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Terry Prosser

with Jane Revell and Jeremy Harmer

intermediate A

Teacher’s Guide
Letter to you, the teacher
Hello – and a big welcome to Jetstream Intermediate, • in providing a range of stimulating and appropriate
the course we’ve written to help your students learn practice and production activities which both
English (and improve what they already know). We’ve bolster students’ knowledge whilst at the same time
used engaging and stimulating topics and activities so giving scope for creativity and experimentation.
that, we believe, students will study successfully and
enjoyably. The Teacher’s Guide
Our intention has been to blend the familiar (activities As teachers ourselves, we know how busy and
and exercises with which teachers and students feel demanding a teacher’s life can be. That’s why Jetstream
comfortable) with some newer, different features which comes with a Teacher’s Guide which can take you
are intended to add extra depth and interest to the through each lesson, step by step. There’s a wealth
learning experience, for example: of support online, too, including extra material and
• Jetstream is thought-provoking. It gets students to practice tests. However – and this is important to stress
think in a variety of different ways, not only about – you don’t have to use any of this if you don’t feel like
ideas, but also about the language itself; it. It’s there in case you want it and find it useful, that’s
• Because we live in a connected digital society, all. But if you’re happy to ‘do your own thing’, that’s
Jetstream often invites students to venture beyond wonderful too. We believe that Jetstream allows you
the Student’s Book itself (if they can) and bring considerable flexibility if that’s what you’re after!
what they’ve found and enjoyed back to the
classroom; So this is Jetstream: a course designed to provide
• Jetstream presents a wide variety of people, cultural students with a rich and rewarding learning experience;
settings and topics – because learning how to a course which we believe is extremely enjoyable to
communicate also means learning about the world teach with.
we all live in;
• Above all, Jetstream encourages students to use the Have a good time and good luck!
language they’re learning in a grown-up way that
fits with our increasingly interconnected world. Jane Revell and Jeremy Harmer

The thinking behind Jetstream


Underlying everything in Jetstream are a number of
principles that have guided us during the writing
process. We believe:
• that what students bring to the learning experience
(and the Student’s Book) is as important as what’s
between the covers. That’s why students are often
asked for their input, and to share (if they want)
their stories, thoughts, reactions and opinions;
• that providing a range of stimulating topics – and,
crucially, a repertoire of appropriately challenging
activities – is the key to successful student
involvement, and, therefore, learning;
• in providing students with a range of the most
appropriate and useful vocabulary at this level – and
offering them different ways of meeting, learning
and practising that vocabulary;
• that grammar is important (of course!) and that
students need to interact with it in enquiring and
creative ways;
Contents
Letter to you, the teacher
Jetstream Intermediate Student’s Book contents 4
Introduction
Jetstream Intermediate components 6
Jetstream approach – a summary 7
Unit overview 10
Unit notes
Introduction 21
Unit 1 30
Unit 2 47
Units 1&2 Review 63
Unit 3 67
Unit 4 80
Units 3&4 Review 95
Unit 5 98
Unit 6 114
Units 5&6 Review 133
Tasks
Teacher’s notes 136
Unit 1 138
Unit 2 138
Unit 3 139
Unit 4 139
Unit 5 140
Unit 6 140
Technique banks
Using the video 141
Using memory games 142
Working with mixed-ability classes 143

Contents 3
CONTENTS

Jetstream Intermediate

VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

INTRODUCTION LESSON 1 VOCABULARY PLUS page be (R) Talking about yourself


How would you describe 61 Present simple (R) Finding out about other
page 4 yourself? The alphabet review Present continuous (R) people
Numbers and symbols Past simple (R) Discussing learning
LESSON 2 review want / need (R) strategies
How do you want to Years and dates review Superlatives (R) Writing an action plan
improve your English?
VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION Words connected with Doing a quiz to learn more


Water water about water
LESSON 1 Present perfect v past simple Reading: He did it first Talking about the Ice Bucket
page 7
A very long way! Infinitive of purpose Challenge and raising
Reflexive pronouns money for charity
LESSON 2 Modal verbs: can / can’t, Reading: Water Discussing ways to save
Tap or bottled? have to / don’t have to, water
must / mustn’t, Writing a message
ought to / ought not to, explaining things you can
should / shouldn’t do to save water
LESSON 3 Water sports and equipment Listening 1: instructions for Demonstrating and
Water activities doing two water sports describing a sport
Listening 2: a talk about a Giving a talk about a
water sport regular activity
EVERYDAY ENGLISH Asking for more information
VOCABULARY PLUS p62 Wordbuilder: nouns from verbs; verbs with un- say and tell Focus on: could Networking

VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 2 INTRODUCTION TV genres Talking about TV and the


Switch on! Words that go with drama, kinds of programmes you
show, programme watch
page 15 watch v look at
LESSON 1 Adjectives for describing a Adverbs of frequency Reading: Nordic noir Finding out what people
Stories from Scandinavia programme Used to Listening: information about watched
Used to v usually Hans Christian Andersen Writing and filming a vlog
about past TV preferences
LESSON 2 Present perfect continuous Reading: Avenida Brasil Discussing soap opera issues
The world of telenovelas for and since Talking about long-running
TV programmes
Writing a scene from a soap
LESSON 3 Reading: David Giving a short presentation
Influential people Attenborough and about a TV presenter
Claudia Winkleman Talking about attitudes to
Listening 1: a conversation female TV presenters
about male and female
presenters
Listening 2: an interview
with a former TV presenter
EVERYDAY ENGLISH TV talk Requests and responses Asking / Telling people not to do things
VOCABULARY PLUS p63 Wordbuilder: un- and im- used to v get used to Focus on: verbs of the senses Phrasal verbs: turn

REVIEW Units 1 & 2 page 23; Aspects of culture: Water festivals

VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 3 INTRODUCTION Musical instruments Talking about what


What music does instruments people can
play
page 25
LESSON 1 Body metaphors (1) could / was able to / Reading: Against the odds Talking about a time you
Making music differently managed to managed to do something
Writing about a friend’s
experience of a difficult
situation
LESSON 2 Where to put things Past continuous; past Reading: The world sends Acting out a TV interview
Music and rubbish perfect us garbage. We send back
music.
LESSON 3 Saying what you like Past conclusions – can’t / Listening: a conversation Giving a short talk about
The busker could / must / might have about an extraordinary a favourite song or piece
busker of music
EVERYDAY ENGLISH Complimenting someone’s performance
VOCABULARY PLUS p64 Household tasks Collocations Phrasal verbs: make

4 Contents
VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 4 INTRODUCTION Types of art Talking about street art


Is it art? Types of picture
Things we use to make art
page 33
LESSON 1 People in the arts Articles Reading: Scallop Deciding which work of art
Mystery attacks should receive a prize
LESSON 2 Adjectives to describe Comparison: considerably, Reading: There he is – again Comparing works of art
Mystery man people a little bit, a lot, nearly, Writing a poem
almost, far, much,
significantly, slightly
LESSON 3 Adjectives to describe the Superlative sentences Listening 1: part of a weekly Describing works of art
Mystery art arts Arts programme Talking and disagreeing
Listening 2: an apology about works of art
EVERYDAY ENGLISH Discussing opinions and making judgements
VOCABULARY PLUS p65 Photography Where things are Collocations Art metaphors
REVIEW Units 3 & 4 page 41; Aspects of culture: Musical instruments

VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 5 INTRODUCTION Reading: How well are you Talking about stressful
Chill out! managing your stress? situations

page 43 LESSON 1 -ed / -ing adjectives something + make + Listening: a conversation on Writing an ending to a story
How did you react? Words connected with the someone + adjective the therapist’s couch Acting out a conversation
body First conditional with a therapist
LESSON 2 unless + first conditional Reading: How does it work? Following instructions to
Face to face with a bear! – the stress response complete a diagram and
mechanism write a short description
LESSON 3 Words connected with work the most / the least / more Listening 1 and 2: a Saying how you feel about
Nine to five … than / less … than conversation about your job or studies
research on stressful jobs Writing about what you do
Listening 3: a description of and why it’s enjoyable or
a stressful job stressful
EVERYDAY ENGLISH Giving advice and making suggestions
VOCABULARY PLUS p66 Parts of the body review Jobs review Wordbuilder: affixes; over- Focus on: get

VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 6 INTRODUCTION Animals and categories Phrases for certainty and


Consequences possibility

page 51 LESSON 1 The natural world Second conditional Reading: Would we die if Making notes
What would we do without honeybees didn’t exist? Giving a short talk
them? Listening: a radio interview
with a scientist
LESSON 2 Past obligation and Reading: What a load of Talking about a fast-food
Hamburgers and pies! permission junk! experiment
Writing a video script
LESSON 3 Superfoods Listening 1: a conversation Giving a talk about a food
Magic or myth? Medicine and health about an ancient but with special properties
modern remedy Talking about your favourite
Listening 2: street interviews home remedy
about home remedies
EVERYDAY ENGLISH Describing things
VOCABULARY PLUS p67 Irregular plurals Phrasal verbs: more or less of something Focus on: the earth Wordbuilder: compound nouns; dis-
REVIEW Units 5 & 6 page 59; Aspects of culture: Natural remedies

Pages 68 – 73 Information gap activities Pages 78 – 84 Grammar reference


and extra material Pages 85 – 91 Transcripts
Pages 74 – 77 Stories Pages 92 – 93 Pronunciation and irregular verbs

KEY
audio (on CD and mp3 online)
P pronunciation activities EXPLORE ONLINE

test your memory extend your learning with online projects
similar or different to your language? VIDEO OPTION
6 watch the video make a short film with your phone or camera
Contents 5
Jetstream Intermediate • online training – pronunciation exercises,
exam practice (Cambridge PET, TOEFL, IELTS
components and TOEIC) and cyber homework in self-study
mode (extra practice)
For the student:
• CLIL projects.
Student’s Book
For more information on the e-zone, see page 9.
The Student’s Book contains 6 units, each
consisting of an introductory page plus three For the teacher:
double-page lessons and an Everyday English
Teacher’s Guide with class audio CDs
section at the end.
The Teacher’s Guide contains full teaching notes
It also contains the following:
for each unit, including all transcripts, keys and
• a two-page Review unit after every two units useful background and cultural information, plus
• a Vocabulary plus section, with a page for each extra ideas for early finishers and mixed-ability
unit suggestions.
• a comprehensive grammar reference section Three class audio CDs contain all the listening
• information-gap activities and extra material material for the Student’s Book.
The Teacher’s Guide also contains the following
• complete transcripts for the audio
extra material:
• a Pronunciation spread focusing on
• one task per unit with accompanying teaching
problematic sounds
notes
• an irregular verbs list.
• three ‘technique banks’ giving ideas in the
Workbook with audio following areas:
Using the video
The Workbook contains 6 units of five pages –
Using memory games
four pages covering the three SB lessons, and one
Working with mixed-ability classes
page for Vocabulary plus and Everyday English.
It also contains the following: Interactive book for whiteboards DVD-ROM
• a Review quiz after every two units
E-zone
• a Check your progress test after every two units
Full access to the students’ area plus:
• one page of dedicated Writing practice for
each unit, giving students a structured writing • the video for all Everyday English pages
development course • mp3 audio files
• a ‘do-it-yourself’ dictionary listing the key • downloadable Teacher’s Guide with answer keys
vocabulary (with phonetics) for each unit and • Helbling placement test
space for students to write their translations or • Testbuilder containing 12 unit tests covering
definitions. grammar, vocabulary, functions and the four
skills and six progress tests.
E-zone
The e-zone is an online resource for students and
teachers containing:
• the video for all the Everyday English pages
• a cloud book – an interactive version of the
Student’s Book, including all video and audio
• cyber homework – interactive activities
covering grammar, vocabulary, reading,
listening and dialogues. They’re assigned by
the teacher in a virtual classroom and have
automatic feedback. (They can also be used in
self-study mode – see below.)
• mp3 audio files

6 Introduction
Jetstream approach – a Vocabulary
summary It’s increasingly recognised that vocabulary is just
as important as – or perhaps even more important
Motivation than – grammar when learning a language.
Jetstream has a high vocabulary input so that
Research shows that motivation is key to learning;
students can understand, speak, read and write
to learn, students need to be interested! Jetstream
with ease. Stimulating and unusual pictures and
has been written to be highly motivating for
motivating activities ensure students absorb the
students, and includes the following:
vocabulary easily, and there’s plenty of practice.
• interesting and relevant topics Most of the three main lessons in Jetstream have a
• stimulating and often thought-provoking vocabulary component. In addition:
photos • Vocabulary plus pages (one for each unit) at
• lots of personalisation activities where students the back of the SB provide an opportunity for
are encouraged to talk about themselves vocabulary enrichment.
• communicative activities which give students a • Focus on sections within the Vocabulary plus
real purpose for completing a task pages highlight and practise high-frequency
• highly motivating tasks throughout words and phrases and their different uses and
the Student’s Book, and also a bank of meanings.
photocopiable tasks in the Teacher’s Guide • Preposition park sections in the Review units
• a Song / Poem / Video / Music Link in every focus on prepositions, usually within an
unit which encourages students to use their interesting text.
English in a fun and less formal way • Similar or different? activities ( ) get students
• Everyday English pages at the end of every comparing new words with words which are
unit which provide immediately useful the same or different in their own language.
conversations practising different functions,
including short video clips Reading
• plenty of games and game-like activities. The main reading focus in Jetstream is usually in
Lesson 2 of each unit, but there are often other,
Grammar shorter reading texts elsewhere.
Grammar is an important element in Jetstream. It’s There’s a variety of high-interest text types – real-
dealt with in the following way: life stories, articles, quizzes, blogs, etc. Where
possible at this level, texts are based on real
• It’s introduced gradually – each of the three
people, places and events.
main lessons in a unit usually has a grammar
point. This enables the grammar to be • Activities develop students’ ability to scan
introduced step-by-step, practised and easily a text for its general meaning and guess
absorbed. meaning from context.
• It’s revised in the Review units that occur after • Texts, whether in the form of human-interest
every two units. articles or fictional stories, are absorbing and
memorable and a key way of learning and
• The grammar for a lesson is introduced in
practising language.
context. The grammar form is highlighted and
students are given activities where they deduce Other sections that provide very short, high-
the form and meaning. interest texts for additional reading comprehension
relevant to the topic are:
• Activities are realistic and meaningful.
• Song / Poem / Video / Music Link
• A clear and straightforward grammar reference
section at the end of the Student’s Book • Did you know?
explains each lesson’s grammar. The Aspects of culture section in the Review units
• The Irregular verbs section provides an also provides additional reading matter. It offers
invaluable reference for students. interesting and practical information on different
cultures and should lead to stimulating discussions.

Introduction 7
Writing • The main speaking section of a lesson generally
Regular short Writing sections in the Student’s has longer speaking activities than earlier in the
Book provide guided writing practice through a lesson.
variety of tasks. The core writing course, however, • The photos, cartoons, listening and reading
is to be found at the back of the Workbook, which texts all provide stimulating platforms for
includes a full page of guided writing tasks per speaking activities.
unit. In this writing development course, students • You first! at the start of some lessons uses a
cover the following areas: short question to get students engaged with
• an email petition the lesson topic immediately.
• a TV blog • Everybody up! sections encourage students
• a celebrity profile to stand up and move around the class,
• a description of an artwork interacting with each other to find out
• a letter of advice information.
• an online restaurant review • The Link and Did you know? sections in the
• an online discussion post main units, and the Aspects of culture sections
• a description of a film in the Review units, also provide platforms for
stimulating discussions.
• a flyer
• a fairy tale • The photocopiable tasks in the Teacher’s
Guide and the information-gap activities at
• a description of a game
the back of the Student’s Book provide further
• a narrative.
communicative practice.
There are reminders of useful expressions and
other language features: connectors, reduced Pronunciation
clauses, time expressions, etc. Short pronunciation activities in the Everyday
Check it! sections allow students to review and English sections provide clear practice of some
improve their work. common areas, including:
Listening • specific sounds
The main listening focus in Jetstream is in Lesson • word and sentence stress
3 of each unit, but there are often short listening • intonation.
activities elsewhere. The Everyday English page In addition, students are encouraged to listen
provides further listening practice in the form of to and repeat the main vocabulary groups
functional dialogues. throughout the book.
To train students in useful and relevant listening The Pronunciation section on page 92 of the
skills, the listening texts reflect a variety of real-life Student’s Book includes a phonemic chart for
situations, including conversations, interviews, students’ reference and practice of sounds that
talks, reports and radio programmes. students often have difficulty with.
The transcripts of the listening texts can be found
at the back of the Student’s Book for students’ Consolidation and review
reference and are also reproduced with the Consolidation of recently acquired language
relevant activity notes in the Teacher’s Guide. and regular revision are crucial to learning. After
every two units, there’s a Review unit that revises
Speaking key language from these units. Each Review unit
For many learners of English, speaking is the most contextualises the language through reading and
important language skill. sometimes listening texts. There are also grammar
There are speaking activities at all stages of a exercises and writing and speaking tasks.
lesson in Jetstream: The Workbook provides further practice and
• At this level, activities are carefully designed testing of the language in a unit. In addition, after
so that students can express themselves freely every two units in the Workbook, there’s a Review
without making a lot of mistakes. quiz. This is followed by a Check your progress
test.

8 Introduction
Online resources – available on e-zone Cyber homework
Interactive activities assigned to students by their
HELBLING Placement Test teacher within an online virtual classroom. Results
Designed to give students and teachers of English and feedback are automatically given when the
a quick way of assessing the level of a student’s deadline fixed by the teacher has been reached.
knowledge of English grammar and usage.
Projects
Online training Open-ended tasks on both cultural and global
Resources and interactive activities for individual themes, where students can embed other
student access. Includes: resources such as web links or files and share them
• exam practice with the teacher and their class.
• pronunciation
• all exercises from the cyber homework in self-
study mode.
Cloud book
An interactive version of the Student’s Book and
Workbook, where students can access all audio
and video content at the click of a mouse or touch
of a screen. Students can complete the activities,
check their results and add their own notes.

How to integrate an LMS (a Learning Management System) into your teaching

Initial assessment

Assessment HELBLING Placement Test

1 Planning
Exam practice 6 >
Testbuilder 2 Scope & sequence
>

Teacher’s Guide
5
> 3 Class routine
Virtual class and self-study practice 4
Lesson enrichment Student’s Book
• Projects Workbook
• Online training
• Cyber homework • Resources
• Student downloads • Videos
• Interactive book for whiteboards
• Teacher downloads

Introduction 9
Unit overview

Everybody up!
This is a chance for students
to move around the classroom
and use specific language in a
controlled way to get information
from other students. This kind
of short, intensive practice
can be very lively and also very
rewarding if students succeed
in completing the task using the
language resources available to
them. In addition, it allows them
to interact with lots of different
people. The act of physically
getting up and moving around
is also mentally refreshing; being
physically active helps us to
learn. Students may naturally
find that they engage in longer
conversations than the activity
requires. If time allows, this is
good and enjoyable practice for
them. However, it’s a good idea
to set a time limit for this type of
activity.

Did you know?


These are very short, interesting
pieces of information related
to the theme of the lesson. The
section can usually be done at
any point in the lesson. The
teacher’s notes sometimes Explore online
suggest ways of exploiting it, but
This is an opportunity for students
if students want to know more,
to go beyond the page and find out
they can be encouraged to search
more about some aspect of the topic:
online.
a sort of mini project. They should
do the research online, make notes
and report back, working either alone
or in pairs. You may want to set this
up in the classroom by suggesting
possible websites or just by eliciting
suggestions for words and phrases to
type into the search engine. As with
the Link feature (see page 14), there’s
a natural mixed-ability element to this
section.

10 Introduction
You first!
You’ll find a You first! box on
many of the large photos at
the beginning of a lesson. It
has a triple purpose. Firstly, to
engage students and get them
saying something immediately.
Secondly, to allow students to
use what they already know
and boost their confidence.
And thirdly, to give you an idea
of what and how much they
already know so that you can
target your teaching much
more effectively. What if your
students don’t respond at all?
That’s fine. Now you know. Just
move on and start to teach them
something.

Search and think


These exercises invite students to look
through a text that they’ve recently read
or listened to, in order to find particular
grammatical structures (or sometimes
categories of vocabulary) and think about
how they’re used or what they mean,
before going on to practise them in
further exercises.

Introduction 11
Grammar reference
There’s a useful grammar
reference at the back of the
Student’s Book. Each main
grammar point from the
grammar boxes throughout
the book has a relevant
section in the grammar
reference.

Take a break
Apart from providing tiny
practical texts to read, these
sections are there to help
students unwind from time
to time. Why? Because, quite
simply, we don’t learn well
when we’re stressed; we learn
best when we’re relaxed. These
little exercises give students
the opportunity to switch off
for a few moments, in order
to recharge their batteries and
come back to the task in hand
with renewed energy!
If it’s a piece of advice, talk Mini-talk
about it with students. If it’s Students write down their ideas
a physical exercise, students in answer to questions relating
can read it and follow the to the lesson and then shape
instructions. Do it there and them up into a short talk, using
then in the classroom if you digital presentation media where
can. Then you can use it again appropriate. They then present
and again, whenever it’s useful their talk to a (small) group of
(see, for example, SB page 33, other students.
volume B, where students are
asked to massage their ‘brain
buttons’).

12 Introduction
Think
This is used to signal a
creative or critical-thinking
exercise. Students are asked
to work something out for
themselves, give their opinions
or comments or use their
creativity, rather than find an
answer directly on the page.
A simple example might
be where a text describes a
problem at work and students
are invited to come up with
solutions. Encouraging
students to think creatively
means they increase their
engagement with the material.
The increased alertness
enhances their learning
capacity.
With these sections – as
indeed with many others – it’s
Predict a good idea to give students a
Students use different elements chance to look at the material
(photos, titles, questions, etc) to and think about (or even write
predict what’s in a text. The idea down) their ideas individually
is to motivate them to engage (for say 30 seconds) before
with the material; to give them a they start talking to each
very good reason for reading or other. Some students are quick
listening to see if they were right! thinkers and talkers, while
others need more time. Giving
them ‘thinking time’ evens it
out a little.

Introduction 13
Information gap
There’s an information-gap
activity in every second unit.
In these, students need to get
information from each other in
order to complete a task. All the
material students need to do
the tasks is in the back of the
Student’s Book on pages 68–73.

Link
Each unit contains a Link section,
Video option featuring a song, a poem, a piece of
Students think or find out about – music or a video clip which relates to
and/or take a photo of – something themes and topics in the lesson. These
related to the lesson. After writing sections utilise students’ natural interest
and/or making notes, they record in these things to motivate them and
a short piece to camera using their transfer the topic language to a new
smartphones or tablets (like a video context. The tasks give students the
blog). They can then share their opportunity to listen to / read / view
video clip with other students or the material and then research online
upload it to a video-sharing site to answer some questions or do a small
such as YouTube if they want. associated activity. They then bring the
information back to the class, which
should often stimulate lively discussions.
There’s a natural mixed-ability element:
more competent students will be able to
take it further than those who are less
competent.
14 Introduction
Guess
Asking students to ‘guess’
answers before reading or
listening to information not
only gets them to interact,
it also frees them up from
having to know the ‘right’
answer and thus inhibiting
their response. In addition,
it prepares them for the
text and gives a valid reason
for reading or listening to
something – to see if they
were right. For this reason,
it’s very important not to
confirm if students are right
or not in their guesses. Just
say things like Hmm or That’s
interesting or Possibly, etc
and let the text provide the
answers. These exercises are
Similar or different? similar to Predict ones, but
involve more guesswork,
This symbol often occurs where new vocabulary is introduced and rather than ideas based on
it suggests that you ask students which words are the same as evidence.
or similar to words in their own language – and which are very
different. This feature of Accelerated (or Holistic) Learning (see
page 20) aims to draw students’ attention to the fact that they
already know some words. It serves to reassure them, build their
confidence and lighten their learning load. It can also give them
a basis for wordbuilding (eg the fact that words ending in -ion
in English may also end in -ion in their language). Suddenly they
know ten words, not just one.
Note: Very often, if the word is a similar one, the difference is in
the pronunciation – especially the word stress – or the spelling.
Also, Similar or different? is obviously easier if you have a
unilingual class, especially when you’re familiar with the students’
mother tongue, but it can work well with a multilingual class,
where students can compare words in different languages.

Introduction 15
Listening
This symbol tells you
that there’s recorded material
that goes with the activity. This
can either be a full listening
text, as here, or it might be
listening to check answers and
hear the correct pronunciation.
Full transcripts are given in the
back of the Student’s Book.

Takeaway language
These exercises are optional.
They pull out useful everyday
expressions from a text or
dialogue and present them for
students to think about and
‘take away’ and use themselves.

Your story
Students generally enjoy personalising what
they’ve just learnt; these exercises ask them
to think about some aspect of the lesson as
it relates to them personally, and then share
their ‘story’ with other members of their
group.

16 Introduction
Everyday English
This section provides practice in
the everyday functional language
that students need when
interacting with people, such as
making suggestions, giving advice,
discussing opinions and so on.

Role-play
Students are given
a scenario / roles /
questions, often based
on a dialogue they’ve
just heard, and are asked
to script a short scene
for themselves, which
they then act out. The
level of support given
can be adapted to suit
students’ abilities, ranging
from allowing them
to look at the original
text as they work to
completely reinventing the
conversation off the top
of their heads.

6 Video P Pronunciation
The main conversation in the odd- The pronunciation activities appear in the Everyday
numbered Everyday English sections English section of each unit of the Student’s Book.
appears on video, which provides At Intermediate level, there’s work on stress and
extra contextualisation for the intonation, as well as sounds, as these can often pose
functional language. (If you don’t have problems for students. All the pronunciation activities
the video or prefer not to use it, then are recorded so that students can hear the correct
just play the audio version.) sounds or stress. There’s also a Pronunciation section
See also Using the video on page 141. at the back of the Student’s Book on page 92. This
provides practice in various key areas that often cause
students difficulty, including weak forms, consonant
clusters and diphthongs.

Introduction 17
Review
Three Review units revise key
language from the preceding two
units, using a reading text as the
main presentation.

Finish it
These exercises are personalisation tasks
where students complete short sentence
stems with their own information or ideas,
and then compare with other students
(often in an Everybody up! activity).

18 Introduction
Aspects of culture
Each of the Review units
finishes with an Aspects of
culture section. This is often an
opportunity to reflect on how
people do things differently (or
not!) in different parts of the
world and how we can begin to
be sensitive to these differences
and act accordingly. There’s
usually a short reading text with
a task or questions, often leading
to a discussion and a comparison
with the students’ own culture(s).

Memory
This symbol represents your
brain! Memory is a crucial
component in learning
anything and it’s like a muscle:
the more you exercise it,
the stronger it’ll be. These
simple games ask students to
remember a variety of things:
vocabulary items, facts from an
article and so on. But you can
do a lot more activities than the
ones suggested here (see pages
142–143). And remember that
the more you get students
Preposition park to exercise their memory in
English, the more it’ll serve
This section appears in many of the Review units
them in other aspects of their
and provides a short text that revises and extends
life as well.
prepositions that students already know, enabling
them to recycle prepositions in a new way, or
introduces new ones.

Introduction 19
A final word
The features new to Jetstream, which occur 5 People know a lot already – more than they
throughout the units, are informed – in a think. Good teaching and good material can
gentle way – by some of the key principles of help to make students aware of what they
Holistic Learning (sometimes called Accelerated already know and boost their confidence.
Learning*): 6 People are different. Some people are more
1 We learn with our body as well as our mind: outgoing and sociable, while others are more
they are connected. Hence the value we attach introspective and reflective. The former readily
to bringing more physical activities into the enjoy interacting with others, while the latter
classroom and paying attention to students’ often prefer to work on their own. They usually
physical well-being. welcome time to think on their own too,
2 Different learners prefer different kinds of before being asked to participate in an activity.
input. Some people learn more with their eyes, As teachers, we need to try to cater for these
some more with their ears and some more differences.
with their bodies and movement. We aim to
provide a variety of activities to reflect these
preferences.
3 What we learn with emotion, we tend to
remember best. We hope to engage students’
emotions through the use of stories, songs and *The roots of Accelerated Learning go back to the
games – and making them laugh. Bulgarian educator, Georgi Lozanov, who developed
4 Our memory is very powerful … and we can something called ‘Suggestopaedia’ in the early 1960s.
make it work even better. The reason for all the Helping learners feel comfortable, relaxed and confident
little memory-training games is to give students meant that they were able to absorb and remember more
practice in using their memory, and aid their information more quickly. That’s it in a nutshell!
learning.

