this plane. Since M, Q, P are M

Q P
intersections of this plane and α, they are on the same a

line. B

## Then GQ // CP and ΔMGQ ∼ ΔMCP.

GQ MG 1
So = = .
CP MC 3
GQ = 2 cm is given. So CP = 6 cm.

## EXAMPLE 40 In the adjacent figure, PB ⊥ (ABC), ABC is an

P
equilateral triangle, and M and N are midpoints of AB
and BC respectively. What is the ratio of the area of C
ΔPCA to the area of ΔPNM if PB = AB ?
N

A M B

## Solution It is given that PB ⊥ (ABC). So PB ⊥ BC and PB ⊥ BA.

P
Since AB = BC, PA = PC, and since BN = BM,
PM = PN. C

## Let L and K be the midpoints of AC and MN respec- N

L
tively. Since ΔPCA and ΔPMN are isosceles triangles, K

PL ⊥ AC and PK ⊥ MN. A M B

CA ⋅ PL
SPCA 2 CA ⋅ PL
Hence = = . Let us take CA = a.
SPNM MN ⋅ PK MN ⋅ PK
2

a BL = a 3 , BK = a 3 .
Then AB = BC = PB = a, MN = , Since PB ⊥ (ABC), PB ⊥ BL.
2 2 4

3a2 19 a 2 2 2 3a2 7a
So PK = BK 2 + BP 2 = a2 + = and PL = BP + BL = a + = .
16 4 4 2

7a
a⋅
SPCA 2 =4 7.
Then, =
SPNM a 19 a 19

2 4

52 Geometry 10
EXAMPLE 41 Show that if two intersecting planes α and β are perpendicular to a given plane λ then
intersection line of α and β is perpendicular to λ.

## Solution Let α and β intersect along line m. Since α ⊥ λ, in

m
α there can be found a line d perpendicular to λ,
and since β ⊥ λ, in β there can be found a line k d k
perpendicular to λ. If two lines are perpendicular l

## to the same plane, they are parallel. So d and k are

parallel. Since d and k are two parallel lines in two
intersecting planes, they are parallel to the a b

## intersection line of these planes. So m // d and

m // k. So m ⊥ λ too.

## EXAMPLE 42 In the given figure, ABCD is a quadrilateral in a

P
plane α. P is a point not in α such that PO ⊥ α.
If PA = PB = PC = PD, find ∠DAB + ∠BCD. D

O C
A
a B

## Solution Since PO ⊥ α, PO is perpendicular to all OA, OB,

P
OC and OD. Then since PA = PB = PC = PD and
∠POA = ∠POB = ∠POC = ∠POD = 90° , D

C

## circumscribed circle of ABCD. A

a B
Therefore ∠DAB + ∠BCD = 180°.

Space Geometry 53
EXERCISES 1 .2
B. Line Perpendicular to a Plane 4. Lines m, b, c are coplanar and line d is not in the
1. In the adjacent P plane containing m, b, c. It is given that d is
figure, PA ⊥ α , perpendicular to m and b but it is not perpendicular
to c. What can be concluded about m and b?
∠BPA = 20°,
a
∠CPA = 10°, and
∠APD = 30° . B A 5. P
D
Write PB, PC, PD C

in ascending A C

order.
G
E F

## In the adjacent figure, PG is perpendicular to the

2. In the adjacent figure, M is P
plane of equilateral triangle ABC at its centroid G.
the midpoint of CB and
SABC
PM ⊥ (ABC). If ∠AFP = 45°, what is =?
C
SPBC
If MC = CA and
PA = PB = PC, M
A
find ∠ABC.
6. In the adjacent figure, P
B
PA ⊥ (ABC).
If ∠APB = ∠APC = 45°
and ∠BPC = 60°, find
C
∠BAC.
3. P A

a
m
A

T
7. Triangle ABC, right angled at A, lies in a plane α
and PA ⊥ α where P is a point not in α. If A is
equidistant from points B, C and P, find ∠BPC .
In the adjacent figure, in plane α there is a circle
and a line m tangent to the circle at a point T. A
is a point on circle such that PA ⊥ α where P is
not in α. If PT ⊥ m, PT = 10 cm, and PA = 8 cm, 8. Show that if two planes are perpendicular to the
find the radius of the circle. same line then these planes are parallel.

54 Algebra 10
9. State the followings as true or false 14. Q

## a. If two lines are perpendicular to the same line,

P
they are parallel.

## b. If two lines are perpendicular to the same

plane, they are parallel.

## c. If a line is perpendicular to two lines lying in a

a
plane, it is perpendicular to the plane.
In the adjacent figure, PQ is a line segment on
one side of α. If the distances from P and Q to α
are 4 cm and 6 cm respectively, find the distance
C. Perpendicular Planes from the midpoint of PQ to α.
10. Show that through a given point A, there can be
drawn infinitely many planes perpendicular to a
given plane α. 15. B
C

## 11. Line m is parallel to plane α. Show that there can

be drawn one and only one plane containing m
and perpendicular to α.
a

## ΔABC is a triangle on one side of a plane α. If the

distances from vertices A, B, and C to α are 6 cm,
12. In the adjacent figure, ΔABC A
8 cm, and 10 cm respectively, find the distance
is an equilateral triangle and
from the centroid of ΔABC to plane α.
ΔBDC is an isosceles triangle. C

AB = 6 cm and
BD = DC = 5 cm are given. 16. ABCD is a rhombus and PA ⊥(ABC).
D
Find AD, if (ABC) ⊥ (BDC). B
If ∠BAD = 60° and AC = 2ñ3, find the distance
between lines PA and BC.

## D.Distance 17. m and n are two lines parallel to a plane α and

they are on the same side of α. If the distances
13. A and B are two points equidistant from a plane α
from m and n to α are equal, can m and n be skew
and they are on the same side of α. Show that
lines?
AB // α.

Space Geometry 55
CHAPTER REVIEW TEST 1A
1. Which of the following statements is false? 5. In the adjacent figure, P

## A) Two points determine a line PO ⊥ (ABC) and O is

B) Skew lines are non-coplanar lines in (ABC).
C) Two lines perpendicular to the same plane are If PA = PB = PC, C

## parallel which of the followings

O
D) Two lines parallel to the same plane are is true for point O?
A B
parallel
A) O is the centroid of ΔABC
E) If a line is perpendicular to one of two parallel
B) O is the center of the inscribed circle of ΔABC.
planes, it is perpendicular to the other.
C) O is the intersection point of the heights of
ΔABC.
D) O is the center of the circumscribed circle of
2. ABCD is a skew quadrilateral and M, N, P, Q are ΔABC.
the midpoints of sides AB, BC, CD, DA,
E) O is any point in ΔABC.
respectively. If AC = 12 cm and BD = 16 cm,
what is the perimeter of quadrilateral MNPQ in
cm?
A) 28 B) 36 C) 48 D) 56 E) 60

## 6. ABCD is a square, O is the center of ABCD, and P

3. In the adjacent figure, is a point not in (ABC). What is the angle between
α // β, AB and CD are A C
PA and BD if PO ⊥ (ABC)?
intersecting at M. a
A) 30° B) 45° C) 60° D) 75° E) 90°
If AM = 3 cm, M

CM = 2 cm, and
MD = 4 cm,
what is the length of MB? D B
b

## A) 9 cm B) 6 cm C) 5 cm D) 4 cm E) 3 cm 7. Given lines m, n, d so that m and n are skew lines,

and m and d are skew lines. What can be
concluded for about n and d?
A) They are skew
4. A, B, C are three points in a plane α and M is a
point not in α so that MB ⊥ α. If MB = 3 cm, B) They are parallel
∠MAB = 60°, and ∠MCB = 45°, what is the C) They are intersecting or skew
maximum length of line segment AC in cm? D) They are parallel or skew
A) 6 B) 9 C) 3+ñ3 D) 2ñ3 E) 3ñ2+ñ3 E) They are parallel or intersecting or skew

56 Algebra 10
8. ΔABC is an equilateral triangle with a side of 1 cm. 12. In the adjacent figure, D

## M is a point not in (ABC). If MB ⊥ (ABC), what DA ⊥ (ABC).

is the distance between lines MB and AC in cm?
If ∠ABD = ∠ADC = 60°
1 3 2 1 and ∠BDC = 45°, what C
A) B) C) D) 1 E)
2 2 2 3 is cos ∠BAC?
A

3 6–2 3 6–2 2 6 –3
9. ABCD is a square and MA ⊥ (ABC). If MA = 2AB, A) B) C)
6 3 3
what is cos ∠BMC?
2 6 –3
5 6 30 30 D) E) 1
A) B) C) D) ñ5 E) 6
5 6 5 6

## 10. In the adjacent figure, in M figure, G is the cen-

G
plane α there is a circle troid of ΔABC. A
d
with center O and a line A1, B1, C1, G1 are in α B

## d tangent to the circle at T

so that a
C1
point A. T is a point on d
AA1 // BB1 // CC1 // GG1. A1 G1
and MO ⊥ α. If the radius O
B1
of the circle is 3 cm, A If AA1 = 12 cm,

MO = 4 cm, and
a BB1 = 8 cm and

## MT = 13 cm, what is AT? CC1 = 13 cm, what is GG1?

A) 12 cm B) 11 cm C) 10 cm D) 19 cm E) 8 cm A) 9 cm B) 10 cm C) 11 cm D) 12 cm E) 13 cm

## 11. In the adjacent figure, ΔABC P

is an equilateral triangle, O equilateral triangles in
is in (ABC), and different planes. M is
A D
PO ⊥ (ABC). C the midpoint of AC and
P is in (MBD).
If PA = PB = PC = 2AB,
PO
O If AC = 10 cm and
what is =? A B B P
AB MP = 12 cm, what is CP?

33 31 3 35 A) 10 cm B) 11 cm C) 12 cm
A) B) C) D) E) 1
3 3 2 3 D) 13 cm E) 14 cm

## Chapter Review Test 1A 57

C1 18. ΔABC and ΔA1B1C1 are two triangles in two
figure, ABCD is a distinct planes. If AB // A1B1 and BC // B1C1, what
parallelogram can be concluded for AC and A1C1?
A1
and A1, B1, C1, D1 B1

## A) They are parallel

are coplanar
such that D C B) They are skew
AA1 // BB1 // CC1 C) They are intersecting
// DD1. B D) They are parallel or skew
A
If AA1 = 10 cm, E) They are parallel or skew or intersecting
BB1 = 13 cm, and CC1 = 16 cm, what is DD1?

A) 11 cm B) 12 cm C) 13 cm
D) 14 cm E) 15 cm
19. In the adjacent figure, A

AB ⊥ AC, AB ⊥ AD,
AB = AD = AC = 6 cm. P

N
If M, N, P are the
centers of ΔABC, B M

## 16. In the adjacent figure, P

ΔACD, and ΔABD
(A1B1C1) // (ABC). respectively, what is C

## SA1B1C1 A1 C1 the area of ΔMNP in

1
If = , cm2?
SABC 9 B1
A C
PA1 A) 2ñ3 B) 4ñ3 C) 6 D) 6ñ3 E) 8
what is =?
A1A
B

1 1 1 1
A) 1 B) C) D) E)
2 3 4 9 20. In the adjacent figure, P

ABCD is a square, O is
the center of ABCD, and
PO ⊥ (ABC). D C

If AB = 6 cm and
PO = 4 cm, what is the
O
17. Vertex A of triangle ABC is in a plane α and distance between lines
BC // α. If the distance between the centroid of AD and PC?
ΔABC and α is 10 cm, what is the distance A B

## between BC and α in cm?

12 18 21 24 36
A) B) C) D) E)
A) 10 B) 12 C) 15 D) 18 E) 20 5 5 5 5 5

58 Algebra 10
In space geometry, we find angle between a line and a plane, angle between two planes, etc.
In order to make our calculations easier, we will make use of projections. By projection, we
mean two types of projection. They are central projection and orthogonal projection.

A. TYPES OF PROJECTION
1. Central Projection
If A is a fixed point not in plane α and P
P is any other point, the projection of A

## P on α is point P' where line AP inter- P A

C
B
sects α.
C'
P'
The central projection of a geometric A'
a b B'
figure upon a plane consists of the
projections of all points of the figure.
For example, the central projection of
(Figure 2.1)
ΔABC from point P upon plane β is
ΔA'B'C' (Figure 2.1).
The central projection of an object may not have the same shape as the object. For example,
a central projection of a circle may be an ellipse. Projective geometry is a study which deals
with the properties of figures which are not changed by projection.

2. Orthogonal Projection
A figure is projected orthogonally when the projecting lines are perpendicular to the plane of
the projection. Since the projecting lines are perpendicular to the plane of the projection,
they are parallel to each other.
In this book, we will use only orthogonal projection. Therefore, unless otherwise stated, “pro-
jection” will mean “orthogonal projection”.

a. Projection on a Line
i. Projection of a Point on a Line

60 Geometry 10
Definition
The projection of a given point on a line is the point which is the foot of the perpendicular
drawn from the point to line.

In Figure 2.2, A'AA' is the projection of A on line l and is the distance from point A to line l.
If point A is on line l then its projection will be itself and the distance will be zero.
We can show the projection of point A on
A
line l shortly as Projl A .
In this case Projl A = A'

l
A'

(Figure 2.2)

## ii. Projection of a Line Segment on a Line in a Plane

Projection of a line segment on a line is also a line segment but if the line segment is
perpendicular to the given line then its projection on this line will be a point.

Definition
Projection of a line segment on a line is the set of all points which are the projections of each
point of the line segment on the line.

## In Figure 2.3, A, B, C and D are some points

D
on line segment AD and A', B', C' and D' are C
B
points on l such that A

## A', B', C' and D' are the projections of A, B, C,

D on l respectively.
l
Then Projl AD = A'D'. A' B' C' D'

## By Thales theorem we can easily get

AB CD
the proportion =
A'B' C'D'
O If the line segment is parallel to the given line then the length of its projection on that line
will be equal to the length of itself. If it is perpendicular then its projection will be a point,
hence the length of the projection will be zero.

Projection Geometry 61
iii. Projection of a Figure on a Line in a Plane
As in the projection of a line segment on a line, in order to find the projection of a figure on
a line, the figure and the line must be in the same plane.

Definition
Projection of a figure on a line is the set of all points which are the projections of each point
of the figure on the given line.

## Projl ΔABC = B'C'. B

l
B' A' C'

(Figure 2.4)

b. Projection on a Plane
i. Projection of a Point on a Plane

Definition
The projection of a point on a plane is the foot of the perpendicular drawn from the point to
the plane.

## If the point is on the plane then itsprojection

A
on this plane will be itself.
In Figure 2.5,
B
Projα A = A' and ProjαB = B
A'

a
Proj a A = A'

(Figure 2.5)

## ii. Projection of a Line on a Plane

Definition
The projection of a line on a plane is the set of all points which are the projections of each
point of the line on the plane.

62 Geometry 10
If the line is perpendicular to the plane its
B l
projection will be a point. Otherwise, its A

## projection will be a line.

In Figure 2.6,
l'
A' B'
Projα l = l ' a
Proj a l = l '

(Figure 2.6)

Theorem
The projection of a line, not perpendicular to a plane, is also a line.

## Proof Given a line l and a plane α such that l ⊥ α

(Figure 2.7). All perpendiculars drawn from
l
line l to plane α are parallel to each other. Let b

## β be the plane determined by l and one of

these perpendiculars. Then all perpendiculars a
l'

## drawn from l to α will be in β, so the feet of all

these perpendiculars will lie on the intersection
line of planes α and β which is l ' .
Therefore, Projα l = l ' Q (Figure 2.7)

## iii. Projection of a Figure on a Plane

Definition
Projection of a figure on a plane is the set of all points which are the projections of all points
of the figure on the plane.

## Some figures may haveprojections different

S
from themselves. For example, projection of a
circle may be an ellipse, also it may be a line
segment.

S'
a
Proj a S = S'

(Figure 2.8)

Projection Geometry 63
Theorem
The projections of parallel lines not perpendicular to a plane are also parallel.

