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Solution (Assignments 2)

1. Calculate the wavelength of a photon with a photon energy of 2 eV. Also, calculate
the wavelength of an electron with a kinetic energy of 2 eV.

Solution:
(a) 𝜆 = 𝑕𝑐/𝐸 = (6.626 × 10−34 𝐽𝑠) × 3 × 108 /(2 × 1.6 × 10−19 ) = 621𝑛𝑚
𝑕 𝑝2
(b) 𝜆 = , 𝐾𝐸 = , 𝑝= (2𝑚𝐸),
𝑝 (2𝑚)
𝜆 = 𝑕/ (2𝑚𝐸)= 6.626 × 10−34 / (2 × 9.11 ∗ 10−31 × 2 × 1.6 × 10−19 )=0.87 nm

2. Consider a beam of light with a power of 1 Watt and a wavelength of 800 nm.
Calculate a) the photon energy of the photons in the beam, b) the frequency of the
light wave and c) the number of photons provided by the beam in one second.

Solution:
The power = 1 Watt = 1 J/s
𝑕𝑐 6.626 × 10−34 𝐽𝑠 × 3 × 108
𝐸 = 𝑕𝑓 = = = 2.48 × 10−19 𝐽 = 1.55𝑒𝑉
𝜆 800 × 10−9
𝑐 3 × 108
𝑓= = = 375 THz
𝜆 800 × 10−9
𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑔𝑕𝑡 𝑤𝑖𝑡𝑕 𝑎 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑕𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑡𝑕𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 =
𝑝𝑕𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦
1
= = 4 × 1018
2.48 × 10−19

3. Calculate the peak wavelength of blackbody radiation emitted from a human body
at a temperature of 37°C.

Solution:
𝐸𝑝𝑕 = 2.82𝐾𝑇 = 2.82 × 1.38 × 10−23 × 273.16 + 37 = 1.2 × 10−20 𝐽 = 75.5 𝑚𝑒𝑉
𝑕𝑐 6.626 × 10−34 𝐽𝑠 × 3 × 108
𝜆= = = 16.5𝜇𝑚
𝐸 1.2 × 10−20

4. What is the width of an infinite quantum well if the second lowest energy of a free
electron confined to the well equals 100 meV?

Solution:

Second lowest energy n=2


𝐿𝑥 = 3.88 𝑛𝑚

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5. Calculate the three lowest possible energies of an electron in a hydrogen atom in
units of electron volt. Identify all possible electron energies between the lowest
energy and -2 eV.

Solution:
13.6 𝑒𝑉
𝐸𝑛 = − 𝑤𝑖𝑡𝑕 𝑛 = 1,2, …
𝑛2
13.6 𝑒𝑉
𝐸1 = − = −13.6 𝑒𝑉
12
13.6 𝑒𝑉
𝐸2 = − = −3.4𝑉
22
13.6 𝑒𝑉
𝐸3 = − = −1.51𝑒𝑉
32
Identify all possible electron energies between the lowest energy and 𝐸𝑗 = −2 𝑒𝑉
𝐸1𝑗 = −13.6𝑒𝑉 + 2 𝑒𝑉 = −11.6𝑒𝑉
𝐸2𝑗 = −3.4𝑒𝑉 + 2 𝑒𝑉 = −1.4𝑒𝑉
𝐸3𝑗 = −1.51𝑒𝑉 + 2 𝑒𝑉 = 0.49𝑒𝑉

6. Find the lowest possible energy in a 2 nm quantum well with infinitely high
barriers on each side of the well and with a delta function potential positioned in
the middle of the quantum well. The integral of the delta function potential equals
10-10 eV-m. Assume that the electron mass equals the free electron mass (m 0 = 9.1 x
10-31 kg).

7. Molybdenum has a work function of 4.2 eV. Find the cutoff frequency and cutoff
wavelength for the photoelectric effect.

Solution:
E=KE+ Φ, KE=0
hfc = Φ
fc = Φ/h = (4.2 eV)(1.6*10-19 J/eV)/(6.626*10-34 Js) = 1.01*1015 Hz is the cutoff frequency
λc = c/fc = 296 nm is the cutoff wavelength.

8. What is the deBroglie wavelength of an electron after being accelerated through a


potential difference of 25 kV in a television set?
Solution:
𝑕 𝑝2
𝜆= , 𝐸= , 𝑝 = (2𝑚𝐸), 𝜆 = 𝑕/ (2𝑚𝐸)
𝑝 (2𝑚)
The energy of the electron is 25000 ∗ 1.6 ∗ 10−19 = 4 ∗ 10−15 𝐽
6.626 ∗ 10−34 𝐽𝑠
𝜆= = 7.8 ∗ 10−12 𝑚
2 ∗ 9.11 ∗ 10−31 𝑘𝑔 ∗ 4 ∗ 10−15 𝐽
This wavelength is approximately 100 times smaller than the typical size of an atom.

9. What are the properties of photons?

Solution:
 Photons always move with the speed of light.