20 Introduction
Introduction
UNIT FUNCTIONS: talking about yourself; finding out about other people; discussing learning strategies
FOCUS

Lesson 1 How would you Answers


describe yourself? pp4–5 A Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese politician)
B Paulo Coelho (Brazilian novelist)
Aim C JK Rowling (British novelist)
The focus of this first lesson in the introductory D Buffy Sainte-Marie (Canadian singer-
unit is to give students the opportunity to find out songwriter)
more about each other. E Muhammad Ali (American boxer)
F Manu Chao (French / Spanish musician)
Warm-up
Introduce the topic with a game. Write the
headings politician, novelist, singer, sportsperson, Extra idea: To promote pairwork and
musician on the board. Put students into two discussion, ask students to look at the
teams and give them five minutes to come up with photo at the top of the page. They then
as many famous people in each category as they discuss these questions with a partner:
can. They get a point for every name, plus a bonus What does the body language of the two
point for every name the other team hasn’t got. men tell you?
The team with the most points wins. How important is a firm handshake?
How important is eye contact?
1 Students stand up and walk around the What other things can we do when we first
room to introduce themselves to each other. meet people?
Model the activity and tell them to include How do things change when we meet
extra information, such as where they’re from people from other cultures?
and any hobbies they have. Also encourage Get feedback and check their ideas.
students to ask extra questions to keep the
conversation going. Monitor and write down
3 Students look at the quotations then work in
any mistakes or good sentences you hear. You
pairs and guess who said each one. Which
can come back to these later if you have time.
quotation did they like best, and why?
Alternatively, do this as a game with students Encourage them to explain why they found a
in two lines facing each other. They introduce quotation funny, interesting or surprising, eg
themselves to the person opposite, then move It’s surprising that JK Rowling doesn’t believe
down the line and repeat the process until they in magic, because she wrote the Harry Potter
get back to where they started. books.

Extra ideas: Focus on intonation Answers


and different ways of saying Hi (in a
1 Buffy Sainte-Marie 2 Manu Chao
monotonous way or an enthusiastic way).
3 Aung San Suu Kyi 4 Paulo Coelho
Ask how many /aɪ/ sounds there are in the
5 JK Rowling 6 Muhammad Ali
three example sentences (Ten).

4 Students look at the highlighted parts of


2 Students look at the photos and answer the
the quotations in 3 and rewrite them in a
questions in groups. Get feedback and ask
personalised way. Do the first one together
extra questions (eg Have you read any of
as a model and encourage students to write
Paulo Coelho’s books? Did you like them?) to
funny and creative quotations.
encourage personalisation and speaking.
MA Encourage early finishers to use their
smartphones or mobile devices to find out a bit
more about some of the people pictured. Introduction 21
5 Students walk around the room, introducing Introduction, page 15. Students work in pairs
themselves to each other and sharing their to complete the quotations with the phrases
ideas from 4. in the box. Compare answers as a class to see
how many pairs agreed.
Extra idea: A few students report back
facts that they learnt about their classmates. Answers
They’ll need to change the first person 1 a great big baked potato
statements they heard into third person 2 an education
statements. 3 superheroes
4 story; story
5 money
Song link
6 an uneventful and safe life
Quotations 1 and 2 come from songs.
Quotation 5 comes from Can’t buy me love
1 I’m not a queen, I’m a woman are words by The Beatles.
from a song called Until it’s time for you to
go written by Buffy Sainte-Marie in 1965 and
also later sung by Nancy Sinatra. It’s written in Extra idea: Ask students if they’ve heard of
English, and the next line is Take my hand. the people quoted in 6. They could research
2 I like planes, I like you. I like travelling, I like those they don’t know for homework.
you is the translation of words from a 2001
Manu Chao song called Me gustas tú, which is 7 Write the sentence starter All I want ... on the
in Spanish (and a bit of French). The next line board. Students complete it in their own words
is Me gusta la mañana, me gustas tú (I like the and read out their ideas. They then complete
morning, I like you). two of the other sentences from 6 and share
Ask students to find a translation online of Me their ideas with a partner.
gustas tú or, if they speak Spanish, have them
8 1.2 Students look at the photo and speech
translate the lyrics themselves or check an
bubble and say what the three questions are
existing translation (some are terrible!).
(If you were a colour, what colour would you
be? If you were a car, what car would you
Culture notes
be? If you were a bird, what bird would you
• Buffy Sainte-Marie is a Canadian singer-
be?). Play the recording and pause after the
songwriter, born 20 February, 1941. She
first answer. Elicit that this only answers one
has campaigned throughout her life for
of the questions (If you were a colour, what
the rights of Native Americans and takes a
colour would you be?) and ask students for the
keen interest in education and social issues.
answer (red). Play the rest of the recording for
She has released over 20 albums in her
students to make notes of the answers they
career, which spans over five decades.
hear. They shouldn’t try to write down every
• Manu Chao was born in France on 21 June,
word. They should then check their answers
1961, to Spanish parents. He’s played in
with a partner.
several bands, the best-known of which
is probably Mano Negra. His musical style
Transcript
has a variety of influences, including rock
and punk. He sings in many languages, 1 If I were a colour, what colour would I be?
including Spanish, French, English, Oh, red, of course!
Portuguese, Galician and Arabic, often 2 A colour? Um, I think I’d be black.
mixing several languages in the same song 3 Green? Blue? Purple and pink? Absolutely
(as he does in Me gustas tú). no idea. It’s a very silly question.
4 What kind of car would I be? What kind of
question is that?
6 GUESS When you see GUESS in front
5 Car? Oh, that’s a no-brainer. I’d definitely
of an instruction, it means students can talk
be a Porsche! Definitely!
about what they think the answers are, but
6 A Mini! Oh no, hang on a minute, I’d be a
they don’t have to know for sure. For more
BMW Z4 Roadster.
information about these exercises, see the
22 Introduction
7 A bird? Oh, I haven’t a clue. I don’t know or object). Students make metaphors about
any birds. A chicken?! themselves using the ideas in the box.
8 Ooh. That’s an interesting question. I think
I’d be a ... pigeon! Extra idea: Review lexical sets by doing
9 Um, birds, birds ... oh I know! An eagle! I’d a column dictation. Dictate two or three
be an eagle! different headings to students, who have
to write as many related words as they can
Answers in a list under each heading (eg Furniture:
1 red 2 black 3 – 4 – 5 Porsche wardrobe, cupboard, sofa; Animals: cat,
6 BMW Z4 Roadster 7 chicken 8 pigeon dog, mouse, lion, etc).
9 eagle
12 Students work in groups of three or four and
invite each other to guess what they wrote for
Extra idea: Write the structure If you were
each idea in 11. Get feedback and check the
a ___, what ___ would you be? on the
funniest and best ideas.
board and ask students to think of other
similar questions (eg If you were a fruit, Poem link
what fruit would you be? If you were a a Students work in pairs to see how many
shape, what shape would you be?) to ask. different lines they can make. Encourage them
to be as creative as they want! Explain that
9 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Get bananas can also mean ‘mad’ or ‘crazy’.
feedback and encourage them to give reasons b Students use their smartphones or tablets to
for their ideas. Give them a chance to listen search for the poem on the internet. They
again if necessary. should be able to find it by typing very poet
bananas into their search engine. They then
10 TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE When you see discuss the questions in pairs and compare
TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE in front of an
the poem with their answers to a) – did any of
instruction, it indicates a focus on colloquial their lines match the actual poem? Encourage
language that’s not featured elsewhere. For them to search for an image of Georgio de
more information about these exercises, see Chirico’s painting.
the Introduction, page 16. Students match the
phrases from the interviews. Check answers Answers
and elicit what each expression means from
1 The Uncertainty of the Poet
the context.
2 Wendy Cope
3 It is based on Georgio de Chirico’s 1913
Answers painting of the same name.
1c 2d 3a 4b

Extra idea: Give each student a line


11 THINK When you see THINK in front of
or lines from the poem and have them
an instruction, it means students should think
collaborate in a class recital.
about ideas on their own for a moment before
they talk to other students (think–pair–share).
This type of exercise often asks students to be Culture note
imaginative or creative, or to work something Wendy Cope is a contemporary English
out. In this case, students look at the ideas in poet, born 21 July, 1945. She spent 15
the box and think about related metaphors. years as a primary school teacher before
For more information about these exercises, becoming a full-time writer, critic and poet.
see the Introduction, page 13. She has won several awards for her light-
Ask students if they know what the word hearted, often comical, poetry, and some of
metaphor means (= an expression, often found her poems have been used as song lyrics.
in literature, that describes a person or object In this poem, she plays with English syntax
by referring to something that is considered by using the same words in a different
to have similar characteristics to that person order to form each ‘verse’.
Introduction 23
Lesson 2 How do you want to 3 EVERYBODY UP! When you see
EVERYBODY UP! in front of an instruction,
improve your English? p6 it means that this is a chance for students
Aim to move around the classroom and use the
language they’ve learnt. For more information
The focus of this second lesson in the introductory
about these exercises, see the Introduction,
unit is to encourage students to think about why
page 10. Students walk around and share their
they’re studying English.
goals from 2 with each other. When they’ve
Warm-up found someone with the same goal, they
Students look at the four photos on the page and should take a note of that person’s name.
think about which skills are being used in each Alternatively, students write each goal on a
one (top left: reading; top middle: speaking and separate piece of paper. Collect their ideas and
listening; top right: writing; bottom left: listening, read them out one by one. Stick them on the
speaking and writing). board, grouping similar ideas together (get
students involved in deciding how to do the
1 Students think about the questions for a
grouping). At the end of the process, students
moment, then discuss their ideas in small
draw circles around groups of ideas to show
groups.
which ideas are most / least popular.
Alternatively, ask students to identify the three
tenses in questions 1–3 (present continuous, Extra idea: Students write out their goals
present simple, going to future) and elicit why and put them up around the room, so they
each tense is used (present continuous: to are constantly reminded of them.
describe actions happening at the moment;
present simple: to describe things we do
4 Brainstorm a few ideas with students for how
regularly; going to future: to describe future
they can improve their English outside the
plans).
classroom (eg using social media, setting up a
Also focus on the use of be able to as an class library with graded readers, compiling a
infinitive of can in question 7 to describe ability. list of useful websites). Put them in groups and
ask them to think of as many strategies as they
Tip: The process of asking students to think can. Set a time limit so they work quickly. Elicit
about a topic or question individually, their ideas and encourage them to write down
then discuss it with a partner before and remember as many as possible.
finally sharing ideas with the whole class
is sometimes known as ‘think–pair– 5 Students listen to the recording and
1.3
share’. This technique is useful in many complete the table. Pause the recording as
situations. necessary.

2 FINISH IT When you see FINISH IT in front Answers


of an instruction, it indicates a personalisation A spoken English watch a movie they know
exercise where students complete short in English, first with
sentence stems with their own information. For Spanish subtitles, then
with English subtitles, then
more information about these exercises, see
without subtitles
the Introduction, page 18.
B vocabulary translate song lyrics
Students complete the sentence in their
C pronunciation read short, simplified readers
own words, then share their ideas with a partner.
and listen to the online
audio at the same time
Extra idea: Do a quick class survey to find
D reading skills read newspaper articles on
out students’ most important learning the internet
goals. This will also provide you with
E writing write letters to a penpal
helpful information about students’ needs
F everything come to class and start
that will help you plan future lessons. following other people’s
suggestions

24 Introduction
Transcript
Tip: Listening is an individual task, so
A I want to improve my understanding of encourage pairwork by asking students
spoken English, so I download films in to check their answers with a partner
English – ones I’ve already seen, so I know after you play the recording the first
the story. I watch them with Spanish time. This helps them share ideas and
subtitles the first time, and then I watch information and also increases learner
them again with English subtitles, and interaction and speaking.
then the third time I watch them with no
subtitles at all!
6 1.3 Play the recording again for students to
B I need to increase my vocabulary, so I listen
compare their answers to 5 with the lists they
to songs while I’m driving, and if I really like
wrote in 4. Which strategies were the same,
a song, I search for the lyrics online later
which ones were new?
on, and translate them if there are bits I
can’t understand. Then, when I listen again 7 In pairs, students discuss the strategies they
the next day, I can understand what I’m would like to use. They write their top five
listening to! ideas, then compare with another pair.
C I read a lot in English – newspapers,
magazines – and I love those short, 8 Students look at the example. Elicit why be
simplified readers you can get at different going to is used (to describe future plans) and
levels. You can get an audio track online, ask students to write their own action plans.
and so you can read and listen together or They then compare with a partner.
do one or the other. Listening and reading
at the same time is really good for your Vocabulary plus p61
pronunciation and that’s one of the things I This section provides an opportunity for vocabulary
want to work on. enrichment. It’s flexible and can be used in several
D Yeah, I’ve found some great websites ways. It can be done as a complete lesson or
where you can read newspaper articles in alternatively, you could practise a vocabulary set
English at different levels too. They’re really when you have time to spare or give a Vocabulary
interesting and up to date, and you can plus activity to early finishers.
test your level before you begin, from very
easy to quite difficult. I have to focus on my The alphabet review
reading skills because I need to read books
1 Students circle only the letters where they’re
and articles in English for my studies.
sure about the pronunciation. Walk around the
E There are sites where you can find a penpal
classroom as they do this and ask individual
to write to in English, too. I’ve done that.
students to say one or two of the letters they
My penpal’s from Ireland, and we write to
have circled.
each other about once a week. I tell her
about things in Ankara and she tells me 2 2.20 Students can either point to the
what’s happening in Dublin. I need to work letter(s) they find tricky or say something like
on my writing skills, so it’s a great way to the letter before / after / between ... Play the
practise, and next year I’m going to Dublin recording for them to repeat in chorus.
to see her!
F Um, I want to improve everything! Extra idea: Ask students to say each tricky
Listening, speaking, reading, writing, letter ten times in a row!
pronunciation – everything! But I don’t do
anything much outside the classroom. At
least, I haven’t up to now – I’ve just come Tip: Having the class repeat in chorus may
to class. But it isn’t enough, is it? And make it harder to monitor individual
listening to everybody else, it sounds like it pronunciation, but it’s very motivating for
really makes a difference and is lots of fun. weaker students, as they are happier to
I think I’m going to start! participate when they don’t think their
mistakes will be heard.

Introduction 25
3 THINK This will really get students to think
Answers
laterally! Look at the example with them
and ensure they understand what the letters oh / nought / zero / nil / love ten
represent (the initial letters of one, two, three, a hundred a thousand ten thousand
etc). They then look at the second sequence a hundred thousand a million
and read the clue (2 is a bit like 1.). Encourage one eleven a hundred and ten
them to think of another number sequence one thousand, one hundred
that begins with the letters given. They then ten thousand and one
work out the other sequences in pairs. a hundred and ten thousand
one million, one hundred thousand
MA Weaker students may need extra
0 is said in different ways (see 6).
prompting. You could give them the full
sequences (ie 2 T, T, T, F, F, S, S, E, N; 3 M, T, W,
T, F, S, S; 4 J, F, M, A, M, J, J, A, S, O, N, D; 5 R, Background notes
O, Y, G, B, I, V) as well as asking them to read Generally speaking, you use the indefinite
the clues and look at the picture. article before hundred, thousand, million,
etc. The exception is when the number
Answers consists of more than one part, in which
Initial letters of ... case one is used:
1 numbers 1–10 a thousand pounds
2 numbers 10–90 counting in tens one thousand and ten pounds
3 the days of the week Occasionally the number one can be used
4 the months of the year with hundred, thousand, etc for emphasis:
5 the colours of the rainbow There are more than one hundred spots on
that dog!

Extra idea: Challenge students to think of


6 Write the different pronunciations of 0 on
more ‘puzzles’ like this.
the board. Students cover their books and try
to think of different contexts in which each
4 Students work in pairs. They shouldn’t tell or pronunciation is used. They then open their
show their partner the words they’ve chosen. books and match the pronunciations to the
uses.
Numbers and symbols review
However advanced students are, numbers are Answers
always something they find difficult – hence this 1 nil 2 zero 3 oh*
review. And while some students may dislike 4 nought / oh / zero* 5 love
the kind of problem-solving they’re asked to * There is some difference in usage between
do in 7 and 8, others will welcome a fairly rare British and American English. For telephone
opportunity to play with numbers! numbers, British English uses oh, whereas
American English tends to use zero. Nought
5 Go round the class asking individual students is almost exclusively British English and is used
to read out each number and elicit which in mathematics and the game of Noughts and
number has several different pronunciations. Crosses (Tic Tac Toe in American English!).
British English also uses zero in mathematics.

7 2.21Play the recording for students to write


the numbers.
MA Weaker students may need to hear the
sequence more than once.

26 Introduction
Answers Suggested answers
1 They are Fibonacci numbers. 007 James Bond’s agent number
2 The next ten numbers would be: 377, 5 number of Great Lakes /
610, 987, 1,597, 2,584, 4,181, 6,765, weekdays
10,946, 17,711, 28,657. 12 number of months in a year /
Western zodiac signs / Chinese
zodiac signs
Transcript 26 number of letters in the
0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233 English alphabet / weeks in
half a year
Background note 101 number of dalmatians (in
The Fibonacci sequence is produced by Dodie Smith’s novel and the
starting with 0 and 1 (or 1 and 1 in some Disney films)
cases), then adding the last two numbers 366 number of days in a leap year
to form the next number in the sequence. 1,000 number of years in a
It is named after the Italian mathematician millennium / metres in a
Leonardo Fibonacci. He was born Leonardo kilometre / grams in a kilogram
Bonacci in around 1170 in Pisa, and 86,400 number of seconds in a day
his 1202 book Liber Abaci introduced 31,536,000 number of seconds in a year
the sequence to Western mathematics,
although it had been known in Indian
mathematics for some time. Culture notes
Fibonacci numbers are connected with the • James Bond’s code number, 007,
golden ratio (The ‘golden ratio’ is a special indicates that he is the seventh agent
number found by dividing a line into two with a licence to kill (shown by the 00
parts so that the longer part divided by prefix). It has also been speculated that
the smaller part is also equal to the whole the number comes from the ISD code
length divided by the longer part. It is for Russia, where Bond went on an early
1.618, represented by the Greek letter phi assignment. In the 1995 film GoldenEye,
(ɸ). Many artists, including Le Corbusier a former 00 agent, 006, was played by
and Dalí, use the golden ratio in their Sean Bean.
works, as it is thought to be aesthetically • The Great Lakes lie on the US / Canada
pleasing. It also appears in biological border and consist of Lakes Superior,
contexts, such as branching in trees, the Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario. They
fruit sprouts of a pineapple, an uncurling form the largest group of freshwater
fern and the arrangement of a pine cone’s lakes on Earth, containing 21% of the
‘scales’. world’s surface fresh water. Lake Superior
Fibonacci numbers are used in mathematics is the second largest lake in the world,
to solve a variety of problems. with only the Caspian Sea being bigger.
• The Western zodiac signs are Aries,
Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra,
Extra idea: If students are mathematically Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius
inclined, they can find out more about and Pisces.
Fibonacci numbers and their uses. Students • The Chinese zodiac signs are Rat, Ox,
with an interest in art could find out more Tiger, Rabbit, Dragon, Snake, Horse,
about the golden ratio. Goat, Monkey, Rooster, Dog and Pig.
• Dodie Smith (1896–1990) wrote The
8 THINK Write the numbers on the board; Hundred and One Dalmatians (also
students guess what they might refer to. known as The Great Dog Robbery) in
Encourage students to suggest different things 1956. It was made into an animated
for each number. film by Disney in 1961, and a live-action
version starring Glenn Close as Cruella de
Vil was produced in 1996.
Introduction 27
• Leap years occur every four years in the Years and dates review
Gregorian calendar and were originally
introduced in Roman times to keep the 11 Students work in pairs or small groups to work
calendar year synchronised with the out the pronunciation of the years and answer
seasonal year, because it actually takes the questions.
the Earth 365.25 days to orbit the sun.
In a leap year, an extra day – the 29th Answers
– is added to February. In Britain and 2016 twenty sixteen / two thousand and
Ireland, women can traditionally propose sixteen
marriage in a leap year. 2014 twenty fourteen / two thousand and
fourteen
9 Students discuss the symbols in pairs; get 2001 two thousand and one
feedback as a class. 2000 two thousand
1999 nineteen ninety-nine
Answers 1998 nineteen ninety-eight
1812 eighteen twelve
+ plus (in mathematical equations and as
1600 sixteen hundred
a short form of and in notes)
357 three hundred and fifty-seven
– minus (in mathematical equations)
1 Yes; years from 2010 onwards can be
= equals (in mathematical equations)
said as either two two-digit numbers or
@ at (in email addresses)
a four-digit number. The latter format
. dot (in email addresses and websites)
was used for years 2001–2009, but the
full stop (in British English punctuation)
former is now becoming more prevalent
period (in American English
for years 2010 onwards.
punctuation)
2 a) 2016, 2000, 1900
point (in decimal numbers)
b) 2014, 1998
, comma (in punctuation)
c) 2016, 2000
? question mark (in punctuation)
( ) brackets (in punctuation); also known
as round brackets and parentheses Background notes
% per cent / percent (with figures) • The 1900 Olympics were held in Paris,
˚ degree(s) (with temperatures) France; the 2000 Olympics were held
in Sydney, Australia and the 2016
10 Students work in pairs and decide how each Olympics are in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
item should be read out. Five pairs give their (There were Winter Olympics held in
answers to the class; the other students should 1998 in Nagano, Japan, and in 2014 in
confirm or correct. Sochi, Russia.)
• The 1998 FIFA World Cup was played
Answers in France; France beat Brazil 3–0. The
1 zero / nought degrees centigrade / Celsius 2014 FIFA World Cup was played in
2 three point one four one five nine two Brazil; Germany beat Argentina 1–0.
3 Does two plus two equal five? • Students may have counted 1900 as
4 lots of information at jetmail dot com a leap year, but it’s not. To calculate a
5 a / one hundred per cent leap year, ask:
– Is the year divisible by 4?
No: It’s not a leap year.
Extra idea: Ask students what items 1 and Yes: Go to next question.
2 in 10 represent. – Is the year divisible by 100?
Answers No: It’s a leap year.
Yes: Go to next question.
1 The temperature at which water
– Is the year divisible by 400?
freezes.
No: It’s not a leap year.
2 Phi (ɸ) to six decimal places
Yes: It’s a leap year.

28 Introduction
in East Germany going to the West, but in
Extra idea: Ask students if the years mean 1989 a series of radical political changes
anything special to them. They can think in the Eastern Bloc occurred, culminating
of general responses (eg 1812 was the in the announcement that citizens in
year of Napoleon’s attempted invasion of the East could visit West Germany and
Russia, commemorated by Tchaikovsky’s West Berlin. Within days, people were
famous overture; 2001 was in the title of chipping away at the Wall, carrying away
a film 2001: A Space Odyssey) or personal chunks of it as souvenirs. It actually took
responses, such as the year of birth of a three years to complete the demolition
family member. of the Wall, but it paved the way for
German reunification, which was formally
12 Ask four students to read out the dates and concluded on October 3rd, 1990.
ask the class if they know what happened on • The first Harry Potter book was Harry
them. They can use the clues to help them Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone,
guess. written by JK Rowling in an Edinburgh
café after getting the inspiration for the
Answers story during a train journey. The book and
July 21st, 1969 The first man walked on its six sequels became hugely popular with
the moon. children and adults alike, and spawned a
9 Nov, 1989 The Berlin Wall came
th
series of eight films, which brought the
down. students of Hogwarts to the big screen
26 June, 1997 The first Harry Potter book
th
in one of the most successful movie
was published. franchises of all time.
Oct 20 , 2003 Amy Winehouse released
th
• Amy Winehouse (1983–2011) was a
her debut album. British singer-songwriter who became
known as much for her bouffant hair and
Extra idea: Remind students that there are dark eye make-up as for her soulful voice.
two ways to say and write dates: She started as a jazz singer, but her style
28th July the twenty-eighth of July later encompassed elements of pop, soul
July 28th July (the) twenty-eighth and R&B. Her 2006 album Back to Black
You could also remind them that Americans won five Grammy awards, and she had
tend to put the month first, so that 4/3 is hit singles with Rehab, Back to Black, Love
the third of April in the USA, but the fourth is a Losing Game and Valerie. She won
of March in the UK. Write a few dates on many other awards for her music before
the board in figures for students to read her tragically premature death from
out in full. accidental alcohol poisoning.

13 Students work in pairs to say the dates and


Background notes then discuss other dates that are memorable
• The first men to land on the moon were for them.
the crew of the American spaceflight
Apollo 11: Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin Answers
and Michael Collins. They actually landed
New Year’s Day: the first of January /
on the moon on July 20th, but it was the
January (the) first
following day when Armstrong became
New Year’s Eve: the thirty-first of December /
the first man to set foot on the moon,
December (the) thirty-first
uttering the famous words ‘One small step
for man, one giant leap for mankind’.
• The Berlin Wall was constructed in 1961 Extra idea: Ask students if New Year’s
by the German Democratic Republic, Eve is a big celebration in their country.
splitting the city of Berlin into East Berlin, Do they know what it’s called in Scotland?
which belonged to the communist Eastern (Hogmanay)
Bloc, and West Berlin. It prevented people
Introduction 29
1 Water
UNIT GRAMMAR: present perfect v past simple; infinitive of purpose; modal verbs
VOCABULARY: words connected with water; water sports and equipment
FOCUS FUNCTION: asking for more information

Introduction p7 Students do the quiz together. Get feedback


and find out which answers they knew and
Aim which ones were surprising.
The focus of this lesson is to introduce the topic
Answers
of water by exploring vocabulary connected with
water and its uses and doing a quiz. 1 a) A few days (three), but also c)
(It depends on where you are, how hot
Warm-up it is, what you’re doing, how old / well
Books closed. Write the word water in the middle you are … .)
of the board and ask students to think of as many 2 a) Boil it. If you don’t, you can get ill or
things as they can that they associate with it. Elicit have stomach problems.
their ideas and write them on the board to make a 3 a) Drink it. If you don’t, you may die.
vocabulary network. 4 a) Undo your seatbelt and b) open the
window. If you don’t open the window,
1 Students work in pairs to add words to the
you won’t be able to open the door
word fountain. They can use the network they
when the car is under the water.
produced in the Warm-up as a starting point.
5 c) Salt water, because it will make you
You could also ask them to suggest a heading
thirstier. (It makes the cells in your body
for each group of words. Get feedback from
get rid of water rather than absorb it.)
the class and add any new ideas to the board.
6 b) H2O. The other two are hydrogen gas
(H2) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4).
Suggested answers
• boat, ship … ferry, yacht, canoe, kayak,
surfboard, hovercraft, jet ski … Extra idea: Use the quiz to review zero
• sail, swim … ski, surf, fish, dive, scuba and first conditional sentences. Write the
dive, snorkel … following on the board:
• sea, river … lake, ocean, waterfall, canal, 1 If you drink salt water, it makes you
pond, pool, stream, lagoon … thirstier.
• cloud, rain … snow, fog, hail, ice, mist, … 2 If you don’t make water safe to drink,
• hot, dirty … cold, icy, clean, deep, you’ll get stomach problems.
shallow, salt … Ask these questions:
• drink, shower … bath, freeze, boil, pour, • How many parts to each sentence are
filter, save, wash … there? (two)
• How do we know? (They’re separated
2 In pairs, students mime things they can do with by a comma.)
water. Their partner tries to guess the correct • What has to happen first? (the action in
answer. Give an example, such as watering the if clause)
plants, to model the activity. • What is the other part of the sentence?
(the result)
3 THINK Before students do the quiz, you • Are these things possible? (yes)
could pre-teach words such as filter, iodine • Which one is more likely? (sentence 1)
and splash. Filter and iodine are similar in • Will salt water definitely make you
lots of languages, so they should be easy to thirstier? (yes)
understand. Try to demonstrate splash. Elicit • How do you know? (It’s a fact.)
the meaning of words like seatbelt and sink (eg • Will you always get stomach problems
by looking at the elements of the compound if you don’t boil water? (not always)
word or from context). • Is it likely? (yes, very likely)
30 Unit 1
Reading
Tip: Let students think about the quiz
questions on their own for a few 1 Students look at the photos, describe what
moments, then, to encourage interaction, they see and guess the connections. Get
they can ask each other the questions feedback and check their ideas.
and circle their partner’s responses.
2 PREDICT When you see PREDICT in front
of an instruction, it means students should
4 1.4 Students listen to and read the
make predictions about what they are about
rhyme. They then guess what happened to
to read or listen to based on information on
the technician (He drank or bathed in what
the page. For more information about these
he thought was water (H2O) but was really
exercises, see the Introduction, page 13. Write
sulphuric acid (H2SO4), which killed him.).
the title of the text on the board (He did it first)
and ask students to guess what the man did.
Extra idea: Ask one or two students to
You could also write sentence starters on the
read the rhyme aloud, copying the rhythm
board to help them make predictions (Maybe
and intonation of the recording.
he ... , Perhaps he ...).
Give students a very short time (eg 30 seconds)
5 FINISH IT Write the sentences starters The to scan the text and find the answer to the
most disgusting thing I’ve ever drunk is ... The question (He was the first person to swim
most delicious thing I’ve ever drunk is ... on the length of the Amazon.). They then read it
the board. Students complete the sentences again more slowly to get the detail.
with their own experiences, compare with
a partner and then walk around the room 3 This symbol shows that this is a memory
asking each other What’s the most disgusting / game – the first of many in the book. Memory
delicious thing you’ve ever drunk?. Get class is an important part of learning anything, and
feedback. Were any students able to find two the more we exercise our memory by playing
other people with the same answers? these kinds of game the better it will be.
Put students in pairs to try to remember the
answers to the questions without looking at
Lesson 1 A very long way! the text. They then read it again to check their
pp8–9 answers.

