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# Zeroth law: If any two systems are in thermal equilibrium with the third system, then they

## are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

First law: First law of thermodynamic states that energy can neither be created nor be
destroyed but it can only be converted from one form to another.
Second law: This law states that “all processes in nature tend to occur with an increase
in entropy and the direction of change always lead to the increase in entropy.”

As per the second law of thermodynamics, any heat input to the system (Heat engine)
cannot be converted completely into useful work. Some energy is lost and that is called
'unavailable work'. The amount of unavailable work increases as the entropy increases.
third law of thermodynamics states that:
“The entropy of a perfect crystal of each element and a compound is zero at absolute
zero.”
Limitations: The entropy of pure carbon dioxide and nitric oxide is zero at 0K.
This law is applicable only to pure compounds. Thus we can say that, this law is not
applicable to glass which is a supercooled liquid. It is also not applicable to amorphous
substance and supercooled solutions.
Importance:
1. This law helps in explaining the behaviour of solids at very low temperature.

## Gibbs free energy:

This thermodynamic quantity states that the decrease in value during a process
is equal to the useful work done by the system. It is denoted by G and the
mathematical equation is:
G = H – TS
Where,
H = heat content
T = absolute temperature
S = entropy of the system
Octane No:-Octane number is defined as the percentage, by volume, of iso octane in
the mixture of iso octane and h-heptane.
Cetane No:- Cetane number is defined as the percentage, by volume, of n-cetane in
the mixture of n-cetane and alpha methyl naphthalene.
What Is Hess Law?
According to the Hess law the energy transfer is simply independent of the path being
followed. If the reactant and the product of the whole process are the same then same
amount of energy will be dissipated or absorbed.
• Diesel engine has the better efficiency than petrol engine.
Define Reynolds Number.?
Reynolds number is the ratio of inertial force and viscous force. It is a dimensionless
number. It determines the type of fluid flow.
Question. What Is A Newtonian Fluid?
A Newtonian fluid possesses a linear stress strain relationship curve and it passes
through the origin. The fluid properties of a Newtonian fluid do not change when any
force acts upon it.
Recuperative Heat Exchangers:

These units are widely used because they can be constructed with large heat transfer
surfaces in a relatively small volume, can be fabricated from alloys to resist corrosion, and
are suitable for heating, cooling, evaporating or condensing all kinds of fluids.
Regenerative Heat Exchanger:
A regenerative heat exchanger is an apparatus in which one and the same heating surface
is alternately exposed to the hot and cold fluids. The heat carried by the hot fluid is taken
away by and accumulated in the walls of the apparatus and is then transferred to the cold
fluid flowing through the heat exchanger. Regenerators of open health and glass-melting
furnaces, air preheaters of blast furnaces are some of the specimens of regenerative heat-
exchange equipment.
What is Joule's law.
And.It state that The change of internal energy of a perfect gas is directly
proportional to the change of temperature.

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