## Proof Given lines d1, d2 and plane α such that d1 // d2, d1

d2
d1 ⊥ α and d2 ⊥ α (Figure 2.9). A
B
Let d1' = Projα d1 and d2' = Projα d2 .
d1'
Take A ∈ d1 and B ∈ d2.
A'
d2'
If A' = Projα A and B' = Projα B then AA' ⊥ α a B'

## and BB' ⊥ α. AA' // BB' by Theorem 1.25.

Since AA' // BB' and d1 // d2 then plane formed (Figure 2.9)
by AA' and d1 is parallel to the plane formed
by BB' and d2.
Hence their intersection lines d1' and d2' with
plane α are also parallel to each other Q

Theorem
The projections of parallel and equal line segments on a plane are also parallel and equal.

## Proof We proved that the projections of two parallel d1

d2
lines on a given plane are parallel. So if two A
B
line segments are parallel, their projections on
a given plane are parallel. Now we will prove d1'
A'
that the length of projections are equal. d2'
a B'
Take two line segments AB and CD such that
AB // CD and AB = CD.
(Figure 2.10)
Let A'B' = Projα AB and C'D' = Projα CD. The
quadrilateral ABCD is a parallelogram because
AB // CD and AB = CD. In a parallelogram
opposite sides are parallel and equal.
AA' and BB', are perpendicular to α.
So AA' // BB' (II).
From (I) and (II), (AA'D'D) // (BB'C'C). So A'D'
// B'C'. We know that A'B' // D'C'. Therefore
quadrilateral A'B'C'D' will be a parallelogram.
Finally, we get A'B' = C'D' Q

64 Geometry 10
Theorem
The projection of a right angle on a plane, whose one arm is parallel and the other arm is not
perpendicular to that plane, is also a right angle.

C
AB // α. B

## We need to prove that ∠B'A'C' = 90°.

C'
Since AB // α, AB // A'B'.
B' A'
Since AB // A'B' and AB ⊥ AC , AC ⊥ A'B'. a

## So, A'B' is perpendicular to the plane formed

(Figure 2.11)
by AA' and AC. Therefore, A'B' ⊥ A'C' which
means ∠B'A'C' = 90° Q

## B. USING PROJECTION IN CALCULATIONS

1. Angles in Space

## a. Angle Between Two Lines

In space, lines can be parallel, intersecting or skew. We know the angle between two inter-
secting lines from plane geometry. What if the lines are skew? In this case, on one of the skew
lines we take a point and through this point we draw a line parallel to the other one. As you
guess we get two intersecting lines and the angle between them will be the angle between the
skew lines.
O If two lines are parallel, the angle between them is 0°. If two lines are perpendicular, the
angle between them is 90°.
O Two lines form two different angles. By the angle between two lines, we mean the smaller
one.

## In Figure 2.12, we take α or 180 – α as the

d1
angle between d1 and d2 by finding the smaller 180 - a
a
one.
d2

(Figure 2.12)

Projection Geometry 65
b. Angle Between a Line and a Plane
Angle between a line and a plane is the angle
d
between the line itself and its projection on that A

plane.
In Figure 2.13, Projα d = d' and
O
d'
∠AOA' is the angle between d and α. A'
a
O If a line is perpendicular to a plane, the angle
between them is 90°.
O If a line is parallel to a plane, the angle between (Figure 2.13)
them is 0°.

Theorem
Of all angles formed by a line and all possible lines in a plane, the angle with the projection
of the given line is the smallest one.

## Proof Let d be a given line, m its projection on plane

M
α and n another line in α. On line n, take line
d
segment AN1 = AM1 i.e. equal to the projection
of inclined line segment MA, where M1 is the
g
projection of point M on d. Then two sides of m A
M1
triangles AM1M and AN1M are equal: side AM b
n
is common to both, and AM1 and AN1 are equal a
by construction. But the third side MN1 in tri- N1

## angle AN1M is longer than the third side MM1

in the triangle AM1M (an inclined line is
greater than a perpendicular). Hence the (Figure 2.14)
opposite angle β in ΔAN1M is greater than
angle γ in ΔAM1M. Therefore, β > γ Q

Conclusion
The acute angle between a line lying in a plane and the projection of an inclined line on this
plane is less than the angle between the line and the inclined line.
Refer to Figure 2.14. m is the projection of n on (AM1M) and d is another line in (AM1M). So
the angle between m and n is smaller than the angle between n and d.

66 Geometry 10
c. Angle Between Two Planes (Dihedral Angle)
We know that any line in a planedivides the plane into
two half planes.
d

(Figure 2.15)

Definition
A dihedral angle is a figure formed by two half planes having a common line.

## The two half planes are called asthe faces and A

their intersection line as the edge of the
B
dihedral angle. A dihedral angle may be read
E
by naming a point in one face, the edge, and a
D
point in the other face.
C

Dihedral Ð ABCF

(Figure 2.16)

## Plane Angle of a Dihedral Angle

A plane angle of a dihedralangle is an angle B E

## formed by two perpendiculars drawn to the A

O
same point on the edge. In Figure 2.17, P1

## ∠POP1 is a plane angle of dihedral angle P

ABCF. There are infinitely many plane angles C F
of a dihedral angle. Now, we will prove a nice
D
theorem about plane angles of a dihedral
angle. (Figure 2.17)

Theorem
Plane angles of a dihedral angle are equal to each other.

Projection Geometry 67
Proof In Figure 2.18, ∠POP1 and ∠TO1T1 are two B E
plane angles of dihedral angle ABCF. O
A
P1
Rays OP and O1T lie on the same face of the
O1
P
dihedral angle and they are perpendicular to T1

## edge BC, so they are parallel in the same T

C F
direction. Similarly rays OP1 and O1T1 are also
D
parallel in the same direction. Therefore,
∠POP1 = ∠TO1T1 Q
(Figure 2.18)

From now on, in our book by dihedral angle we will mean plane angle of dihedral angle.
If two planes are intersecting planes, the dihedral angle between them is the smaller one. If
two planes are parallel, the dihedral angle between then is 0°.

Definition
If the angle between two planes is 90°,
planes are said to be perpendicular, A
otherwise they are oblique planes. b
b
D

E
B
a a
C

## (Figure 2.19) (Figure 2.20)

EXAMPLE 1 Given an equilateral triangle ABC with one side 8 cm and point O is its centroid. Through
point O, a line segment OT is drawn that is perpendicular to the plane of ΔABC. The length
of OT is 4 cm. Find the angle between the planes of ΔABC and ΔABT.

Solution Triangle ABC is equilateral so its height CH will pass through point O. Let us draw TA and
TB and join T and H (Figure 2.21).
By the three perpendiculars theorem, TH will be perpendicular to AB. Hence, the angle
between planes of ΔABC and ΔABT will be ∠THO. Now, let us calculate this angle.

68 Geometry 10
T
AB ⋅ 3 8 3
CH = = = 4 3 cm,
2 2
1 4 3
OH = ⋅ CH = cm,
3 3
A C
OT 4 O
tan ∠ THO = = , H
OH 4 3 B

3
(Figure 2.21)
tan∠THO = ñ3,

∠THO = 60°

d. Polyhedral Angles
If you try to make a model of a three dimensional figure whose faces are all equilateral
triangles except one which is a regular hexagon, you will probably find that it is impossible to
build such a model. In your model the sides of the triangles should fit to form edges of three
dimensional figure, but they will not, since there seems to be something wrong with the
angles. Hence, we need to investigate the properties of the angles at a vertex of three
dimensional figures.

## Definition Polyhedral Angle

A figure formed by three or more planes
that meet in a point and are so situated
that they may be intersected by another B
B D
plane forming a polygon is called a D
polyhedral angle. A
A

C
C

a) b)

(Figure 2.22)

Projection Geometry 69
In Figure 2.22, the angles atvertex A of the three P
dimensional figure are ∠DAB, ∠DAC and ∠CAB. The
union of these angles and their interiors form a
polyhedral angle.
O The portions of the planes which form the polyhedral
angle are called its faces. E
O The common point of meeting of the planes is A D
called the vertex of the polyhedral angle.
O The dihedral angles formed by the faces are called
B C
the dihedral angles of the polyhedral angle.
O The edges of the dihedral angles are the edges of the (Figure 2.23)
polyhedral angle.
O A face angle of the polyhedral angle is formed by the
edges of any face.
A polyhedral angle may be read by
naming the vertex or by naming V W

## the vertex and a point on each

edge. Thus, the polyhedral angle in
Figure 2.23 may be read as “poly-
hedral angle P” or “polyhedral F P
angle P-ABCDE”. In the same fig- A K N
E
ure, the surfaces containing P, A, B B C
D L M
or P, B, C are some of the faces of m n

## the polyhedral angle. a) b)

Similarly try to state the dihedral
angles and the face angles of the (Figure 2.24)
polyhedral angle.
A polyhedral angle may have many face angles. The least it may have is three. The polyhe-
dral angle having three faces is called a trihedral angle. Polyhedral angles of four, five, six or
eight faces are called respectively tetrahedral, pentahedral, hexahedral, octahedral angles.
O A polyhedral angle is convex if the section formed by a plane intersecting all the faces is
a convex polygon.
Polyhedral angle V in Figure 2.24 (a) is not convex, since polygon ABCDEF in plane m is not
convex. On the other hand, polyhedral angle W in part (b) is convex, since the section in
plane n is a convex polygon KLMNP.
O Two polyhedral angles are congruent if the face angles and dihedral angles of one are
equal, each to each, to the face angles and dihedral angles of the other, and arranged in
the same order.
70 Geometry 10
O Two polyhedral angles are
B'
symmetric, if the face angles and
C
dihedral angles of one are equal,
each to each, to the face angles V
A'

## and dihedral angles of the other, A

but arranged in opposite order.
Congruent polyhedral angles can C'
B
be made to coincide, but symmetric
polyhedral angles cannot. (Figure 2.25)
In Figure 2.25, polyhedral angles V – ABC and V – A'B'C' are symmetric and they can not
We will now investigate the properties of the face angles of a convex polyhedral angle.

Theorem
The sum of the measures of any two face angles of a trihedral angle is greater than the
measure of the third face angle.

## Proof Referring to Figure 2.26, polyhedral angle A –

A
FGH is a trihedral angle whose largest face
angle is angle FAH. Let us draw ray AR in
plane FAH so that ∠FAG = ∠FAR .
Choose any points B and C on rays AF and AH,
respectively. Let ray AR intersect BC at a point B E C
E. Then select D on ray AG so that AD = AE.
F
D H
Then ΔBAD ≅ ΔBAE by S.A.S. and so BD = G
R

BE.
Now, in triangle BDC, BD + DC > BC and
(Figure 2.26)
BC = BE + EC ⇒ DC > EC. (BD = BE)

## And in triangles ACD and ACE,

AC = AC, AD = AE and DC > EC,
so ∠DAC > ∠EAC. Hence,
∠DAC + ∠BAD > ∠EAC + ∠BAE ( ∠BAD = ∠BAE )
∠DAC + ∠BAD > ∠BAC .
Since angle BAC is the largest of the three face angles, the two following inequalities can be
written,
∠BAC + ∠DAC > ∠BAD Q

Projection Geometry 71
O The proof for the case where there is no largest face angle is similar.
For an explanation, let you draw three adjacent angles with measures 55°, 80° and 45°,
respectively, cut the figure out and make a model of a polyhedral angle. Then, similarly, do
the same thing using angles with measures 10°, 30° and 45°. You will find out that it is impossible
to make a model of the polyhedral angle in the second case. This is what Theorem 2.7 says.

Theorem
The sum of the measures of the face angles of a convex polyhedral angle is less than 360°.

## Proof Consider a convex polyhedral angle formed by

F
point F and convex polygon ABCD, as
illustrated in Figure 2.27.
Suppose E is any point inthe interior of ABCD. D

## In the drawing, there are as many triangles C

having E as a vertex as there are triangles ha- A E
ving F as a vertex. (why?) The sum of the me-
B
asures of all the angles in the triangles having
E as a vertex is the same as the sum of the me-
asures of all the angles in the triangles having
F as a vertex. (why?) (Figure 2.27)

Hence, we may generalize the proof to all convex polyhedral angles. Namely, the number of
faces of polyhedral angle F is not important and if we can prove that the sum of the measures
of the face angles of polyhedral angle F is smaller than 360° then we may accept that it holds
for all convex polyhedral angles.
Thus, it is enough to prove 360°>∠AFD+∠AFB+∠BFC+∠CFD.
By Theorem 2.7, for the trihedral angles at A, B, C and D, we can write
∠FCB +∠FCD >∠DCB ∠FCB +∠FCD >∠DCE +∠ECB

∠FBA +∠FBC >∠CBA ∠FBA +∠FBC >∠CBE +∠EBA
If we add both sides of the inequalities side by side, we get
∠ADE + ∠EAD + ∠EBA + ∠BAE + ∠ECB + ∠CBE + ∠EDC + ∠DCE is smaller than
∠FAD + ∠FDA + ∠FAB + ∠FBA + ∠FCB + ∠FBC + ∠FCD + ∠FDC .

72 Geometry 10
In triangles FAD, FAB, FDC and FCB, we can write
∠FAD + ∠FDA = 180° – ∠AFD
∠FAB + ∠FBA = 180° – ∠AFB
∠FCB + ∠FBC = 180° – ∠BFC
∠FCD + ∠FDC = 180° – ∠CFD .
Similarly, in triangles EAD, EDC, ECB and EBA, we get
∠EBA + ∠BAE = 180° – ∠AEB
∠ECB + ∠CBE = 180° – ∠BEC
∠EDC + ∠DCE = 180° – ∠CED .
If we substitute these values into the above inequality, we obtain
∠AED+∠AEB+∠BEC+∠CED>∠AFD+∠AFB+∠BFC+∠CFD.
In quadrilateral ABCD, the sum of the angles around point E is 360°. Thus, we conclude that
360° > ∠AFD + ∠AFB + ∠BFC + ∠CFD Q

EXAMPLE 2 Decide whether a trihedral angle can be constructed in which the face angles are respectively
a. 60°, 40°, and 110° b. 65°, 150°, and 155°
c. 60°, 80°, and 100° d. 120°, 120°, and 120°

Solution a. Since the sum of the measures of any two face angles must be greater than the measure
of the third face angle, the trihedral angle can not be constructed (60° + 40° is not greater
than 110°).
b. The sum of the measures of the face angles is greater than 360°.
But by Theorem 2.8, it can not be. So, the trihedral angle can not be constructed with the
given face angles.
(c) and (d) are left to the student as an exercise.

Theorem
In any trihedral angle;
1. each dihedral angle is less than 180°.
2. the sum of the dihedral angles is less than 540°.
3. the sum of the dihedral angles is greater than 180°.

Projection Geometry 73
Proof 1. In trihedral angle V-PQR, let the measures of V
dihedral angles VP, VQ and VR be respectively
x, y and z.
C
On the edges of the trihedral angle, let us D L
R
choose A, B, C so that VA = VB = VC and draw N
A
AB, BC and AC as in Figure 2.28. K B
P Q
Through any point D on VA, if we draw a plane
perpendicular to VA, cutting face VAB along
(Figure 2.28)
DK, face VAC a long DL and the plane of ABC
along KL, then ∠KDA = ∠LDA = 90°.
Therefore, angle KDL is the plane angle of dihedral angle VP. In other words, ∠KDL = x.
On the other hand, D-AKL is a trihedral angle. By Theorem 2.8,
∠KDA + ∠LDA + ∠KDL < 360°, 90° + 90° + x < 360°.
So x < 180°
Similarly, we can obtain y < 180° and z < 180° .
2. x < 180°
y < 180° Here, we get x + y + z < 180° + 180° + 180°.
z < 180° So x + y + z < 540° .
3. In triangle KDL, if we draw DN and AN so that DN ⊥ KL then by the three perpendicu-
lars theorem, AN ⊥ KL .
Therefore, in right triangles ANK and DNK, each of angles NDK and NAK is acute.
NK NK
Sin∠NAK = and Sin∠NDK = .
AK DK
Since AK is the hypotenuse of right triangle ADK, DK < AK and therefore,
Sin ∠NAK < Sin ∠NDK. In other words, ∠NAK < ∠NDK because they are both acute
angles.
Similarly, we can obtain ∠NDL > ∠NAL .
So, we can write, ∠KDL > ∠KAL .
Since x = ∠KDL and ∠BAC = ∠KAL, x > ∠BAC .
In the same manner, we can prove that,
y > ∠ABC and z > ∠BCA .
On the other hand, in triangle ABC,
∠BAC + ∠ABC + ∠BCA = 180° . Therefore,
x + y + z > ∠BAC + ∠ABC + ∠BCA
x + y + z > 180° Q

74 Geometry 10
EXAMPLE 3 Can a trihedral angle be constructed with the following dihedral angles?
a. 70°, 45°, 45° b. 60°, 185°, 35°
c. 90°, 90°, 90° d. 20°, 30°, 120°

Solution a. Since the sum of the dihedral angles is less than 180°, the trihedral angle cannot be
constructed.
c. The trihedral angle can be constructed. (Think of the corners of your room)
(b) and (d) are left to the student as an exercise.