Aims Answers
The focus of this lesson is to compare the use 1 To draw people’s attention to water
of the present perfect and past simple, and to problems around the globe
practise using the infinitive of purpose. 2 Five rivers are mentioned in the text:
the Mississippi, the Paraná, the Yangtze,
You first! the Colorado and the Amazon.
There are You first! boxes at the beginning of 3 The Amazon is the longest river, at
many lessons in the Student’s Book. They have 5,430km.
three goals: firstly, to engage students and get 4 The Mississippi
them saying something immediately; secondly, to 5 It starts in Peru and reaches the sea in
allow students to use what they already know and Brazil.
boost their confidence; and thirdly, to give you
an idea of what they already know so that you
can target your teaching much more effectively. Extra idea: Show the trailer of the
Students can say as much or as little as they want. film documentary about Martin Strel,
For this one, students look at the background which won the Sundance Film Festival
photo and discuss the question with a partner. in 2009 (https://www.youtube.com/
Ask if they would swim a river like this and elicit watch?v=ce432_JmdB8).
their reasons and ideas about possible delights, Put students in pairs and give each pair
difficulties and dangers. Ask them which river they a set of sentence fragments (see below).
think it is (the Amazon). Students try to put the sentence fragments

Unit 1 31
in the correct order (the fragments are
shown in the correct order below). They Extra ideas: Encourage students to look
then watch the trailer again and check. online for more information or create a
Show the trailer a third time if necessary web quest. Give the class links to two
and check together as a class. or three websites for them to answer
comprehension questions about Martin.
Slovenian completes Amazon swim
There is a man
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/
who has swum the world’s deadliest rivers, americas/6536283.stm#amazon
who laughs in the face of crocodiles, Martin Strel: Swimming the Amazon
piranhas, http://content.time.com/time/arts/
and giant anacondas; article/0,8599,1920907,00.html
Piranhas, Sunburn Can’t Stop 3,272-
a man who drinks two bottles of wine a
day, Mile Swim
http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/ESPNSports/
a man who has braved the Yangtze,
story?id=3021041
the Mississippi, Students read the text again and find
the Danube, words or phrases that mean:
and who will now do battle with 1 having strong feelings and emotions
the mighty Amazon. 2 get people to notice
3 the world
His mission –
4 something very good and difficult that
to save the world you succeed in
before it is destroyed. 5 knowledge or understanding of
His name is Martin Strel, something
but you can call him 6 damage caused to the environment
7 a film that gives facts and information
Big River Man.
about a subject
Answers: 1 passionate, 2 draw attention
4 THINK Students discuss the questions in to, 3 the globe, 4 achievement,
pairs. Check ideas with the whole class. 5 awareness, 6 pollution, 7 documentary

Answers
1 The USA (the Mississippi, the Colorado), Grammar 1 Present perfect v past simple
Argentina (the Paraná), Paraguay (the
5 Students work in pairs and discuss the
Paraná), China (the Yangtze), Peru
differences between the present perfect and
(the Amazon), Brazil (the Paraná, the
the past simple. You could also ask questions
Amazon), Colombia (the Amazon)
to make sure they notice the difference:
2 The Amazon is very polluted and is
home to many dangerous animals: • When did he swim the Colorado? (in 2011)
piranha, crocodiles, snakes, candirú, • Is it still happening, or is it a completed
insects, etc. He also had to contend action? (a completed action)
with sunburn and bandits. • What tense do we use to describe
3 A crew in a boat which provided completed actions in the past? (past simple)
food, water and a place to sleep; a • Could he swim other long rivers in the
cameraman. future? (yes)
• What tense do we use to refer to repeated
actions in the past that could continue in
the future? (present perfect)

32 Unit 1
6 Students complete the sentences with has or Grammar 2 Infinitive of purpose 

did and the correct verb, and compare with
a partner. Check as a class and ask students 8 Students complete the grammar table. They
which tense is used in each sentence and why. can look back at the text to help them if
necessary. Ask the following questions and
Answers highlight the different sections of the sentence
to check students’ understanding.
1 How long has Strel been passionate
about clean water? (present perfect) • What did Strel do? (He swam the Amazon.)
2 What year did he swim the Amazon? • Why did he do it? (in order to raise
(past simple) awareness of water pollution)
3 Where did he start his journey? (past • What kind of word is ‘to raise’? (infinitive)
simple) • What does it tell us? (the reason why we
4 Where did he finish it? (past simple) do things)
5 How many rivers has he swum up to • Where does ‘not’ go in the negative form?
now? (present perfect) (between order and to)
6 Has he ever swum the Nile? (present You could also explain that we can just use the
perfect) infinitive instead (He swam the Amazon
in order to raise awareness). This structure
is more common and less formal than in
7 Students ask and answer the questions in pairs.
order to.
Answers
Answers
1 He has been passionate about clean
a) Strel swam the Amazon in order to
water for many years.
raise awareness of water pollution.
2 He swam the Amazon in 2007.
b) In order not to get sunburnt, he often
3 He started his journey in Atalaya in
wore a mask over his face.
Peru.
1 The infinitive
4 He finished his journey in Belém in
2 By adding not after order
Brazil.
5 He has swum five of the longest rivers
up to now. (He has also swum the Speaking
Danube and the Thames.)
9 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Get
6 No, he hasn’t ever swum the Nile.
feedback to check their ideas and predictions,
and that they’re using the infinitive of purpose
Tip: Repeat the answers to the questions to express their answers in question 2.
together and encourage students to
notice natural features of pronunciation Answer
such as contractions and weak forms. 3 Both activities are about raising awareness
You could highlight them in phonemic of issues.
script on the board:
He has been passionate ... 10 Quickly check that students know the meaning
/hiː hæz biːn ˈpæʃənət/ – /hɪzbɪnˈpæʃənət/ of words in the text such as viral, degenerative
He has swum ... and afflicts. Students then read the text
/hiː hæz swʌm/ – /hɪz swʌm/ and find out why people did the Ice Bucket
Challenge and if it was successful.

Answer
They did it in order to raise money for
charity and to increase awareness of ALS
(MND). It was a huge success and raised
millions of pounds.

Unit 1 33
13 1.5 Students listen to the conversation and
Background information
answer the questions. Play the recording again
To do the Ice Bucket Challenge, people had
if necessary, then ask for feedback and find
to record a video of themselves pouring icy
out students’ opinions about the solutions. Ask
water over their heads. Then the participant
them if they know how many people around
could nominate three other people to do
the world don’t have clean water (nearly 800
the challenge, often within a set period
million people).
of time. Pop stars like Justin Bieber, sports
personalities like Roger Federer, and former
Answer
US Presidents George W. Bush and Bill
Clinton did the challenge! 1 People used seawater and toilet water
The Ice Bucket Challenge was very instead.
successful, and people shared more
than 2.4 million videos on Facebook and Transcript
tweeted more than 2.2 million times on
man Did you see all those people doing the
Twitter. In the United States, people did
Ice Bucket Challenge last summer?
the challenge for the ALS Association and
woman Yes, I read about it. Amazing, wasn’t
raised over $100 million. In the UK, people
it?
participated for the Motor Neurone Disease
man Yes, it was, but I wouldn’t ever do
Association, the UK equivalent of the ALS
anything like that.
Association, and raised over £7 million.
woman Why not?
man Such a waste of water. Do you have
11 YOUR STORY When you see any idea how many people in the
YOUR STORY in front of an instruction, it world don’t have good, clean water?
indicates that students have an opportunity to And these people were throwing it
personalise the language by talking about a over their head!
situation that they’ve been in that is similar to woman I don’t think everyone wasted clean
the one they’ve just read about or listened to. water. A friend of mine used sea water
For more information about these exercises, in order not to use fresh water, and
see the Introduction, page 16. I know several other people who did
Students discuss the questions in pairs, then the same.
report their experiences in feedback. You could man Oh, that’s clever.
also ask extra questions: woman Yes, and the American actor, Matt
Can you suggest any problems with doing the Damon, filmed himself using toilet
Ice Bucket Challenge? (Some people said it water.
was a waste of water, that it was bad for your man Really? Because he didn’t want to
health.) What could you do in order to avoid waste water?
these problems? (Pour the same bucket of ice woman Yes, exactly – because he’s a co-
and water over more than one person at the founder of a water charity, Water.org,
same time, use water that has already been and he wanted to make the point
used for something else, eg bathing.) that the water in toilets in the West is
12 TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE Ask students if actually cleaner than the water that
they can remember other things that went viral most people in the developing world
(eg men putting nail polish on one fingernail). have for cooking and drinking.
Which things did they like best? Have any of EXPLORE ONLINE
them done the Ice Bucket Challenge, or liked / The Explore online exercises give students the
commented on a related online post? opportunity to go beyond the page and find
out more about some aspect of the topic for
Extra idea: Students read the information themselves, on their computer, smartphone or
again and make a list of social networking other mobile device. The online research can be
language (post a video, go viral, upload, done individually, or in pairs or groups, either in
comment, like, a post). the classroom or at home. If it’s done at home,

34 Unit 1
you can set it up in the classroom beforehand
by suggesting possible websites or by eliciting Answer
suggestions for words and phrases to type into the The writer is against bottled water.
search engine.

Tip: Students often enjoy using their Tip: Setting a short time limit encourages
smartphones to search for things students to read quickly for gist and
online, so encourage them to find out not to worry too much about unknown
information on the internet. It gives vocabulary or look up words in
them extra reading practice in English, dictionaries. Explain that they don’t need
but it’s OK if they read in their mother to know the meaning of every word to
tongue, as it gets them to translate! understand the general meaning and
complete the task. It also makes the
reading more focused ... and fun!
14 VIDEO OPTION When you see
VIDEO OPTION in front of an instruction,
it gives students the chance to make a short 2 Students work with a partner and write down
film on their smartphones using the language reasons for the writer’s opinion. There are more
and topic they’ve been studying. For more than five reasons in the article, so it shouldn’t
information about these exercises, see the be difficult for them to complete this task.
Introduction, page 14.
Answers
Encourage students to think of other challenge
ideas for their video presentations. They then Bottled water isn’t healthier.
walk around the room and share their ideas It can have more bacteria than tap water.
with each other. Get feedback and have them It’s bad environmentally.
vote on the best / most difficult / silliest / It’s expensive to transport.
funniest challenges. You have to keep it in a fridge.
The plastic bottles are hard to get rid of.
If we didn’t spend so much on bottled water,
Lesson 2 Tap or bottled? we could invest more on water projects.
pp10–11
3 When you see this icon with a vocabulary
Aims exercise, it means that you should ask students
The focus of this lesson is to review the function which words are the same as or similar to
and meaning of modal verbs for making words in their own language – and also which
suggestions and for expressing ability, obligation are very different. For more information about
and prohibition. The vocabulary is related to the these exercises, see the Introduction, page 15.
environment, and students also discuss ways of Students work in pairs and match the words
conserving water. and phrases in green in the article with their
correct meaning. Do the first one with the class
You first! as an example. Ask students which words are
Ask students how far they have to go to get water, very similar in their own language and which
and if they know anyone who has to travel far are very different.
to get water (to make the point that we’re really
lucky to have it ‘on tap’, while many people have Answers
to walk miles). You could also ask extra questions
1 proper 2 experiments 3 landfill sites
(Do you prefer tap water or bottled water? How
4 bacteria 5 vital 6 wells 7 lack
much water do you drink each day?).

Reading 4 Students discuss the overall message of the


article. They should give reasons for their
1 Give students five minutes to read the article choice.
and find the writer’s opinion on bottled water.

Unit 1 35
Answer Answers
c) use our money to help provide safe It is It isn’t
can can’t
water worldwide

 possible possible
It is ought to, It isn’t oughtn’t to,
5 Students decide if the statements are true or advisable should advisable shouldn’t
false and correct the false statements. It is have to, It isn’t don’t have
necessary must necessary to
Answers It is
mustn’t
prohibited
1 False (Bottled water is much more
expensive than tap water.)
2 True Extra idea: Write (or project) words
3 False (It is not mentioned in the article.) scattered across the board (example
4 True below). Students work in pairs to quickly
5 True arrange the words to make a sentence
6 True (eg Jane is a flight attendant so she has to
wear a uniform). The first team to shout
out a correct answer wins a point. The
Tip: Asking students to choose four out of the
team with the most points at the end wins
six statements is a useful tool for helping
the game. Try to include as many different
students to feel more in control of their
modal verbs in context as possible.
learning. They still have to read all six
statements in order to make their choice.
uniform flight attendant has to
Jane a is
Grammar Modal verbs 
 wear so a she
6 Students complete the sentence and check
the meaning with a partner. Get feedback and 8 SEARCH AND THINK When you see
check students understand the function and SEARCH AND THINK in front of an
form: instruction in a grammar or vocabulary
• When we say ‘ought to’, do we have to do exercise, it indicates that students need to go
it? (No, it’s advice, even though it’s quite back through a reading text or transcript to
bossy!) find particular examples of language. For more
• Which modal verb has the same meaning? information about these exercises, see the
(should) Introduction, page 11.
Students search for the missing modals in
Answer pairs. To make the activity quick and enjoyable,
tell them it’s a race. The first team to finish
We ought to / should drink around two
with the correct answers wins the game.
litres a day. 


Answers
Tip: Students often have difficulties with modal Modals not in article: shouldn’t, oughtn’t
verbs, so look out for typical mistakes, to, don’t have to, mustn’t.
such as using an infinitive after the modal
verb (We should to drink around two litres
9 Students complete the sentences with an
a day) and use of mustn’t to show lack of
appropriate modal verb. Go over the example
obligation (It’s Saturday, so I mustn’t don’t
with them first to check that they understand
have to go to school).
that both sentences should mean the same.
Check answers in feedback and correct if
7 Students work in pairs to discuss and then necessary.
match the modals with their meanings. As a
follow-up, students think of sentences using
the modal verbs in context.

36 Unit 1
11 Students complete the email giving advice
Answers and helpful suggestions for saving water. They
1 We ought to drink about two litres of can refer to the composite list from 10, but
water a day. 
 encourage them to be creative and funny.
2 We don’t have to drink bottled water. When they’ve finished, ask a few students to
3 Bottled water can have high levels of read their emails to the class and vote for the
bacteria. most creative / funniest / silliest ideas!
4 Perhaps we should stop buying bottled
water. EXPLORE ONLINE
5 Girls have to walk a long way to fetch Students could find out about waste in general,
water. not just water waste. As a follow-up, students
work in pairs to think of ways to prevent
unnecessary waste and help the environment.
Tip: Do some repetition drilling and help
students notice how the pronunciation of
modal verbs changes in connected speech
Lesson 3 Water activities
because of weak forms and elision (sounds pp12–13
we drop when we speak quickly).
Aims
We can drink – /kæn/ – /kən/
We have to walk – /hæv tuː/ – /hæf tə/ In this lesson, students learn vocabulary related to
We must go – /mʌst / – /mʌs/ water sports and equipment and discuss their own
favourite hobbies and activities. This provides a
nice context for practising the present perfect and
Speaking and writing past simple. The listening section includes plenty
10 THINK Write the following on the board: of modal verbs for giving advice and suggestions,
You should / could take a shower instead of a and the Song Link focuses on words and phrases
bath. connected with the passing of time.
Elicit which modal is ‘softer’ and more polite
You first!
(could). Explain that should is a bit bossy and is
more likely to be rejected. Students work in pairs to choose one of the
photos in the lesson that they like and say why.
Students make a list of things we can do to
Write extra questions on the board to encourage
save water. You might need to teach words
more speaking:
like flush and load, but they’ll probably ask for
Have you ever done this activity before?
these in the course of the activity.
Where were you?
Feed back as a class and make a composite list
Did you enjoy it?
on the board.
Would you like to do the activity in future?
MA Weaker students can work in pairs to
write their lists. Tip: Walking around the room, listening and
noting any good sentences and mistakes
Suggested answers you hear, is a good way of gaining an
Spend less time in the shower (will also insight into things you might need to
save on hot-water bills). practise and review. It also offers ideas
Use less water in the bath (will also save on for future lessons and enables you to
hot-water bills). highlight good language to the rest of
Don’t flush the toilet every single time. the class in feedback.
Don’t leave the tap running while you
brush your teeth.
Make sure the washing machine (or Extra idea: Write the names of different
dishwasher) is fully loaded each time you water sports on the board in phonemic
use it. script. Put students in pairs to guess the
Water the garden less. words. The first team to shout out the
Collect rainwater for watering the garden. correct answer wins a point. The team with
the most points at the end wins.

Unit 1 37
/ˈækwə ˌwɔːkɪŋ/ (aqua walking)
Extra idea: Have a competition to see
/kəˈnuːɪŋ/ (canoeing)
who can find the most unusual underwater
/ˈdaɪvɪŋ/ (diving)
activity.
/ˈkaɪækɪŋ/ (kayaking)
/ˈkaɪt ˌsɜːfɪŋ/ (kite surfing)
/ˈpædl ˈbɔːdɪŋ/ (paddle boarding) Listening 1
/ˈseɪlɪŋ/ (sailing)
5 Students identify the sports in photos 2 and 6
/ˈskuːbə ˌdaɪvɪŋ/ (scuba diving)
(aqua walking and paddle boarding). Ask them
/ˈsnɔːkəlɪŋ/ (snorkelling)
if they’ve come across these sports before, and
/ˈswɪmɪŋ/ (swimming)
if anyone has tried them. Students should use
/ˈwɪndˌsɜːfɪŋ/ (windsurfing)
guesswork and the photos to select and order
the instructions for each sport.
Vocabulary Water sports and equipment MA Tell weaker students that there are four
1 Students match the words with the photos instructions for each sport.
and identify any words that don’t belong in
the list. If they can think of any other water Answers
sports, write them on the board too (eg jet Paddle boarding: h, a, c, e
skiing, water skiing, water polo, synchronised Aqua walking: f, g, b, d
swimming). Ask students which words are very Sentence f assumes the aqua walking is
similar in their own language and which are taking place in the sea (as in photo 2) and
very different. therefore requires a wetsuit, though many
people do it in a swimming pool and don’t
Answers need a wetsuit!
1 canoeing 2 aqua walking
3 kitesurfing 4 diving / scuba diving 6 1.6 Play the recording for students to check
5 sailing 6 paddle boarding their answers to 5. They then compare with
7 snorkelling 8 kayaking 9 windsurfing a partner. To review, students note down the
Students will probably say that ironing does modal verbs in the recording (should, will,
not belong in the list because it’s not a can’t, must, mustn’t, can).
water sport. However, underwater ironing MA With weaker classes, play the first extract
is possible, although it is not pictured! and check answers before continuing with the
second.
2 Students discuss the questions in pairs. After a
while, change pairs so they can compare their Answer
ideas with someone else. Lesson 1: aqua walking
Lesson 2: paddle boarding
3 To model the activity, tell students about a
water sport or activity you’ve done. They then
discuss the questions with a partner. You may Transcript
need to supply vocabulary for the equipment 1
required. Conduct whole-class feedback to instructor OK, good morning, everyone!

find out the most popular water sports and get group Morning!
extra information about activities students have instructor And welcome to your first aqua

done. walking class! I’d just like to check


that you all have everything you
4 Students can also find additional water sports need. You should wear a wetsuit,
and activities online. It’s actually quite hard boots, gloves and even a hat if
to find anything that isn’t done underwater! the water’s very cold. And it is!
An internet search will reveal people play Very cold! So does everyone have
ping-pong, tennis, chess, hockey, rugby, everything they need? We have
football, volleyball, golf, ice hockey and bingo some spare hats and gloves if
underwater, not to mention cycling and ice anybody needs them.
skating!
38 Unit 1
group I don’t have gloves! / I’d like a hat! /
No, I’m fine. Tip: Try a TPR (total physical response) game
instructor Wearing a floatation belt around
to check students know words such as
your waist will help keep your chest knees bent, back straight, on tiptoe,
above water. Would anybody like kneel, etc. This is fun, gets students
one? moving around and active after a
woman Yes, please! I can’t swim. long time seated, and checks their
instructor Here you are. OK, off you go and
understanding in a really visual way.
change. See you down on the
beach. 7 Close books. Play the recording again for
*** students to write down what the instructor
instructor OK. Everybody here? Let’s all walk says for each thing. They then compare with a
into the sea. It’s nice and calm partner.
today, luckily. We’re going to start
in shallow, waist-high water and Answers
gradually move to deeper, shoulder- a life jacket: Paddle boards are classified
high water. Move forwards as boats, so you have to wear a life jacket.
naturally: place your heel, then your standing up: If it’s too difficult to stand
toe. Don’t walk on tiptoe! That’s up, you can kneel and learn to paddle-
right. Now, are you ready to do board on your knees at the beginning.
some exercises? your hips: Use your hips to balance.
group Yes! / No! the front of the board: The front of the
instructor OK. Let’s do some running on the board should be in the water, not up in
spot! the air.
2
instructor First of all, you must put on this life
jacket. Extra idea: Develop body vocabulary by
woman A life jacket? Really? Why? asking students to look at the photos in
instructor Because paddle boards are
this lesson. Which parts of the body /
classified as boats, so you have to muscles are important for each of the
wear a life jacket. activities?
woman As boats?! Oh, OK.
instructor OK. To get on, first kneel just 8 Close books. Students write down the
behind the centre of the board, parts of the body that were mentioned, then
then stand up. If it’s too difficult to compare in pairs to see who remembered
stand up, you can kneel and learn the most. Check answers either by allowing
to paddle-board on your knees at students to reread the instructions in 5 or by
the beginning. playing the recording again.
woman No, I want to stand up.
instructor You’re up. Great. So your feet Answers
should be parallel, your knees feet, knees, back, waist, shoulder, hand,
bent and your back straight. That’s heel, toe, chest, hip
right. Use your hips to balance. The
front of the board should be in the 9 EVERYBODY UP! Students work in small
water, not up in the air. Good. You groups and take turns to demonstrate and
mustn’t look down. Always look describe the position. Play the audio again if
straight ahead at the horizon. necessary. They could also play Simon says with
woman What do I do with the paddle? the paddle-boarding instructions. Model the
instructor Hold the paddle with both hands:
activity so they know what to do. They then
one at the top, one lower down. take turns giving instructions in pairs. They can
Excellent. Well done. The water’s only do the actions if their partner says Simon
nice and calm. Off you go! says ...!
woman Byee!

Unit 1 39
Listening 2 instructor No, not a swimming pool. A lot of
people do it in a pool, but round
10 1.7 Pre-teach words like workout, here, we do it in the sea.
impact, rehabilitation, resistant, stamina and man Whatever the weather?
socialising. Play the recording, pausing it at key instructor Whatever the weather!
points for students to guess the activity. When man Goodness, you’re brave. It can be
they’ve guessed correctly, ask them which freezing!
words enabled them to work it out. instructor Well, it’s more interesting than
being in a swimming pool. And
Answers we don’t just walk around, and we
The sport is aqua walking. don’t just walk forwards. We walk
on the spot and we walk backwards
and sideways. And we run as
Transcript well as walk. And we do cycling
man So, tell me a little bit about this movements and leg exercises.
activity. It doesn’t look wildly And we exercise our arms, too –
exciting. What are the benefits? often with weights – so all kinds
instructor It’s actually a wonderful workout of exciting things. It’s actually lots
for your whole body. You can use of fun. And it’s a great activity for
it to strengthen your muscles and socialising. You should try it!
joints in a very safe way. The water man Hmm. I might do one day.
supports your weight, so there’s no
impact or stress on your muscles or Extra idea: There are four additional parts
joints. You can’t hurt yourself. of the body mentioned in the recording.
man So you can use it for helping people Ask students if they can identify them
with injuries? (muscles, joints, heart, arms).
instructor Yes, it is good for people with
injuries – injured sportspeople often
11 Students answer the questions. Do the first
use it for rehabilitation – but it’s
one together as an example. Then play the
good for everybody else too, and
recording again for them to check.
many athletes use it as part of their
training. MA Students can answer the questions in
man I read somewhere that if you’re pairs, then join with another pair to check
in shoulder-deep water, you only answers.
weigh ten per cent of what you
weigh on land. Is that right? Answers
instructor Yes, exactly. So there’s no danger. 1 You can use it to strengthen your
But you have to work much harder muscles and joints in a very safe way.
because water is 12 times as 2 The water supports your weight, so
resistant as air. So you can do it in there’s no impact or stress on your
order to build up your stamina, and muscles or joints.
it’s terrific for your heart. It can also 3 It’s good for athletes and people with
help you lose weight. injuries.
man Really? 4 They walk, run, do cycling movements,
instructor Yes, you burn 100 more calories for leg exercises and arm exercises with
every half hour walking or jogging weights.
in water than when you do those 5 It’s unlikely. He uses the word might, but
same activities on land. his intonation suggests that he’s not keen
man I didn’t know that. And what kinds on the idea.
of things do you do in a session?
Just walk around in the swimming 12 Students discuss together in pairs. Check their
pool? Sounds a bit unexciting. ideas and opinions in whole-class feedback.

40 Unit 1
13 MINI-TALK When you see MINI-TALK Everyday English p14
in front of an instruction, this is a chance
to get students talking and writing more. Asking for more information
However, giving a talk to the whole class can
be intimidating, so if they prefer, they can just 1 Students read the advert and answer the
do it for a small group. For more information questions, then compare with a partner.
about these exercises, see the Introduction,
page 12. Answers
Give students time to read the instructions and 1 It tells you the cost per day, the opening
prepare their talk. Walk around and offer help times, what’s included and that there is
and useful language as needed. They then give a discount available.
their presentations in small groups. 2 It doesn’t say what leisure facilities
are available or what the ‘light lunch’
Song link consists of.
This activity could be done in class (on 3 Suggested answers
smartphones or tablets) or at home. Draw What different leisure facilities /
students’ attention to the fact that most of the treatments are available?
words ending in -ing in the lyrics (eg sitting, How many swimming pools are there?
morning, wasting) are rendered as -in’ to show Is there a sauna / hot tub / steam room?
that the g is not pronounced in informal speech. Can I get a massage?
Is there a vegetarian lunch menu?
Answers
1 ships, bay, tide, dock 2 Write the two headings – leisure facilities
2 morning, evening, wasting time and treatments – on the board. Students come
3 waves, seagulls and other beach sounds to the board and write the vocabulary in the
correct column. Ask them which words are
very similar in their own language and which
Extra idea: Write ‘word chunks’ (groups are very different.
of between two and five words) from the
song The Dock of the Bay by Otis Redding Answers
on pieces of A4 paper. Give each student
leisure facilities: gym, jacuzzi, sauna,
one or two of the pieces of paper. Ask
solarium, steam room, swimming pool
them to stand in a circle. Play the song.
treatments: facial, hot stones, manicure,
When the students hear their words, they
massage, pedicure
have to quickly raise their hand.

3 1.8 6 Decide whether you’re going to


Culture note use the video or simply play the audio (you
(Sittin’ on) the Dock of the Bay was co- may not have the video or the necessary video
written and recorded by Otis Redding in equipment). Students watch or listen to the
1967. It is said to have been inspired by first part of the conversation. Play and pause as
Redding’s stay in a houseboat near San needed.
Francisco. The song won two Grammy
awards and has been covered by many Answer
other artists, including Glen Campbell, c) Could you tell me more about it?
Cher and Bob Dylan. The whistling on the
The receptionist replies Of course.
track was originally recorded by Redding
What would you like to know?
at the start of the song; it was later re-
recorded by his bandleader, Sam Taylor, and
moved to the end.
Redding died in a plane crash shortly after
recording the song, and it became the first
posthumous number one.

Unit 1 41
Transcript 6 P Students look at the example; demonstrate
receptionist Good morning. Tribeca Gym and the different linking techniques, ie how the
Spa. How can I help you? sound changes at word boundaries (could
jerome Um, yes, I passed by earlier and you), how an /r/ sound links to a word
had some questions. I read online beginning with a vowel (more about) and
that you do a one-day leisure pass how similar consonants cross word boundaries
for $30. (about it). Say the words in isolation, then
receptionist That’s right. Yes, we do. linked together, then as a complete sentence.
jerome I wonder if you could tell me a bit Could you /kʊd juː/ – /kʊʤə/
more about it. more about /mɔː əˈbaʊt/ – /mɔːrəˈbaʊt/
receptionist Of course. What would you like to about it /əˈbaʊt ɪt/ – /əˈbaʊtɪt/
know?
/kʊd juː ˈtel miː mɔː əˈbaʊt ɪt/
jerome Well, there are actually a few
/kʊʤəˈtelmɪmɔːrəˈbaʊtɪt/
things I’d like to know more about.
You can also draw students’ attention to how
4 Students discuss which sentences are more a word ending in a vowel links to a word
polite and explain their reasons. Point out the beginning with another vowel with a /j/ sound.
use of modal verbs could and would and also
the use of an indirect question: I wonder if you Answers
could tell me a bit more about it. a) I need some more information.
b) Please can you give me
Answers some more information?
a) is the most direct; d) is the most polite. c) Could you tell me more about it?
d) I wonder if you could tell me a bit
5 P 1.9 This symbol shows that this exercise more about it.
focuses on pronunciation. Play the recording e) Would you mind giving me a bit more
for students to underline the stressed words detail?
or syllables. Do some repetition drilling to help
with pronunciation. 7 Students reformulate the sentences in a more
polite way using indirect questions. Make sure
Answers and transcript they use the correct verb form (eg can changes
a) I need some more information. to could, -ing form after Would you mind ...?).
b) Please can you give me some more They then work in pairs to ask and answer.
information? Encourage them to focus on pronunciation
c) Could you tell me more about it? (sentence stress and connected speech).
d) I wonder if you could tell me a bit more MA Students can work in pairs to rewrite the
about it. questions.
e) Would you mind giving me a bit more
detail? Suggested answers
1 I wonder if you could give me a lift
home.
Tip: You could also do some sentence-stress
2 Would you mind telling me what the
drilling to show the stress in a visual way.
homework is?
Tap the beat out with your hand (go
3 I wonder if you could lend me your
from your right to left so students see
phone.
the movement and direction of writing
4 Would you mind doing me a favour?
on the page). Say the sentences and raise
I need to borrow £1 for the lockers.
you hand higher on stressed syllables.