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 Photons are electrically neutral.
 Photons have no mass, but they have energy E = hf = hc/λ.
 A laser beam and a microwave beam can carry the same amount of energy. In this case the
laser beam contains a smaller number of photons, but each photon in the laser beam has a
higher energy than the photons in the microwave beam.
 Photons can be created and destroyed. Creation and destruction of photons must conserve
energy and momentum. The magnitude of the momentum of a photon is p = hf/c = h/λ.

10. Define the following terms: Rydberg, Fermi function, thermal equilibrium and
Electronic configuration of the elements.

Solution:
Rydberg: The maximum photon energy emitted from a hydrogen atom equals 13.6 eV.

Fermi function: The distribution or probability density functions describe the probability that particles
occupy the available energy levels in a given system. Therefore, the Fermi function
provides the probability that an energy level at energy, E, in thermal equilibrium with
a large system, is occupied by an electron.

Thermal equilibrium: A system is in thermal equilibrium if detailed balance is obtained; i.e. every
microscopic process in the system is exactly balanced by its inverse process so that
there is no net effect on the system. This definition implies that in thermal equilibrium
no energy (heat, work or particle energy) is exchanged between the parts within the
system or between the system and the environment.

Electronic configuration of the elements: The electronic configuration can be constructed using the
quantum numbers of the atom and the Pauli exclusion principle. A statement
describing the populations of electronic energy, Shell, Subshells, orbitals and totals
electron states of an atom.

11. What is the energy of a photon of blue light (λ = 450 nm) and of a photon of red
light (λ = 700 nm) in units of eV?

Solution:
E = hc/λ.
Blue light: E = (6.626*10-34 Js)(3*108 m/s)/(450*10-9 m) = 4.4*10-19 J = 2.76 eV

Red light: E = (6.626*10-34 Js)(3*108 m/s)/(700*10-9 m) = 2.8*10-19 J = 1.8 eV

12. Find by expression, how does it deBroglie wavelength change, If you double the
speed of a particle?

Solution:
λ = h/p, p = mv, p is proportional to v, λ is proportional to 1/v.
λ2/λ1 = (v1/v2) = 1/2.
The deBroglie wavelength decreases by a factor of 1/2.
λ2 = 0.5 λ1.

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13. Light of wavelength 500 nm is incident on sodium with a work function of 2.28 eV.
What is the maximum kinetic energy of the ejected photoelectron?

Solution:
E = hf - Φ = hc/λ - Φ.
hf = hc/λ = (6.626*10-34 Js)(3*108 m/s)/(500*10-9 m) = (3.98*10-19 J)(1 eV)/(1.6*10-19J) = 2.48 eV.
E = 0.2 eV.

14. What is the energy in electron-volts that is consumed in an electrical circuit with
voltage supply of 20 volts and charge flow of 40 electron charges?

Solution:
𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑛 𝑐𝑕𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑠 × 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑦 (𝑉) = 20 × 40 = 800𝑒𝑉

15. What is the voltage supply in volts of an electrical circuit with energy consumption
of 800 electron-volts and charge flow of 40 electron charges?

Solution:
𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 800𝑒𝑉
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑦 (𝑉) = = = 20𝑉
𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑛 𝑐𝑕𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑠 40𝑒

16. What is the energy in joules that is consumed in an electrical circuit with voltage
supply of 15V and charge flow of 4 coulombs?

Solution:
E = 15V × 4C = 60J

17. What is the power consumption of an electrical circuit that has energy consumption
of 90 joules for time duration of 3 seconds?

Solution:
P(W) = 90J / 3s = 30W

18. What is the power consumption in KW of an electrical circuit that has energy
consumption of 90 joules for time duration of 3 seconds?

Solution:
P(W) = 90J / 3s = 30W
P(KW)= P(W)/103=0.03 KW

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19. A 100-W incandescent light bulb uses 100 W (100 W = 100 J/s) of electrical power but
only radiates about 15 W of actual visible light. Roughly how many visible photons
per second hit the open pages of a typical hardcover book if the pages are about 2 m
from the bulb and face it directly?

Solution:
To find the number of photons hitting the pages each second, we have to know the
1. Light energy hitting the pages per second
2. The energy per photon.

Assuming the average wavelength of the visible light is about 550 nm.
The energy per photon is about:

E = hc/λ = (6.626*10-34 Js)(3*108 m/s)/(550*10-9 m) = 3.61*10-19 J = 2.26 eV.

Assuming that the light energy from the bulb travels uniformly in all directions with a radius R = 2
m. The power Plamp is (~15 W) of the visible light emitted by the lamp every second, 15 J. The
dimension of page form a rectangle about 18 cm tall and 24 cm wide, so

Pbook = Plamp. A/(4πR2)

= (15).(0.18 m).(0.24 m) / (16π) (W/m2)

= 0.017 J/s.

Number of photons from bulb hitting the book per second is

𝐛𝐞𝐚𝐦 𝐨𝐟 𝐥𝐢𝐠𝐡𝐭 𝐰𝐢𝐭𝐡 𝐚 𝐩𝐨𝐰𝐞𝐫 𝐏𝐛𝐨𝐨𝐤


= =
𝐩𝐡𝐨𝐭𝐨𝐧 𝐞𝐧𝐞𝐫𝐠𝐲 𝐄

=(0.017 J/s)/(3.61*10-19 J)

= 4.7*1016/s.

This is useful answer.