Theorem
Two trihedral angles are either congruent or symmetric if the three face angles of the one are
equal respectively to the three face angles of the other.

## Proof Let us choose points A, B, C, E, F

V W
and G on the edges of the trihedral
angles so that
VA = VB = VC = WE = WF = WG C G
D L N
and draw AB, BC, AC, EF, FG and H

EG as in Figure 2.29. A E
K M F
B
Given that angles AVB, BVC, CVA
are equal respectively to angles W
EWF, FWG, GWE. Therefore, by
S.A.S., we can write
ΔAVB ≅ ΔEWF, ΔBVC ≅ ΔFWG and H
G N
ΔCVA ≅ ΔGWE . E

## Hence, AB = EF, BC = FG and M

F
CA = GE .
By S.S.S.,
ΔABC ≅ ΔEFG . (Figure 2.29)
So, ∠BAC = ∠FEG .

Through any point D on VA, let us draw DK in face AVB and DL in face AVC so that DK ⊥
VA and DL ⊥ VA and draw KL. Then let us take point H on WE so that AD = EH and
draw HM, HN and MN in the same manner. Therefore HM ⊥ WE and HN ⊥ WE .
Since, ∠BAV = ∠FEW, AD = EH and ∠ADK = ∠EHM = 90°,
Therefore,
AK = EM and DK = HM .

Projection Geometry 75
Similarly, we can get
AL = EN and DL = HN .
So, by S.A.S.,
ΔKAL ≅ ΔMEN ( ∠BAC = ∠FEG )
Then, KL = MN and therefore, by S.S.S.,
ΔKDL ≅ ΔMHN .
Hence, we can conclude that
∠KDL = ∠MHN .
Namely, dihedral angles VA and WE are equal.
In the same manner, we can prove that dihedral angles VB and VC are equal to dihedral
angles WF and WG respectively.
So, the corresponding parts (face angles and dihedral angles) of trihedral angles V-ABC and
W-EFG are equal to each other, respectively.
By the definition, if their corresponding parts are arranged in the same order then trihedral
angles V-ABC and W-EFG are congruent. Otherwise, they will be symmetric Q

Practical Application
Copy the adjacent figure on a piece of paper. Cut out your
sketch, fold it along OA, OB and OC .
A
Paste it together to form a trihedral angle. See if the O
A
60°
70°
other members of your class. Make another trihedral angle
with ∠BOA = 60°, ∠BOC = 70° and ∠COA = 80°. How is B
C
this trihedral angle related to the previous one?

(Figure 2.30)

## e. Length of Projection of a Line Segment

Theorem
The length of the projection of a line segment on a plane is equal to the product of the length
of the line segment by the cosine of the angle between the line segment and the plane.

76 Geometry 10
Proof Given line segment AB and plane α. B

## A'B' = Projα AB , θ is the angle between AB and

q A
α (Figure 2.31). C

## Draw AC ⊥ BB' where C ∈ BB'.Quadrilateral

a q
ACB'A' is a rectangle. B' A' D

So, AC = A'B'.

## ΔACB is a right triangle, (Figure 2.31)

AC
cos θ = ⇒ AC = AB . cos θ
AB
Therefore, A'B' = AB . cos θ Q

## f. Area of Projection of a Figure

Theorem
The area of the projection of a polygon on a plane is equal to the product of the area of the
polygon and the cosine of the angle between the planes of polygon and its projection.

Proof We will prove this theorem for a triangle first and then generalize for all polygons.
Let us take a triangle ABC and a plane α. There are 3 possible cases:

## (Say side BC)(Figure 2.32).

Draw AA' ⊥ α where
B A'
A' ∈ α. We have q
H
a
ΔA'BC = Projα ΔABC C

## Draw AH ⊥ BC. By the three perpendiculars

(Figure 2.32)
theorem, A'H ⊥ BC and therefore ∠AHA' = θ is
the angle between planes of ΔABC and α.
In ΔA'BC,
1
SA'BC = ⋅ BC ⋅ A'H
2
A′H
in ΔAA'H, cos θ = ⇒ A'H = AH ⋅ cos θ
AH
1
SA'BC = ⋅ BC ⋅ AH . cos θ
2
SA'BC = SABC ⋅ cos θ

Projection Geometry 77
IInd case: If one side of ΔABC (Say BC) is parallel to A
plane α then we take another plane β such that
BC ∈ β and α // β (Figure 2.33).
ΔA'B'C' = Projα ΔABC B N

## ΔNBC = Projβ ΔABC b C

We know that
ΔNBC ≅ ΔA'B'C' B' A'

## which means that SA'B'C' = SABC ⋅ cos θ where θ is the

angle between planes of ΔABC and α. (Figure 2.33)

## IIIrd case: If ΔABC is not on plane α with no side

parallel to plane α (Figure 2.34): b

## Let β be the plane of ΔABC.

Let α ∩ β = d A C

## Draw AN // d where N ∈ BC and N

B
A'N' = Projα AN. Then A'N' // d.
So, for ΔABN and ΔANC, we can apply IInd case. A'
q
Let θ be the angle between planes α and β.
d
B' N' C' a
SA'B'N' = SABN ⋅ cos θ
SA'N'C' = SANC ⋅ cos θ
+ (Figure 2.34)
SA'B'C' = SABC ⋅ cos θ

## IVth case: If we have a polygon, the area of its

projection on a plane can be calculated easily by
dividing this polygon into triangles and finding the E
S3
sum of areas of projections of each triangle on the A D
S2
given plane. S1
B C
Let A1B1C1D1E1 be the projection of polygon ABCDE
on plane α (Figure 2.35). Divide ABCDE into trian- E1
gles ABC, ACD and ADE. Let θ be the angle between q A1
S'3
D1
S'2
plane of ABCDE and plane α. Now, S'1
B1 C1 a
SA1B1C1D1E1 = SA1B1C1 + SA1C1D1 + SA1D1E1
= SABC ⋅ cosθ + SACD ⋅ cosθ + SADE ⋅ cosθ
(Figure 2.35)
= (SABC + SACD + SADE) ⋅ cosθ
= SABCDE ⋅ cosθ Q

78 Geometry 10
EXAMPLE 4 Given two planes α and β. Equilateral triangle ABC whose one side length is a units lies in
plane α. The angle between planes α and β is 60°. Find the area of projection of ΔABC on
plane β.

a2 3
Solution ΔABC is equilateral, so SABC = . a
4
A
Let ΔA'B'C' = Projβ ΔABC. B

## SA'B'C' = SABC ⋅ cos 60° C

60° B'
A'
a2 3 1 a2 3
SA'B'C' = ⋅ = C'
4 2 8 b

(Figure 2.34)

EXAMPLE 5 Area of ΔABC is 30 cm2. The projection of ΔABC on a plane is ΔA'B'C' with side lengths 6
cm, 10 cm and 14 cm. Find the angle between the planes of these triangles.

Solution Let θ be the angle between planes of triangles ABC and A'B'C'.
We know that SA'B'C' = SABC . cos α
So, we just need to find SA'B'C' . We know all side lengths of ΔA'B'C' so by using the Heron’s
Formula:
6+10+14
u= =15 cm
2
SA'B'C' = 15 ⋅ (15 – 6)(15 – 10)(15 – 14)
=15 3 cm 2
SA'B'C' 15 3 3
cos α = = = , α = 30°
SABC 30 2

## 2. Finding the Distance Between Two Skew Lines by

Projection

Theorem
Distance between two skew lines is equal to the distance between their projections on the
plane perpendicular to one of them.

Projection Geometry 79
Proof Given two skew lines a and b with the common per-
pendicular NM, and a plane α such that b ⊥ α. Let M1 N M
K
be inter section of α and b, and a1 be projection of a
a
on α (Figure 2.37).

## So, we need to prove that the length of NM is equal to

N1
the distance between M1 and a1. K1 M1
a1 a
Let N1 ∈ a1 be the projection of N on α . Since b ⊥ α,
b ⊥ M1N1. For the common perpendicular, we can b

## write NM ⊥ b. So, both NM and N1M1 are perpendicular

to the same line b. Therefore, NM // N1M1. On the (Figure 2.37)
order hand, MM1 ⊥ α and NN1 ⊥ α. So, MM1 // NN1,
which yields the result that NMM1N1 is a rectangle. So
we have NM = N1M1.

## Now, we will show that N1M1 is the distance between

a1 and M1. It can be done just by showing that
N1M1 ⊥ a1.

## Since MN ⊥ a, ∠MNK = 90°. The projection of angle

MNK on α is ∠M1N1K1. Since ∠MNK = 90° and
MN // M1N1, by Theorem 2.4, we can write
∠M1N1K1= 90°, which means that M1N1 ⊥ a1. So, we
can conclude that the distance between a and b is
equal to the distance between M1 and a1 Q

EXAMPLE 6 Given an equilateral ΔABC with a side of m units. If ΔA1B1C1 is the corresponding projection
of ΔABC on a parallel plane, find the distance between AA1 and B1C.

## Solution We can easily solve this example by the help of the C

previous theorem. We just need to find a plane
A
perpendicular to one of skew lines AA1 and B1C. m B

## Here, AA1 is perpendicular to ΔA1B1C1. We find

projections of AA1 and B1C on ΔA1B1C1. C1

A1 H
A1 = Proj(A1B1C1)AA1 B1

B1C1 = Proj(A1B1C1)B1C
(Figure 2.38)

80 Geometry 10
The distance will be from A1 to B1C1 which is the height to B1C1 in ΔA1B1C1.
ΔABC is equilateral. So its projection on a parallel plane will be a congruent triangle with a
side of m units.
m 3 m 3
Thus, A1H = . So, the distance between AA1 and B1C is units.
2 2

EXAMPLE 7 Given parallelogram ABCD and point K not lying in the plane of ABCD. If DK ⊥ (ABCD),
AB = 6 cm, AD = 8 cm, DK = 3 cm, and ∠BAD = 30° ,
a. find the distance between DK and AB.
b. find the distance between BK and CD.

## Solution a. DK ⊥ (ABCD), so we can take ABCD as projection

K
plane.
D 6 C
ProjABC DK = D and ProjABC AB = AB.
Therefore, distance between DK and AB will be 8

## distance between D and AB, i.e. height DH of

30°
parallelogram ABCD. A H B
∠BAD = 30° , so DH = = =4 .
2 2 (Figure 2.39)
Hence, DH = 4 cm.
b. DH ⊥ DC and DK ⊥ DC,
K
so DC ⊥ (DKH). 3

Proj(DKH)DC = D. D 6 C

## By the three perpendiculars theorem, 8 4

BH ⊥ (DKH),
30°

so Proj(DKH)KB = KH. A H 6 B

## Since KDH is a right triangle with sides 3, 4, 5, (Figure 2.40)

3⋅ 4
this distance is = 2,4 cm.
5

Projection Geometry 81
EXAMPLE 8 What is the measure of the angle between the planes of a triangle and its projection if the
area of its projection is half of the area of the triangle itself?

Solution Let S be area of the triangle and S1 be area of its projection. Let α be the angle between their
planes. Now, it is given that S = 2S1. From the formula,
S1 = S ⋅ cos α, S1 = 2S1 ⋅ cos α, so
1
cos α = and α = 60° .
2

EXAMPLE 9 Given a regular hexagon with one side a = 8 cm. The angle between the plane of the
hexagon and its projection plane is 30°. Find the area of the projection of this hexagon.

3a 2 3
Solution We know that the area of a regular hexagon with one side a is equal to .
2
3 ⋅ 82 3
So, Shexagon = = 96ñ3 cm2.
2
Here, the angle between two planes is 30°.
3
Therefore, Sproj = Shexagon ⋅ cos 30° = 96ñ3 ⋅ = 144 cm2.
2

EXAMPLE 10 Given a triangle ABC and its orthogonal projection A1B1C1 . The distances between corre-

sponding vertices of these triangles are a, b and c. Show that the distance between their cen-
a+ b+ c
troids is .
3

## Solution Let AM and A1M1 be the medians to CB and C1B1 in

C
ΔABC and ΔA1B1C1 respectively. Let O and O1 be cen- M
O
troids of ΔABC and ΔA1B1C1 respectively. CC1 // BB1 (we B

## are taking projections so they are perpendicular to pro- A c

jection plane which means they are parallel to each
b
other). So CBB1C1 will be a trapezoid and MM1 is its C1
middle base. a M1

MM1 = = and
2 2 A1

## MM1 // CC1. So M1M1 // A1A which

means that AA1M1M is a trapezoid.

82 Geometry 10
Draw AK ⊥ MM1.
Let OO1 ∩ AK = T. M

ΔAMK ∼ ΔAOT O

AO OT 2
so = = .(O is centroid) A T
K
AM MK 3
M1K = O1T = AA1 = a
b+ c a a a
MK = MM1 – M1K = –a
2
2 2 b+c
OT = MK ⇒ OT = ( – a)
3 3 2 A1 O1 M1

2 b+c
OO1 = OT + TO1 = ( – a) + a
3 2
b+c 2 a+b+c
= – a+a =
3 3 3

EXAMPLE 11 If two lines intersect at an angle of 60° and each makes an angle of 45° with a plane, show
that the projections of these lines on the plane are perpendicular to each other.

## Solution We are given two lines d and m, and pro-

jection plane α. A

Let us take d ∩ m = P,
60° B
P
Projαd = d1, d

## Projαm = m1, and m A1

ProjαP = P1.
Now we take two points A and B on m d1
P1
and d, respectively such that PA = PB = k B1
m1
units. Let
a
ProjαA = A1 and
ProjαB = B1.
ΔPAB will be equilateral because ∠APB = 60° and PA = PB.
Therefore, PA = PB = AB = k units.
It is given that lines make 45° with plane α.
2
Now, P1A1 = PA ⋅ cos45° = k ⋅ and
2
2
P1B1 = PB ⋅ cos45° = k ⋅
2
P1B1PB and P1A1AP are congruent trapezoids, so
A1A = B1B and A1ABB1 is a rectangle.

Projection Geometry 83
It is obvious that AB = A1B1 = k
So, in ΔP1A1B1 if we apply the Pythagorean theorem we will have,
2 2
⎛ 2 ⎞ +⎛ 2⎞
P1A1 + P1B1 = ⎜ k
2 2
⎟ ⎜k ⎟ = k2 = A1B12
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
That means ∠A1P1B1 = 90°. Therefore, projection lines are perpendicular.

EXAMPLE 11 ABCD is a rectangle. Through vertex A, line AM is inclined to the plane of rectangle ABCD.
AM makes 60° with sides AD and AB. Find the angle between AM and plane of rectangle.

## Solution Let us draw M

MM1 ⊥ (ABCD). Point M1 will be on the bisector
D C
of ∠BAD. Let us explain why.
E
Draw M1E ⊥ AD and M1F ⊥ AB, then M1

## ∠AEM = 90° and ∠AFM = 90°.

(three perpendiculars theorem)
A F B
So, ΔAEM ≅ ΔAFM (A.A.A.)
Therefore, EM = FM which means their projec-
tions EM1 and FM1 are equal. From here we can conclude that AFM1E is a square and AM1
is the angle bisector.
Now, let AM = a.
a
In ΔAME, we get AE = AM ⋅ cos60° = .
2
a
AE a
In ΔAEM1, we get AM1 = = 2 = .
cos 45° 2 2
2
Finally, the angle between AM and plane of the rectangle, which is ∠MAM1, can be found as,
a
AM1 1
cos ∠MAM1 = = 2 = ,
AM a 2

∠MAM1 = 45 °.

84 Geometry 10
EXAMPLE 12 ABCD is a rhombus with ∠A = 60°. AB = 6 cm and BE ⊥ (ABC), BE = 3ñ3 cm. Find the
angle between (AED) and (ABC).