42 Unit 1
8 1.10 6 Play and pause the video / audio 9 Students discuss the questions in pairs and try
as necessary. to answer them from memory. If necessary,
allow them to watch the video or listen to
Answers the recording again and answer the questions
What does that include exactly? together.
How much are they before the discount?
What treatments are available? Answers
What exactly does that mean? A lettuce leaf? 1 Swimming pool, gym, sauna, steam
Can I keep them afterwards? room and jacuzzi / spa
2 Mineral baths, mud baths, seaweed
baths, Indian head massage, Thai
Transcript massage
jerome When it says ‘use of all leisure 3 Students’ own answers, but probably no!
facilities’, what does that include
exactly?
receptionist Well, you can use our swimming
Extra idea: Write each line of the dialogue
pool, gym, sauna, steam room and on a separate slip of paper. Give a set of
jacuzzi spa. papers to each pair of students. Play the
jerome Oh, that’s great. And it says 20% video / audio again and ask pairs to put the
off all treatments. How much are conversation in the correct order.
they before the discount?
receptionist Well, it depends on the treatment, EXPLORE ONLINE
but generally speaking about $95. This can be done in class or at home. Students use
jerome Wow. That’s about £60! Expensive! their smartphones or mobile devices to find out
receptionist Well, it would be $75 with the more, then share and discuss their findings in small
20% off. groups.
jerome OK, so that’s £48. Even so, that’s
quite a lot. What treatments are Background information
available? • Mineral baths, also known as hot springs
receptionist We have several water treatments: or geothermal waters, involve bathing in
mineral baths, seaweed baths, waters rich in minerals such as calcium,
mud baths, multi-jet baths and sodium, magnesium and potassium.
all different kinds of massage: • Mud baths are often found in areas
Swedish massage, head massage, where hot spring water can combine with
sports massage … volcanic ash. Bathers coat themselves in
jerome Oh, lots of things! OK! Thank the mineral-rich mud, which is said to be
you. I’m not sure what all of those good for detoxing the skin.
things are, but I can check online. • Seaweed baths involve plastering the body
If not, I’ll come back and ask you. with a mix of water and seaweed. It is
receptionist That’s fine. You can find more said to lower stress, relieve skin conditions
information that describes them all such as eczema and acne, and aid the
in detail on our website. treatment of muscle and joint problems.
jerome Oh, great. Thanks! Just a couple • Indian head massage is based on the
more things – it says ‘light lunch’. Ayurvedic system of healing, practised
What does that mean exactly? A in India for over 1,000 years. It involves
lettuce leaf? manipulating the soft tissues of the
receptionist It means a small salad or a shoulders and scalp.
sandwich, like a wrap, and a bottle • Thai massage is one of the most
of water or a fruit juice. invigorating types of massage, as it works
jerome OK. A bottle of water is mineral the entire body, moving it into yoga-
water, right? And, um, it says like stretches. Therapists use many parts
towels, robe and slippers. Can I of their body, not just their hands, and
keep them afterwards? sometimes even walk on you!

Unit 1 43
10 ROLE-PLAY When you see ROLE-PLAY Wordbuilder Verbs with un-
in front of an instruction, it indicates an
3 Students look at the photo. Elicit suggestions
opportunity for students to act out a dialogue
as to what the man is doing; encourage
or situation that they’ve just heard or seen,
students to think of words beginning with un-
often substituting their own ideas and
to describe him, but allow they to be creative
details. For more information about these
at this stage.
exercises, see the Introduction, page 17. In
pairs, students role-play a conversation similar
Suggested answer
to that in 8, but using the details of the
Thalassotherapy Centre. They can look back He’s unpacking a box.
at some of the questions (eg I wonder if ...?
Would you mind ...?) to help them. 4 Students work in pairs or small groups to
think of nouns that can go with each verb.
Take a break For each action, students do a quick mime to
These sections are there to help students take demonstrate it. Get feedback and write ideas
a break from studying from time to time. You’ll on the board.
find a simple Take a break exercise in every unit, MA Pair weaker students with stronger ones to
usually one that’s easy to do in the classroom – but help them.
feel free to do one at any time. For more detailed
information about the Take a break sections, see Suggested answers
the Introduction page 12.
1 undo: a seatbelt, a zip, a button
This first section picks up on the unit theme
2 unpack: a suitcase, a bag, a box, a crate
of water and advises students to drink water
3 untie: a knot, a ribbon
throughout the day. If it’s practical, allow students
4 unplug: the iron, the kettle, the phone
to have a quick drink of water now!
charger
Vocabulary plus p62 5 unlock: the door, the car
6 uncork: a bottle
7 unwrap: a present, a parcel
Wordbuilder Nouns from verbs
8 unfasten: a zip, a button, a jacket,
1 Students work in pairs to read through the list a coat
and find the verbs that have different noun 9 unload: a van, a lorry
forms. Check as a class.
MA Give weaker students a clue by telling
Extra idea: Students work in new pairs
them there are four verbs with different noun
and mime the actions for their new
forms.
partners to guess.

Answers
5 Students work in pairs to answer the
begin – beginning; die – death; live – life;
questions. Monitor and give help as required,
lose – loss
then get feedback as a class.

2 Go through the examples together so that Answers


students understand that they have to write
1 untie, unfasten
one sentence using the verb form and one
2 ‘Undo’ means to unfasten something
using the noun form for each of their chosen
that is fastened or tied.
words. Encourage students to use at least one
‘Unpack’ means to take things out of a
of the verbs that has a different noun form.
box or suitcase.
MA Stronger students could write sentences ‘Untie’ means to unfasten a knot or
for more than two words. something that is tied.
‘Unplug’ means to take the plug out of
an electric socket.

44 Unit 1
‘Unlock’ means to open something that
Focus on: could
has been closed with a key. a Elicit that sentences a–e all use the word could
‘Uncork’ means to take the cork out of for different functions; students match them.
something. Check answers as a class.
‘Unwrap’ means to take off the outer
layer of protective or decorative Answers
material from something. 1c 2a 3e 4b 5d
‘Unfasten’ means to release or open
something that is fixed or closed.
b Students discuss the questions in pairs.
‘Unload’ means to take goods out of a
vehicle that has transported them.
3 undo – do up
Answers
unpack – pack 1 might, may
untie – tie (up) 2 a) It makes the suggestion stronger
unplug – plug in and a bit ‘bossier’.
unlock – lock (up) b) It becomes a definite prediction.
uncork – cork / put a cork in c) It becomes more direct and slightly
unwrap – wrap (up) less polite.
unfasten – fasten (up) d) It becomes a definite deduction –
unload – load (up) you don’t think you’re mistaken.
e) It becomes more direct and slightly
less polite.
Say and tell
6 Remind students that say and tell aren’t used c Students work in pairs to make requests
in the same way, and elicit that tell needs an and give advice. Monitor to ensure they’re
object, whereas say doesn’t. Write say and tell using could correctly.
on the board as column headings and invite
students to tell you which column each of the Networking
words in the box should go in.
8 Students complete the sentences on their
own, then ask and answer the questions in
Answers pairs. Remind them that they may need to
say: hello, yes, no, sorry, the words, change the form of some of the words. Ask
nothing, something, a lot, goodbye students which words are very similar in their
tell: the time, a story, me the news, a joke, own language and which are very different.
the truth, a lie, no one
Answers
7 Students work in pairs to tell each other a 1 site 2 post; timeline
joke or story. Monitor to ensure that jokes are 3 liked; commented; uploaded
appropriate, and listen out for good ones so 4 download 5 tweet
you can invite students to share them with the
rest of the class. If students aren’t comfortable
9 Ask students why they think abbreviations
with telling jokes, they can tell their partner an
are used so much in text messages (They are
anecdote about something that happened to
quicker to write and they make the message
them recently instead.
shorter.). Do they think using too many
abbreviations can be confusing? Look at
Extra idea: When students have told their
the text message together and explain any
jokes / stories, have them swap partners
abbreviations that students are unsure of.
and tell their original partner’s joke / story
They then work in pairs and write the message
to their new partner.
in full.

Unit 1 45
Answer
Hello, Jim. Thinking about you now. How
are you? Shall we / Would you like to meet
for coffee at Carluccio’s at 4pm? Bye bye
for now. See you later. Love you lots. Mave.

10 Ask students if they know what these


abbreviations mean. If they don’t, ask them to
guess or make something up!

Answers
TBH To be honest
IDK I don’t know
BRB Be right back
IRL In real life
CU See you
LOL Laughing out loud / Lots of love

Extra idea: Ask students to research other


text abbreviations in English and make up
a short quiz for their partner to do. Some
ideas for inclusion: L8R (= later), 2moro
(= tomorrow), 2 (= too, to), BTW (= by the
way), IYKWIM (= if you know what I mean),
ATB (= all the best), F2F (= face to face),
ROTFL (= rolling on the floor laughing).

11 Students write their replies. Encourage them to


use any new abbreviations they’ve researched
or invented. They then swap replies with a
partner to see if their partner can understand
the message!

46 Unit 1
2 Switch on!
UNIT GRAMMAR: adverbs of frequency, used to, present perfect continuous
VOCABULARY: TV: kinds of programme and descriptions; adjectives
FOCUS FUNCTIONS: TV talk; requests and responses; asking / telling people not to do things

Introduction p15 Answers


1 weather forecast 2 sitcom
Aims 3 makeover show 4 reality show
The focus of this lesson is to introduce the topic 5 soap (opera) 6 documentary
of TV by focusing on different genres of TV
programme. Students are also encourage to start Extra idea: Students work in pairs and
thinking about their TV-watching habits. brainstorm other adjectives that can be
used to describe TV programmes. Check
You first!
their ideas in feedback and write the
Students look at the four photos and have a adjectives on the board. Students could
class brainstorming session about the types of also come to the board and write their
programme that they represent. (Don’t go into ideas.
too much detail with vocabulary at this stage, as
students will do this in 1.) Possible answers
Pre-teach the phrase change channels, then absorbing, addictive, amazing, boring,
tell students to discuss in pairs or small groups depressing, enthralling, exciting, factual,
whether or not they would watch any of these fascinating, fun, funny, interesting, sad,
programme types. scary, soppy, realistic, thought-provoking,
unrealistic, uplifting
1 Students match the photos and words in
the box. You could also ask extra questions
to encourage speaking and personalisation: Tip: Encourage students to always write
Which two teams are playing in photo D? new words and phrases down in their
(South Africa and Portugal in the 2010 World vocabulary books. If they don’t have one,
Cup); Has anyone ever watched ‘Modern encourage them to get one and look
Family’? Who is who? (This is also a great way back at new language on a regular basis
of eliciting X’s brother, Y’s adopted daughter, to help their vocabulary to develop.
Z’s step-mother, etc); Do you have ‘Deal or no
deal?’ in your country? Ask students which 3 Elicit the five kinds of programme in 1 that
words are very similar in their own language weren’t used in 2 (cartoon, crime drama, game
and which are very different. show, the news, sports programme). Students
choose one of these to write a definition
Answers for. They then work in pairs, read out their
A crime drama B sitcom C game show definitions to each other and guess what kind
D sports programme of programme they refer to.
MA Students write their definitions in pairs,
2 Ask students if they can guess the meaning then join with another pair to guess the
of a ‘fly on the wall’ show (a programme programme types.
where the people involved behave normally
as if they’re not being filmed) and ongoing
(continuing and happening now). In pairs,
they match the definitions with the words in
the box in 1. They could also find a pair of
opposite adjectives in the definitions
(fictional / real).

Unit 2 47
Suggested answers Answers
Cartoon: A film using animation watch: a film, a match, a programme,
techniques. TV, a video clip
Crime drama: A serious fictional story look at: (a film), (a match), a painting,
about criminals, police detectives, lawyers, a photo, (a programme), (TV), a video clip,
etc. a view
Sports programme: It shows us live Items in brackets can be used with look at, but are
more common with watch.
matches / games and commentary.
The news: It informs us about world events
as they happen. 7 Remind students of the word fountain that
Game show: People / celebrities play a game they completed in Unit 1 and explain that
(answering questions or solving a problem) a mind map is a similar concept. Copy the
and often win a prize or some money. diagram onto the board and elicit students’
ideas to add to it.
4 Elicit or explain the difference between MA With weaker classes, you could suggest
drama, show and programme (Programme sub-categories to help them such as:
is a generic term that can be used for any • people on screen (actors, presenters)
TV programme, but also tends to be factual; • places to watch programmes (TV, laptop)
drama is fictional, and a show is in front of an • parts of a TV (screen, remote control)
audience.) Use the collocations in 1 to help. • leisure activities (watching TV, listening to
Students list the programmes under the correct music)
heading. Check their understanding of words
8 Students choose two questions to discuss in
like costume drama and period drama. Ask
their groups. Do feedback as a class – is there a
students which words are very similar in their
common viewing pattern?
own language and which are very different.
MA Encourage stronger students to answer all
MA Tell students that some words can go
five questions and have weaker ones choose
under more than one heading.
just one or two of the topics.
Answers
Extra idea: This could also be done as a
drama: costume drama, hospital drama, class mingle to increase learner interaction
legal drama, period drama and speaking, or as a class survey.
show: cookery show, quiz show, talk show,
travel show
programme: history programme, natural Tip: Keep group sizes relatively small (a
history programme, nature programme, maximum of five students) to ensure that
news programme, political programme, everyone has a chance to contribute to
travel programme the discussion. If students are particularly
reticent to speak, give each student a
5 Students mime and guess the programmes number of counters; each time they
in pairs. Look out for the funniest and most contribute to the discussion, they have
creative ideas, and ask those pairs to perform to ‘spend’ one of their counters. Once
their mime for the whole class. they have used them all, they can’t say
any more until everyone in the group has
6 Students often confuse watch and look at. spent their counters.
Write watch / look at something on the board
and elicit the difference between them (We
watch something that changes or develops, or
that we expect to change, not something that
stays still. We look at both.). Students decide
which of the nouns in the box can collocate
with which verbs.

48 Unit 2
Lesson 1 Stories from Answers
Scandinavia pp16–17 1 They’re black in terms of subject matter
(terrible things happening) and also
Aims visually (the settings and the weather
The focus of this lesson is to practise adverbs of are very dark).
frequency and adjectives. Students also focus 2 They are usually strong women who
on used to to describe past habits, and in the aren’t glamorous, make mistakes and
Speaking and writing section, they look back have personal problems.
nostalgically at the TV shows they watched when
they were younger.
Extra idea: Do a word-and-colour-
Background note association dictation with the class. Write
Nordic noir is a hugely popular crime colours on the board. Then read a list of
drama genre. It is typified by series such words. Students listen and decide which
as The Killing and Borgen from Denmark, colour to write each word under.
and Wallander from Sweden, which have
received critical acclaim in a number of Grammar Adverbs of frequency
different countries (particularly Britain,
Germany and the Netherlands) and become 4 SEARCH AND THINK Students underline
cult television shows. The Nordic noir the adverbs of frequency in the text and
series have received numerous awards answer the remaining questions to identify the
and nominations, including BAFTA and rules in pairs. Concept-check with a scale.
International Emmy Awards.
Extra idea: Students sometimes have
difficulties with adverbs, so write a few
Warm-up jumbled or gapped sentences on the board
To introduce the topic, tell the class about your for students to complete; look out for
favourite TV series when you were young. In pairs, typical mistakes, such as word-order errors,
ask students to discuss their favourite programmes and correct as needed.
and genres. Get feedback and find out the most
popular series.
Answers
Reading 1 people sometimes commit, There is
always a very strong woman, These
1 PREDICT Students look at the photos and
women are never glamorous, They
lesson title, then write down their predictions
often have a lot, the action usually
and compare with a partner.
takes place, we hardly ever see the
MA Show an online trailer for a Nordic noir sun, It is always snowing
series such as Wallander (see http://nordicnoir. 2 The adverbs come after the verb be.
tv, for example) to give students some ideas for They come before other verbs.
vocabulary. 3 never, hardly ever, rarely, sometimes,
2 Pre-teach potentially difficult vocabulary normally, often, usually, almost always,
such as genre (= style of TV series, cinema or always (This is a suggested order: hardly
literature) and abandoned (= an empty place ever and rarely are synonymous, as are
people have left forever). Students read the normally, often and usually.)
text and check if their predictions from 1 were 4 The infinitive with to follows the word
correct. Get feedback and ask what things tend. It has the same meaning as
were interesting or surprising. normally / often / usually.

3 THINK Students discuss the questions in


pairs, then check their ideas and opinions in
feedback.

Unit 2 49
5 Students discuss the questions in groups. Listening
Have one or two pairs if the class does not
divide equally into threes. Remind them to Background note
use adverbs of frequency where possible, and Hans Christian Andersen was born on 2
keep to the time limit strictly. Find out if all April, 1805, in Denmark. He was a writer
the groups managed to find three kinds of of plays, novels and poems, but is best
programme for each category. known for fairy tales. Andersen’s fairy
tales have been translated into more
Extra idea: Students write eight sentences than 125 languages and are popular not
about things they think their partner does, just with children but across all ages.
including adverbs of frequency (eg Paolo His stories present lessons of virtue and
never cleans his room). They then ask their resilience in the face of adversity. Some
partner questions to check how many of of his most famous fairy tales include The
the sentences are correct. Ugly Duckling, The Little Mermaid and
MA Weaker students could just write four The Emperor’s New Clothes. His delightful
or five sentences. stories have been read by millions around
the world and have also been adapted into
hugely successful animated films and stage
Vocabulary Adjectives
productions. He died on 4 August, 1875,
6 Students circle the adjectives in the text. in a house called ‘Rolighed’ (which means
‘calmness’), near Copenhagen.
Extra idea: Make it into a game: set a
short time limit (eg one minute) and put 8 Students look quickly at the photo of Hans
students in two or three teams. The team Christian Andersen and guess who it is. Quickly
that finds the most adjectives in the time elicit what they know about him. They then do
wins the game. Alternatively, teams get a the true / false activity in pairs.
point for each adjective they find, and a
bonus point if they find an adjective that Answers
none of the other teams has circled.
1 True 2 False 3 True 4 True

Answers 9 1.11 Play the recording for students to


popular, pleasant, open, terrible, shocking, check if their answers to 8 were correct and to
strong, leading, glamorous, ordinary, write down any other interesting information
perfect, personal, good, interesting, they hear. Ask extra comprehension questions
cold, dark, lonely, foggy, grey, empty, such as:
abandoned, fun • What did Andersen’s father / mother
do? (His father was a shoemaker and his
7 Students write ten short sentences using the mother was a washerwoman.)
adjectives in context. Ask a few students to • What kinds of things did Hans’s father read
read their sentences to the class. to him? (He read him Danish legends and
stories from Arabian Nights.)
MA Encourage stronger students to write more
• Why didn’t his mother read to him? (She
than ten; weaker students could write fewer.
couldn’t read.)
• How old was Hans when he began to write
Extra idea: Ask students to choose five
fairy tales? (He was 30 years old.)
adjectives and make anagrams. Their
partner has to unscramble the letters
correctly.

50 Unit 2
Transcript now entered the English language as
Once upon a time, a baby was born in Odense a way of describing a situation where
in Denmark. It was the 2nd of April, 1805, and someone dares to speak the truth
the baby’s name was Hans – Hans Christian about something when everyone else is
Andersen. Hans was the only child in a very pretending it’s different.
poor family. His father was a shoemaker and • The Princess and the Pea, which tells
his mother was a washerwoman. His mother of a princess who is so sensitive that
had never learnt to read and write, because she can feel a pea through a huge pile
poor people in those days didn’t usually go to of mattresses, is sometimes confused
school. But his father had received a little bit of with The Princess and the Frog (from
education and so he could read, and he often the German fairy tales of the Brothers
used to read to his son. He read him Danish Grimm), though the stories are different.
legends and stories from Arabian Nights. So
it was from his father that Hans discovered 10 1.12 Pre-teach any tricky words and phrases
literature, but it was not until years later – at such as ridiculous and more or less. Play and
the age of 30 – that he began to write his own pause the recording as needed. Students
fairy tales. answer the questions and compare answers
with a partner.
EXPLORE ONLINE
Do a quick class survey to find out which of the Answers
tales students have read / seen. Find out some of
1 The first woman used to enjoy The Ugly
the titles in students’ own language(s).
Duckling. She didn’t like The Emperor’s
New Clothes, and she didn’t use to like
Answers
The Little Mermaid, although she does
The Ugly Duckling, The Little Mermaid, now.
The Snow Queen, The Emperor’s New The second woman enjoyed The Ugly
Clothes, The Princess and the Pea Duckling, The Little Mermaid and The
Princess and the Frog.
Culture note 2 The Snow Queen
• The Ugly Duckling tells the story of
a cygnet raised by a family of ducks. Transcript
He is bullied and thinks himself ugly woman 1 Did you use to read Andersen’s fairy
until he finally turns into a swan and tales when you were a child?
finds his true beauty. The expression woman 2 Some of them. I used to love The
an ugly duckling is used to describe Ugly Duckling.
an unattractive child who turns into a woman 1 Yes, I often used to read that one,
beautiful adult. too. But I hated The Emperor’s New
• The Little Mermaid is about a mermaid Clothes.
who falls in love with a human prince and woman 2 Why?
sells her voice so that she can have legs woman 1 Because it was such a ridiculous
and be with him. It has spawned several story! And he was such a stupid
films, including a Disney animation. emperor! He really believed he was
• The Snow Queen is the story of Gerda, wearing invisible clothes? Come off
a little girl who saves her friend Kai from it!
the Snow Queen. Disney’s Frozen is (very woman 2 Well, they are fairy tales, so they
loosely) based on this fairy tale. aren’t supposed to be true to life –
• The Emperor’s New Clothes tells of that’s the whole point!
how an emperor is duped into believing woman 1 Hmm. I suppose so. It’s funny how
that he is wearing a wonderful suit of you can change your mind about
clothes, when in fact he is completely things, though. The Little Mermaid
naked. Everyone goes along with the certainly isn’t true to life, and I didn’t
belief in order to please the emperor use to like it at all when I was a child.
apart from one person. The phrase has
Unit 2 51
But my four-year-old daughter loves
it, and so now I enjoy reading it with Extra ideas: Draw a time line (see below)
her. and repeat the sentence quickly so that
woman 2 Oh, I used to love The Little Mermaid.
students notice the weak form in the
I used to watch the Disney version a pronunciation of to: /juːs tuː/ – /juːs tə/.
lot, too. I liked The Princess and the
Frog, too. I used to read when I was young.
woman 1 Don’t you mean The Princess and the
Pea? Andersen wrote The Princess past x x x x x x
_________________________ future
and the Pea. The Princess and the now
Frog was a Grimm’s fairy tale.
woman 2 Oh, was it? Well, they’re all more or Draw attention to the Grammar spot and
less the same story, aren’t they? The ask which sentence refers to the present
princess meets the prince and they (I usually go riding on Sundays) and which
fall in love! to the past (I used to go riding on Sundays).
Elicit that both phrases refer to habits, not
GRAMMAR used to one-off actions.

11 Elicit the examples of used to and write them


on the board. Read them aloud and point out Speaking and writing
that used to and use to are pronounced the 13 EVERYBODY UP! Students walk around
same way (/ˈjuːstə/). the room and ask each other the questions.
Monitor and note down any mistakes.
Answers Highlight good English and correct mistakes in
His father used to read ... feedback. Do a quick class summary to find the
His mother didn’t use to read ... most popular programmes then and now.

12 Students complete the sentences in the table Tip: It’s often nice to play some music in the
in pairs; elicit the rules for affirmative, negative background (preferably without lyrics,
and question forms (‘Used to’ is used in as they can be distracting). This creates
the affirmative, ‘use to’ in the negative and a relaxed atmosphere and encourages
questions). students to speak more loudly and
Concept-check and ask whether used to clearly. In addition, it also helps you bring
describes the past or the present (the past) and activities to a close. When you stop the
whether the action described still happens or music, students realise the activity is
not (it doesn’t). finishing.

Answers Extra idea: Ask students if they recognise


1 use to 2 used to 3 didn’t use to either of the programmes in the photos
(top right: Sesame Street; bottom: Teenage
Mutant Ninja Turtles). Both of these
Tip: Students sometimes use the past tense
programmes have been running for many
instead of the base form of the verb after
years. Ask students if any of their favourite
used to, and use used in the negative
programmes have been on TV for a long
and question forms instead of use, so
time. Do they watch any of the same
watch out for mistakes and correct as
programmes as their parents watched
needed.
when they were young?

52 Unit 2
14 Write a short example on the board to model You first!
the activity or ask students to look again at the To introduce the topic, students look at the photo
Nordic noir text on page 16 of the Student’s and guess what kind of programme it is (a soap
Book. Give them time to think of ideas and opera). If students are familiar with Avenida
write bullet-point notes before writing their Brasil, ask extra questions (eg What kind of things
paragraph. Walk around and offer gentle happen? What kind of characters are there?).
correction and language as needed. Students
work in pairs to read each other’s descriptions Reading
afterwards.
1 GUESS Elicit or explain what a blackout is
Extra idea: Students write their (= a power cut). Students then discuss the
descriptions without mentioning the title of question together in pairs. Check their ideas in
the TV series. When they read each other’s class feedback.
descriptions, they have to guess which
series is being described. Answer
The final episode of Avenida Brasil was due
15 VIDEO OPTION Students record their vlogs to air on that date and almost 100,000,000
on their smartphones. They can upload them people were expected to watch. A blackout
onto YouTube if they want, but don’t make it would have stopped them watching and
compulsory, as some students may not want to finding out who killed Max.
do this.
2 Students read the article quickly for gist, then
Extra idea: To review and practise used check their ideas. Set a short time limit so
to in a personalised way, ask students to they don’t worry too much about unknown
write down three true or false statements vocabulary (this is covered in the following
about their childhood (eg I used to eat activity).
dog biscuits when I was a little girl!). Ask
3 Students guess the meaning of the words and
them to walk around the room and share
phrases in context. They then compare with a
their sentences with each other. They
partner.
have to guess whether the other students’
sentences are true or false. Get feedback MA Allow weaker students to use a dictionary.
on some of the funniest and craziest
sentences. Answers
air: to be broadcast on TV
rally: a public meeting of a large group of
Take a break
people (often about politics)
You could play some relaxing instrumental music turn up: to come or arrive, usually
while students do this. Encourage one or two unplanned
students to share their recollections with the class. left out: excluded, not invited
posh: relating to people from a high social
Lesson 2 The world of class
telenovelas pp18–19 emerging: starting to exist
proud: feeling pleasure or satisfaction
Aims because of something you have done
The focus of this lesson is the huge popularity of origins: where someone or something
Brazilian ‘telenovelas’ like Avenida Brasil and Salve comes from
Jorge. The Grammar section looks at the present reflect: to show a sign of something
perfect continuous, and students also learn and get hold of: to get or obtain something
guess the meaning of new vocabulary in context,
watch online video clips and practise listening to 4 Students read the article again and decide
and acting out a soap-opera scene in pairs. if the sentences are true, false or the article
doesn’t say. Encourage students to correct the
false statements.
Unit 2 53
examples of this kind of promotion (James
Answers Bond films often do product placement
1 Don’t know (It’s unlikely, but the article of watches, cars and clothes. Soap operas
doesn’t say.) sometimes advertise breakfast cereals,
2 False (The rally was cancelled.) drinks, computers, etc).
3 True (Students will need to work this
one out: 150 divided by 6 (Mon–Sat) is
Speaking
25 weeks, so about six months.)
4 True 7 Students discuss two of the questions in pairs.
5 True They’ll have to read and understand all of them
6 False (They spend a lot of money doing in order to make their choice of which two to
research, and sometimes change the discuss. Feed back as a class.
plot to match what audiences want.) MA Encourage the stronger students to talk
about three or four questions.
Extra idea: Ask students to read the article video link
and find out what these numbers refer to: Students look for Avenida Brasil clips (or clips of
2012 100,000,000 150 740 another soap opera) online and discuss it. Did they
like it? Why? / Why not?
Answers
2012 Year in which the final Extra idea: Find a clip online of a soap in
episode of Avenida Brasil a language other than English and show it
was broadcast to students. If there are English subtitles,
100,000,000 The approximate number of cover them so students can’t see them.
viewers that were expected Ask students to write their own subtitles in
to watch it English for the scene based on the context
150 The number of episodes in a they see. Check their ideas in feedback.
series Play the clip again and show the subtitles
740 The percentage increase in so they can compare their ideas.
the number of Brazilians
who travelled to Turkey
GRAMMAR Present perfect continuous 

5 Close books. Students try to remember Ask students to look at the grammar box or review
how people are influenced by telenovelas, then it on the board with a time line and concept-
read the article again and check their answers. checking questions.

Answers Telenovelas have been changing.


People want to wear the same clothes,
shoes and make-up. past x
_________________________ future
They want to have the same objects and now
furniture in their houses.
People want to go on holiday to the • When did telenovelas start? (in the past)
locations featured in the telenovelas. • Are they still on TV now? (yes)
• Are they the same as before? (No, they’ve
6 THINK Students write extra ideas and check changed.)
answers in feedback. • When did they change? (They started changing
in the past and they’re still changing now.)
Extra ideas: Students find out why soap • Will they continue to change in the future?
operas are called ‘soaps’. They could (Maybe, it’s possible.)
research this online or look at the Reading
text on page 13 of the Workbook. Repeat sentences in the present perfect continuous
You could also discuss product placement. and point out the weak form of the auxiliary verbs:
Ask students if they can remember good /hæv biːn/ – /həv bɪn/.

54 Unit 2
8 Look at the example together, then students
write the sentences in pairs. Do some Extra idea: To review the present perfect
repetition drilling with the answers to help continuous, show students the movie
pronunciation. trailer of Cast Away with Tom Hanks on
YouTube (https://www.youtube.com/
Point out that although all of the sentences
watch?v=2TWYDogv4WQ).
have time expressions, we don’t always have to
Tell students they’ve just arrived on a rescue
use them with the present perfect continuous.
ship and found the castaway on the desert
island. Elicit some of the conversation
Answers (eg ‘How long have you been living here?’
1 It’s been raining all day. ‘About two years.’ ‘What have you been
2 Prices have been rising all year. eating?’ ‘I’ve been eating coconuts ...’). Then
3 I’ve been trying to ring you all weekend. ask students to act out the conversation in
4 You’ve been wearing that shirt all pairs.
week!

9 Students complete the information and Lesson 3 Influential people


compare with a partner. Get feedback and
pp20–21
elicit reasons for their choices. You may want
to point out that be is not used in the present Aims
perfect continuous:
The focus of this lesson is a text about two TV
I have been being a teacher for three years.
presenters. Students give short talks about famous
I have been a teacher for three years.
presenters in their own countries and review
grammar from the first two lessons. The lesson
Answers
also introduces the suffix -ish to describe things in
1 has been running 2 have been watching an imprecise and vague way.
3 have been 4 have been going
5 have been listening Warm-up
Do an image search and find 12 photos of famous
Extra idea: Students find examples of the people. Put students into two teams and show
present perfect continuous with for and six photos to each team. Teams get a point for
since in the text in 9, as described in the identifying the person correctly and another point
Grammar spot. if they can say why that person is famous or
influential.

Speaking and writing Reading


10 Students ask and answer questions in pairs to 1 Find out how many students recognise David
complete their tables. When they’ve finished, Attenborough. If quite a few of them do, ask
they compare tables to check their answers. them to discuss the questions in pairs (ensuring
You could discuss the questions in the third that each pair has at least one student who
part of the exercise as a whole class. knows who he is). If students don’t recognise
him, run through the questions quickly as a
11 Give students time to think about the
class. It’s possible they might remember some
questions and plan what the scene is about
of his wildlife programmes.
and what they’d like to say. They then act out
the scene in pairs. 2 Set a short time limit so that students read for
MA Adjust the size of the groups to suit the gist. Elicit similarities and differences.
ability of students: stronger students can work
in pairs or groups of three; weaker students
may need the support of a larger group.

Unit 2 55
Answers Answers
Similarities: Both presenters and writers A 1 are 2 have you been 3 Do 4 did
who have worked around the world. 5 do; want
Differences: Man / woman, worked on B 1 do 2 have you been 3 Do 4 did
different types of programme, different 5 Will
lengths of time working in TV.
6 Ask several pairs to report the answers that
3 Close books. Read out the questions and they were given in 5. Note them on the
see if students can remember the answers. board, then ask the class questions to form
Make a note of their answers on the board. a picture of the survey results (eg Carla has
They then look back at the information to been studying for longer than Raúl. She’s
check. been studying for five years. Has anyone been
MA Allow weaker students to look back at the studying for longer than that?). Build up a class
information to help them. profile for the first three questions based on
students’ responses, then discuss question 4 as
Answers a whole class.
1 David (He has been working in Listening 1
television for over 60 years; Claudia has
worked in television since 1991.) 7 GUESS Give students a minute to read the
2 She has been involved in news short text, then encourage them to make
programmes, game shows, children’s predictions about what Karl noticed and share
shows, film programmes, comedy their ideas.
quizzes, travel shows, a sewing series,
8 1.13 Play and pause the recording as
a dancing show (Strictly Come Dancing)
necessary so students can check if their
and the Eurovision Song Contest.
predictions in 7 were correct.
3 David (probably because of the length
of time he has been presenting natural Also point out phrases like Sorry? (to check
history and wildlife programmes, and and get people to say something again), but
because of his work with environmental here’s the (really strange) thing (to prepare
projects) someone to listen to something important),
4 Both of them have worked as writers Exactly! (to show agreement), and No! and
and presenters. Really? (to show interest).
5 Claudia
Answer
Speaking He noticed that his female co-presenters
received a lot of negative feedback about
4 MINI-TALK Students can use their their appearance, but he didn’t receive any.
smartphones and tablets to find out
information. Remind them to use the
paragraphs about David and Claudia as Transcript
models. If students are shy about presenting woman Did you read this article about that

in front of the class, let them do presentations Australian news presenter, Karl
in pairs or small groups to alleviate any Stevanovic?
nervousness. man Sorry? What Australian news
presenter?
5 Students complete the questions with the woman Karl Stevanovic – he’s quite well
correct verb tense. Check the questions, then known.
tell students to ask and answer them with man No, I’ve never heard of him. Why?
a partner. They should make a note of the What’s he done?
answers they’re given.

56 Unit 2
woman Well, he’s been a news presenter Listening 2
on Australian TV for over 20 years
apparently, and for years he’s noticed 11 PREDICT Students read the introduction
that women news presenters get lots and write their predictions down. Get quick
of negative criticism from viewers. feedback and note their ideas, but don’t
man Do they? Why? confirm anything at this stage.
woman Well, that’s what’s interesting. It’s not
12 1.14 Play the recording and check if
professional criticism. It’s always about students’ predictions were correct. Point out
their hair and their clothes and their that Vera says they got used to the treatment
make-up – things like that. they received from men. Elicit and check the
man No!
difference between used to and get used to.
woman Yeah. But – and now here’s the
Which one describes a past habit (used to) and
really strange thing – no one’s ever which one describes something we become
commented on his appearance! accustomed to (get used to)?
man Why not? Oh, because he’s a man,
you mean! Answers
woman Exactly!
She says that when she worked in TV,
man Well, that seems very unfair, doesn’t
female presenters were criticised for what
it? It doesn’t seem right at all.
they wore and how they looked, whereas
woman No, but here’s the thing – he decided
male presenters weren’t. Female presenters
to do something about it.
were also discriminated against because of
man Really? What did he do?
their weight and age.
woman He wore the same blue suit on-screen
every day for a whole year.
man The same suit every day for a year? Transcript
Wow. So what happened?
presenter Did you hear that story about that
woman Absolutely nothing. Nobody noticed.
man in Australia, Vera? The TV
man Nobody noticed? So he made his
news presenter who wore the same
point!
suit every day for 365 days and
woman Yes, he did. He said it was very clear
no one noticed? He said he did it
that viewers judged him on how well
in solidarity with women, as they
he did his job: his interviews, his sense
always get criticised for what they
of humour and so on.
wear.
man But viewers don’t seem to judge
vera Yes, I did read that story, and I’m
women on those kinds of professional
shocked that it’s still true nowadays.
things at all, do they? Just on their
When I was working on TV – for
appearance.
about 20 years – we always had to
woman Exactly!
look smart every time we appeared.
9 Students listen again and answer the Directors wouldn’t hesitate to tell us
questions. if they didn’t like the colour or style
of our clothes, or the pattern, or our
Answers scarves or jewellery, or anything!
presenter Really?
1 He wore the same blue suit on-screen
vera Yes, and our hair too! And shoes
every day for a whole year.
were another thing. We always had
2 He proved that viewers don’t notice
to wear heels in the studio, and
what male presenters wear in the same
preferably shortish skirts. It sounds
way that they do for female presenters.
absurd, when viewers couldn’t even
3 Nobody noticed.
see our feet and legs. But we just
got used to it all.
10 Students discuss the questions and give their presenter But male colleagues didn’t have
personal reactions to the story. similar rules?

Unit 2 57
vera No. The men could look really awful
– and they often did – and it didn’t older women: Are considered to be past
seem to matter one bit! They had their best.
spots, grey hair, thick glasses … older men: Look serious and inspire
presenter And I think you said weight was an
confidence.
issue, too?
vera Yes, I used to get a lot of criticism 14 Students listen again and check, and also add
about my weight. Because, guess anything they missed. You could ask extra
what, I’m not super thin like a questions to check their understanding:
stick insect! But a lot of my male • How long did Vera work in TV? (about 20
colleagues were actually quite fat years)
and it didn’t seem to be a problem. • How did she feel about the story about
They never received negative Karl? (She was shocked.)
comments about it. • Why was she criticised? (for her appearance
presenter And wasn’t there an issue with age, and weight)
too?
vera Yes, there was. And there still is, Extra idea: Students read the transcript
in fact. TV executives definitely at the back of the Student’s Book and find
prefer younger women, regardless words or phrases that mean the following:
of their talent on air. Certainly I agreement and support for people (solidarity)
noticed that once women got over pause or stop for a moment (hesitate)
40, and certainly by 50, they were if possible (preferably)
slowly being pushed off the screen stupid or unreasonable (absurd)
into more invisible roles: producing, problem (issue)
researching, voicing, etc. unfair opinion against a group of people
presenter But age isn’t an issue for men? (prejudice)
vera No, absolutely not. Older men are
supposed to look serious and inspire 15 TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE Write the phrase
confidence. But older women? and preferably shortish skirts on the board and
They’re past their best! I know from ask students what they think the suffix -ish
my female colleagues still working in means (It’s a suffix added to adjectives used to
TV that there is still prejudice. It’s just describe a vague degree of something). Explain
that it is better hidden than it used that it’s often used with colours (greenish) and
to be. to talk about time (I’ll meet you at eightish).
13 Students try to remember what Vera said Students look at the items in the box and
about each thing, then compare their ideas describe the difference between them. Discuss
with a partner. with the whole class whether students have
ever worn these things. Ask why / why not.
Answers MA Help weaker students by asking questions
the colour / style / pattern of her clothes: like Which is shorter, a short skirt or a shortish
Directors would say if they didn’t like them. skirt? (a short skirt).
shoes: Female presenters had to wear heels
in the studio, even though viewers couldn’t Extra idea: If you have a mixture of male
see their legs or feet. and female students, have a discussion
skirts: They had to wear shortish skirts. about the different treatment of male
weight: Vera got a lot of criticism because and female TV presenters. Have the male
she wasn’t super-thin like a stick insect, but students ever made critical comments
some of her male colleagues were quite fat about female TV presenters because of
and no one said anything. their appearance? Have female students
age: TV executives prefer younger women, ever noticed what male TV presenters are
and once women are over 40 or 50, they are wearing?
moved to off-screen roles.

58 Unit 2
Speaking Transcript
man What’s on?
16 Students discuss their opinions and the things
woman 1 Nothing much. Just my quiz show.
that surprised or shocked them. Get feedback
man Where’s the remote?
and encourage further discussion about
woman 1 You’re sitting on it!
prejudice against women. Are women treated
man Oh, so I am. What time does your
fairly now, or is the prejudice just better hidden
show start?
than it used to be?
woman 1 About now, I think.

17 YOUR STORY Students try to remember a man What channel is it on?


time when they’ve been treated unfairly. Give woman 1 I think it’s on BBC1.

them time to think about the questions and man Thing is, there’s a match on.
then share their stories in small groups. woman 1 Oh.
man Mind if we change channels?
Tell them to look at the cartoon and ask
woman 1 No, go ahead. We can watch this
a pair of confident students to act it out,
exaggerating the emotions. Ask another pair of later on catch-up. Sue and I have got
students to act it out again, but changing the things to talk about, anyway.
woman 2 Yes, shall we go and sit over there in
detail that’s noticed (eg Yes, awful. What an
ugly pair of earrings!). the kitchen and …
man Would you mind not standing in
Everyday English p22 front of the telly?
woman 1 So sorry.

TV talk ***
man Do you think you could keep
1 Students look at the photo and say what the
the noise down? I can’t hear the
people are doing (watching TV together). They
commentary.
then match the questions and answers in pairs.
woman 2 Oh, sorry.
Check answers by asking various pairs to read
man And can you make me a cup of tea
out the mini-dialogues.
while you’re there?
woman 1 Actually, no, Ted. Make it yourself!
Answers
We’ve decided to go out!
1f 2e 3d 4b 5a 6c
Extra idea: Highlight examples of natural
Background note features of English in the recording, such
BBC 1 is one of the TV channels in the UK as ellipsis and vague language. Write
broadcast by the BBC, which is funded by these extracts on the board and explain
a television licence instead of advertising how words are often left out to avoid
revenue. Every house with a TV in the UK redundancy.
has to buy a annual licence, which currently What’s on TV? (ellipsis)
costs about £150. Because of this, none of There’s nothing much on TV. (ellipsis)
the BBC channels has any commercials. Where’s the remote control? (ellipsis)
BBC 1 broadcasts mainstream programmes, It starts about now, I think. (vague
including popular soaps and series. Other language)
BBC channels are BBC 2, BBC 3, BBC 4, You could also point out that telly is
BBC News, CBBC and CBeebies. colloquial language for TV and that watch
something on catch-up means to watch a
programme by accessing it via a computer
2 1.15 Play and pause the recording so
or digital TV box.
students can tick the exchanges they hear.

Answer 3 Students discuss in groups what they think of


Ted. Elicit their ideas in feedback.
They hear all the exchanges apart from
5a and 6c.

Unit 2 59
Requests and responses Extra idea: Practise pronunciation. Elicit
4 Students complete the requests and compare where the stress is in each sentence. Play
their ideas with a partner. Play the recording the recording again and ask students to
again for them to check their answers. Draw say the requests and responses at the same
their attention to the Grammar spot and time, mimicking the stress and intonation
explain that we often shorten questions in patterns used.
informal speech: Mind if ...? is short for ‘Mind if we change channels?’ ‘No, go
Would / Do you mind if ...? ahead.’
‘Would you mind not standing in front of
Answers the telly?’ ‘So sorry.’
1 Mind if we change channels? ‘Do you think you could keep the noise
2 Can you make me a cup of tea while down?’ ‘Oh, sorry.’
you’re there? ‘Can you make me a cup of tea while
3 Do you think you could keep the noise you’re there?’ ‘Actually, no.’
down?
4 Would you mind not standing in front 7 P 1.16 Model the vowel sound and ask
of the telly? students to repeat it. They then say each
word aloud and find the odd one out, before
5 Students quickly discuss the questions in pairs. comparing with a partner to see if they agree.
Do a class check to ensure they understand the Play the recording for them to check their
form and levels of politeness. answers.

Answers Answer
1 Mind if we change channels? and Can Food /fuːd/ is the odd one out. It has a
you make me a cup of tea while you’re longer /uː/ vowel sound.
there? are more polite.
2 Would you mind not ... is followed by 8 P 1.17 Students work in pairs and read
the -ing form. the three sentences aloud. They should
identify the connected speech by drawing a
line underneath sounds that change or link.
Extra idea: Ask students if they think the Write the three sentences on the board and
woman is being sincere when she replies ask students to come and highlight the links
So sorry in response to the request not to (examples of assimilation, vowel reduction and
stand in front of the TV (no). Elicit that she vowel-to-vowel linking). Play the recording for
does this using a sarcastic tone of voice. them to check, then do some repetition drilling
Ask pairs of students to read the request to help them say the sentences more quickly
and response, varying the tone of the reply and naturally.
and ask the rest of the class if they think
the reply sounds sincere or not. Answers
1 Could you have a look at this?
6 Students match the responses with the /kʊd juː hæv ə lʊk æt ðɪs/
requests in 4 and then repeat the requests and /ˈkʊʤəhævəˈlʊkətðɪs/
responses in pairs. 2 Mind if I open a window?
/maɪnd ɪf aɪ ˈəʊpən ə ˈwɪndəʊ/
Answers /ˈmaɪndɪfaɪˈjəʊpənəˈwɪndəʊ/
1c 2b 3d 4a 3 Would you mind not pushing?
/wʊd juː maɪnd nɒt ˈpʊʃɪŋ/
/ˈwʊʤəˈmaɪndnɒtˈpʊʃɪn/
You stood on my foot!
/juː stʊd ɒn maɪ fʊt/ /jəˈstʊdɒnməˈfʊt/

60 Unit 2
9 ROLE-PLAY Play recording 1.15 again for Answers
students to act out the conversation in groups
1 unpopular, unpleasant, unglamorous,
of three. Encourage them to speak naturally
uninteresting
and use the features of connected speech,
2 imperfect, impersonal*
changing any details they want to.
3 Suggested answers: open – closed;
MA Weaker students can take the part of terrible – great; shocking – expected;
Woman 2, who has fewer lines. strong – weak; leading – minor;
Asking / telling people not to do things ordinary – extraordinary; hard – soft /
easy; good – bad; cold – warm; dark –
10 Students complete the sentences with the light / bright; lonely – crowded; foggy
correct verb form, then compare their answers – sunny / clear; grey – colourful; empty
with a partner. Elicit that the -ing form is used – full; abandoned – lived-in
after stop. * The article on page 16 uses personal in the
collocation personal problems, so impersonal
Answers isn’t really the opposite of this context. You
could elicit the meaning of impersonal from
1 Please don’t do that. students (= without human warmth; not
2 Can / Could you not do that please? referring to people by name).
3 Please stop doing that.
4 Can / Could / Would you stop doing
that, please? 
 Extra idea: You could do this as a ‘tennis’
game: divide the class into two teams,
asking each team alternately for the
11 Students discuss the sentences and meanings
opposite of an adjective. If they get it
in pairs and explain their ideas.
correct, they get a point and ‘play’ bounces
to the other team; if they get it wrong,
Answers
the other team gets a chance to ‘steal’ the
1 Request 4 (Would you mind not ...?) point.
asks people not to do things.
2 Possible responses: Oh, I’m sorry,
2 Give students a few minutes to do the
So sorry, I’m really sorry.
matching exercise, then compare with a
partner.
12 Students ask their partners to stop doing
annoying things. Remind them that it’s best to Answers
sound polite when they say it, though! Give an
1f 2c 3h 4b 5e 6g 7d 8a
example and encourage them to have fun with
the activity (eg ‘Could you not do that, please?’
‘What?’ ‘Answering all the teacher’s questions 3 P 2.22 Students work in pairs to say the
correctly. You make everyone else look bad!’). un- adjectives and decide which syllable is
Get feedback and find out the funniest stressed. Remind them that they all follow
requests and most annoying habits! the same pattern apart from one. Then play
the recording for them to check and repeat
Vocabulary plus p63 together.

Wordbuilder un- and im- Answer


a) unusual e) unlucky
1 Remind students of the adjectives they
b) unkind f) unhappy
circled when working on Lesson 1 Vocabulary.
c) unnecessary g) unfair
They then work in pairs to answer the
d) unexpected h) untidy
questions. Question 3 is intended to be a fairly
They all have the stress on the syllable
open question to encourage discussion, so it
that follows the prefix un- apart from
may be better as a whole-class activity. Ask
unexpected.
students which words are very similar in their
own language and which are very different.

Unit 2 61
4 Students work in pairs to rewrite the b Give students five minutes to write six similar
sentences. Then put pairs together to form sentences using verbs of the senses (look, feel,
groups of four to discuss whether they agree seem, smell, sound, taste). They then work
or disagree with the statements. in pairs to think of answers to their partner’s
MA With a weaker class, go through the clues.
sentences together first to identify which un-
adjective they need to use.
Phrasal verbs turn
7 Go through the box to make sure that
Suggested answers everyone understands the vocabulary.
1 Traffic laws are unnecessary. Encourage students to look up any words they
2 Untidy hair means an untidy mind don’t know in their dictionaries or on their
3 It’s awful when you get unexpected smartphones. They then answer the questions
guests. in pairs. Ask students which words are very
4 It’s unfair that some people have similar in their own language and which are
everything and others nothing. very different.
5 It’s unlucky when a black cat walks
across your path. Answers
1 air-conditioning, computer, engine,
heating, laptop, light, music, oven,
Extra idea: Ask students to write two
phone, sound, television
more sentences using the other adjectives
2 air-conditioning, heating, light, music,
from 2 (unusual, unkind, unhappy). They
oven, sound, television, volume
could do this in pairs, with student A
3 air-conditioning, heating, light, music,
writing a sentence using word / phrase 1,
oven, sound, television
4 or 8, and student B rewriting it with the
appropriate adjective.
Extra idea: Write these expressions and
Used to v get used to meanings on the board and tell students to
match them:
5 Tell students to read the four sentences, then 1 fly on the wall (page 15)
elicit the answers from the class. 2 Once upon a time … (page 17*)
3 Come off it! (page 17*)
Answers 4 You’d better sit down. (page 19)
a) 1, 3 b) 2, 4 5 Here’s the thing. (page 21*)
a) I’m just about to explain it to you.
6 FINISH IT Students complete the sentences b) I don’t believe it. Don’t tell me lies.
individually, then walk around the class c) outside, neutral observer
comparing their ideas. d) I’m about to tell you a fairy story.
e) I’m about to tell you something serious.
Focus on: Verbs of the senses The expressions all occur in the unit; those
a Students work in pairs to think of things that marked * are in the recordings.
the sentences could describe. There are lots of Answers
potential answers here, so encourage them to 1c 2d 3b 4e 5a
use their imaginations!

Suggested answers
1 cat, dog, bull, horse …
2 shoes, boots, jeans …
3 meal, ticket, dress …
4 flowers, roses, biscuits …
5 film, lecture, book …
6 soup, food, drink …

62 Unit 2
Units 1&2 Review pp24–25

Aims Tip: Try to teach useful reading strategies.


To review the vocabulary and grammar covered Encourage students to guess meaning
in Units 1 and 2. Students also look at the first from context rather than just looking
Preposition park feature and read about water words up straight away in their
festivals in Aspects of culture. dictionaries or on their smartphones.
Words often have more than one
You first! meaning, and this can lead to mistakes.
Ask students if they know the expression be It’s important for students to read around
someone’s cup of tea (= be something that unknown words for contextual clues.
someone likes). Tell them to look quickly at the Model and practise the strategy in class
photos, which both come from TV series. Ask and encourage students with questions
them to identify the genre of each programme and (eg What do you think it means? How
have a quick show of hands to find out how many do you know?).
students would prefer to watch each programme.
3 Students work with a partner to complete the
Answer text using the correct verb tenses.
The photos show a Nordic noir drama (on
the left) and a period drama (on the right). Answers
1 appeared 2 has become 3 have seen
Reading and grammar 4 has been 5 follows 6 were 7 sank
8 was 9 had 10 were 11 finished
1 Students look at the photos and write down
12 hoped 13 (has) won 14 was
words they associate with the programmes
15 say 16 think 17 love 18 are
depicted. They then compare with a partner.
Did they have the same ideas, or were they
completely different? Ask them to give reasons 4 Students work in pairs and give reasons for
for their associations. their choice of verb tenses. Check together in
feedback.
2 Pre-teach vocabulary like hit (= success), have
an impact on (= have a powerful effect on 5 You could do this activity as a class quiz.
someone or something), superb (= excellent Put students in teams and ask them the
quality) and timeless (= something that has questions about the text. The first team to give
a value that lasts forever). Students read the the correct answer wins a point. The team with
description and work out which photo it goes the most points at the end wins the game.
with. Have a quick feedback session with the
class to ask which words they used to help Answers
them guess. 1 Its themes are universal and timeless.
MA Encourage more able students to use 2 It’s set in a magnificent country house
expressions of comparison, eg whereas, on the in the north of England during the first
other hand, but, to explain why the description part of the 20th century.
refers to one photo and not the other. 3 It’s about the lives of the wealthy
Crawley family and their servants.
Answer 4 Brazil, China, the Middle East, Russia,
Singapore, South Korea, the USA,
The description refers to Downton Abbey,
England (Europe is also mentioned, but
featured in the right-hand photo.
it’s a continent, not a country.) 


Units 1&2 Review 63


also pick out useful words and phrases, eg in
Extra idea: If Downton Abbey has been my opinion, goodies and baddies, room for
on TV in students’ countries, ask them if doubt, stuff, believe it or not.
they’ve ever watched it, and if so, what
they thought of it. Answers
1 I can’t stand it. I think it’s unrealistic and
6 THINK Students brainstorm ideas in pairs to sentimental!
make two lists. They then work in new pairs to 2 I’ve been watching it since the
compare their lists to see how similar / different beginning. It’s the best thing on telly.
they are. 3 It isn’t really drama and it isn’t really
Listening history. (It isn’t really anything.)
4 I absolutely love the music. It’s very
7 1.18 Play the first opinion and do the first emotional. As soon as you hear it, you
one with students. Then play the rest of the just have to sit down and watch.
recording for students to listen then compare 5 It shouldn’t be so black and white. The
their answers. goodies are very good and the baddies
are very bad. Life isn’t like that. There’s
Answers no room for doubt.
17 23 3? 43 57 63 73 8? 6 It’s very clear. There’s no ambiguity. You
don’t have to think too much.
7 Things should be clear. A lot of stuff
Transcript these days is confusing and I can’t
1 Downton? I can’t stand it. I think it’s understand it. I like being told what to
unrealistic and sentimental! think for a change!
2 How can you say that? I’ve been watching 8 I can’t comment. Believe it or not, I’ve
it since the beginning. It’s the best thing on never actually seen it!
telly.
3 In my opinion, it isn’t really drama and it
Tip: Be flexible when correcting students’
isn’t really history. It isn’t really anything.
work. If they’ve written something
4 I absolutely love the music. It’s very
grammatically and semantically correct,
emotional. As soon as you hear it, you just
even if it doesn’t quite match the
have to sit down and watch.
original, give them credit for it.
5 It shouldn’t be so black and white. The
goodies are very good and the baddies
are very bad. Life isn’t like that. There’s no Extra idea: The recording offers a nice
room for doubt. opportunity to review and practise reported
6 Exactly! It’s very clear. There’s no ambiguity. speech. Draw a line down the middle of
You don’t have to think too much. the board to make two columns: direct
7 I agree. Things should be clear. A lot of speech and reported speech. As you do 8,
stuff these days is confusing and I can’t elicit what the people said exactly and write
understand it. I like being told what to it in the direct speech column. Students
think for a change! then work with a partner and make
8 I’m sorry. I can’t comment. Believe it or not, sentences in the reported speech column.
I’ve never actually seen it!
direct speech reported speech
8 Students work in pairs to remember I can’t stand She said (that) she couldn’t
what each person said using the prompts. it. I think it’s stand it. She said (that)
The person with the best memory wins. Play unrealistic and it was unrealistic and
the recording again for them to check their sentimental! sentimental.
answers. I’ve been He said (that) he’d been
watching it since watching it since the
MA You may need to play each opinion
the beginning. beginning. He said (that) it
separately for weaker students to reconstruct It’s the best thing was the best thing on telly.
the sentences. With a stronger class, you could on telly.