## Solution First of all, let us draw BH ⊥ AD. If we join E E

and H then EH will be perpendicular to AD by
D C
the three perpendiculars theorem. ∠EHB is the
angle between planes AED and ABC. H

## Now, let us calculate it.

3 60°
In ΔAHB, BH = AB ⋅ sin60° = 6 ⋅ = 3ñ3 cm.
2 A B

## In ΔEBH, BE = BH = 3ñ3 cm.

So ΔEBH is an isosceles right triangle.
Therefore, ∠EHB = 45°

## EXAMPLE 13 The endpoints of line segment AB lie in the

planes as in the figure. AB = 16 cm. Two half
a

## planes make an angle of 120°. AC and BD are

perpendicular to intersection line of these two b
planes. Find length of CD if AC = 7 cm and D B

BD = 11 cm. A

## Solution In plane β, we take CE = BD that is perpendicular

to intersection line of planes α and β. So, angle C
ACE will be angle between α and β, BDCE will
be a rectangle. Now, let us join A and E.
AC ⊥ CD and CE ⊥ CD, so CD ⊥ (ACE).
Since CD // BE, BE ⊥ (ACE).
Thus, ∠AEB = 90°.
Now, in ΔACE by applying the cosine theorem. a

AE = AC + CE – 2 ⋅ AC ⋅ CE ⋅ cos ∠ACE
2 2 2

## AE2 = 72 + 112 – 2 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 11 ⋅ cos 120°

AE2 = 247. b
D B
ΔAEB is a right triangle. By the Pythagorean the- A
orem, we have
AE2 + EB2 = AB2
C
247 + EB2 = 162 E

EB2 = 9
EB = 3 cm.
In rectangle BDCE, EB = CD.
Therefore, CD = 3 cm.
Projection Geometry 85
EXAMPLE 14 Given a square ABCD and O intersection point of its diagonals. Line segment MO is
perpendicular to the plane of the square. MO = 2ñ2 cm and one side of the square is 4 cm.
Find the distance between AB and MO.

D C

## Hence, the distance between MO and AB is the

distance from O to AB, that is OK.
O
BC 4
OK = = = 2 cm .
2 2
A K B

perpendicular.
D
So, BD ⊥ AC. C

## BD ⊥ AC and BD ⊥ MO, so BD ⊥ (MOC).

O
Therefore, we can take plane MOC as projection
plane.
A B
Proj(MOC)BD = O
Proj(MOC)MC = MC
So, the distance between BD and MC is the M

## distance between point O and MC.

In ΔMOC, ∠MOC = 90° T

Draw OT ⊥ MC.
We need to find OT. O C

AC 4 2
OC = = = 2 2 cm
2 2
MC2 = MO2 + OC2
MC2 = (2ñ2)2 + (2ñ2)2 = 16
MC = 4 cm.
Finally, MO ⋅ OC = MC ⋅ OT
MO ⋅ OC 2 2 ⋅ 2 2
OT = = = 2 cm .
MC 4

86 Geometry 10
EXERCISES 2 .1
A. Types of Projection 6. Given an equilateral triangle ABC where G is the
centroid. Point N is not in the plane of ΔABC and
1. Given a rhombus with diagonals 10 cm and 4 cm.
NG is perpendicular to the plane of ΔABC. The
The angle between the plane of rhombus and the
angle between NA and NG is 30°. If NG = 2ñ3 cm,
projection plane is 60°. Find the area of the pro-
find side length of ΔABC.
jection of the rhombus.

2. What is the measure of the angle between the 7. Given an isosceles ΔABC (AB = AC). Through BC
planes of a triangle and its projection if the area of passes a plane α. Show that projection of ΔABC
its projection is equal to the area of the triangle on plane α is also an isosceles triangle.
itself?

## 8. Prove that projection of the midpoint of a line seg-

3. Given two intersecting planes α and β where l is ment on a plane is the midpoint of the projection
their intersection line. Line b is perpendicular to of that line segment on the given plane.
plane β. Show that projection of line b on plane α
is perpendicular to line l.

9. B

## 4. Given a right triangle ABC D

19
where the lengths of legs 15

## are 6 cm and 7 cm, C

C A
∠ACB = 90°. Line segment
CD is perpendicular to the
A B
plane of ΔABC. Find the
area of ΔABD if its height a
D

## DM makes 45° with the

plane of ΔABC. Side AD of parallelogram ABCD lies in plane α,
AB = 15 cm, BC = 19 cm. The lengths of
projections of diagonals of the parallelogram on
plane α are 20 cm and 22 cm. Find the distance
5. Given a triangle with an area of 90 cm2. Its orthogonal from side BC to plane α. (Remember that the
projection on a plane is also a triangle with side sum of squares of diagonals of a parallelogram is
lengths 6,5 cm, 15 cm and 18,5 cm. Find the equal to the sum of squares of all sides of
angle between the planes of these triangles. parallelogram)

Projection Geometry 87
10. Given point M and plane α such that M ∉ α. MO 14. In the adjacent figure, an P

## is perpendicular to plane α . MP and MQ are equilateral triangle ABC is

inclined to α which make 45° and 60° with plane given. Point P is not lying in
α, respectively. Find the length of PQ in terms of the plane of ΔABC and
B
MO if ∠POQ = 150°. PA = PB = PC = AB. a

## Find the cosine of the

A C
dihedral angle formed by
any two faces.

## and AC = 3 cm. Line segment DC is perpendicular

3 3
to the plane of ΔABC. If DC = cm, find the
2 15. In the plane α, consider the points B, C and E so
angle between (ADB) and (ACB). that BC = 9 cm, CE = 12 cm and BE = 15 cm.
Let A be a point not in plane α such that AB ⊥ α
and AB = 36 cm.
a. Find the angle between line CE and plane
ABC.
b. Find the tangent of the angle between planes
ACE and BCE.
12. On the faces of a dihedral angle taken 2 points
which are at a distance of 6 cm and 10 cm from
the edge of the dihedral angle. The distance from
one of the points to the opposite face is 7,5 cm.
Find the distance between the second point and
its opposite face.

## 16. A right triangle ABC is projected onto a plane α

which is parallel to BC and passes through vertex

## A, so that projections AB' and AC' of sides AB and

13. ΔABC is an equilateral triangle. Side AB makes
AC have the lengths 3 cm and 5 cm and cos
45° with a plane α and side AC lies in plane α. 1
What is the tangent of the angle between planes ∠B'AC' = – . Calculate the distance from point
15
(ABC) and α ? B to plane α .

88 Algebra 10
17. In the adjacent figure, triangle P 20. Given ABC and ABD two equilateral triangles
ABC is given. Point P is not included in planes α and β respectively. If α ⊥ β,
lying in the plane of ΔABC. calculate the angle between lines AB and CD.
AB = AC = AP = 4 cm. A

BC = BP = CP = 6 cm.
Calculate: B C

## a. the angle between lines AB and CP.

b. the cosine of the angle between planes ACP
and BCP.
21. In the adjacent figure, point P

C1
ΔABC.
A

## Point A1 ∈ AP such that

H
A1 P 1
= . B C
AA1 2
Point C1 ∈ CP such that A1C1 // AC. PH is
perpendicular to (ABC).
18. In triangle ABC we have BC = 10 cm and
If PH = 6 cm, find the distance between lines
cos B ⋅ cos C = cos A + sin B ⋅ sin C .
A1C1 and BC.
Given a point O not in the plane of triangle ABC
with the property OA = OB = OC = 13 cm.
Find the cosine of the angle between line OA and
plane ABC.

## congruent squares ABCD

A1
and A1B1C1D1 with length B1

## of side m units are given

on two parallel planes. D C

19. A rhombus ABCD has AB = ñ5 cm. The projection AA 1 =BB 1 =CC 1 =DD 1 =m
A B
of the rhombus on a plane α which contains units and they are all per-
diagonal AC is a square AB'CD' with an area of pendicular to plane ABCD. Find distance
2 cm2. Find: between
a. the area of the rhombus a. B1D and D1C1. b. BC1 and AC.
b. the angle between plane ABC and plane α c. B1C and BD1. (in terms of m)

Projection Geometry 89
23. Given a square ABCD and O the intersection 27. In the adjacent figure,
A
point of its diagonals. Line segment MO is ABC is an equilateral
perpendicular to the plane of the square and triangle with a side of 6 C

## units, find: corresponding projection

a. the distance between AB and MO of ΔABC on a parallel A1

plane.
b. the distance between BD and MC in terms of a. C1
AA1= BB1 = CC1 = 6 cm B1

## and they are perpendicular

to plane ABC. Find the
distance between AA1
and B1C.
24. Given a right trapezoid ABCD where
∠A = ∠B = 90°.
Line segment KA is perpendicular to the plane of
ABCD. AD = b and AB = a with ∠C = α.
28. Through vertex B of ΔABC drawn a line c,
Find the distance between
perpendicular to the plane of ΔABC. Find the
a. AK and BC b. KD and BC
distance between line c and AC if AC = 25 cm,
c. AK and CD BC = 15 cm, and ∠ABC = 90°.

## 29. In a plane α given a circle with center O and

25. Given a square ABCD with a side of 1 cm. Line
radius r. Through point C on the circle drawn a
segment MB is perpendicular to the plane of
line c, perpendicular to plane α . Line d, lying in
square ABCD. If MB = 1 cm, find the distance
plane α, cuts the given circle at point A. What is
between AC and MD.
the distance between lines d and c if ∠AOC = 120°
in terms of r?

## 26. Given two parallel planes α and β and line

segments AB and CD such that A and C are in α, 30. Through vertex A of square ABCD with side
B and D are in β, and AB ⊥ α. Find the distance length m drawn a plane α perpendicular to AC.
between AB and CD if AB = 20 cm, CD = 25 cm, Find the distance between BD and a line c which
AC = 14 cm, and BD = 13 cm. is lying in α and not parallel to BD, in terms of m.

90 Algebra 10
CHAPTER REVIEW TEST 2A
1. In the adjacent figure, DC is D
4. Given a triangle with an area of 180 cm2. Its
perpendicular to the plane of orthogonal projection on a plane is also a triangle
ΔABC. with side lengths 12 cm, 17 cm, and 25 cm. What
DA = DB = 13 cm, A C is the angle between the planes of these triangles?

## AB = 10 cm, and ∠DBC = 60°. A) 30° B) 45° C) 60° D) 90° E) 120°

What is the sine of the angle
B
between planes DAB and ABC?

1 13 3 3 13 3 13 3
A) B) C) D) E)
2 36 2 24 48

## 5. Given a regular hexagon with one side a = 6 cm.

The angle between the plane of the hexagon and
its projection plane is 30°. What is the area of the
projection of this hexagon?
2. In the figure, two con- a
A) 9 cm2 B) 18 cm2 C) 81 cm2
gruent squares ABCD D) 121 cm2 E) 144 cm2
and CEFG are given A B

in two perpendicular E
D C
planes α and β. What
G F
is the angle between
lines DB and EG?
b

## equilateral triangle with

one side 8 cm. Point P is
A C
not in the plane of ΔABC
and PA = PB = PC. The
distance from point P to
B
the plane of ΔABC is 4
3. ABCD is a square with one side 4 cm. BM is cm. What is the angle between PC and plane of
perpendicular to the plane of the square and ΔABC?
BM = 4 cm. What is the measure of the dihedral 3
A) 30° B) 60° C) arctg
angle whose faces are AMD and CMD? 2
3
A) 30° B) 45° C) 60° D) 90° E) 120° D) arctg E) 90°
5

## Chapter Review Test 1A 91

7. In the figure above, what is the angle between 10. In the adjacent figure, D1 C1

## planes BPC and ABC? two congruent squares

A1
ABCD and A1B1C1D1 with B1
A) 30° B) 45° C) 60° D) 90° E) 150°
length of side m units are
given on two parallel D C

planes.
A B
AA1=BB1=CC1=DD1=m
units and they are all perpendicular to plane
ABCD. Find the distance between CK and A1D
where K is the midpoint of DD1?
2m 2m 3m m m
A) B) C) D) E)
3 3 2 3 3

## 8. A point M is not in plane α, and A and B are two

different points in α, such that MA = 18 cm and
MB = 2ó109 cm. The ratio of the projections of
MA and MB on α is 3 : 4. What is the distance
from point M to plane α?

A) 3 cm B) 3ñ5 cm C) 6 cm D) 6ñ5 cm E) 8 cm

## 9. ABCD is a square with one side 1 cm. Line

segment MB is perpendicular to the plane of
square ABCD and MB = 1 cm. What is the distance
between MC and DB ?
3
A) ñ3 cm B) ñ6 cm C) cm
2

6 1
D) cm E) cm
3 2

92 Algebra 10
A. BASIC CONCEPTS
1. The Three-Dimensional Coordinate System

When Ali and his brother Veli arrived home one night, they noticed a spider hanging from the light.
Veli : Look at that spider hanging from the light!
Ali : Oh, yes. Can you tell me the exact location of the spider in the room?
Veli : Of course! We just need to look at the spider’s shadow on the floor.
Ali : But look: the spider is moving down but the shadow stays in the same place.
Veli : Oh... So what’s the answer?
Ali : To find the spider’s exact location in the room, we can’t just apply the coordinate plane
to the floor. We need to consider the height of the spider as well.
Veli : OK. Now I understand: objects in space do not have only two coordinates. We also
need a third coordinate which represents the height.
Ali : Exactly.

94 Geometry 10
To locate points in a room, we use analytic space z
and the three-d dimensional coordinate system.
The origin O in this system is like a corner of a 6

## room where two walls and the floor intersect. We P(3, 4, 6)

can describe the location of an object on the floor
by using two coordinates, x and y. However, to O
locate an object in the room which is not on the y
3 4
floor we need a number to indicate the height of
the object from the floor. We call this the
x
z-ccoordinate of the object.

## Definition ordered triple, Cartesian coordinates

We can represent any point in space using an ordered triple (x, y, z) of real numbers.
The real numbers x, y and z are called the x-ccoordinate, y-ccoordinate and z-ccoordinate of P,
respectively. Together they are called the Cartesian coordinates of P.

(x, y) is an ordered pair. For example, imagine that Ali and Veli’s spider is hanging 2m above the floor. It is hanging
(x, y, z) is an ordered from a light which is 3m from one wall and 4m from the other wall. If we use the corner of
triple.
the room where the walls and floor meet as the origin, we can describe the position of the
spider using the ordered triple (3, 4, 2).

Note
In some books the coordinates x, y and z are respectively called the abscissa, ordinate and code.

## Definition coordinate axes

In order to locate points in space, we first choose z
a fixed point O (called the origin) and consider
4
three directed lines through O that are
perpendicular to each other. These lines are the 3
4
coordinate axes, respectively called the x-aaxis, 3
2
2
y-aaxis, and z-aaxis. We think of the x-axis 4 1 1
3 2 1 O
and the y-axis as being horizontal and the z-axis 1 2
1 3 4
as being vertical, and we draw the axes as shown y
2 1
in the figure. 3
4 2

x 3

4

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 95

Definition dimensional coordinate system, \3
analytic space, three-d
The system formed by the x-, y- and z-axes is called analytic space or the three-dimensional
coordinate system. In this book we will prefer to use the term analytic space. We write \3 to
mean analytic space.

## For example, (3, 4, 2) is a point in analytic space: (3, 4, 2) ∈ \3.

Definition right-h
hand rule
We can find the direction of the z-axis by using the z
right-h
hand rule, as illustrated in the figure.
If you curl the fingers of your right hand in a counterclockwise
direction from the positive x-axis to the positive y-axis, then
your thumb points in the direction of the z-axis.
y

## Definition coordinate planes

The plane determined by the x-axis and the y-axis is called the xy-p
plane.
The plane determined by the x-axis and the z-axis is called the xz-p
plane.
The plane determined by the y-axis and the z-axis is called the yz-p
plane.
The xy-, xz- and yz-p
planes are called coordinate planes.

z z z

O O
O
y y
y
xy-plane
xz-plane yz-plane
x x
x

96 Geometry 10
Definition projection on a coordinate plane

## A point P(a, b, c) in \ 3 determines a

rectangular box, as shown in the figure. If we z
drop a line from P perpendicular to the
(0, 0, c)
xy-plane, we obtain the point Q(a, b, 0) which R(0,b, c)
S(a,0, c)
is called the projection of P on the xy-pplane. P(a, b, c)

## Similarly, R(0, b, c) and S(a, 0, c) are the

projections of P on the yz-plane and on the O (0,b, 0)
y
xz-plane, respectively. (a,0, 0)
Q(a,b, 0)
x

Recall that the four sections of a coordinate system in two-dimensional space are called
quadrants. In three-dimensional space, the different sections are called octants.