64 Units 1&2 Review


It isn’t really She said (that) it wasn’t
Extra idea: Students create a special page
drama and it isn’t really drama and it wasn’t
really history. really history. It wasn’t in their vocabulary notebooks for ‘verb +
It isn’t really really anything. preposition’ combinations and pick out all
anything. the examples from the text: depend on,
I absolutely love He said (that) he absolutely look at, sell something on, focus on.
the music. loved the music.
Life isn’t like She said (that) life wasn’t / b Students discuss the questions in pairs first;
that. There’s no isn’t* like that and there encourage more ideas and speaking in
room for doubt. was no room for doubt.
feedback.
It’s very clear. He said (that) it was very
There’s no clear. He said (that) there EXPLORE ONLINE
ambiguity. You was no ambiguity. He said If you don’t have internet access in the classroom,
don’t have to (that) you didn’t have to students can do this for homework, as they’ll need
think too much. think too much.
the details for c.
I like being told She said (that) she liked
what to think for being told what to think for c MINI-TALK Give students time to read the
a change! a change! questions, think and write ideas and notes
I can’t comment. He said (that) he couldn’t before they do the speaking activity. Put
I’ve never comment. He said (that) them in small groups and tell them to discuss
actually seen it! he’d never actually seen it!
together.
* Accept the present tense here, as it’s a general truth. MA Split the task and allocate different
aspects to different students (eg finding out
9 Students discuss the questions, first in pairs, about Irena Salina, finding out more about
then in whole-class feedback. They should tell Flow, finding out facts about the worldwide
the class what their partner said in order to water supply). Students then compile their
review reported speech. If none of the students information and collaborate in a class
has ever seen Downton Abbey, ask them if presentation.
they can think of a series that they’re familiar
with that presents a similar, ‘simplified’ view of Aspects of culture
life. a Students read the information and choose their
Preposition park favourite festival. Tell them to give reasons
why.
a This is the first Preposition park section; this
feature occurs in several of the Review units. Extra idea: Split the class into two and
Explain that it is intended to focus on the use ask each half to read one of the texts. They
of prepositions and their common collocations, then present ‘their’ festival to the other half
which is often a difficult area for students of of the class.
English. Pre-teach any tricky vocabulary, eg
depend on (= rely on, need something else b Students read the information again and
to happen first), shrink (= become smaller), answer questions about it. They could also
practical (= relating to real situations rather write three more questions about the texts and
than ideals). Do the first one with the class to test each other.
model the activity, before students complete
the text in pairs. Answers
1 The festivals both involve water.
Answers
2 The celebrations are for different
1 of 2 on 3 on 4 Without 5 in reasons in different countries and
6 in / of 7 by 8 in 9 about 10 of sometimes religions. They also involve
11 at 12 from 13 on 14 for / at different names, traditions and ways of
15 of 16 on 17 about / of celebrating.
18 around / in 19 to 20 to

Units 1&2 Review 65


3 The Water Festival celebrates the new
year.
The Bloco da Lama honours the
ancestors of indigenous Indians in
Brazil.
4 Traditionally, people poured water on
each other to show respect, to get rid
of bad spirits and to bring good luck.
The Bloco da Lama started when the
indigenous Indians covered themselves
in the black mud for the health
benefits.

c Students look up information about a festival


in their country and share in small groups. Ask
one or two groups to present their festival to
the class.
MA Form groups that contain a mixture of
stronger and weaker students, but ensure the
stronger students don’t dominate by giving
each student ten counters. Each time they
contribute to the discussion, they ‘spend’ one
of their counters. Once they have spent them
all, they must keep quiet until everyone has
spent all their counters.

66 Units 1&2 Review


3 What music does
UNIT GRAMMAR: could / was able to / managed to; past continuous; past perfect; past conclusions
VOCABULARY: musical instruments; body metaphors; where to put things; saying what you like
FOCUS FUNCTION: complimenting someone’s performance

Introduction p25 Tip: If students have difficulty guessing where


the stress is (they often do), tell them to
Aims just hum the word instead. It takes the
The focus of this lesson is to introduce the topic of emphasis off the word and focuses on
music and the effect that it has on people’s lives. the sound and rhythm, making the stress
Students learn the names of musical instruments much easier to hear.
and are encouraged to think about a wide variety
of musical styles, not just mainstream types.
Extra idea: Find out if anyone plays any of
You first! the instruments listed. Do any students play
Students discuss in pairs how important music is instruments that are not listed (eg clarinet,
to them. Write extra questions on the board to oboe, French horn)? Expand the lexical set
increase speaking and learner interaction (eg How to ensure that students can describe their
often do you listen to music? Where do you listen own musical interests. Remind students
to it? How do you listen to it? Do you use an mp3 that the collocation is play an instrument –
player, CD player, laptop or listen to songs on your no preposition is needed.
smartphone or tablet? Do you like listening to
music on the radio? Do you ever go to concerts? 3 GUESS Students work in pairs and guess the
Do you prefer live music?). answers to the questions. If possible, they can
check their answers quickly online using their
1 Give students time to check they understand smartphones or tablets.
all the words in the box. They then take turns
acting out the instruments for their partner Answers
and guessing the instruments.
Yuja Wang: piano, China
Courtney Pine: saxophone, England
Extra idea: If there are any instruments
Hilary Hahn: violin, the USA
in the list that students haven’t heard of,
Anoushka Shankar: sitar, England
encourage them to research them online.
Rodrigo y Gabriela: guitar, Mexico
Toumani Diabaté: kora, Mali
2 1.19 Play the recording for students
to mark the word stress in each word. If
4 1.20 Students listen and check their
necessary, do the first one with them as an
answers. You could also show them short clips
example. Get feedback and do some repetition
on YouTube of each musician.
drilling to practise pronunciation. Ask students
which words are very similar in their own
Transcript
language and which are very different.
Yuja Wang plays the piano. She was born
Answers in Beijing, China. She started playing the
piano when she was six. She’s a really
bagpipes, bass guitar, cello, double bass,
brilliant pianist – but she says she loves
drums, flute, guitar, harp, keyboard,
fashion too!
kora, piano, saxophone, sitar, trombone,
trumpet, violin Courtney Pine plays the saxophone – and
many other instruments. He was born in
London. His parents are from Jamaica.

Unit 3 67
Hilary Hahn is a violinist. She was born in EXPLORE ONLINE
Virginia, USA. She started to play the violin This activity can either be done in class or for
when she was four years old. homework. Encourage students to look up the
Rodrigo Sánchez and Gabriela Quintero musicians online using their smartphones or
play guitars. They were both born in tablets. Get feedback (eg Which musicians did you
Mexico City. They used to play in a rock like best? Why? What famous musicians are there
band, but now they play their own special in your country?).
kind of music. 6 EVERYBODY UP! Students walk around the
Anoushka Shankar plays the sitar. She is room and find out more about each other’s
the daughter of the great Indian sitar player musical skills, then report back in feedback
Ravi Shankar. He started to give her music This is also a nice opportunity to practise the
lessons when she was seven. She was born past simple and present perfect continuous,
in London, England, and lives in London which were featured in Unit 2 (eg When did
and New Delhi. you start? How long have you been playing the
Toumani Diabaté plays the kora, a popular guitar? Have you been taking lessons?).
West African instrument. He is a music
superstar from Mali. He plays his kora all
over the world.
Lesson 1 Making music
differently pp26–27
5 Give students a few seconds to read the
questions so they know what to listen for. Play Aims
and pause the recording as necessary. Remind The focus of this lesson is to practise could /
them that they don’t need to write every word was able to / managed to to describe ability and
when they make notes. things we have succeeded in doing. Students also
read about two famous musicians, learn body
Answers metaphors and share information about their own
1 Yuja Wang is from China. personal achievements.
Courtney Pine is from England.
Hilary Hahn is from the USA. You first!
Rodrigo Sánchez and Gabriela Quintero Students work in pairs or small groups to tell each
are from Mexico. other about special abilities they have. They should
Anoushka Shankar is from England. report back in feedback.
Toumani Diabaté is from Mali.
2 Yuja Wang was born in Beijing. Background notes
Courtney Pine was born in London. • Evelyn Glennie was born on 19
Hilary Hahn was born in Virginia, USA. July, 1965, and is a famous Scottish
Rodrigo Sánchez and Gabriela Quintero percussionist. She grew up in
were born in Mexico City. Aberdeenshire and studied at Ellon
Anoushka Shankar was born in London. Academy and the Royal Academy of
Toumani Diabaté was born in Mali. Music. Glennie has been deaf since the
3 Courtney Pine’s parents came from age of 12. However, although her music
Jamaica. teacher believed she would never be
Anoushka Shankar is the daughter of the able to continue with her music career,
great Indian sitar player Ravi Shankar. she went on to become a successful
4 Yuja started playing the piano when she international performer. She often plays
was six. barefoot during her live performances
Hilary started playing when she was four and studio recordings to feel the music
years old. better. She has received many awards for
Rodrigo and Gabriela used to play in a her music and work for charity and has
rock band. been nominated for the Polar Music Prize
Anoushka started playing when she was of 2015.
seven years old. • Jean ‘Django’ Reinhardt was born on
Toumani plays his kora all over the world. 23 January, 1910, in Liberchies, Pont-à-

68 Unit 3
Celles, Belgium. Django (which means
‘I awake’ in Romani) was attracted to DJANGO
music at an early age and quickly learnt 1 He was burned in a fire.
to play the violin, banjo and guitar. 2 The doctors said he wouldn’t play music
But at the age of 18, in 1928, he was again.
injured in a fire and received first- and 3 He learnt to play the guitar in a
second-degree burns over half his body; different style using only his index and
two of the fingers of his left hand were middle fingers and played with jazz
also badly burned. Doctors believed violinist Stéphane Grappelli in the Hot
that he would never play guitar again, Club in Paris, France.
but with rehabilitation and practice, he
learnt to play in a completely new way. Tip: Ask students to read the instructions out
He is regarded as one of the greatest loud sometimes. This involves them more
guitar players of all time and created an in the lesson and keeps them on their
entirely new style of jazz guitar technique toes – they’ll be listening in case you ask
(sometimes called ‘hot’ jazz guitar). them! It also involves different learning
Django died in Fontainebleau at the styles – some students will understand
age of 43. Since his death, many guitar more quickly this way than if they just
players and musicians (including Jeff Beck listen to you read the instruction.
and Paul McCartney) have expressed their
admiration for Django Reinhardt, or have
3 Give students time to make questions about
cited him as a major influence.
the article. Walk around, help and correct as
needed. Then put them in pairs for them to ask
Reading and answer each other’s questions.
1 Students look at the photos and the title of the MA Stronger students can be left to write
article and write down five things they expect questions individually, whereas weaker
to read about. They then read the article and students will find it easier to do this in pairs. If
check to see if their predictions were right. they do, ensure they do the second half of the
activity (answering the questions) with a new
Students re-read the article and answer the
partner.
questions. Check answers in feedback.
Extra idea: Students find words or phrases
Answers
in the text that mean:
1 Evelyn Glennie
played clarinet, but now level of sound (pitch)
she plays drums and percussion. unable to hear (deaf)
Django Reinhardt played the banjo, the succeed or do something difficult
violin and the guitar. (manage to)
2 They both overcame disabilities. a position (a place)
get enough money to pay bills and buy
2 Put students in pairs for the jigsaw reading food (earn a living)
activity, asking and answering each other’s think or have an opinion about someone
questions about the musicians. or something (consider)

Answers EXPLORE ONLINE


EVELYN This activity can either be done in class or for
1 She lost her hearing. homework. Encourage students to look up the
2 Her teacher thought it was impossible musicians online using their smartphones or
for Evelyn to become a musician. tablets and share their information.
3 She realised that she could ‘hear’ music
with other parts of her body and went
on to get a place at the Royal College
of Music in London.

Unit 3 69
Grammar could / was able to / managed to 8 Elicit what a metaphor is; students then guess
and complete the sentences with the words
4 Students match the sentences and meanings. in the box in 7. Tell them that often there’s no
They can also look back at the article to help logical explanation for metaphors of this type;
them. Ask personalised questions and ask they’re just phrases we say!
students to think of something they could /
couldn’t do, managed to do / didn’t manage to Answers
do, were able to do / weren’t able to do.
1 hand 2 leg 3 finger 4 face
5 fingers 6 shoulder 7 chin 8 arm; leg
Answers
1b 2c 3a
Extra idea: Students write the isolated
5 Students complete the sentence and compare metaphors in their vocabulary notebooks,
with a partner. After checking answers, elicit eg to lend (someone) a hand, to pull
why could is wrong (it requires a conditional someone’s leg.
clause, eg He could finish his essay in time if he
didn’t have to go to football practice). 9 Ask students if they have similar phrases
in their language(s) or whether they are
Answers completely different (eg in Germany, they don’t
was able to, managed to keep their fingers crossed for luck, they press
their thumbs!).

6 Look at the two examples as a class, then tell 10 Students could look up metaphors in
students to write sentences about the pictures. a dictionary or search online on their
They then compare with a partner. smartphones. Get feedback and vote on the
MA Stronger students could write two or three most interesting, funny or strange metaphors.
sentences for each picture, or even build them
into a short story.
Speaking and writing
11 YOUR STORY Ask students to think about
Extra idea: To practise the grammar in a personal achievement, something they
a fun way, show a video clip of someone managed to do that they found difficult. Give
trying to do something difficult (maybe an example (eg running a marathon, learning
something like James Bond or Mr Bean in a language, etc) and tell them to write notes
Mr Bean’s Holiday). Students watch the clip about it. They then work their notes into a
and write down as many sentences as they story. Set a time limit and monitor, to offer help
can using could / couldn’t, managed to / and gentle correction.
didn’t manage to, were able to / weren’t
able to. 12 Students work in pairs and tell each other
their stories from 11. They should take notes
and write a summary of their partner’s story.
Vocabulary Body metaphors (1) Students then report back on their partner’s
7 Read out the body parts one at a time (or ask story in class feedback.
students to read them out) and ask students to
point to the photo. You could also tell them to Extra idea: Students tell each other
point to the relevant parts of their own bodies. their stories, then ask their partner
Change the order and say them more quickly comprehension questions about it (Where
to make it challenging and fun. was I when I did the bungee jump?, Who
was I with?, Where did I go afterwards?,
etc). Their partner has to listen, try to
remember the story and answer the
questions correctly.

70 Unit 3
Lesson 2 Music and rubbish 2 PREDICT Students look at the photos and
the title of the article and guess what the story
pp28–29 is about. Brainstorm as a class.
Aims 3 Set a short time limit for students to check
The focus of this lesson is to practise the past their predictions so they read quickly for gist
continuous and the past perfect to describe and don’t worry too much about unknown
background actions and sequences of events. vocabulary (they will focus on it in the next
Students also read about recycling and music, activity). What things were interesting or
learn about different containers and role-play an surprising about the story?
interview about the article.
4 THINK Have a student read the question
Warm-up aloud and check that everyone understands
Write a long world on the board (eg unbelievable). what it refers to (Is it a good thing that the kids
Students work in two teams to make as many of Cateura don’t have to play with rubbish any
words as they can out of the letters. Give an more?). Students then discuss the question in
example, then set a short time limit (about two pairs and give their opinions in feedback.
minutes). The winner is the team with the most
words. Extra idea: Ask students if they know
how much instruments cost. What are
Background note the cheapest instruments and the most
The Recycled Orchestra is a group of young expensive? Students look at the Did you
musicians from Cateura, Paraguay. The know? spot. Do they think an instrument
orchestra is renowned for their instruments, can ever be worth so much money?
which are crafted from recycled materials
gathered from a landfill site that the 5 Students read the text again and find the
community is built upon and around. words that match the definitions. Check
Nicolás ‘Cola’ Gómez, a garbage picker, together in feedback.
collaborated with Favio Chávez, a musician
doing volunteer work, and together they Answers
built instruments for over 100 different 1 rubbish dump 2 garbage 3 recycle
students in 2006. Favio’s maxim is ‘Having 4 measured 5 rewind 6 conductor
nothing is not an excuse for doing
nothing’. The orchestra has performed
6 Students read all six questions, then choose
concerts all over the world, and have
two to do a mini-presentation to the class
made a film entitled Landfill Harmonic.
about. Encourage them to give as much
With the money they have earned from
information as possible. If students feel
their concerts, the children of the Recycled
uncomfortable addressing the whole class,
Orchestra have been able to buy a property
allow them to work in groups and present to
near Cateura, where a huge music school
their group instead.
and concert hall is being built. There will
also be free craft classes for all the residents MA Encourage stronger students to talk about
of Cateura. more questions.

7 TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE Explain that a


Reading ‘brainwave’ can also be a sudden, inspired idea
for solving a problem. Students discuss their
1 Split the class into two or three teams and own ‘brainwaves’, then report back and vote
tell students to write down as many musical for the best stories.
instruments as they can. Tell them it’s a race.
The first team to get 15 instruments wins the
game.
MA Weaker students can have a quick look at
the list in 1 on page 25 before they start.

Unit 3 71
EXPLORE ONLINE
Tip: Encourage students to notice the
This can be done as homework or in class.
grammar of sentences, especially
Students look up information online using their
things like pronouns, conjunctions and
smartphones and tablets. You could also direct
transition signals like contrast, result and
them to a website where they can see the movie
reason clauses. This helps them to see
trailer: http://www.landfillharmonicmovie.com.
sequences of events and tell their own
Ask for a few opinions.
stories and anecdotes.
Grammar Past continuous; past perfect 

10 Students retell the story from 9 in pairs
8 Students complete the sentences in the table
from memory. Alternatively, you could tell
and look back at the article if they need help.
students the story but add in false information
They then answer the questions below the
and things that didn’t happen. Students have
table in pairs.
to listen and correct you when they hear a
MA For weaker students, ask extra concept- mistake.
checking questions and draw timelines on the
board to check understanding. Tip: When asking students to interrupt and
point out mistakes, encourage them to
Answers do it politely, eg I’m sorry, but I think
1 was working 2 was carrying that’s wrong.
3 had never seen 4 had made
a) had never seen, had made Vocabulary Where to put things
b) was working, was carrying
11 Do the first one with the class as an example.
9 1.21 Students work in pairs to put the Students then match the words and containers.
sentences in order, then listen to the recording
to check. Answers
garbage dump, landfill site, laundry basket,
Extra idea: Write the sentences on slips of recycling bin, rubbish dump, trash can,
paper to appeal to different learning styles waste paper bin
and introduce a kinaesthetic focus.

Extra idea: Some of these terms are more


Answers and transcript common in American English. Students do
f) Ali was taking the rubbish out some research to find out which ones, and
k) when he suddenly remembered what their British English equivalents are.
something.
h) The day before he had taken his car to 12 Write the names of the containers on the
the garage. board and produce a mind map with students’
b) He had left it there, ideas.
a) and he had forgotten all about it.
g) He went back into his flat and put on Speaking
his coat. 13 ROLE-PLAY Students choose a role, then
e) He called a cab and went to the garage, read the article again and think of what they’d
c) but he couldn’t see his car there. like to say.
j) The men at the garage were having
coffee. 14 Students work in pairs to interview each other
d) He asked them about his car. in the role they chose in 13. Interviewers
i) They had sent it to the recycling centre should ask questions to cover the four bullet
because it was so old! points. Remind students to answer in the first
person. Walk around, listen and note down
good sentences and any mistakes you hear to
highlight afterwards in feedback.

72 Unit 3
MA Go through the four bullet points first 3 1.22 Play the recording for students to listen
and elicit the questions needed (How did and check if their predictions were correct.
the Recycled Orchestra start? What was your Elicit personal responses from the class. Were
role? What has happened to the Recycled they surprised by the story? Do they agree
Orchestra? Are you happy that you’re getting about how important context is?
new instruments?).
Answers
Extra idea: Students think of an 1 Joshua Bell, the world-famous classical
embarrassing story (something that violinist, earned $32 for playing the
happened to them or to someone they violin in a Washington metro station.
know). Give them time to write a few 2 About an hour
notes and encourage them to sequence
the things that happened using the past
simple, past continuous and past perfect Transcript
simple. They then walk around the room woman You aren’t listening!
in a class mingle and tell each other their man Yes, I am. I mean, I was. Anyway – you
stories. When the laughter has died down, were talking about a busker?
get feedback and vote for the funniest woman Yes, I was, but he wasn’t an ordinary
stories. busker.
man OK, OK. Start from the beginning.
Again. If you must. What was so
Lesson 3 The busker pp30–31 special about this incident? It’s just a
story about a busker, right?
Aims woman Well, yes. And no.
The focus of this lesson is the use of modal man I think you’d better explain, ’cause
auxiliary verbs to make deductions and conclusions I don’t get it.
about past events. Students also listen to a story woman OK. This is the situation. Imagine that
about a classical violinist who became a busker for you are in the Washington metro
a day in the Washington subway and offer their station and this guy comes along and
opinions about different types of music in the he gets out his violin. Then he starts to
Vocabulary section. play.
man He starts to play. And?
You first! woman He plays classical music.
Students look at the photo. Elicit what’s happening man He plays classical music. So what? That
by asking questions: Where are they? What are isn’t a story.
they doing? Have you ever done this? Would you woman Hold on! He plays classical music for
like to do it? at least an hour. And a lot of people
come past.
Speaking man How many? I mean, more or less.
woman I can tell you exactly. It was 1,079
1 Students work in groups to discuss the
people.
questions, then compare with another group.
man Somebody counted?
Check their ideas and opinions in feedback.
woman Yes. The Washington Post.

Listening 1 man The Washington Post? The


newspaper?
2 PREDICT Students guess the answers to woman Yes.
the questions. Get a few suggestions from the man Well, at least he must have made a lot
class, but don’t confirm if they’re correct or not. of money, right?
MA Allow weaker students to make guesses in woman Wrong. He made just over 32 dollars.
pairs. And only seven people stopped to
listen.
man That isn’t great, is it? He can’t have
been very good.

Unit 3 73
Grammar Past conclusions Listening 2
4 Students match the sentences and meanings of 6 1.23 Give students a moment to read the
the modal verbs. Ask extra concept-checking questions so they know what to listen for. Play
questions if needed: the recording and pause as necessary.
When are the sentences about? (the past)
Are we completely sure about what Answers
happened? (no) 1 Joshua Bell
Why do we use words like ‘can’t have’, ‘could 2 Because of a conversation he had with
have’, ‘must have’ and ‘might have’? (to guess a journalist about context.
about the past) 3 Does it matter where you hear
Which modal verbs show more certainty? something or see something?
(must have, can’t have) 4 Where and when you see or hear
something
Answers
a) 1, 3
Transcript
b) 2, 4
woman Oh, he was good, he was very good.
His name is Joshua Bell, one of the
5 Look at the examples in the box, then
best violinists in the whole world.
brainstorm with the class a list of other
man Joshua Bell! Why was he playing in a
possible reasons why Joshua Bell earned so
metro station, then?
little money when he busked. Students work
woman It was because of a conversation
in pairs and formulate conclusions using the
he had with a reporter from The
modal verbs. Walk around and correct any
Washington Post. They were talking
grammar mistakes.
about context.
man Context? What do you mean?
Suggested answers woman Well, their question was: Does it
He can’t have played very well. matter where you hear something
He can’t have played loudly. or see something? For example, if
The people might / could have been in a the Mona Lisa was on the wall in
hurry. someone’s bedroom, would people
He might / could / must have played very say ‘It’s beautiful’? If you hear hip-hop
quietly. music in a concert hall, is it exciting?
People might not have liked his music. man Oh, I see and if you hear beautiful
He can’t have been very good. classical music in the wrong place
– like a metro station – is it still
beautiful?
Tip: When students make mistakes, indicate
woman Yes, that’s it, exactly. Joshua Bell said
something is wrong and try to elicit self-
it’s all about context.
correction or peer correction rather than
man Mm, I guess he was right.
just telling them. You could do this by
woman Looks like it. When he plays in
asking questions (When was it? Are you
a concert hall, people pay him
sure?) or echoing the sentence back and
thousands of dollars. But in the metro
pausing at the word they got wrong (He
station, he got exactly 32 dollars.
can’t have play?). This gets them more
involved in the learning process, helps
Background note
them analyse things, is more memorable
Joshua David Bell is an American violinist
and gives you the opportunity to praise
and conductor. He was born on 9
them for their correction.
December, 1967, in Bloomington, Indiana.
He started taking violin lessons at the
age of four and by the age of 14, he had
played with the Philadelphia Orchestra.

74 Unit 3
Joshua made his Carnegie Hall debut in 9 Write the word music in the middle of the
1985, at the age of 17, with the St Louis board and make a vocabulary network or a
Symphony. He has since performed with word fountain with the class. Elicit as many
many of the world’s major orchestras different types of music as you can. Repeat the
and conductors and he won a Grammy words with the class to practise pronunciation.
Award in 1993. He also performed the solo Try and find at least one person for every type
part on John Corigliano’s Oscar-winning of music on the board.
soundtrack for the film The Red Violin and
was also featured in Ladies in Lavender. 10 Draw a scale from 1 to 10 on the board and
Joshua is also well known for the elicit the extremes from the list to go at either
‘Washington Post experiment’, when end (ie I’m crazy about at 1, I can’t stand at
he put on a baseball cap and played as 10). You could also draw emoticons to indicate
an incognito busker in a metro subway ‘like’ or ‘dislike’. Students should arrange
station, L’Enfant Plaza, in Washington, the phrases on the scale. There are some in
DC, on 12 January, 2007. The experiment the middle of the scale (eg I don’t really like
was videotaped on a hidden camera; of and I’m not really into) that are very similar in
over 1,000 people who passed by, only a meaning, so as long as students put them in
handful stopped to listen to him, and only roughly the correct order, accept their answers.
one recognised him. For his performance,
Bell collected $32.17 from 27 passers-by Suggested answers
(excluding $20 from the passer-by who 1f 2j 3e 4d 5i 6g 7h 8c
recognised him). Three days before, he had 9 b 10 a
earned considerably more playing the same
repertoire at a concert. The Washington 11 Students talk in groups about music using
Post posted the video on YouTube and a the phrases from 10. Encourage them to give
feature-length documentary, Find Your reasons for their opinions.
Way: A Busker’s Documentary, chronicled
Bell’s experience at https://www.youtube. Extra idea: Play a game of ‘Juke Box Jury’
com/watch?v=1arAYoKE2VY. with the class. Play different styles of music
and have the class vote for their favourites.
7 VIDEO OPTION Students record themselves
telling the story of Joshua Bell busking. When Speaking
they’ve finished, they can upload the clip to
YouTube or just walk around the class and 12 Read the four statements together as a class
show each other their video clips. and tell students to look at the example. They
then rewrite the sentences in a personalised
Tip: Sometimes retelling a story several times way. Encourage them to use the phrases from
is a very effective way of improving. 10 and to add an explanatory sentence for
When we do things for the first time, we each one, as in the example.
often make mistakes, so tell students to
13 Put students in pairs to compare their answers
watch their videos, pick up any mistakes
to 12 and tell each other what they like or
and make little changes the next time.
dislike. They should explain why and ask extra
questions.
Vocabulary Saying what you like
14 MINI-TALK This could be done for
8 Students talk in pairs or small groups about the homework or in class. Give students time to
different types of music in the box. Do a quick find out background information online about
survey afterwards to find out which is the most their chosen song. Remind them to use the
popular. ideas in the box; ideally, they should give their
MA Pair a weaker student with a stronger talk using just brief notes. Monitor and choose
student to encourage discussion. two or three students to give their talk to the
whole class.

Unit 3 75
Music link Everyday English p32
Ask students if any of them know either of these
pieces of music. Try to choose the piece that Complimenting someone’s performance
fewest students are familiar with so that as many
1 GUESS Students make guesses about the
of them as possible hear it for the first time. If any
photo and compare ideas with a partner.
students play the violin, ask them if they’ve ever
played either of these pieces.
Answers
Encourage students to give their honest opinions
of the music. For those who said they didn’t like 1 A guitar
classical music, has listening to this changed their 2 People have given money to a busker.
mind?
2 1.24 6 Play the video or recording for
Culture note students to check if their predictions in 1 were
• Méditation de Thaïs is a piece for solo right. Try to avoid pausing at this stage, as
violin and orchestra written by French students only need to get the gist first time
composer Jules Massenet (1842–1912) around.
as part of his opera Thaïs in 1894.
The eponymous heroine is reflecting Transcript
on advice given to her by a monk and marianne I’m really enjoying your music. Thank
deciding to leave her life of luxury and you so much for letting me listen to
pleasure to find salvation. It is in the key you.
of D major and is around five minutes charlie My pleasure. I’m glad you’re enjoying
long. it.
• Jean Sibelius (1865–1957) was a Finnish marianne Absolutely! Your last song was great.
violinist and composer. He wrote his You’re great.
Violin Concerto in 1904, but was charlie Oh, really? Do you think so?
unhappy with its first performance marianne Yeah. I mean, like, you’re amazing!
and revised it substantially. The new charlie Well, it’s kind of you to say that, but ...
version premiered in October 1905 marianne Honestly, you rock. You really rock!
and is the only concerto that Sibelius charlie I’m grateful for that. Thank you.
wrote. It was originally dedicated to marianne No, really! I mean you’re just incredible
the noted violinist Willy Burmester, – I mean you’ve made my day.
but he was unable to attend either of charlie Have I? Wow.
the premieres and was so offended marianne Yeah, you deserve a real pat on the
that the performances still went ahead back.
without him that he refused to play the charlie Right. OK. Well, thank you again. I
concerto ever again. It is written in the appreciate that.
key of D minor and is considered a very marianne Yeah. You were good. Really good.
challenging solo violin piece. High five!
charlie High five? OK, well, thank you, that’s
Take a break enough.
marianne Oh, come on. You’re honestly the
Try to find a piece of music to play that everyone
wants to hear. If they can’t reach consensus, go best musician I …
charlie OK. Hold it, Mrs ... uh? Look, thank
with the majority, but make a list of other songs
to play in the next few classes. Encourage them to you for the kind words, but that’s
choose a wide variety of music styles. Alternatively, enough. I can’t take any more
give them five minutes to listen to a song of their compliments.
marianne Oh, you’re just being modest. OK,
choice on their mp3 players or phones, providing
they have headphones! it’s just I’ve never heard anyone as …
charlie No more compliments, OK? I can’t
take it any more.
marianne OK, I’m sorry. I tend to get a bit over-
enthusiastic. But you’re just so good!
76 Unit 3
charlie Yes, well … MA Give weaker students a minute or two to
marianne And I feel very emotional. But that’s read the transcript of the conversation first.
because you are …
charlie OK, stop! 7 Show the video or play the recording again
marianne OK. I’ve stopped. I think. Yes, I have
so students can compare their conversations.
charlie Well, that’s good. Were they similar or really different?
marianne OK. Sorry, don’t mind me. I’m just 8 1.25 Encourage students to guess what
going to listen. the woman did next. Elicit their ideas, then
charlie Thanks again. play the recording so they can see if their
3 Students do the activity, then watch or listen predictions were correct.
again to check their answers. Encourage them
to correct the false ones. Answer
She started calling people to listen to him.
Answers
1 True
Transcript
2 False (He doesn’t like too many
woman How long have you been busking?
compliments.)
man A few months.
3 Don’t know
woman And you do it because you love it?
4 Don’t know
man Because I love it? Because it’s fun to
5 True
stand out in the cold weather? Because
it’s great when people walk past and
Tip: Give students control of the audio / video don’t even listen? Because … ?
player from time to time so they can pause woman So if you don’t like it so much, why do
and replay the parts they’d like to listen you do it?
to. This creates learner autonomy and gets man ’Cause I’m a student. In college. I have
them more involved in the lesson. to eat. I have to earn money to eat,
you know.
4 Students write the sentences in the correct woman Oh, but you were great, you were just

column. You could also ask them to come up so good.


and write the answers on the board. man Please, don’t start again.
woman Hey, I have an idea. I said I have an

Answers idea.
man Yeah?
Compliments: b, g, h, i, j, k, l
woman Why don’t I tell everyone how great
Responses: a, c, d, e, f
you are? Start playing again. Come
on over, everyone! Come and listen
5 Students discuss in pairs which statements are to this amazing young singer. He’s
more formal / informal. amazing, the best around, he’s … hey,
what’s your name, anyway?
Answers man Charlie.
Expressions b, j and k are more informal woman He’s Charlie!
(especially b and k, which are very
colloquial). Extra idea: Have a class discussion about
the situation. Do students think the woman
6 Students act the conversation out with was over-the-top in her compliments? Was
a partner. Encourage them to mimic the the busker being over-sensitive? Who do
intonation from the recording. Let them they identify most with?
have several attempts at it, to see if they can
remember a bit more each time. Ask one or
two stronger pairs to perform their version for
the class.