Definition octant
The xy-, xz- and yz-planes divide analytic
space into eight cells called octants. The
z
octant in which the coordinates are all positive
is called the first octant, but there is no system
of numbering for the remaining seven octants.
O
y

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 97

HOW TO PLOT A POINT IN ANALYTIC SPACE

To plot the point (a, b, c) in analytic space we start at the origin O and move a units along
the x-axis, then b units parallel to the y-axis, and then c units parallel to the z-axis.
For example, let us plot the point P(2, 3, 4) in analytic space.
Step 1: Draw a line perpendicular to the x-axis at the z

point x = 2.

O
1
2 y

## Step 2: Draw a line perpendicular to the y-axis at the z

point y = 3.
The intersection of the two drawn lines is the point
P′(2, 3, 0).
O 1 2 3
1
2 y

P¢(2, 3, 0)
x

## the point P′(2, 3, 0). Determine the point on this line 4

which is 4 units above the xy-plane. This point is
P(2, 3, 4)
P(2, 3, 4).
O
3
2 y

P¢(2, 3, 0)
x

## three sides of a rectangular box. 4

P(2, 3, 4)

O
3
2 y

98 Geometry 10
EXAMPLE 1 Plot the points A(1, 3, 5), B(4, 2, 0), C(2, –1, –2) and D(–1, 2, 2) in \3.

Solution
z z
5

A(1, 3, 5)
O 2
O
3 y
y
1
4
x B(4, 2, 0)
x

z z

D(1, 2, 2)
2

1 O
O 1
y y
2
2
2
x x
C(2, 1, 2)

EXAMPLE 2 Plot the points A(–2, 0, 0), B(0, 1, 0) and C(0, 0, –3) in \3.

Solution z z z

A(2, 0, 0)
2 O
O 1 O 1
y
y B(0, 1, 0) y

x
x x 3 C(0, 0, 3)

Note
Points on the x-axis have coordinates of the form (x0, 0, 0), points on the y-axis have
coordinates of the form (0, y0, 0) and points on the z-axis have coordinates of the form (0, 0, z0)
where x0, y0, z0 ∈ \.

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 99

EXAMPLE 3 Plot the points P(2, –1, 0), Q(0, 2, 3) and R(1, 0, 2) in \3 and state in which plane each point
lies.
Solution z z z

3 Q(0, 2, 3)
2
R(1, 0, 2)
1 O O O
y 2 y y
1
P(2, 1, 0) 2
x x x

P(2, –1, 0) lies in the xy-plane, Q(0, 2, 3) lies in the yz-plane and R(1, 0, 2) lies in the
xz-plane.

Note
Points in the xy-plane have coordinates of the form (x0, y0, 0), points in the yz-plane have
coordinates of the form (0, y0, z0) and points in the xz-plane have coordinates of the form
(x0, 0, z0) where x0, y0, z0 ∈ \.

EXAMPLE 4 A point A(a ⋅ b, c, d) lies in the xy-plane and A ≠ (0, 0, 0), c ≠ 0. In which plane does the
point B(d, a ⋅ c, b) lie?

Solution Since A(a ⋅ b, c, d) lies in the xy-plane, d = 0. So B(d, a ⋅ c, b) = B(0, a ⋅ c, b) lies in the
yz-plane.

EXAMPLE 5 The figure shows a rectangular prism. Using the given values, z
state the coordinates of the point P and its projections R, S 5
S
and T.
R
P

O
2
y
2
T
x

## Solution P(2, 2, 5), R(2, 0, 5), S(0, 2, 5) and T(2, 2, 0)

100 Geometry 10
EXAMPLE 6 Write the set of points which are at a distance of 2 units from the xy-plane, 3 units from the
xz-plane and 2 units from the yz-plane.

Solution z z
(2,3, 2)

(2, 3, 2)
2
2
(2,3, 2) 2 3
O
3 3
O (2, 3, 2) (2,3, 2)
y
3 y 2 (2,3,2)
2
2
x
x
(2,3,2)
(2, 3, 2)

Points which are 2 units from the xy-plane have 2 or –2 as their z-coordinate. Similarly,
points which are 3 units from the xz-plane have 3 or –3 as their y-coordinate, and points
which are 2 units from the yz-plane have 2 or –2 as their x-coordinate.
So the set of points which satisfy the given conditions is {(2, 3, 2), (2, –3, 2), (–2, 3, 2),
(–2, –3, 2), (2, 3, –2), (2, –3, –2), (–2, 3, –2), (–2, –3, –2)}.

## Rule midpoint of a line segment

The midpoint of the line segment from A(x1, y1, z1) to B(x2, y2, z2) is
x1 + x2 y1 + y2 z1 + z2
( , , ).
2 2 2

EXAMPLE 7 Find the midpoint of the line segment from A(–1, 3, 5) to B(2, 7, –2).

## Solution –1+ 2 3+7 5 – 2 1 3

By the rule above, the midpoint is ( , , ) = ( , 5, ).
2 2 2 2 2

## 2. The Distance Between Two Points

Theorem distance between two points
The distance between two points A(x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2) is

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 101

Proof Let us imagine that points A and B are opposite z
vertices of a rectangular box and that the faces of
B(x2, y2, z2)
the box are parallel to the coordinate planes, as
shown in the figure. If P(x1, y2, z1) and R(x2, y2, z1) R(x2, y2, z1)
are vertices as shown then O A(x1, y1, z1) P(x1, y2, z1)
|AP| = |y2 – y1| y
|PR| = |x2 – x1|
|RB| = |z2 – z1|. x

## Since triangles ARB and APR are both right

triangles, then by the Pythagorean Theorem,
|AB|2 = |AR|2 + |RB|2 and |AR|2 = |AP|2 + |PR|2.
Combining these equations gives us
|AB|2 = |AP|2 + |PR|2 + |RB|2
= (y2 – y1)2 + (x2 – x1)2 + (z2 – z1)2

## ⇒ | AB|= ( x2 – x1 ) 2 +( y2 − y1 ) 2 +( z2 – z1) 2 , as required.

EXAMPLE 8 Find the distance from A(7, –3, 2) to B(5, –1, 1).

## EXAMPLE 9 The figure shows a rectangular prism. Find the

lengths of the sides, the lengths of the diagonals
z

4
G
of each side and the length of the main diagonal F
of the prism. H E
3
Solution The vertices are A(3, 3, 0), B(3, 5, 0), C(1, 5, 0), 1 5
y
D(1, 3, 0), E(3, 5, 4), F(1, 5, 4), G(1, 3, 4) and 3 D C
H(3, 3, 4). AB, BC and BE are sides with different x A B
lengths and
|AB| = |DC| = |HE| = |GF| = (3 – 3)2 +(5 – 3) 2 +(0 – 0) 2 = 2

## |BE| = |CF| = |AH| = |DG| = (3 – 3)2 +(5 – 5) 2 +(4 – 0) 2 = 4.

The lengths of the diagonals are
|HF| = |AC| = |GE| = |DB| = (1 – 3)2 +(5 – 3) 2 +(4 – 4) 2 = 2ñ2

## |BF| = |AG| = |EC| = |HD| = (1 – 3)2 +(5 – 5) 2 +(4 – 0) 2 = 2ñ5.

The length of the main diagonal: |DE|2 = |DB|2 + |BE|2 = 8 + 16 = 24, so
|DE| = |CH| = |AF| = |BG| = ò24 = 2ñ6.

102 Geometry 10
Check Yourself 1
1. Plot the points A(3, –4, 2), B(–2, 3, 5), C(2, 4, –3), D(–1, –2, 4) and E(3, 0, 5) in \3.
2. Write the set of all the points which are 3 units from the xy-plane.
3. Which of the points P(6, 2, 3), Q(–5, –1, 4) and R(0, 3, 8) is closest to the xz-plane?
Which point lies in the yz-plane?
4. Find the distance between the points A(–2, 1, 3) and B(2, 1, 0).
5. Find the midpoint R of the points P(–3, 0, 5) and Q(1, –2, 2).
2. {(x, y, 3) and (x, y, –3) | x, y ∈ \} 3. Q is closest to the xz-plane, R lies in the yz-plane
7
4. 5 units 5. R(–1, – 1, )
2

## HOW TO DRAW LINES AND PLANES IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE

1. When one line passes behind another, break the 2. When drawing coordinate axes, make sure that the
line which is behind to show that it does not touch angle between the positive x-axis and the positive y-
the line in front and that part of it is hidden. axis is large enough.

P P P z z

S S S

y y
R R R
x
Q Q Q
RS and PQ intersect RS is behind PQ PQ is behind RS x
Correct Incorrect

3. Do not let a line in a plane touch the boundary of 4. Draw planes parallel to the coordinate planes as
the parallelogram that represents the plane. Show if they were rectangles with sides parallel to the
hidden lines as dotted lines. coordinate axes.

O
Line in a plane Line above the plane Line below the plane
y

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 103

EXERCISES 3 .1
A. Basic Concepts 9. Find the point on the y-axis which is equidistant
from the points A(5, 7, –5) and B(1, –3, 7).
1. Plot the given points in \3.
A(–2, 0, 0), B(0, 2, 0), C(0, 0, 1), D(3, 2, 1),
E(0, 1, 2), F(1, –1, 3), G(– 3, 2, –1), H(1, 2, –2)
10. The figure shows a z

restangular prism. D 4
G
2. Find the distance between the points a. State the E F
A(–4, –5, 11) and B(–2, 1, 2). coordinates of
each vertex. O 5
y
3. Find the distance between the point A(–2, –3, 6) b. Find the length of A C
3
and the origin. [BG].
x
B

## c. Find the length of [AG].

4. Write the set of all the points which satisfy the
given conditions.
a. The points lie 3 units from the xy-plane, 2 11. A triangle has vertices A(3, –4, 1), B(5, –3, 0) and
units from the xz-plane and 4 units from the C(6, –7, 4). Find the length of each side of the
yz-plane. triangle. Is ABC a right triangle? Is it an isosceles
triangle?
b. The points lie 2 units from the xz-plane and 6
units from the yz-plane.
12. The figure shows a rectangular prism.
5. State which coordinate plane or planes contain each z
point.
G
a. A(0, –2, 3) b. B(–3, 0, 5) c. C(0, 0, 0) F(2, 6, 6)
d. D(2, 0, 7) e. E(0, 0, 7) f. F(–2, 0, 0) H E

## 6. Find the projection of the point P(3, –2, 7) on each O

y
coordinate plane. D C(2, 6, 0)
x
7. Find the shortest distance between the point A(5, 4, 0)
B(5, 6, 0)
A(2, –1, 2) and
a. State the coordinates of the vertex D.
a. the origin.
b. Find the length of the main diagonal [AF].
b. each coordinate axis.
c. Find the volume of the prism.
c. each coordinate plane.

8. Find the points on the x-axis which are 12 units 13. Find the lengths of the medians of the triangle with
 vertices A(1, 2, 3), B(–1, 0, 5) and C(3, 4, 5).
away from the point P(3, –8, –4).

104 Algebra 10
A. BASIC CONCEPTS
Definition vector in space
A vector in space is a directed line segment in analytic B
space which denotes a quantity that has both magnitude
®
and direction. v

## A vector in space has an initial point, a terminal point,

A
direction and length. We show a vector in a diagram as a
directed line segment or as an arrow which points in the direction of the vector. We name a
vector with a lower-case letter or by its intial and terminal points. We write a vector by
→ −→
putting an arrow above its name: v or AB.

## Definition components of a vector

→ z
If we place the initial point of a vector v at the origin of

the coordinate system then the terminal point of v has
v3
coordinates of the form (v1, v2, v3). These coordinates

are called the components of v and we write (v1, v2, v3)

→ O
v2
v = (v1, v2, v3) . v1 y

## Definition position vector

Let P(x0, y0, z0) be a point in analytic space. The position z
vector of P is the vector whose initial point is the origin O
3
and whose terminal point is P(x0, y0, z0). It is denoted by
−→
OP. By this definition, each point in space corresponds to P(2, 3, 3)
a position vector and vice versa.
O 3
For example, the position vector of P(2, 3, 3) is the vector y
2
whose initial point is the origin and whose terminal point
is P(2, 3, 3). We can write this vector as x
→ −→
v = OP = (2, 3, 3).

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 105

→ −→
More generally, in analytic space v = OP = (v1, v2, v3) is the position vector of the point
P(v1, v2, v3).
z
If the initial point of a vector is not at the origin,
we calculate its components by calculating the
difference of the components of its initial and
terminal points. In other words, if A(x1, y1, z1) is
the initial point and B(x2, y2, z2) is the O
3
terminal point of a vector in \ then y
−→ B(x2, y2, z2)
AB = (x2 – x1, y2 – y1, z2 – z1).
x A(x1, y1, z1)

EXAMPLE 10 Find the vector with initial point A(2, –3, 4) and terminal point B(–2, 1, 1).

−→
Solution AB = (–2 – 2, 1 – (–3), 1 – 4) = (–4, 4, –3)

−→ −→ −→ −→
EXAMPLE 11 A(–1, 2, 3) and B(4, 0, 5) are given. Write the vectors OA, OB, AB and BA.

−→
Solution OA = (–1, 2, 3)
−→
OB = (4, 0, 5)
−→
AB = (4 – (–1), 0 – 2, 5 – 3) = (5, –2, 2)
−→
BA = (–1 – 4, 2 – 0, 3 – 5) = (–5, 2, –2)

Check Yourself 2
−→ −→
1. The points A(3, –4, –2), B(1, 0, –3) and C(–4, –2, 6) are given. Write the vectors AB, BC
−→
and AC.
−→
2. The point A(3, 2, –1) and the vector AB = (5, –7, 6) are given. Find the coordinates of
point B.

−→ −→ −→
1. AB = (–2, 4, –1), BC = (–5, –2, 9), AC = (–7, 2, 8) 2. B(8, –5, 5)

106 Geometry 10
Definition length (norm) of a vector
→ →
The length or norm of the vector v = (v1, v2, v3) is denoted by | v| and

| v|= v12 + v22 + v32 .

Note

In this book we use the terms length and norm interchangeably. In some books, | v | is

written || v ||.

EXAMPLE 12 →
Find the length of u = (3, –4, 5).

Solution By the formula for the length of a vector, | u| = 32 +(–4)2 +5 2 = 50 = 5 2.

13
−→
EXAMPLE Find the length of the vector BA, given A(–2, 4, –4) and B(1, 2, 3).

−→
Solution We first determine the components of vector BA:
−→
BA = (1 – (–2), 2 – 4, 3 – (– 4)) = (3, –2, 7).
−→
By the formula for the length of a vector, |BA| = 32 + ( –2)2 + 7 2 = 62.

## Definition zero vector

0 = (0, 0, 0) is called the zero vector. It has length zero.

## Definition equal vectors

→ →
Two vectors v = (v1, v2, v3) and w = (w1, w2, w3) are said to be equal if and only if their
corresponding components are equal:
→ →
v = w ⇔ v1 = w1, v2 = w2, v3 = w3 .

## different parts of space. For example, the figure 7

−→
shows the vector BA from Example 19 and the P(3, 2, 7)
position vector of P(3, –2, 7). Although these A

y
3 B

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 107

EXAMPLE 14 → → → →
u = (a – 1, 2, b) and v = (b + 4, c, 3 – a) are given. Find a, b and c if u = v.

→ → → →
Solution Since u = v, the corresponding components of u and v are
equal and so we have a – 1 = b + 4, 2 = c, b = 3 – a.
Rearranging the first and the third equation gives us the
⎧a – b = 5
system ⎨ . Now we can solve:
⎩a + b = 3
a–b=5
+a+b=3
––––––––––––
2a = 8.
So a = 4 and when we substitute this result in a + b = 3 we get b = –1.
So a = 4, b = –1 and c = 2.

Check Yourself 3
1. Find the norm of each vector.
→ → →
a. u = (–2, 2, 1) b. v = (3, –5, –ñ2) c. w = (ñ5, ñ5, –3)
−→
2. Points A(3, 2, –1) and B(3, 1, –1) are given. Find the length of the vector AB.
→ → → −→
1. a. | u| = 3 units b. | v| = 6 units c. | w| = ò19 units 2. |AB| = 1 units

B. VECTOR OPERATIONS
To add or subtract two vectors we simply add or subtract their corresponding components.

## SUM AND DIFFERENCE OF VECTORS

→ →
Let v = (v1, v2, v3) and w = (w1, w2, w3) be vectors. Then
→ →
1. v + w = (v1 + w1, v2 + w2, v3 + w3)
→ →
2. v – w = (v1 – w1, v2 – w2, v3 – w3).

108 Geometry 10
2. Multiplying a Vector by a Scalar

Let c ∈ \ and let v = (v1, v2, v3) be a vector in analytic ®
2×v
space. Then ®
v 1 ®
2× v

c ⋅ v = c ⋅ (v1, v2, v3) = (c ⋅ v1, c ⋅ v2, c ⋅ v3) .
®
®  23 × v
v

Note
→ →
The scalar multiple c ⋅ v is a vector whose length is |c| times the length of v. It has the same
→ →
direction as v if c > 0 and opposite direction to v if c < 0.

15
→ → → → →→ → →
EXAMPLE u = (4, 0, 3) and v = (–2, 1, 5) are given. Find |u| and the vectors u + v, u – v, 3 v and
→ →
2 u + 5 v.

Solution | u| = 42 + 02 + 32 = 25 = 5
→ →
u + v = (4, 0, 3) + (–2, 1, 5) = (4 + (–2), 0 + 1, 3 + 5) = (2, 1, 8)
→ →
u – v = (4, 0, 3) – (–2, 1, 5) = (4 – (–2), 0 – 1, 3 – 5) = (6, –1, –2)

3 v = 3 ⋅ (–2, 1, 5) = (–6, 3, 15)
→ →
2 u + 5 v = 2 ⋅ (4, 0, 3) + 5 ⋅ (–2, 1, 5) = (8, 0, 6) + (–10, 5, 25) = (–2, 5, 31)

## PROPERTIES OF VECTOR OPERATIONS

→ → →
Let u, v and w be vectors in analytic space and let c1 and c2 be scalars. Then
→ → →
1. u + 0 = u
→ → → → → →
2. u + ( v + w) = ( u + v) + w
→ → → →
3. u + v = v + u
→ → →
4. u + (– u) = 0
→ → → →
5. c1 ⋅ ( u + v) = (c1 ⋅ u) + (c1 ⋅ v)
→ → →
6. (c1 + c2) ⋅ u = c1 ⋅ u + c2 ⋅ u
→ →
7. (c1 ⋅ c2) ⋅ u = c1 ⋅ (c2 ⋅ u)
→ →
8. 1 ⋅ u = u.

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 109

EXAMPLE 16 → → → → → →
u = (1, y, 2), v = (x, –3, 4), w = (–2, 1, z) and 2 u – 3 v = w are given. Find x, y and z.

→ → →
Solution 2u – 3v = w
2 ⋅ (1, y, 2) – 3 ⋅ (x, –3, 4) = (–2, 1, z)
(2, 2y, 4) – (3x, –9, 12) = (–2, 1, z)
(2 – 3x, 2y + 9, 4 – 12) = (–2, 1, z)
4
Matching the components gives us 2 – 3x = –2 so x = ; 2y + 9 = 1 so y = –4; z = –8.
3

EXAMPLE 17 Find the position vector of the centroid of the triangle OBC whose vertices are O(0, 0, 0),
B(1, 2, 3) and C(5, 4, 1).

Solution O(0, 0, 0)
The centroid of a triangle is the intersection of its
−→ −→
medians. Let OD be the median of the side BC as shown
in the figure. If G is the centroid of triangle OBC, then
The distance of the 4
−→ 2 −→ G(2, 2, )
centroid of a triangle from OG = OD where D is the midpoint of [BC]. 3
3 C(5, 4, 1)
a vertex A is two-thirds
the length of the median ⎛ 1+ 5 2 + 4 3 +1 ⎞
D⎜ , , ⎟ = D(3, 3, 2), so D(3, 3, 2)
with endpoint A. ⎝ 2 2 2 ⎠
B(1, 2, 3)
−→ −→ 2 −→ 2 4
OD = (3, 3, 2) and OG = OD = (3, 3, 2) = (2, 2, ).
3 3 3
4
So the position vector is (2, 2, ).
3

EXAMPLE 18 Two points A(a + 1, 1 – b, a) and B(b – 1, a – 1, – c) are given such that the position vector of
−→
the midpoint of [AB] is OD = (1, 5, 2). Find a, b and c.

⎛ a +1+ b − 1 1 – b + a – 1 a – c ⎞
Solution D⎜
Since D is the ,midpoint of [AB]
, ⎟ = D(1, 5, 2)
⎝ 2 2 2 ⎠
a+ b
=1 so a + b = 2 (1)
2
a−b
= 5 so a − b =10 (2)
2
a−c
= 2 so a − c = 4 (3)
2
Solve (1) and (2): a+b=2
+ a – b = 10
–––––––––––––
2a = 12
a = 6.
Now we can substitute a = 6 in (2) and (3). From (2) we get 6 – b = 10 so b = –4, and from
(3) we get a – c = 4 so c = 2. In conclusion, a = 6, b = – 4 and c = 2.

110 Geometry 10
EXAMPLE 19 → → → → → →
2u – v = (4, –1, 5) and –5u + 4v = (–1, 7, 4) are given. Find the vectors u and v.

⎧⎪ → →
→ 2 u – v = (4, –1, 5)
Solution Let us eliminate v in the system ⎨ → → .
⎪⎩ –5 u + 4 v = (–1, 7, 4)

⎧⎪ → →
8u – 4 v = (16, –4, 20)
When we multiply the first equation by 4 we get ⎨ → → .
⎪⎩ –5 u + 4 v = (–1, 7, 4)

## Let us add these equations:

→ →
8 u – 4 v = (16, –4, 20)
→ →
+ – 5 u + 4 v = (–1, 7, 4)
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––

3 u = (15, 3, 24)

u = (5, 1, 8).
→ → → →
When we substitute u = (5, 1, 8) in 2u – v = (4, –1, 5) we get 2 ⋅ (5, 1, 8) – v = (4, –1, 5),
→ →
which gives us (10, 2, 16) – v = (4, –1, 5) and v = (6, 3, 11).

## A vector with length 1 unit is called a unit vector.

EXAMPLE 20 →
Find a if v = (0, a,
2
3
) is a unit vector.

2
→ → ⎛ 3⎞ 3 1 1
Solution Since v is a unit vector, |v| = 1 and so 02 + a2 + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ =1, a + =1, a = and a = ± .
2 2

⎝ 2 ⎠ 4 4 2

## Definition direction of a non-zzero vector

→ →
The direction of a non-zero vector v is the unit vector which is obtained by dividing v by its

v
length, i.e. the vector → .
| v|

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 111

EXAMPLE 21 →
Find the unit vector that has the same direction as w = (2, –3, –6).

→ (2, – 3, – 6) (2, – 3, – 6) 2 –3 –6
Solution w = =( , , )
→ = 2 2 2
49 7 7 7
| w| 2 +(–3) +(–6)

EXAMPLE 22 →
Find the unit vector in the opposite direction to v = (–2, 1, –2).

⎛ →v ⎞ (–2, 1, – 2) (–2, 1, – 2) 2 –1 2
Solution −⎜ → ⎟ = – =– =( , , )
⎜| v| ⎟ 2 2
(–2) +1 +(–2) 2 3 3 3 3
⎝ ⎠

EXAMPLE 23 →
Find a vector with length 6 that has the same direction as w = (–1, 2, –2).

→ w ( −1, 2, − 2) ( −1, 2, –2)
Solution v = 6 ⋅ → = 6⋅ =6 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ (–1, 2, –2) = (–2, 4, –4)
| w| 2
( −1) + 2 +(–2) 2 3

Check Yourself 4
→ → → →
1. u = (3, 2x – 1, y + 1) and v = (z + 3, 4, 3) are two vectors such that u = 2v. Find the sum
x + y + z.
→ 1
2. Find a if v = ( a, – a, ) is a unit vector.
3
3. The points A(–5, 3, 1) and B(–1, 1, –3) are given. Find the unit vector whose direction is
−→
a. the same as AB.
−→
b. opposite to AB.

2 2 1 2 2 1 2
1. 8 2. ± 3. a. ( , – , – ) b. (– , , )
3 3 3 3 3 3 3

112 Geometry 10
Three vectors in analytic space play a special role. They are called the standard basis vectors.

## Definition standard basis vectors

→ → →
The vectors i = (1, 0, 0), j = (0, 1, 0) and k = (0, 0, 1) z

## are called the standard basis vectors.

1
®
k ®
j 1
1 ®
i y

z
→→ →
Notice that i , j and k are unit vectors in the direction of
the positive x-, y- and z-axes respectively. In addition, any
vector in analytic space is equal to a combination of (a1, a2, a3)
→ → → ®
a
multiples of the standard basis vectors i, j and k.
→ ®
For example, the vector a = (a1, a2, a3) can be written as a1 × i
® y
→ → → → a3 × k
a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k. ®
a2 × j
x ® ® ® ®
a = a1 × i + a2 × j + a3 × k

EXAMPLE 24 →
Write v = (1, –2, 4) in terms of the standard basis vectors.

Solution v = (1, –2, 4) = (1, 0, 0) – 2(0, 1, 0) + 4(0, 0, 1)
→ → →
= i – 2j + 4k

EXAMPLE 25 → → → → → → → → → →→
v = i + 2 j – 3 k and w = 4 i + 7 k are given. Express the vector 2 v + 3w in terms of i, j and

k.

→ → → → → → →
Solution 2 v + 3 w = 2( i + 2 j – 3 k) + 3(4 i + 7 k)
→ → → → →
= 2 i + 4 j – 6 k + 12 i + 21 k
→ → →
= 14 i + 4 j + 15 k

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 113

EXAMPLE 26 → → →
Find the unit vector in the direction of 2 i – j – 2k.

→ → →
|2 i – j – 2 k| = |(2, – 1, – 2)| = 2 +( −1) +( −2) = 9 = 3, so the unit vector which has
2 2 2
Solution
→ → →
the same direction as 2 i – j – 2 k is
→ → → → → →
2i – j – 2k 2i – j – 2k 2 → 1→ 2 →
→ → → = = i – j – k.
|2 i – j – 2 k| 3 3 3 3

## 3. Linear Combinations of Vectors

Definition linear combination of vectors
→ → → →
Let c1, c2, c3, ..., cn ∈ \ and let v1, v2, v3, ..., vn be vectors in analytic space. Then any vector
→ → → →
of the form (c1 ⋅ v1) + (c2 ⋅ v2) + (c3 ⋅ v3) + ... + (cn ⋅ vn) is called a linear combination of the
→ → → →
vectors v1, v2, v3, ..., vn.
→ →
For example, consider the vectors v1 = (1, 0, 2) and v2 = (–2, 3, 4). The vector
→ → → → →
v = (8, 9, –8) = 2(1, 0, 2) – 3(–2, 3, 4) = 2 v1 – 3 v2 is a linear combination of v1 and v2.

Note
We have already seen that we can write any vector in \3 in terms of the standard basis
→→ →
vectors i, j and k. Using the concept of linear combination we can say this in a different way:
each vector in analytic space is a linear combination of the standard basis vectors.

EXAMPLE 27 →
u =

→ → → → → → →
2 i – 4 k and v = – j + 3 k are given. Calculate the linear combinations u + v and

2u – 3 v.

Solution → → → →
u = 2i + 0j – 4k
→ → → →
+ v = 0i – j + 3k
–––––––––––––––––––––––
→ → → → →
u + v = 2i – j – k
→ → → → → →
2 v = 4 i – 8 k and 3 v = –3 j + 9 k so

→ → → →
2v = 4i + 0j – 8k
→ → → →
– 3v = 0i – 3j + 9k
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––
→ → → → →
2 u – 3 v = 4 i + 3 j – 17 k.

114 Geometry 10
EXAMPLE 28 →
→ → →
Write w = (2, –3, 4) as a linear combination of v1 = (0, 1, 2), v2 = (1, 0, –2) and
v3 = (1, 3, 0).

→ → → →
Solution w = c1 v1 + c2 v2 + c3 v3 = c1(0, 1, 2) + c2(1, 0, –2) + c3(1, 3, 0)
(2, –3, 4) = (c2 + c3, c1 + 3c3, 2c1 – 2c2)
When we equate the corresponding components we get c2 + c3 = 2 (1), c1 + 3c3 = –3 (2) and
2c1 – 2c2 = 4 (3). When we multiply (1) by 2 and add this to (3) we get 2c1 + 2c2 = 8, i.e.
c1 + c3 = 4 (4). Now we can eliminate c1 by subtracting (4) from (2):

c1 + 3c3 = –3
– c1 + c3 = 4
––––––––––––––––
2c3 = –7
7
c3 = – .
2
7 7 7 11
Substituting c3 = – in (1) and (4) gives us c2 – = 2 and c1 – = 4 so c2 =
2 2 2 2
15
and c1 = .
2
15 11 7
So the linear combination is (2, – 3, 4) = ⋅(0, 1, 2)+ ⋅(1, 0, – 2) – ⋅ (1, 3, 0).
2 2 2
15 → 11 → 7 →
= v + v – v.
2 1 2 2 2 3

EXAMPLE 29 → →

For which values of t we can write the vector u = (1, –2, t) as a linear combination
of v1 = (3, 0, –2) and v2 = (2, –1, –5)?

→ → →
Solution u = c1 ⋅ v1 + c2 ⋅ v2
(1, –2, t) = c1 ⋅ (3, 0, –2) + c2 ⋅ (2, –1, –5)
(1, –2, t) = (3c1 + 2c2, – c2, –2c1 – 5c2)

## ⎧ 1 = 3c1 + 2c2 (1)

⎪⎪
⎨ –2 = – c2 (2)
⎪ t = –2c – 5c (3)
⎪⎩ 1 2

From (2) we get c2 = 2. Substituting this result in (1) gives us 1 = 3 ⋅ c1 + 2 ⋅ 2, i.e. c1 = –1.
If we substitute these results in (3) we get t = –2 ⋅ (–1) – 5 ⋅ 2 = –8. So the only value of t is –8.

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 115

Check Yourself 5
1. Write each vector in terms of the standard basis vectors.
→ → →
a. u = (–1, 3, 4) b. v = (3, –2, 0) c. w = (4, 0, –3)
→ →
2. The vectors u = (–1, 2, 1) and v = (–2, 3, –5) are given. Write each vector.
→ → → → → →
a. u + v b. u – v c. 2 u – 3 v
→ → → → → → → →
3. u = 2 i – k and v = 3 i + 2 j are given. Calculate 3 u + v.
→ → → → → → → → → → → →
1. a. u = (–1) i + 3 j + 4 k b. v = 3 i + (–2) j + 0 k c. w = 4 i + 0 j + (–3) k
2. a. (–3, 5, –4) b. (1, –1, 6) c. (4, –5, 17) 3. (9, 2, –3)

C. PARALLEL VECTORS
Definition parallel vectors
→ →
Let u and v be two vectors in analytic space such that z
→ → → →
u ≠ 0 and v ≠ 0. If there exists a real number λ such
®
→ → → → u
that u = λ ⋅ v, then the vectors u and v are called
→ → → →
parallel vectors. We write u & v to show that u and v
O
are parallel. y
®
v

x ® || ®
u v

Theorem

u u u
Two vectors u = (u1, u2, u3) and v = (v1, v2, v3) are parallel if and only if 1 = 2 = 3 = λ
v1 v2 v3
where λ ∈ \.
→ → → →
Proof By definition, u || v ⇔ u = λ ⋅ v.
→ →
Let u = (u1, u2, u3) and v = (v1, v2, v3). Then
→ → → →
u || v ⇔ u = λ ⋅ v ⇔ (u1, u2, u3) = λ(v1, v2, v3)
⇔ (u1, u2, u3) = (λv1, λv2, λv3)
⇔ u1 = λv1, u2 = λv2, u3 = λv3
u1 u2 u3
⇔ = = = λ, λ ∈ \.
v1 v2 v3

→ → u1 u2 u3
So u = (u1, u2, u3) || v = (v1, v2, v3) ⇔ = = .
v1 v2 v3

116 Geometry 10
EXAMPLE 30 → → →
u = (1, –2, 3), v = (x, 8, z) and w = (–2, 4, –6) are given.
→ →
a. Are u and w parallel?
→ →
b. Given u || v, find x and z.
1 –2 3 → →
Solution a. Since = = we conclude that u || w.
–2 4 –6
→ → 1 –2 3
b. u || v ⇔ = = so –2x = 8 and –2z = 24, i.e. x = –4, z = –12.
x 8 z

EXAMPLE 31 The points A(–2, 1, 3), B(4, –2, n) and C(0, 0, 5) are collinear. Find n.