Unit 3 77
9 ROLE-PLAY Students think of other -phy biography, geography, philosophy,
compliments and do their best to embarrass photography
each other. You could also make it into a -gy biology, futurology, psychology
game. One student pays compliments; the -ous jealous
other student has to respond politely without
laughing!
13 P 1.27 Play the recording so students
10 P 1.26 Play the recording for students to can check their answers. Then elicit the links
underline the stressed syllable in each word. between the spelling and the stress tendencies.
To make it more visual, do word-stress drilling Check together and do some repetition drilling
and show the pronunciation by tapping out to practise pronunciation. If necessary, elicit or
the beat and raising your hand on stressed explain the meanings of the words.
syllables.
Answers
Answers a) penultimate syllable
emotional, enthusiastic, famous grateful, b) penultimate syllable
incredible c) syllable before the -able or -ible ending
d) two syllables before the end
11 P Students work out the answers in pairs,
then think of two more words for each
Tip: Although word stress is often fairly
category.
predictable because of the part of
MA Challenge stronger students or early speech, number of syllables and type of
finishers to think of a two-syllable word with suffix, try not to tell students they are
the stress on the second syllable (eg invest, rules! There are often exceptions, and
career). students might overgeneralise. Instead,
it’s best to talk about ‘strong tendencies’
Answers and tell students to approach every new
1 grateful word on its own terms.
2 decisive, enthusiastic
3 emotional, incredible
Extra idea: To review and reinforce the
new vocabulary, students choose five of the
12 P Students work in pairs or groups of three words and write definitions for them. They
to work out where the word stress is in each then describe their words to a partner, who
of the words. You could also make word cards has to listen to the definition and guess the
and cards with stress patterns. Give each correct word.
group a set of cards and ask them to match
the words to the correct stress pattern. This
offers variety, is easy to correct (just by moving Vocabulary plus p64
the card into another place) and is a visual,
auditory and kinaesthetic activity. Encourage Household tasks
students to group the words according to their
1 Write do and make as column headings on the
endings.
board. Divide the class into two teams and ask
a student from each team alternately to come
Answers
to the board. Read out one of the words /
-ic academic, altruistic, energetic, phrases from the box and ask the student
pathetic, to write it in the correct column. They win 2
-ve aggressive points if they do it without help and 1 point
-ble amiable, disagreeable, horrible, if they need to ask their team’s advice or be
dislikeable, likeable, loveable, reliable corrected by their team. The team with the
-gry angry most points at the end is the winner.
-cy bankruptcy, efficiency
-ty insensitivity, legibility

78 Unit 3
Answers Answer
do: the dusting, the ironing, the washing music
up, the laundry, the cleaning, the dishes,
the hoovering / vacuuming 6 Students classify the collocations shown on the
make: a cup of coffee, a mess, board.
arrangements, breakfast*, a mistake, the
bed Answers
You may sometimes hear breakfast used
1 live music, background music
with do, as in Let’s do breakfast tomorrow,
2 listen to music, compose music, play
especially in the USA, but this is generally
music, face the music
confined to businesspeople arranging
3 music industry
meetings.
4 music to my ears

2 Quickly elicit the verbs to fill the gaps, then


7 Students work in pairs to write their
ask three students to read the completed
definitions. They then work with another pair,
sentences aloud.
reading out their definitions for the other pair
to guess the phrases.
Answers
MA Stronger students could write definitions
1 Put 2 take 3 collect
for all eight phrases.

3 Ask students which words are more common Phrasal verbs make
in which variety of English.
8 2.23 Give pairs five minutes to match the
phrases to the correct gaps in the conversation,
Answers
then play the recording for them to check.
a) trash, garbage
b) rubbish Answers
1c 2a 3d 4b
4 Students work in pairs to discuss how
household tasks are shared out in their homes.
9 Elicit the phrases with make from 8 and write
Do a class survey and ask if students think that
them on the board – make off with, make it up
domestic chores are distributed fairly or not.
to, make it out, make do with. Students then
Collocations work in pairs to write their story, following the
instructions. Their final story should include
5 Explain that a concordance is a list produced one sentence for each phrase.
by a computer that shows every example of
a particular word used a body of writing. The
featured word is usually printed in a different
colour or aligned in the middle of the line (as
in this activity). Tell students that they need to
look on either side of the gap to find the words
that the missing word collocates with. Elicit the
collocations for the gaps and write them on
the board (ie listen to _____ , compose _____ ,
live _____ , background _____ , play _____ ,
_____ industry, _____ to my ears, face the
_____). Students identify the word that’s
missing from all the collocations.

Unit 3 79
4 Is it art?
UNIT GRAMMAR: articles, comparison; superlative sentences
VOCABULARY: art and pictures; people in the arts; adjectives to describe people; adjectives to describe the arts
FOCUS FUNCTIONS: discussing opinions and making judgements

Introduction p33 Answers


1 calligraphy, graffiti, graphic design,
Aims
installation, printmaking, sculpture,
The focus of this lesson is to introduce the topic statue, tapestry, video
of art, especially street art, and to teach students 2 collage, drawing, landscape, painting,
related vocabulary. photograph, portrait, sketch
3 chalk, charcoal, chisel, paintbrush
You first!
Show some photos of graffiti; students discuss
3 Students compare with a partner and think of
the questions in pairs or small groups. Check their
extra words for each category. Get feedback
ideas in feedback and ask additional questions
and add extra ideas to the board.
(eg Is it art or just vandalism? Should street art be
allowed? Why? / Why not?).
Extra idea: Play a spelling-bee game to
1 Students work in pairs or small groups to talk review the vocabulary. Ask students to
about the photos and give reasons for their close their books and dictate the words in a
opinions. Get feedback and find out which random order. Students listen and write the
piece of street art is the most / least popular. words with the correct spelling. They then
compare their answers with a partner and
Culture notes check answers in feedback.
• The Istanbul photo is of a work by
Brazilian street artist Claudio Ethos. He 4 1.28 To introduce the topic and set the
specialises in murals and has painted scene, show a photo of an example of Banksy’s
many large images in his home town of street art and ask extra questions (eg Do you
São Paulo. recognise the picture? Who painted it? What
• The Santa Monica photo is by Agata does he or she look like? Is Banksy a man or a
Oleksiak, a Polish artist known woman? Would you buy a picture by Banksy?).
professionally as ‘Crocheted Olek’ Play the recording for students to listen and
or just ‘Olek’. Her works include answer the questions. Pause as necessary and
sculptures, installations (such as the get feedback.
crocheted bicycle pictured), inflatables
and fibre art. Answers
• The London photo is by Banksy (see
1 Banksy is a graffiti artist, a political
page 35).
activist and a painter.
2 He is a street artist and he makes films
2 Write the three categories on the board too.
and ask students to come and write the words 3 He is most famous for his paintings
from the box in the correct category. Repeat on buildings in cities all over the world
the words together to practise pronunciation. – especially in Britain and the United
As a follow-up, students say the words and States.
underline the stressed syllables. Ask students 4 Banksy’s picture is the maid sweeping
which words are very similar in their own rubbish under a cloth.
language and which are very different.

80 Unit 4
Transcript disaster movie’, made its debut at the
One of the most famous artists in the world is 2010 Sundance Film Festival. The film was
someone called Banksy. You’ve never heard of released in the UK on 5 March 2010 and
him (or is it her?)? Well, let me explain. was nominated for the Academy Award
Banksy is a graffiti artist, a political activist and for Best Documentary. In 2014, he was
a painter. Oh, and he makes films, too. He is awarded Person of the Year at the 2014
most famous for his painting in cities all over Webby Awards.
the world – especially in Britain and the United Banksy’s name and identity remain
States. He wins prizes, too. unknown, but there has been speculation
But is he ‘he’? The thing about Banksy is no that Banksy is a woman, or that Banksy is a
one really knows who he is. Some say he is team of several artists.
an Englishman called Robin Gunningham,
but others think he is a woman. Or perhaps 5 VIDEO OPTION Set the video activity for
he is really about 14 different artists. Banksy’s homework. Ask students to bring to class their
identity is one of the greatest mysteries of films of interesting graffiti they found in their
contemporary art. town and share with each other. Remind them
Many people love Banksy’s work. You can see that they’re not expected to find major works
it on walls and bridges in cities like London and of art, just any examples of graffiti.
New York – or on buildings in New Orleans
6 FINISH IT Write the sentence starters on the
after Hurricane Katrina. For example, in one of
board for students to complete in their own
his London paintings, a maid sweeps rubbish
words.
under a cloth.
Other people do not like what he does. 7 Students compare their ideas with a partner
They think the work of Banksy is just graffiti and give reasons for their opinions. Do they
– like any other angry child or adolescent. agree or disagree?
It’s vandalism. It destroys buildings. And so
Banksy’s street art is often destroyed.
Lesson 1 Mystery attacks
Background note pp34–35
‘Banksy’ is the pseudonym of an English
graffiti artist, political activist, film director Aims
and painter. His satirical street art and The focus of this lesson is the definite and
subversive graffiti and social commentary indefinite article. Students also learn about people
have been featured on streets, walls and in the arts in the Vocabulary section and read
bridges of cities throughout the world. about mystery attacks on famous pieces of art.
Banksy does not sell photographs or They have the opportunity to discuss controversial
reproductions of his street graffiti, but his examples of modern art, too.
art has been sold at auction houses such as
Sotheby’s for huge sums of money. After Warm-up
Christina Aguilera bought pictures for Do an online image search and print out some
£25,000, in October 2006, a set of Kate pictures of famous pieces of art. Cut the pictures
Moss paintings sold in Sotheby’s London in half, mix them up and give each student half
for £50,400, setting an auction record for a picture. Students walk around the room and
Banksy’s work. The six silk-screen prints, describe their picture to other people. Remind
featuring the model painted in the style of them they’re not allowed to show anyone, just
Andy Warhol’s Marilyn Monroe pictures, describe the image. They have to listen to the
sold for five times their estimated value. descriptions and find the person they think has the
His success and influence on other street other half of their picture.
artists has been called ‘the Banksy effect’.
Banksy’s first film, Exit Through the Gift
Shop, billed as ‘the world’s first street-art

Unit 4 81
Tip: The warm-up activity on page 35 is 3 The people of Aldeburgh asked an artist
a good way of promoting learner to put it there to commemorate local
interaction and speaking, and also composer Benjamin Britten.
changing pairs. When students find
the person who has the other half of 4 Explain to students that these are the answers
their picture, ask them to sit down next to questions that they have to formulate.
to their new partner. This enables you Do the first one together as an example to
to change seating and manage the illustrate that each one may have several
classroom in a game and also helps to possible questions (eg Where did Britten live?
move problematic partners. Where is ‘Scallop’?). Students work in pairs to
decide which four words / phrases to choose
Speaking and reading and write questions. When they’ve finished,
they work with new partners to ask their
1 EVERYBODY UP! Students walk around questions and see if they get the right answers.
the room in a class mingle and find out
You could also do this as a class game. Put
information about each other. They then report
each word / phrase on a different card and give
back to the whole class and ask extra questions
each group a set of cards. Students take turns
to promote further discussion. Were there any
to pick a card and ask the right question to get
categories with only one student (or even no
the answer on the card.
students)? Ask for ideas as to why that might be.
MA Stronger students can work alone to write
2 GUESS Students make predictions about questions and can choose more than four
the photo. Have they seen it before? What’s words / phrases.
the connection between the sculpture and the
writing ‘Move this tin can’? Suggested answers
1 Where was Britten from? / Where did
Background note Britten live? / Where is Scallop?
Scallop is a sculpture dedicated to English 2 Which composer of classical music lived
composer Benjamin Britten, who used to in Aldeburgh? / Who is the sculpture
walk along the beach where the sculpture dedicated to?
is located. Created from stainless steel by 3 Where is Aldeburgh? / Which country
Suffolk-based artist Maggi Hambling, it did Britten come from?
stands 15 feet (4.6 metres) high, and was 4 Has the sculpture been taken away, or
unveiled in November 2003. The sculpture is it still there?
is made up of two interlocking scallop 5 Who created the sculpture? / Who did
shells; each one is broken. People are the people of Aldeburgh ask to create
encouraged to sit on it and watch the sea. something in Britten’s memory?
The sculpture is controversial in the local 6 What does the graffiti say?
area, and some people think it has spoiled 7 Who were the attackers?
the beach. It has also been vandalised with 8 What is the sculpture called?
graffiti and paint on 13 separate occasions.. 9 Did everyone like it? / What was the
reaction to the sculpture?
3 Set a short time limit so students read for
gist and don’t worry too much about new
vocabulary. They then read and check if their Extra ideas: Put students in pairs. Student
predictions were correct. A is a journalist who wants to know more
about the history of the sculpture. Student
Answers B is an expert about the history of Scallop.
Student A interviews student B about the
1 A sculpture named Scallop by Maggi
sculpture.
Hambling
Students find out more about Maggi
2 On a beach in Aldeburgh, England
Hambling and give a short presentation of
her life and work.

82 Unit 4
Grammar Articles

Answers
5 Students complete the extracts with the correct 1 nothing (rule 4) 2 a (rule 1) 3 nothing
article. They can look back at the text to help (rule 4) 4 nothing (rule 5) 5 the (rule 2)
them if necessary. 6 an (rule 1) 7 nothing (rule 5)
8 a (rule 1) 9 an (rule 1) 10 an (rule 1)
Answers 11 The (rule 2) 12 the (rule 2)
1 a 2 the 3 Some 4 the 5 nothing; 13 nothing (rule 5) 14 The (rule 2)
nothing 6 nothing 7 the 8 nothing
Vocabulary People in the arts
6 Students work in pairs, look back at the
sentences and work out the grammar rules. 9 To introduce the activity, ask students what
Elicit that where a name includes the definite we call someone who makes sculptures (a
article (eg the United States, the Mona Lisa), sculptor). They then look at the words in the
we don’t add another one. box and complete the mind map. You may
want to tell them that one word (director) can
Answers go in more than one category. Encourage them
to add extra words if they can. Tell them that
1 a 2 the 3 some 4 nothing 5 nothing
the collective term for these things is the arts
/ðiˈjɑːts/. Ask students which words are very
Extra idea: Focus on pronunciation. Model similar in their own language and which are
the weak schwa in indefinite articles /ə/ and very different.
the different pronunciation of the definite
article if it’s followed by words that begin Answers
with a vowel: /ðiː/: art: photographer, potter
the car /ðə kɑː/ the boy /ðə bɔɪ/ theatre: director, playwright
the apple /ðiː ˈæpl/ the elephant / ðiː ˈelɪfənt/ film: cameraman, director
• What vowel sound does ‘the’ have literature: poet, writer
when it’s followed by a noun that music: composer, conductor, singer
begins with a consonant? (/ə/) dance: ballerina, choreographer, dancer
• What sound does ‘the’ have when it’s
followed by a noun that begins with a 10 Ask students to think of a famous person from
vowel? (/iː/) each category (eg film – Steven Spielberg).
You could also point out the /j/ sound for Students can play this game in pairs, groups or
vowel-to-vowel linking: as a class.
the apple /ðiːˈjæpl/ the elephant / ðiːˈjelɪfənt/ MA If weaker students struggle to describe
the people they’ve chosen, help them with the
7 Students work in pairs to describe Scallop. necessary vocabulary.
Ask extra questions: Do you like the sculpture?
How would you feel if it was put on a beach Extra idea: Students ask yes / no questions
near you? to guess the famous person. Give an
MA Weaker students may need to re-read example to model the activity:
the article on page 34 to help them; stronger a Is this person in music?

students should attempt it with their books b No.

closed. a Are they in film?


b Yes.
8 1.29 Students complete the gaps. They can a Is it a famous director?
look back at the grammar rules in 6 to help b Yes.
them. Then play the recording so they can a Are they old?
check their answers. Check as a class, eliciting b Yes.
which rule applies in each gap. a Is it a man?
MA Remind weaker students that an is used b Yes.
before nouns beginning with a vowel or silent h.
Unit 4 83
a Was he an actor a long time ago? You first!
b Yes. Elicit the difference between graffiti and pieces
a Is he famous for westerns?
of public art (public art is done with official
b Yes.
permission). Students discuss statues and pieces of
a Is it Clint Eastwood?
public art in pairs. Where are they located? Who
b Yes!
created them? Do you like them? Do a class survey
They get a bonus point for guessing in and find out the best-known and most popular
fewer than ten questions. pieces of art.

Speaking Reading
11 Students discuss the works of art in pairs and 1 GUESS Tell students they’re going to do a
decide who should win the prize. Tell them to dictionary race. Put them in small groups and
give reasons for their opinions. give them dictionaries. They have to find the
eight words and write down the definitions.
Background notes The first team to finish wins the game.
• Rachel Whiteread is an English artist, If they don’t have dictionaries, they can use
born in 1963. She was the first woman online dictionaries via their smartphones or
to win the Turner Prize (in 1993). Many tablets. Get feedback, then ask them to guess
of her works are casts of ordinary the connection between the words. Don’t
domestic objects. confirm or refute any of their guesses at this
• Chris Ofili is an English painter, born in stage.
1968. He won the Turner Prize in 1998
2 Set a short time limit so students read quickly.
and many of his works include elephant
They should then check if their predictions
dung. The title of this work comes from
were right. What things were interesting or
a song by Bob Marley and the Wailers.
surprising?

EXPLORE ONLINE Answer


Students look up information for homework or in
All the words relate to sculptures made by
class using their smartphones or tablets. Although
Gormley.
there may be other similarities that they identify,
the obvious one is that both artists won the Turner
Prize. Background note
The English sculptor Antony Gormley was
Extra idea: Students prepare a short born on 30 August, 1950. His best-known
presentation with background information works include The Angel of the North near
about an artist, their favourite work by Newcastle in the north of England, Another
that artist and why they like it. Encourage Place on Crosby Beach near Liverpool, and
them to include pictures to make their Event Horizon, which is made up of 31
presentations more visually attractive life-size figures located in London, around
and interesting. They then make their Madison Square in New York City, and
presentations in small groups. in São Paulo, Brazil. Gormley’s auction
record is £3,401,250 for a maquette of
The Angel of the North, set at Christie’s,
Lesson 2 Mystery man pp36–37 London, in October 2011. He has won the
Turner Prize, the Laurence Olivier Award for
Aims Outstanding Achievement in Dance (for a
The focus of this lesson is comparisons and set design for a ballet), the Obayashi Prize
adjectives to describe people. Students read about in 2012, and the 2013 Praemium Imperiale
the maquettes of the Turner Prize-winning sculptor laureate for sculpture.
Antony Gormley and also complete a poem in the The Angel of the North is a contemporary
Writing section about statues and other works of sculpture, completed in 1998. It is a steel
art. sculpture of an angel, 20 metres (66 feet)
84 Unit 4
tall, with wings measuring 54 metres
(177 feet) across. The wings do not stand Answers
straight sideways, but are angled 3.5 1 Five from: Crosby, London, New York,
degrees forward; Gormley did this to create São Paulo, Austria, Norway, Newcastle
‘a sense of embrace’. 2 The statue of Christ at Corcovado in Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil
3 Students talk about the statues in small 3 Another Place is a work situated on
groups. Encourage them to use the adjectives the beach at Crosby, near Liverpool,
in the box. Walk around, listen and note down England. The statues disappear under
any other adjectives and good sentences you the waves when the tide comes in, then
hear. Highlight nice ideas and good use of stand free when the tide is out.
English in feedback, and find out whether the 4 His assistants wrap him in clingfilm,
class agreed on their descriptions. then wrap cloth and then wet plaster
around that. When the plaster is hard,
Tip: Always try to monitor unobtrusively they cut him out of it. The cast is then
when students do speaking activities. put back together and covered in lead
They need to know you’re there, or fibreglass or iron.
because this keeps them on task, but if 5 ‘I simply use my body as a starting
you get too close, it can disrupt learner point,’ he says, ‘to see how man and
interaction and pairwork, as they tend nature interact. It’s as if [the men in his
to forget about their partner and talk work] are both watching and being
to you instead! Be available to help watched.’
and near enough to monitor, but keep
a distance so they work things out 6 TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE Students match
together. the words to make phrases from the article.
They then look back at the text to check. Give
4 Remind students to figure out the meaning of an example of phrases about the sea (eg rising
the vocabulary through contextual inference out of the waves) and ask students to find
and clues in the sentences. They then compare other examples.
ideas with a partner. Ask one student to
supply an example sentence for each word. Answers
Write them on the board and invite peer hugely popular, the tide comes in, the
commentary. tide goes out, they disappear beneath the
MA Stronger students can do all six words. waves
sea phrases: the tide comes in / goes out;
Answers they disappear beneath the waves; rising
out of the waves; stand free of the water
shabbier: looking older and in worse condition
protect: to keep someone or something
safe EXPLORE ONLINE
obviously: in a way that is easy to This can be done as homework or in class.
understand or see Students search for information online with their
wrap: to cover or surround something with smartphones / tablets. Do a quick survey to find
something else the class’s favourite Gormley sculpture.
a starting point: a place where something
Grammar Comparison
begins
critics: people who give their opinion on 7 SEARCH AND THINK Students work in
something, usually in the arts pairs to find the answers in the article. Ask
extra concept-checking questions to check
5 Students find the information. Put them in their understanding of the function and form
pairs and encourage them to skim-read quickly. of the grammar:
Set a time limit and see if they can beat the • How many things are the sentences
clock! describing? (two)

Unit 4 85
• What do the words in bold do? (They make Vocabulary Adjectives to describe people
a degree of comparison between the two
things in each sentence.) 10 This activity can be done as a game. Put
• Which words shows a much more students in pairs. One student says an adjective
noticeable difference? (considerably, a lot) from the box; their partner has to say the
• Which words show smaller differences? opposite. Give them a five-second time limit
(a little bit, nearly) for each word to make it more competitive and
• Which words are followed by a comparative fun.
adjective? (considerably, a lot, a little)
• Which word is followed by ‘as + adjective Suggested answers
+ as’? (nearly) big – small
To review the comparisons, students walk cheerful – miserable
around the class and find someone who is crazy – sensible
considerably / a lot taller or shorter than they funny – boring
are. They then find someone who is a little generous – mean
taller or shorter or someone who is nearly as happy – sad
tall as them. intelligent – unintelligent / stupid
large – little
Answers noisy – quiet
1 The Angel of the North is considerably old – young
shabbier than most public art. rich – poor
2 The Angel of the North is a little bit tall – short
smaller than the statue of Christ in Rio
de Janeiro. 11 Students work in pairs to make comparisons
3 Gormley is a lot more successful than about the photo using some of the adjectives
the critics. and opposites from 10 (although they can use
4 Gormley isn’t nearly as big as The Angel other adjectives if they wish). Get feedback
of the North. and check their ideas.

8 Students fill in the gaps with the correct Tip: Students often get stuck in an
comparatives. Check answers in feedback. ‘intermediate plateau’, where improvement
is slower and less noticeable. One feature
Answers of this is that they use the same words
again and again instead of expanding
a) considerably, a lot
their range of lexis. Try to encourage them
b) nearly
to write down new words and use them
regularly. This helps to reinforce recent
9 Students complete the sentences with the learning and increases their vocabulary,
words in the box. They should check unknown confidence, momentum and motivation.
words in the dictionary and change the
sentences if necessary to ensure they’re still
true (the focus is on the comparative structures Writing
___ taller than and (not) ____ as tall as, not the 12 Students complete the sentences and the
works of art). poem, then compare their ideas with a partner.
MA Weaker students may need help to get
Answers
the two sentences correct before they try and
a) The Angel of the North is far / much / fit them into the poem. Do them together as a
significantly taller than Michelangelo’s class on the board if necessary.
statue of David.
The statue of Christ in Rio is slightly Answers
taller than The Angel of the North.
1 The tide is out
b) The Angel of the North is almost as tall
2 The waves race in.
as the statue of Christ in Rio.

86 Unit 4
13 Students make their own poems about statues Transcript
or works of art they like, then share in pairs or announcer And now we return to our weekly
small groups. arts programme, The Arts Today.
maria Welcome back to The Arts Today.
Lesson 3 Mystery art pp38–39 What are we going to talk about
now, Russell?
Aims russell Well, Maria, there’s a new artist
on the scene. Her name is Lana
The focus of this lesson is superlative sentences
Newstrom.
to describe things that are different to all others.
maria Never heard of her.
Students also learn adjectives to describe the
russell No, me neither, but she sounds
arts, listen to the Nat King Cole song Mona Lisa
interesting.
and practise phrases of disagreement to describe
maria Why?
paintings and sculptures they’ve seen.
russell Well, she does what she calls
Warm-up ‘invisible art’.
maria What do you mean?
Do an image search and print out a series of
russell Well, basically her art is invisible.
random pictures. Ensure you have at least three
pictures for every group and place them face down There’s nothing there.
maria Nothing? Absolutely nothing?
on a table so students can’t see them. Put students
russell Nothing at all.
in groups of three and ask one student from each
maria But that’s ridiculous. That’s one of
group to come and select three pictures from
the table. Each group has to think of imaginative the most ridiculous things I’ve ever
connections between the three pictures and heard.
russell Yes, me too. And a lot of people
tell a story. Get feedback and vote for the most
imaginative and funniest stories. are really angry about it. I’ve read
hundreds of tweets. We’re getting
Listening 1 thousands of emails. They are
some of the angriest emails we
1 To introduce the topic, students look at the have ever received. Here’s one:
photo and talk about the questions together. ‘This is the stupidest idea I have
ever come across.’
Answers maria But if the art is invisible, well, it
1 It shows an art gallery. isn’t art, is it?
2 All the pictures are empty frames. russell That’s not what she says,
apparently. She says that, sure, we
2 GUESS Students make predictions about can’t see anything. But she put a
what they’re going to hear and how it’s likely lot of time into making her art. She
to be connected to the photo. Elicit their ideas had to think about it. That’s the
and get their reactions to the photo and the art. But we can’t physically see it.
lesson title ‘Mystery art’. maria Now I’ve heard everything!
russell There’s an exhibition of her work.
3 1.30 Students listen and check if their maria What work? There is no work.
predictions were correct. Play and pause russell She wouldn’t agree with you!
the recording if necessary and go over any maria Where did you hear about this
unknown vocabulary, eg invisible, ridiculous, artist, Russell?
apparently. russell On a radio programme.
maria What was it called?
Answer russell This and That. It’s on CBC.
A radio show hoax involved an artist who maria CBC?
produces ‘invisible art’. russell The Canadian Broadcasting
Corporation.
maria Oh, that explains it!