−→ −→
Solution Since A, B and C are collinear, AB || AC.
−→
AB = (4 – (–2), –2 – 1, n – 3) = (6, –3, n – 3)
−→
AC = (0 – (–2), 0 – 1, 5 – 3) = (2, –1, 2)
−→ −→ 6 −3 n − 3
If AB || AC then = = and so n = 9.
2 −1 2

Check Yourself 6
→ → → →
1. v = (n, 3, 4) and w = (12, n, 8) are two vectors such that v || w. Find n.
→ → → →
2. a = (6, m – 2, – 4) and b = (–3, 2, 3 – n) are given. Find m and n if a || b.
1. 6 2. m = –2, n = 1

## D. THE DOT PRODUCT

1. The Dot Product of Two Vectors
Definition dot product (inner product, scalar product)
→ →
The dot product of two non-zero vectors u = (u1, u2, u3) and v = (v1, v2, v3) is the real
number (u1 ⋅ v1) + (u2 ⋅ v2) + (u3 ⋅ v3). We use the product symbol (⋅) to show the dot product:
→ → .
u ⋅ v = (u1 ⋅ v1) + (u2 ⋅ v2) + (u3 ⋅ v3)

The dot product is also called the inner product or scalar product.

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 117

EXAMPLE 32 → →
Find the dot product of v = (–2, 0, 3) and w = (2, 3, 5).

→ →
Solution v ⋅ w = [(–2) ⋅ 2] + (0 ⋅ 3) + (3 ⋅ 5) = – 4 + 15 = 11

EXAMPLE 33 → → → → → → →
Find the inner product of v = i + 2 j – 3 k and w = 2 j – k.

→ → → → → → →
Solution v = i + 2 j – 3 k = (1, 2, –3) and w = 2 j – k = (0, 2, –1)
→ →
⇒ v ⋅ w = (1 ⋅ 0) + (2 ⋅ 2) + [(–3) ⋅ (–1)] = 7

Note
To find the dot product of vectors which are given in terms of the standard basis vectors, we
→→ →
simply multiply the corresponding coefficients of i, j and k and add the results.

EXAMPLE 34 → →
Find a if the inner product of u = (2, a, 3) and v = (a – 1, 2, 4) is 22.

→ →
Solution u ⋅ v = 2 ⋅ (a – 1) + (a ⋅ 2) + (3 ⋅ 4)
22 = 4a + 10
a=3

EXAMPLE 35 A shop sells three products A, B and C for 1, 2 and 3 liras respectively. One day the shop sells
6 of product A, 4 of product B and 5 of product C. Use the dot product of two vectors to
calculate the amount earned by the shop.
→ →
Solution Let p = (1, 2, 3) be the prices in vector form and let s = (6, 4, 5) be the sales. Then the total
→ →
amount earned is s ⋅ p = (6 ⋅ 1) + (4 ⋅ 2) + (5 ⋅ 3) = 29 liras.

## PROPERTIES OF THE DOT PRODUCT

→ → →
Let u, v and w be vectors in analytic space and let c be a scalar. Then
→ → →2
1. u ⋅ u = | u|
→ → → →
2. u ⋅ v = v ⋅ u
→ → → → → → →
3. u ⋅ ( v + w) = ( u ⋅ v ) + ( u ⋅ w )
→ → → → → →
4. (c ⋅ u ) ⋅ v = c ⋅ ( u ⋅ v ) = u ⋅ (c ⋅ v )
→ →
5. 0 ⋅ u = 0.

118 Geometry 10
Proof →
1. Let u = (u1, u2, u3), then
→ →
u ⋅ u = (u1 ⋅ u1) + (u2 ⋅ u2) + (u3 ⋅ u3)
= u 12 + u 22 + u 3 2

= | u|2.
→ →
2. Let u = (u1, u2, u3) and v = (v1, v2, v3), then
→ →
u ⋅ v = (u1 ⋅ v1) + (u2 ⋅ v2) + (u3 ⋅ v3)
= (v1 ⋅ u1) + (v2 ⋅ u2) + (v3 ⋅ u3)
→ →
= v ⋅ u.
→ → →
3. Let u = (u1, u2, u3), v = (v1, v2, v3) and w = (w1, w2, w3). Then
→ → →
u ⋅ ( v + w) = (u1, u2, u3) ⋅ (v1 + w1, v2 + w2, v3 + w3)
= u1(v1 + w1) + u2(v2 + w2) + u3(v3 + w3)
= u1v1 + u1w1 + u2v2 + u2w2 + u3v3 + u3w3
= (u1v1 + u2v2 + u3v3) + (u1w1 + u2w2 + u3w3)
→ → → →
= ( u ⋅ v ) + ( u ⋅ w ).
The proofs of 4. and 5. are similar to the proof of 3. They are left as an exercise for you.

EXAMPLE 36 →
Find the length of v = (2, 3, –1).

→ → → → →
Solution We know that v ⋅ v = | v |2, so the length of v is | v | = → v ⋅→v . In other words,
→ 2 → →
| v | = (2 ⋅ 2) + (3 ⋅ 3) + [(–1) ⋅ (–1)] = 14 and so the length of v is| v| = ò14.

37
→ → → → → → → →
EXAMPLE Two vectors u and v in \3 are given such that u ⋅ u = 10, u ⋅ v = –2 and v ⋅ v = 4. Find
→ → → →
(2 u – 3 v) ⋅ (4 u + 5 v).
→ → → → → → → → → → → →
Solution (2 u – 3 v) ⋅ (4 u + 5 v) = 2 ⋅ 4 ⋅ ( u ⋅ u ) + 2 ⋅ 5 ⋅ ( u ⋅ v) – 3 ⋅ 4 ⋅( v ⋅ u) – 3 ⋅ 5 ⋅ ( v ⋅ v)
= (8 ⋅ 10) + [10 ⋅ (–2)] – [12 ⋅ (–2)] – (15 ⋅ 4)
= 80 – 20 + 24 – 60
= 24

38
→→ → → → → → → → → → →
EXAMPLE Three vectors a, b and c in \3 are given such that a + b + c = 0 and a ⋅ a = b ⋅ b = c ⋅ c = 1.
→ →
Find a ⋅ b.
→ → → → → → → → → → → → →
Solution If a + b + c = 0 then a + b = – c and so ( a + b ) ⋅ ( a + b ) = (– c ) ⋅ (– c ).
→ → → → → → → → → →
When we rearrange this we get ( a ⋅ a ) + ( a ⋅ b ) + ( b ⋅ a ) + ( b ⋅ b ) = (–1) ⋅ (–1) ⋅ c ⋅ c.
→ →
If we substitute the values given in the question we get 1 + (2 ⋅ a ⋅ b ) + 1 = 1, i.e.
→ → → → –1
2 ⋅ a ⋅ b = –1 and so a ⋅ b = .
2

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 119

Check Yourself 7
→ → → →
1. a = (–1, 3, 2) and b = (3, 5, –2) are given. Find a ⋅ b.
→ → 1 3
2. Find a if the dot product of u = (2, a, 3) and v = (3, 3, a – ) is .
2 2

3. Find the length of w = (–2, –4, 1).
→ → → → → → → →
4. Two vectors u and v in \3 are given such that u ⋅ u = 3, v ⋅ v = 5 and u ⋅ v = –1.
→ → → →
Find (2 u – v ) ⋅ (3 u + 2 v ).
1
1. 8 2. – 3. ò21 units 4. –5
2

## 2. The Angle Between Two Vectors

Theorem
→ →
Let v and w be two vectors in analytic space and let θ be the angle between these two
vectors. Then
→→ → → .
v ⋅ w = | v| ⋅ | w| ⋅ cos θ

Proof → −→ → −→
Let v = AB and w = AC as shown in the figure and let the angle A
between them be θ. ® q ®
−→ −→ −→ −→ −→ −→ −→ → → v w
Law of cosines
So AB + BC = AC, i.e. BC = AC – AB which means BC = w – v.
A Applying the law of cosines to triangle ABC gives us
B C
θ −→ −→ −→ −→ −→
c b |BC|2 = |AB|2 + |AC|2 – 2 ⋅ |AB| ⋅ |AC| ⋅ cos θ
−→ → → → →
B a C |BC|2 = | v|2 + | w|2 – 2 ⋅ | v| ⋅ | w| ⋅ cos θ. (1)
→ →2 → 2 →→ →
In triangle ABC, Moreover, by expansion we get | w – v| = | w| – 2 ⋅ v ⋅ w + | v|2. (2)
a = b + c – 2 ⋅ b ⋅ c ⋅ cos θ.
2 2 2
Combining (1) and (2) gives us
→ → → → → →→ →
| v|2 + | w|2 – 2 ⋅ | v| ⋅ | w| ⋅ cos θ = | w|2 – 2 ⋅ v ⋅ w + | v|2, and rearranging this gives us
→→ → →
v ⋅ w = | v| ⋅ | w| ⋅ cos θ as required.
3
cos 0° = 1, cos 30° = ,
2 We can rearrange this result to obtain a formula for the cosine of the angle between two vectors:
2 1
cos45° = , cos60° = ,
2 2
1
ANGLE BETWEEN TWO VECTORS
cos 90° = 0, cos 120° = − ,
2 Note
2 → →
cos 135° = − , If θ is the angle
Orthogonal between two vectors
and perpendicular non-zero vectors
have v andmeaning.
the same w then We use both in this book.
2
→ →
cos 150° = −
3
, v⋅ w
2 cos θ = .
→ →
cos 180° = –1 |v | ⋅ | w|

120 Geometry 10
39
→ →
EXAMPLE Find the angle between u = (–1, 1, 0) and v = (2, 0, 0).

→ →
u⋅ v (–1) ⋅ 2+1 ⋅ 0+0 ⋅ 0 –2 –1
Solution By the formula, cos θ = → → = 2 ⋅2
=
2⋅ 2
=
2
. So θ = 135°.
| u| ⋅ | v|

## Definition orthogonal (perpendicular) vectors

→ →
Two vectors u and v are called orthogonal vectors if the angle between them is 90°.
→ → → →
We write u ⊥ v to show that u and v are orthogonal.

Theorem
→ → → →
Two non-zero vectors a and b are orthogonal if and only if a ⋅ b = 0.

→ →
Proof • If a and b are orthogonal then the angle between these vectors is 90°, and cos 90° = 0.
→ → → →
So a ⋅ b = | a| ⋅ | b| ⋅ cos 90°
→ →
= | a| ⋅ | b| ⋅ 0

= 0. ®
a
→ →
• Conversely, assume a ⋅ b = 0.
Let the angle between these vectors be θ, ®
b
→ →
a⋅ b
then cos θ = → → = 0 so θ = 90° or θ = 270°.
| a|⋅ | b|
→ →
In both cases we can say that a and b are orthogonal.

EXAMPLE 40 → →
For what value of a are the vectors u = (4, –2, a) and v = (–1, a, 6) orthogonal?

→ → → →
Solution Since u ⊥ v, u⋅ v=0
[4 ⋅ (–1)] + [(–2) ⋅ a] + (a ⋅ 6) = 0
(4 ⋅ a) – 4 = 0
a = 1.

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 121

EXAMPLE 41 → → →
u = (3, 2, –4), v = (2, –1, 1) and w = (–1, 2, 3) are given. Which of these vectors are
orthogonal?
→ → → →
Solution u ⋅ v = 3 ⋅ 2 + 2 ⋅ (–1) + (–4) ⋅ 1 = 0 so u is perpendicular to v.
→ → → →
u ⋅ w = 3 ⋅ (–1) + 2 ⋅ 2 + (–4) ⋅ 3 = –11 ≠ 0 so u is not perpendicular to w.
→ → → →
v ⋅ w = 2 ⋅ (–1) + (–1) ⋅ 2 + 1 ⋅ 3 = –1 ≠ 0 so v is not perpendicular to w.
→ →
In summary, only u and v are orthogonal.

EXAMPLE 42 → → π
The angle between u = (x, 1, 1) and v = (1, 1, x) is . Find x.
3
→ →
π u⋅ v
Solution cos = → →
3 | u|⋅ | v|
1 x +1+ x
=
2 x +1+1 ⋅ 1+1+ x2
2

1
⋅ ( x2 + 2) = 2 x +1
2
x2 + 2 = 4 x + 2

x2 – 4 x = 0
x = 4 or x = 0, so x ∈ {4, 0}

EXAMPLE 43 → → → →
u, v and w are vectors in analytic space such that v = (x, y, z) where x + y + z = 5 and
→ → → → → →
w = (2, 2, 2). Given that v ⊥ (w – u ), find u ⋅ v.
→ → → → → →
Solution If v ⊥ ( w – u) then v ⋅ ( w – u) = 0
→ → → →
v⋅w–v⋅u=0
→ → → →
v ⋅ w = v ⋅ u.
→ → → →
Substituting v and w from the question gives 2x + 2y + 2z = u ⋅ v
→ →
2(x + y + z) = u ⋅ v
→ →
2⋅5=u⋅v
→ →
10 = u ⋅ v.

EXAMPLE 44 → → →
w = (–1, 1, a) bisects the angle between the vectors u = (4, 0, –3) and v = (6, –8, 0). Find a.

122 Geometry 10
→ → → →
u⋅ w v⋅ w
Solution cos θ = → → = → → . So ®
| u|⋅ | w| | v|⋅ | w| u
®
q w
4 ⋅ (–1)+0 ⋅1+(–3) ⋅ a 6 ⋅ (–1)+(–8) ⋅ 1+0 ⋅ a q
= ®
42 +0 2 +(–3)2 ⋅ (–1) 2 +12 + a2 6 2 +(–8) 2 +0 2 ⋅ (–1) 2 +1 2 + a2 v

–4 – 3a –14
=
5 10
–8 – 6a = –14
6 = 6a
a = 1.

Check Yourself 8
→ →
1. Find the angle between u = (2, –1, 2) and v = (0, –1, 1).
→ →
2. The angle between u = (1, –1, x) and v = (–x, 1, –1) is 120°. Find x.
→ →
3. Find t if u = (7, t+1, 2) and v = (t, –2, –4) are orthogonal.
→ → →
4. u = (–2, 1, 4), v = (0, 3, –1) and w (2, 0, 1) are given. Which vectors are orthogonal?
→ →
1. 45° 2. 4 3. 2 4. u and w

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 123

In our daily lives when we open or shut a book, door or window we use the
turning effect of force.
The turning effect of a force is called torque and is denoted by τ. We can
calculate torque as the cross product of two vectors.
For example, imagine you are trying to remove a bolt using the wrench in the
picture.

Let F be the force you apply to the wrench and let r be the position vector of the wrench.

The torque τ is defined as the cross product of the position and force vectors: τ = r × F.

The direction of the torque vector can be found by using the right-hand rule. If you hold your right-hand flat

and positioned so that your fingers are aligned with r and then rotate your hand so that your fingers curl
→ → →
inward toward F, then your thumb indicates r × F .

Note that the direction of the torque vector is perpendicular to the vectors →
r and F, and so it is

perpendicular to the plane which contains → r and F.

## where θ is the angle between r and F.

EXAMPLE The force applied to remove the bolt in the figure above is 15 N and the length of the wrench
is 0.2 m. Find the torque and determine the direction of the torque vector.

Solution τ = 0.2 ⋅ 15 = 3 N ⋅ m ®
t = 30 N.m

## The torque vector is directed out of the page. ®

®
r = 0.2 m F = 15 N
EXERCISES 3 .2
A. Basic Concepts B. Vector Operations
−→
1. Find the vector AB for each pair of points. 8. Find the sum of each pair of vectors.
→ →
a. A(0, 3, 1), B(2, –3, –1) a. u = (1, 0, 1), v = (0, 0, 1)
→ →
b. A(1, –2, 0), B(1, –2, 3) b. a = (0, 3, 2), b = (1, 0, –3)

→ →
9. u = (2, –1, 3) and v = (2, 4, –1) are given.
2. Point B(5, 1, –3) is the terminal point of the Calculate each linear combination.
−→ → → → → → →
vector AB = (4, –3, 2). Find the coordinates of A. a. 2 u b. –3 u c. u + 2 v d. 3 u – 2 v

→ → → → →
−→
10. u = (4, 0, –8) and u + v = 0. Find v.
3. Find the norm of the vector AB for each pair of
points.
11. A(a1, a2, a3) and B(b1, b2, b3) are given. Show that
a. A(5, 2, 8), B(2, 6, –4) −→ −→
AB = –BA.
b. A(2, –4, 3), B(5, 2, –3)
→ → →
12. u + v = (–8, 5, 0) and w = (4, –2, 0) are given.
→ → →
→ Find u + ( v + w).
4. Find the length of u = (–3, 4, –12).
−→ −→ −→ −→
13. OA = (–2, 1, 3), OB = (2, 3, –1) and AB = 2BC
 −→
are given. Find OC.
5. Points A(7, –4, a) and B(1, 3, 5) are given. If
−→
|AB| = 11, find the possible values of a.
14. Points A(1, m, 2), B(–m, 3, 0), C(0, 4, n) and
−→ −→
D(2m, t, 2n) are such that 2AB = CD. Find m, n
→ → and t.
6. u = (a – b, a + 1, 4) and v = (3, 6 – b, c + 1) are
→ →
given such that u = v. Find a, b and c.
15. Point C is the midpoint of [AB] where A(–1, 3, 5)
−→
and B(–5, 1, 7). Find the length of OC if O is the

## 7. In the figure, A′ is the z origin of the analytic plane.

A(a1, a2, a3)

projection of point A on
→ → → →
the xy-plane, 16. u + 2 v = (4, –1, 0) and u – v = (1, 5, 6) are
A¢ →
−→ 30° B given. Find u.
|OA| = 6 units, 60°

## m(∠AOA′) = 30° and O y

→ → → →
m(∠A′OB) = 60°. 17. u – v = (4, –1, 1) and 3u + 2 v = (7, –3, 8) are
−→ x → →
Find the components of OA. given. Find u + v.

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 125

→ →
18. u = (2, 3, 4) and w = (0, 1, –2) are given. Find C. Parallel Vectors
→ → → → → →
a. |u + w|. b. |u – 2w|. 27. u = (3 – a, b – 1, 8) and v = (a + 1, b + 3, 4) are
→ →
given such that u || v. Find a and b.

→ 3 –6
19. Find a if u = ( , , a) is a unit vector.
7 7

28. Find n if the points A(3, 1, 2), B(n, –2, –4) and
20. A(3, 2, 1) and B(0, –2, –1) are given. Find the unit C(6, 0, 0) are collinear.
vector whose direction is
−→
a. the same as AB.
−→
b. opposite to AB.

## D. The Dot Product

21. Find a unit vector with the same direction as → →
29. Find the dot product of u and v in each case.
→ → → →
u = 8 i – j + 4 k. → →
a. u = (1, 3, – 2), v = (5, –4, 0)
→ →
b. u = (–3, 0, 7), v = (2, –1, 0)
→ → →
22. Write the vector u = (9, 6, 7) in terms of the c. u = (1, –5, 4), v = (7, 2, –1)
standard basis vectors.

→ → → → → → → →
23. v = 2 i + 3 j – k, w = m i + n j + k and
→ →
v = t w (t ∈ \) are given. Find m + n. 30. Find the norm of each vector by using the inner
product.

a. u = (–3, 4, 0)

24. Write the vector u = (1, 3, 7) as a linear →
→ → b. v = (–6, 6, 7)
combination of v1 = (1, 1, 0), v2 = (0, 1, 0) and →
→ c. w = (–2, –1, 7)
v3 = (0, 1, 1).

→ → →
25. u = (3, –2, 1), v = (–3, 1, 2), w = (–6, 1, 7) and
→ → → → →
u + t v = w are given. Find t. 31. |u| = 2, |v| = 2ñ3 and the angle between
→ →
u and v is 150°. Calculate the products.
→ → →
26. Write the vector u = (–1, 2, –2) as a linear a. u ⋅ v
→ → → → →
combination of v1 = (–1, 2, 1), v2 = (3, 0, 1) and b. (2 u – 3 v ) ⋅ v
→ → → → →
v3 = (0, –2, 1). c. ( u – v ) ⋅ (2 u + v )

126 Algebra 10
→ → → → →→
32. Show that the angle between the vectors 39. Prove that |u ⋅ v | ≤ | u| ⋅ | v| for u, v ∈ \3.
→ →
u = (3, 3, ñ2) and v = (2, 2, –ñ2) is 45°.

→ → → → → → →
40. u + v + w = 0 and |u| = 5, |v| = 1, |w| = 4.
33. Find the cosine of the angle between the vectors  → → → → → →
Find ( u ⋅ v ) + ( u ⋅ w) + ( v ⋅ w).
in each case.
→ →
a. u = (4, –1, – 1), v = (1, –2, 1)
→ →
b. u = (3, 2, –5), v = (6, –1, –1)
→ → 41. Which of the following expressions are meaningful?
c. u = (ñ3, 1, 0), v = (2, –ñ3, ñ3)
Which are meaningless?
→ → →
a. ( u ⋅ v) ⋅ w
→ → →
b. | u| ⋅ ( v ⋅ w )
→ → → →
34. Show that the vectors u = (2, –1, 4) and c. u ⋅ ( v + w )
→ → → →
v = (7, 2, –3) are orthogonal. d. ( u ⋅ v )+ w
→ → →
e. | u| ⋅ ( v + w )

35. The angle between u = (1, –ñ3, 2) and

v = (–1, ñ3, t) is 60°. Find t. 42. In the figure,
→→ → ®
u ®
u, v and w are unit v
→ →
vectors. Find u ⋅ v.
®
→ → w
36. The vectors u = (a, a + 3, –1) and v = (3, –2, 4)
are orthogonal. Find a.

®
43. In the figure, u
→ →
→ → → → → → → → u and w are unit vectors. ®
37. u = 3 i – 2 j + k, v = t i + 3 j – 2 k and v
→ → → → Find ®
w
w = t i + (t – 1) j + 4 k are given. → →
→ → → a. u ⋅ w.
Find t if (u + v) ⊥ w. → →
b. u ⋅ v.

→ →
38. u = (–3, 5, 4) and v = (2, 1, 1) are given. Find
→ → → → → → → →
the projection of u on v. 44. Show that i ⋅ j = j ⋅ k = k ⋅ i = 0.

## Coordinates and Vectors in Space 127

→ → → → → → → → → →
45. Show that i ⋅ i = j ⋅ j = k ⋅ k = 1. 52. u = (–4, 1, m), w = (n, –2, –6) and u || w.
Find m + n.

## 46. A street vendor sells a hamburgers, b hot dogs

→ →
and c soft drinks on a given day. He charges \$2 for 53. u and v are two vectors with the same direction
 → → → →
a hamburger, \$3 for a hot dog and \$1 for a soft such that u ⋅ v = 7 and u = (3, 2, –1). Find v.
→ →
drink. If A = (a, b, c) and P = (2, 3, 1), what does
→ →
the dot product A ⋅ P represent for the street
→ → → → → →
vendor? 54. |u| = 13, |v| = 19 and |u + v| = 24. Find |u – v|.


## 47. Determine whether the given vectors are

→ →
orthogonal, parallel or neither. 55. u and v are orthogonal vectors such that
→ → → → → →
a. u = (–5, 3, 7), v = (6, –8, 2) | u| = 5 and | v| = 12. Find | u + v|.
→ → → →→ → → →
b. u = i + 2 j + 5 k, v = 3 i + 4 j – k
→ → → →→ → → →
c. u = 2 i + 6 j – 4 j, v = –3 i – 9 j + 6 k → → → →
56. u + tv and u – tv are orthogonal vectors such that
→ →
| u| = 3 and | v| = 5. Find t.

## 48. For what values of m are the vectors (–6, m, 2)

and (m, m2, m) orthogonal? →
57. The vector w = (m, n, 16) is perpendicular to

both of the vectors u = (2, –3, 1) and

v = (4, 2, –1). Find m and n.
49. Find the angle θ between the main diagonal of a

cube and the diagonal of one of its faces by using
the dot product. →
58. Find the angle between the vector u = (3, 4, ñ7)
and the y-axis.

→ → → → → → → →
50. w = |u| ⋅ v + |v| ⋅ u where u, v and w are all
 → → →
non-zero vectors. Show that w bisects the angle 59. u and v are orthogonal vectors such that
→ → → → → →
between u and v. |u – v| = 10 and |u| = 6. Find |v |⋅

→ → → →
51. Find n if the points D(2, 1, 3), E(3, –1, 6) and 60. u + 2v = (1, 4, –2), |u| = 3 and |v| = 2 are
F(n, 7, –6) are collinear. → →
given. Find u ⋅ v.

128 Algebra 10
CHAPTER REVIEW TEST 3A
1. Which vector has initial point A(–1, 2, 3) and 5. Which vector is a unit vector in the opposite

terminal point B(2, –3, 0)? direction to v = (–2, 2, 1)?
−→ −→ 2 2 1 2 2 1
A) AB = (–3, 5, 3) B) AB = (1, –1, 3) A) ( – , , ) B) ( – , , )
−→ −→ 3 3 3 5 5 5
C) AB = (3, –5, –3) D) AB = (–3, –5, 3) 2 2 1
−→ C) (2, –2, –1) D) ( , – ,– )
E) AB = (1, 5, 3) 3 3 3
2 2 1
E) ( , – ,– )
5 5 5

2. What is the length of the vector u =(–ñ2, 4, 0)?
→ →
6. The vectors u =(–2, 1, 3) and v =(1, –1, 2) are
A) 3 B) 3ñ2 C) 4 D) 4ñ2 E) 5 → →
given. Find u ⋅ v.

A) 9 B) 7 C) 5 D) 3 E) 1

→ →
3. The vectors u = (–2, a – 1, 3) and v = (b + 1, 2, 3)
are equal vectors. Find a + b. 7. Find the cosine of the angle between the vectors
→ →
u =(–1, 1, 2) and v =(1, 3, –1).
A) –2 B) –1 C) 0 D) 1 E) 2

1 1 1 1
A) – B) – C) 0 D) E)
2 3 3 2

→ →
4. The vectors u = (–2, 1, 3) and v = (0, –1, 2) are
→ →
given. Find 3u +4v.
→ →
8. The vectors u =(p, –2, 5) and v =(1, p, –4) are
A) (–2, 0, 5) B) (–6, 1, 5) C) (–6, 0, 17) orthogonal. Find p.

D) (–2, 1, 17) E) (–6, –1, 17) A) –22 B) –20 C) –18 D) –16 E) –14

## Chapter Review Test 3A 129

→ → → →
9. The vectors u =(4, a, –6) and v =(b, –1, 3) are 13. u =(–2, a + 2, 1) and v =(a + 1, 1, 2) are
parallel. Find a ⋅ b. orthogonal vectors. Find a.

A) –9 B) –4 C) –1 D) 1 E) 4 A) –2 B) –1 C) 0 D) 1 E) 2

→ → →
10. u = (–1, 0, 1), v = (0, 1, –1), w = (0, 0, –1) and
→ → → → →
(3, –4, 2) = a u + b v + c w are given. What is 14. u =(–1, 3, 0) and v =(2, –1, 0) are given.
a + b + c? → →
Find |u – 2v|.
A) –4 B) –6 C) –8 D) –10 E) –12 A) ñ2 B) 5ñ2 C) 3ñ2 D) 4ñ2 E) 5ñ2

## 11. Which statement is false?

→ → → → → →
A) u ⋅ v = u ⋅ w ⇒ v = w → → →
→ → → → → → → →
15. u = (3, –1, 2), v = (1, 0, 2), w = (3, –2, –2) and
B) v = w and u ≠ 0 ⇒ u ⋅ v = u ⋅ w → → →
(a ⋅ u ) + (b ⋅ v ) = w are given. Find a + b.
→ → → →
C) u = – 2 v ⇒ u ⋅ v ≠ 0
A) –2 B) –1 C) 0 D) 1 E) 2
→ → → →
D) u ⋅ v = v ⋅ u
→ → → → → → →
E) u ⋅ ( v + w ) = ( u ⋅ v )+ ( u ⋅ w )

→ → → → → → → → → → → →
12. u = (a, 4, –1), v =(–3, –4, –1) and u ⋅ v = –9 are 16. u = –3 i + 2 j – k, v = a i + b j + 2 k and
→ →
given. Find a. u = λ v, where λ ∈ \. Find a + b.

A) –2 B) –1 C) 0 D) 1 E) 2 A) –4 B) –2 C) 0 D) 2 E) 4

130 Algebra 10
CHAPTER REVIEW TEST 3B
−→ → →
1. The terminal point of the vector PR = (3, –2, 1) is 5. The angle between the vectors u and v is 60°. If
→ → → →
R = (5, –4, 3). What is the y-component of point | u| = 8 and | v| = 5, what is | u – v|?
P?
A) 1 B) 3 C) 5 D) 7 E) 9
A) –2 B) –1 C) 0 D) 1 E) 2

→→ →
6. Three vectors u, v and w are such that
→ → → → → →
→ → u + v + w = 0. If | u| = 2, | v| = 3 and
2. |u| = 7 for the vector u =(–6, a, 2). What is the → → → → → → →
| w| = 5, what is ( u ⋅ v )+ ( u ⋅ w ) + ( v ⋅ w )?
product of all the possible values of a?
A) –21 B) –20 C) –19 D) –18 E) –17
A) –25 B) –16 C) –9 D) –4 E) –1

→ → → → 7. u = (a, b, 16) is perpendicular to both
3. |u| = 7, |v| = 9 and |u + v| = 16 are given. → →
→ → v = (2, –3, 1) and w = (4, 2, –1). Find a + b.
What is | u – v|?
A) 11 B) –1 C) 1 D) 5 E) 7
A) 16 B) 8 C) 4 D) 2 E) 1

→ → → → → → →
8. u = v + w, v ⊥ w and |u| = 2|w| are given.
→ → → →
4. u and v are perpendicular vectors such that What is the cosine of the angle between v and w?
→ → → →
| u| = 6 and | v| = 8. What is | u + v|?
3 3 2 1
A) – B) C) D) E) 0
A) 10 B) 12 C) 14 D) 16 E) 8 2 2 2 2

## Chapter Review Test 3B 131

A B A
9. In the figure, ABCD is a 13. In the figure,
2
rectangle. If |AB| = 4 and ABC is an equilateral 4 F
|BC| = 3, what is triangle with |BC| = 6,
−→ −→ −→
BD ⋅ (AB + BC)? D C |AE| = 4 and |AF| = 2. E
−→ −→ −→
Find (AE + AF) ⋅ AC.
A) 25 B) 9 C) –7 D) –9 E) –25 B 6 C

7 9
A) 0 B) C) D) 15 E) 24
2 2

−→ −→
10. PQ ⊥ QR for points P(–1, 2, 3), Q = (0, 4, –1) and
R = (0, a, 0). What is a? →
→ → → →
14. u = (–3, 1, a), v = (3a, –2, –4) and u × v = 0 are
A) 6 B) 7 C) 8 D) 9 E) 10 given. Find a.

A) –2 B) –1 C) 0 D) 1 E) 2

→ →
→ →
11. u = (–2, 2, 1) and v = (3, –4, 2) are given. 15. u and v are non-zero vectors such that
→ → → →
→ → u + v ⊥ u – v.
Find u × v .
Which statement is always true?
→ → → → → →
A) –8 i + 7 j + 2 k B) 8 i + 7 j + 2 k → → → → →
A) |u + v| = |v| B) |u| = |v|
→ → → → → →
C) 8 i – 7 j + 2 k D) 8 i + 7 j – 2 k → → → →
C) |u – v| = 1 D) |u + v| = 1
→ → →
E) –8 i – 7 j – 2 k → → →
E) |u – v| = |u|

→ → → →
12. 2u + 3v = (–4, –2, 12) and u – v = (–2, 4, 1) are 16. What is the shortest distance between the point

given. Find v .
A(–1, 2, 5) and the xy-plane?
A) (–2, 2, 3) B) (0, 2, 3) C) (–2, –2, 2)
A) 1 unit B) 2 units C) 5 units
D) (0, 2, 2) E) (0, –2, 2) D) ò29 units E) ò30 units

132 Algebra 10