Unit 4 87
Background note Answers
In September 2014, the CBC radio station There’s a new artist on the scene, We’re
in Canada discussed the invisible art of getting thousands of emails, I’ve read
Lana Newstrom and claimed that people hundreds of tweets, Now I’ve heard
were paying thousands of dollars for her everything
empty paintings. It created a storm of 1 Now I’ve heard everything!
anger from art studios and critics, but it 2 It just means ‘a lot’. Native speakers
was in fact a hoax by the radio-show hosts, often use exaggeration and hyperbole
Pat Kelly and Peter Oldring. Many people in a funny way to make stories more
fell for it, as the joke was actually quite interesting (eg ‘I was stuck in traffic this
believable! Martin Creed and Susan Philipsz morning. There were like a million cars
had both recently won the Turner Prize on the road!’ ‘What’s going on outside?
for empty rooms – Creed’s with the lights There are like a billion firefighters in
going on and off and Philipsz’s with a folk front of the building!’).
song playing in the background. It was in
fact a parody of contemporary art, with the
amusing image of people walking around
Listening 2
galleries looking at nothing, buying invisible 6 PREDICT Students work in pairs to guess
art and proudly showing their friends! the answers to the questions. Elicit their
predictions.
Tip: It’s helpful to pre-teach vocabulary before
Answers
students read texts or listen to audio
content, but sometimes it’s also good 1 He apologises for the story about the
to wait and react to students’ questions artist Lana Newstrom on yesterday’s
afterwards. Don’t tell them what the programme.
words mean straight away, though. 2 CBC were responsible for the hoax.
Write the sentence on the board so they 3 The photo was changed in Photoshop.
can see the context, and encourage
them to guess the meaning from clues in 7 1.31 Play the recording for students to
the sentence. It may take a few seconds check if their predictions were correct. You
longer than just telling them, but it could also check if students fell for the joke too
practises helpful strategies that will serve (ie Did they believe the photo on page 38 was
them well in the future. a genuine exhibition when they first saw it?).

4 Students listen again and make notes about Transcript


each point. Pause the recording so they have russell I want to apologise for our story
time to listen and write; they then compare about the artist Lana Newstrom on
ideas with a partner. yesterday’s programme. I oh dear.
This is one of my most embarrassing
Answers moments on radio. Ever. One of the
1 The art is invisible, there’s nothing there. silliest stories we have ever broadcast.
2 She put a lot of time into making her art. I’m not really sure I can go on.
She had to think about it. That’s the art. producer Come on, Russell. You’ve started.

3 Listeners were very angry about it. You’d better finish.


russell My producer is telling me to go on.
So, well, this is it. The artist Lana
5 TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE Elicit the
Newstrom doesn’t exist. She isn’t
phrases from the class and draw their
one of the most provocative artists
attention to examples of natural English in the
ever. She’s a fake. A hoax. Everything
conversation. Quickly go through the questions
about her is false. She was a joke.
as a class. Play the recording again and focus
I’d better explain. This and That is,
on the sentence stress and intonation.
apparently, a satirical programme
88 Unit 4
on CBC. They do jokes and hoaxes
and fakes. And me, I’m one of Extra idea: Use the original hoax (https://
the stupidest people in the world www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-HZBQrT5Hw)
because I fell for it. I believed it. in class as extra listening practice. Create an
Perhaps that’s the end of my career in activity such as a gap fill, some questions or
broadcasting, perhaps it’s the end of a true/false exercise based on it.
everything I’ve ever …
producer Russell! Get a grip. This is a radio 9 In small groups, students give their opinions
programme, not a visit to the using superlative adjectives about two of the
doctor’s. Keep going. Tell them about works of art listed (No Woman, No Cry; House
the photograph. (both page 35); or The Angel of the North
russell Er, yes. Some people were taken (page 36)). Ask extra questions to continue the
in by the photograph of people in discussion:
an art gallery looking at nothing. What do you think of contemporary art?
But in actual fact, the picture was Should an empty room win the Turner Prize?
Photoshopped. It was from a real art Did you like the idea of people admiring and
exhibition – they just removed the buying invisible art?
paintings in Photoshop! MA Stronger students could also write
comparative sentences comparing the two
Extra idea: Ask students to read the works they chose.
transcript and find words or phrases that
mean the following: Vocabulary Adjectives to describe the arts
causing people to think about interesting
subjects (provocative) 10 Students put the adjectives into categories.
someone who is not who they claim to be Explain that there are no definite answers:
(a fake) the whole point of the exercise is not to
a plan to trick or deceive someone (a hoax) have perfect answers but to get them talking
to believe a joke or trick (to fall for, to be about the meaning of words. They might
taken in by something) say, ‘Shocking is not good. I’d put it in the
control yourself (get a grip) “It doesn’t make me feel good” category.
Boring is definitely in the “It hurts my brain!”
category,’ etc. Ask students which words are
Grammar Superlative sentences very similar in their own language and which
8 Students complete the sentences with are very different.
adjectives in the superlative form. They then 11 Students compare their categories and ideas in
answer the questions and work out the pairs and give reasons for their opinions.
grammar rules with a partner. You could also
ask extra questions to review the superlative 12 Read through the ‘Did you know?’ section
form: about the Huichol. Students look at the
• How do we make the superlative form of painting and give their opinions using
short adjectives? (adjective + -est) superlative adjectives from 10. Walk around
• What about long adjectives (two syllables and note down any good ideas and sentences
or more)? (most + adjective) and also look out for small mistakes. Get
feedback afterwards and correct.
Answers
Tip: We can often guess the mistakes students
1 silliest 2 most stupid 3 most ridiculous
are likely to make. With the superlative,
4 angriest 5 most embarrassing
students sometimes add -est to long
1 present perfect simple
adjectives (It’s the stunningest picture I
2 Ever refers to a mixture of both – the
have ever seen) or forget to use the article
past up until the present.
before most (It’s most beautiful thing). Try
to predict typical difficulties and correct in
an encouraging way.

Unit 4 89
Speaking Culture notes
13 EVERYBODY UP! When students have • Mona Lisa was originally written for the
chosen their adjectives, they should walk 1950 film Captain Carey, USA. It won
around the room in a class mingle. They an Academy Award for Best Original
compare their adjectives about each of Song in the same year and was number
the works of art and give reasons for their one for eight weeks.
reactions. Conduct class feedback to find out • Nat King Cole (1919–1965) first made
which adjective was the most used, and in his name as a jazz pianist, but his soft
relation to which work(s) of art. baritone voice ensured his popularity for
over three decades. His real name was
14 Students have conversations starting with a Nathaniel Adams Coles, but he used
sentence containing a superlative. Remind the stage name Nat Cole and acquired
them to use some of the adjectives to the nickname ‘King’ whilst performing
express their feelings and opinions, as well as at a jazz club, presumably because of
describing the thing itself. Invite a few pairs to the similarity to the title of the nursery
perform their conversations to the class. rhyme Old King Cole. During his career,
MA Weaker students may need a short he recorded many hit songs (including
preparation time to think up things to say several albums in Spanish) and
about their chosen play / film / etc. appeared in many films, sitcoms and TV
shows, including his own show on NBC.
15 ROLE-PLAY Students have to disagree with
what their partner says. You could write ways
of disagreeing on the board to help them. 16 Students compare the two works of art. The
Repeat the phrases in chorus to practise Cézanne paintings on pages 68 and 70 are
intonation that shows surprise or amazement: very similar, so if you’d rather they compared
more disparate works of art, you could either
I’m not sure about that!
ask them to find pictures themselves online or
I completely disagree.
select from pictures you’ve chosen.
(I’m afraid) I don’t agree.
That’s an interesting idea, but ...
Tip: Sometimes you have to choose things
Do you really think ...?
for students and tell them what to
That’s rubbish! / Nonsense!
talk about to save time, but try to give
You can’t be serious!
them time to choose things they’re
No way!
interested in. This is more personalised
Song link and meaningful and will probably get a
Students listen and complete the sentences, then better response.
answer the questions. Encourage them to give
their reactions to the song using the superlative Take a break
adjectives.
Some students may view this as a bit childish, but
MA Allow weaker students to pause the recording encourage them to give it a go. Some may prefer
if necessary to give them time to write. to try and stick close to the colours of the original,
but let them use whatever colours they want – the
Answers brighter the better! If two or more students have
Are you warm, are you real, Mona Lisa? chosen the same image, compare the finished
Or just a cold and lonely, lovely work of results to see how similar / different they look.
art?

90 Unit 4
Everyday English p40 woman Well, I beg to differ. She looks
incredibly lifelike to me.
man Lifelike?
Discussing opinions and making
woman Yes. I think she’s rather lovely. As if she
judgements
was living and breathing right in front
1 GUESS Provide helpful language for of us.
students. Write It could be, It can’t be, It man You can’t be serious. Would you have
might be, It may be and It must be on the her in your front room?
board. Students discuss the photos in pairs woman I might, yes.
and guess the answers to the questions. Ask man I can see we don’t have the same tastes.
extra questions: What city are they in? What woman And that’s a surprise? We never agree
clues do you have? (The person is not real, so about stuff.
it could be Madame Tussauds in London. The man True. So let’s agree to disagree, shall
target icon on the plane’s wings is from the we?
Royal Air Force. It’s a Spitfire fighter plane, so it woman If we have to. But you are completely
must be in England.) wrong, of course.
man Honestly! Sometimes I wonder why I
Background notes bother with you at all.
The left-hand photo shows a waxwork of woman Because you like it. Who else do you
country and pop music star Taylor Swift at have to argue with?
Madame Tussauds in New York in 2014 (it man OK. Point taken. Shall we go and get
has since been updated). some lunch?
The right-hand photo shows a Spitfire woman Only if we go where I want to go.
fighter plane at the Imperial War Museum man That’s absurd!
in London.
3 Play and pause the recording as necessary to
give students time to listen and write their
Tip: Take opportunities to review and practise answers. Check answers in feedback.
recently learnt language such as modal
auxiliary verbs to make predictions. Answers
1 The woman 2 The man 3 The man
2 1.32Play and pause the recording as 4 The woman 5 The woman
necessary and check answers in feedback.
4 Students look closely at the photo again
Answer and discuss who it is and which people they
The people are in Madame Tussauds would like to see if they went to Madame
waxwork museum. Tussauds. Ask extra questions to promote
more conversation (eg Have you ever been to
Madame Tussauds? Did you like it? Why? /
Transcript Why not? Would you like to go in the future?).
man What do you think of this?
woman I rather like it. It’s quite a good pose. Answer
man Do you really think so? The two people are looking at a waxwork
woman Why, don’t you?
of a female celebrity, but they don’t say
man No, I don’t. I think it’s absolutely who. It could be Taylor Swift (in the photo
ridiculous! at the top of the page).
woman That’s a bit extreme.
man Come on! Look at it.
5 Students work in pairs to arrange the
woman What’s wrong with it?
conversation in order. Play the recording again
man Well, in the first place, it doesn’t look
for them to check. This activity could also be
like her at all.
done with cut-up slips of paper to appeal to
woman Don’t you think so?
different learning styles and include a visual,
man No. And look what she’s wearing, for
auditory and kinaesthetic focus.
goodness sake. It’s totally hideous.
Unit 4 91
MA Weaker students may need to hear the
conversation again before they order it. Answers
1a 2c 3b 4i 5d 6h 7e
Answers 8g 9f
1dW 2bM 3eM 4jW 5aM
6 f M 7 c W 8 i W 9 m M 10 k M 9 P Students use their own nonsense syllables
11 g M 12 l W 13 h M to say the same phrases. They should focus on
the number of syllables and word stress. They’ll
6 Students complete the chart. They can work probably go slowly at first, but encourage
in pairs if they like. Check answers in feedback them to go more quickly after they get used to
and elicit other ideas. Note that it could be it!
argued that some of the answers (eg item l) MA Weaker students may get the hang of the
should be in the other category. Be flexible if technique more easily if they say the words
students can demonstrate sound reasoning for first, then ‘translate’ the phrase into nonsense
their decisions. syllables.

10 ROLE-PLAY Students choose a picture and


Answers
do the role-play, using some of the phrases
giving opinions: d, e, f, i, k and collocations they’ve learnt. They can refer
reacting to opinions: a, b, c, g, h, j, l, m to transcript 1.32 if they need a model. Walk
around, monitor unobtrusively and help if
Extra idea: Books closed. Write a correct needed.
and an incorrect example of an adverb +
extreme adjective collocation on the board Extra ideas: Make sets of 15 extreme
(eg It’s absolutely nice! – It’s absolutely adjective cards featuring the following
amazing!). Tell students to work with a words: ancient, astounding, boiling,
partner and to write as many extreme exhausted, fantastic, filthy, freezing,
adjectives as they can. Get feedback and furious, gorgeous, hideous, hilarious, huge,
write the words in a word fountain on the spotless, starving, tiny.
board. Put students in groups of three or four.
Give each group a set of cards and tell
them to spread them across the desk in a
7 Students decide with a partner which
random way. Give them a few seconds to
collocations are strong / not as strong and
quickly look at the cards.
mark them in the left-hand column. Ask
Tell the students you’re going to
students which adverbs are used with extreme
play a word-grab game. Dictate the
adjectives and which aren’t. They read the
corresponding normal adjectives to them
Grammar spot to check.
(ie old, surprising, hot, tired, good, dirty,
cold, angry, pretty, ugly, funny, big, clean,
Answers
hungry, small). As soon as they hear the
a) + b) – c) + d) – e) + f) + g) + normal adjective, they have to grab the
h) – i) – matching extreme adjective. Tell them not
to be polite! The student with the most
8 P 1.33 Explain the activity carefully and adjectives at the end wins the game.
give an example. There are no words – the Students say sentences using ‘adverb +
phrases are represented by nonsense syllables extreme adjective’ collocations (eg ‘I went
– so students should listen to the beat and for a 10-kilometre run yesterday and I
intonation instead to work out which phrase was completely exhausted afterwards.’
is being ‘sounded’. Play the first one with the ‘Have you seen Bob’s dog? It’s absolutely
class and show how it links to the example hideous!’).
in the exercise. Play the remainder of the
recording for students to order the sentences
in the right-hand column. They then compare
their answers with a partner.
92 Unit 4
Vocabulary plus p65 students to read it aloud, checking that they’ve
used the correct form of the missing word in
Photography each gap.

1 Students write a sentence containing each Answers


word to show that they understand them in a One of the great unsolved mysteries in
photographic context. Britain is that of Lord Lucan.
MA Weaker students could do this in pairs. Lucan disappeared on the night that
someone attacked his wife and killed the
2 Students complete the information, then
nanny. The identity of the attacker has
compare with a partner.
remained a mystery, but many people
believe it was Lucan. The mystery
Answers
deepened when Lucan’s car was found
1 exposure 2 focus 3 swiping / tapping near the sea.
4 tapping / swiping 5 composition Many people and book writers have tried
6 edge 7 angle to solve the mystery, but his whereabouts
remain a mystery to this day.
Where things are ‘To me,’ says the writer Deborah Klein, ‘it’s
a complete mystery.’
3 Students work in pairs to come up with as One of life’s little mysteries is why so
many combinations as they can in five minutes. many authors have remained interested in
the story.
Answers
at the back of the picture / photo, in the
background, behind the, at the bottom Tip: It’s tempting to always partner students
of the picture, in the bottom left-hand / with the person sitting next to them
right-hand corner (of the picture / photo), when it comes to pairwork activities, as
in the centre (of the picture / photo), in the it’s quick and easy. However, this can be
foreground, in the front of the picture / detrimental in the long run, as a weak–
photo, in front of the, to the left / right of, strong pairing can result in the stronger
in the left-hand / right-hand corner of the student doing all the work and the
picture / photo, at the top (of the picture / weaker student just going along for the
photo) ride. Students can also get used to their
partner’s way of doing and saying things.
So it’s worth taking the time to mix up
4 Students work in pairs to describe a photo for
the pairs from time to time.
their partner to draw. If drawing makes some
students nervous, explain that it just has to be
a quick sketch – there are no prizes for art! If Art metaphors
students don’t have any suitable photos on
6 2.24 Students look at the verbs in the
their phones, let them find one online or in a
box and elicit the difference between them
book. As long as they don’t show the image to
(draw = reproduce an image using a pencil
their partner, that’s fine.
or pen; paint = reproduce an image using
Students compare their drawings / sketches to paints; picture = imagine; sketch = do a rough
the original photo. Are they similar? drawing). They complete the conversation,
then listen to the recording to check.
Collocations
5 Students scan the story first to identify the root Answers
word that’s missing. They should focus on the 1 draw 2 paint 3 picture 4 sketch
words in italics to pick out the collocations. 5 Picture 6 draws 7 painted 8 draw
They then complete the story with a partner. 9 sketch
Go through it together, asking different

Unit 4 93
7 Write the expressions in italics from 6 on the
board for students to match to the definitions.

Answers
1 isn’t as black as he is painted
2 draws level (with)
3 draw your attention to
4 sketch in a few more details
5 paint the town red
6 picture him, Picture the scene
7 draw up
8 sketch out

Extra idea: Write the phrases from


7 on separate strips of paper. Have
a conversation about art (painting,
photography, ballet, drama, etc). Say
what you like and what you don’t like.
Every 30 seconds, give someone a strip of
paper. They have to use the phrase in the
conversation immediately!

94 Unit 4
Units 3&4 Review pp41–42

Aims 4 Students read the rest of the article and check


To review the vocabulary and grammar covered in if their predictions were correct.
Units 3 and 4. Students also read about unusual
musical instruments in Aspects of culture. Extra idea: Find the song online
(https://www.youtube.com/
Warm-up watch?v=5YGc4zOqozo) and make a gap-
Ask students if they’ve ever had their luggage go fill exercise of the lyrics.
missing or be damaged on a flight. If so, how did
they feel? Was the airline helpful? Background notes
United Breaks Guitars is a protest song
Reading and speaking
by Canadian musician Dave Carroll and
1 To introduce the story, students look at the his band, Sons of Maxwell. It chronicles a
photo and title of the article and guess what real-life experience of how his guitar was
happened. broken during a trip on United Airlines in
Alternatively, write the words airline, luggage, 2008, and the subsequent reaction from
guitar and YouTube on the board and ask the airline. The song became an immediate
students for predictions about the story. YouTube and iTunes hit in July 2009 and
They then read the article and check if their was a public-relations disaster for the
predictions were correct. They can also look at airline.
the glossary for difficult words. His guitar was broken after baggage
handlers threw the band’s equipment from
Answers the plane at Chicago O’Hare International
Airport. Carroll made a complaint to
United Airlines broke a musician’s guitar
United Airlines, but they told him he was
while they were unloading it from the plane.
ineligible for compensation because he had
not made the claim within the 24-hour
2 Students complete the sentences. timeframe.
MA Stronger students should try to remember Carroll posted his video on YouTube on
the words, but let weaker ones look back at 6 July, 2009. It had 150,000 views within
the article. one day, and by 9 July, it had had over
half a million hits. By mid-August, it had
Answers 5 million hits and 10 million by February
1 check in 2 on the tarmac 2011. To date, the video has been seen
3 baggage handlers 4 passengers 14 million times. Although United Airlines
eventually apologised and offered Carroll
$3,000 in compensation, the damage
3 Students form groups of three or four to guess
was already done. Within four days of the
what happened next. Get feedback, but don’t
video being posted online, United Airlines’
confirm or refute their guesses at this stage.
stock price fell 10%, costing the company
about $180 million. In May 2012, Carroll
Answer
published a book, United Breaks Guitars:
Dave wrote a song about how the airline The Power of One Voice in the Age of
broke his guitar. It went viral on YouTube Social Media, and now travels the world as
and United Airlines finally said sorry and a speaker on Customer Service. Ironically,
changed their baggage-handling policy. on one of his trips abroad, United Airlines
lost his luggage!

Units 3&4 Review 95


Grammar songs (no article: plural, first time mentioned)
5 Do the first one together with the class as talks (no article: plural, first time
an example; students then complete the mentioned)
remaining gaps individually. Put students in a / the video (indefinite and definite articles:
pairs to compare their answers. Encourage singular countable noun mentioned more
them to give reasons for their choice of verb than one time)
tense (eg It’s past simple because ...).
You could also draw students’ attention to the Extra idea: Copy the Background notes
separable phrasal verb check in. Ask them to on page 95 for extra reading practice. Ask
say where else in the sentence the particle in students to read the text and write down
could go (They checked in their instruments.). what the following numbers and dates
Ask if the word order is still flexible if their refer to:
instruments is replaced by a pronoun (No – the 2008 (The year United Airlines
only possible word order is ‘They checked them broke Dave’s guitar)
in’.). 2009 (The year his song became a
YouTube hit)
Answers 24 (The number of hours he
1 flew 2 checked 3 were sitting had to make a claim for the
4 were throwing 5 had smashed damage)
6 had seen 150,000 (The number of hits the
video received within the
6 Draw attention to the two example sentences. first day)
Ask students what must have and can’t have 14,000,000 (The number of times video
are ((present perfect) modal verbs). Check has been seen so far)
they understand the function of the sentences 3,000 (The amount in dollars
(to make guesses and deductions about past offered in compensation by
events). United Airlines)
10 (The percentage that
Students write sentences about the questions
United’s stock price fell by)
using can’t / might / must have. Ask them to
180,000,000 (The amount in dollars that
report back and correct if needed.
United lost off its share price)
7 Students find the nouns in the article and 1 (Appears in Dave’s book title:
explain why the articles are used or not. United Breaks Guitars: The
Power of One Voice in the
Answers Age of Social Media)
a book (indefinite article: singular, first time 2012 (The year his book was
mentioned) published)
a claim (indefinite article: singular, first time
mentioned) Speaking
guitars (no article: an unspecified plural
amount) EXPLORE ONLINE
money (no article: uncountable noun, first This can be done as homework or in class. All
time mentioned) three songs are by Sons of Maxwell and can be
music (no article: uncountable noun, first found by searching for United Breaks Guitars
time mentioned) Song 1/2/3 on YouTube. Students watch the music
the phone (definite article: countable, videos on their smartphones or tablets and discuss
singular noun) which song and video they like best.
phone calls (no article: an unspecified plural 8 Close books. Students summarise the story
amount) in their own words. They then read the article
a / the song (indefinite and definite articles: and check if they remembered the details
singular noun mentioned more than once) correctly.

96 Units 3&4 Review


Extra idea: Write these four quotations
about customer service on the board:
‘The customer is always right.’ (Marshall
Field, Founder of Macy’s)
‘In the world of internet customer service,
it’s important to remember your competitor
is only one mouse click away.’ (Doug
Warner, American banker, JP Morgan)
‘Your most unhappy customers are your
greatest source of learning.’ (Bill Gates,
founder of Microsoft)
‘A customer is the most important visitor.
He is not dependent on us; we are
dependent on him.’ (Mahatma Gandhi,
ex-president of India)
Ask students which quotation they like best.

Aspects of culture
a Students read the information and use the
descriptions to match the paragraphs to the
photos. Set a short time limit so students
read for gist. They should underline words
they don’t know and guess meaning from
contextual clues.

Answers
1 mizwad 2 didgeridoo 3 (pan) pipes /
zampoña (no photo) 4 dhol 5 oud

b Give students time to think and write notes


down about each of the questions. Monitor
and help with language as needed.

Extra idea: Ask students if they’ve ever


heard – or even played – one of these
instruments. Have them find examples
online and do a survey to find out which
instrument the class likes best.

c Students share information in small groups.


Walk around, monitor and write down good
sentences and any small mistakes you hear.
Highlight these when students report back in
feedback. If there are groups of students from
different countries in your class, they could
each give a short presentation on traditional
music from their country to the rest of the
class.

Units 3&4 Review 97


5 Chill out!
UNIT GRAMMAR: first conditional; if / unless
VOCABULARY: -ed / -ing adjectives; words connected with the body; words connected with work
FOCUS FUNCTIONS: giving advice and making suggestions

Introduction p43 less) on the board, then split the class into
two teams. Dictate a mixture of countable
Aim and uncountable nouns (eg flights, time,
money, seats, ideas, water, food, places,
The focus of this lesson is to introduce the topic
beaches, people, etc) and ask members
of stress and ways of coping with it, mainly via a
of each team to come and write them in
quiz.
the correct column (alternate between the
You first! teams). They get one point for spelling the
word correctly and one point for writing
Students look at the photos and describe how
it in the correct column. You can decide
the people are feeling. Ask students why the man
whether to allow the other members of the
is sleeping on the office floor. They then work in
team to help the student at the board or
pairs and discuss what things make them stressed
not.
and why. You could also do a quick survey of the
If the students are good at the activity,
top five things that stress students out.
include a few more difficult nouns that they
1 Students discuss the questions with typically confuse at intermediate level, such
personalised examples. They can do this in as advice, homework, information, fruit,
small groups or as a class mingle. Encourage entertainment.
them to ask extra questions to get more
information.
Tip: Good speaking opportunities are often
2 Quickly check students know the words missed, so always try to ask students to
strategies (= plans to deal with different do questionnaires, quizzes and surveys
situations successfully) and tend to (= be likely in pairs rather than silently filling in
to behave in a certain way). They ask each their own information or opinions. This
other the questions in pairs, then report back encourages extra speaking and learner
in feedback. Do a quick grammar review and interaction. It also reinforces question
ask questions: forms and creates a natural information
• What tense is used in the questions? gap where students can find out more
(present simple) about each other.
• Which questions / answers contain adverbs
of frequency? (2, 4, 6, 9 and 12) 3 FINISH IT Check students understand all
Students check their answers in the key, do the the words and expressions – ask them to
exercises on page 72 linked to the language mime them to you or to each other! Write the
in the quiz and discuss the questions in small sentence starter on the board – students come
groups. up with a different example from the one in
the book, then complete the sentence in three
Answers different ways with personal information.
2 1 least 2 say 3 go 4 go 5 have Remind them that they don’t have to use the
1c 2e 3d 4b 5a words / phrases in the box if they don’t want
to.

Extra idea: Elicit or explain the difference 4 EVERYBODY UP! Students walk around and
between fewer with countable nouns and ask each other about the things that stress
less with uncountable ones (fewer glasses / them out. Remind them that they don’t have
less money). Write two columns (fewer and to find the same person for all three sentences.

98 Unit 5
Lesson 1 How did you react? Answer
pp44–45 In order from best to least, this animal likes:
honey, fruit, fish, small animals, insects.
Aims It’s a bear.
The focus of this lesson is an analysis of students’
reactions to stressful situations and using the first
conditional to describe probable or likely events Extra idea: Students produce a similar
in the future. It also highlights the difference test about another animal and food or
between -ed and -ing adjectives, and students drink. They quickly look up information on
learn words connected with the body in the their smartphones, then do the test with a
Vocabulary section. partner.

Warm-up 2 Students tick the boxes that were true for


Put students in groups of four. One of the group them and give their reactions to the test.
is the ‘victim’. They move their chairs so that one Look at any new expressions and elicit the
student puts a chair to victim’s right and another meanings of give up, go blank and freeze in
puts a chair to their left. The third student sits in context.
front of the victim. The student on the right asks
the victim questions about opinions (eg Do you 3 Elicit which reactions were positive and
like sushi? Why not? What’s your favourite holiday negative. Check answers in feedback.
destination? Why?). The student on the left asks
logical questions (eg What’s 7 + 9? How do you Answers
spell ‘difficult’?). The student in front makes All of the sentences are negative (N) except
gestures and movements. I got excited and It was challenging.
Students ask their questions at the same time and
quickly to make it as stressful as possible for the Vocabulary 1 -ed / -ing adjectives

victim! The victim has to answer the questions and
copy the gestures of the person in front of them. 4 Students complete the table and check with
After one minute, they stop and move clockwise a partner. Elicit which adjective is different. Ask
into the next seat until everyone has been the students which words are very similar in their
victim. own language and which are very different.
Get feedback. How did they feel under so much
pressure with so many questions coming at them Answers
and so many gestures to do at the same time? challenge challenged challenging
Which questions were easier to answer? Why? confuse confused confusing
excite excited exciting
1 THINK Explain to students that this test is
frustrate frustrated frustrating
designed to put them under a lot of pressure
interest interested interesting
for a few moments so they become more
relax relaxed relaxing
aware of what happens physically when they’re
stress stressed stressful
under stress. The very short time of 20 seconds
is impossible for most people! Of course, it’s We don’t use an -ing suffix for stress.
an artificial situation, but they’ll still experience We say stressful.
some stress signs. And you can increase their
stress – and distract their thinking – by saying Extra idea: Ask students which adjectives
things like Come on!, Hurry up!, Be quick!, from the table can be preceded by get.
Only five seconds left!.
Answer: confused, confusing, excited,
After 20 seconds, stop the activity and ask
exciting, frustrated, frustrating, interested,
everyone to stand up and do a quick gorilla
interesting, stressed, stressful
thump (or something else physical) to get rid of
any tension in their body.

Unit 5 99
5 2.2 Play the recording for students to check John did a 10km run, so it’s not surprised /
their answers. surprising that he’s tired.
The lesson was really confused / confusing.
Answers No one understood a thing.
See answers for 4. I’m sorry I’m late, but there’s no need to be
so annoyed / annoying with me.
Jane teaches young children. It’s an
6 Elicit example sentences from students to
exhausted / exhausting job.
provide more context (eg The James Bond film
You could also use nine of the sentences
was very exciting. I felt really excited when I
above (or make new ones of your own)
heard you were coming.). Compare them and
to play a game. Draw a noughts-and-
elicit the grammar rules from students.
crosses grid on the board and write one
Check understanding by asking students how of the sentences in each space with a
the words ‘The Stress Test’ made them feel gap where the adjective goes. Invite two
when they saw them at the top of the page! students to come to the board. The first
student chooses a space and completes the
Answers sentence with an appropriate -ed or -ing
a) -ed adjectives describe how someone adjective (more than one adjective may be
feels. possible). If they’re right, they put a cross
b) -ing adjectives describe the people or in their space. If they’re wrong, the second
things that cause those feelings. student can correct it and put a circle in the
space. The first one to get a straight line
7 Students complete the text with the adjectives across the board (horizontally, vertically or
in 4. Check answers together, then allow diagonally) wins.
students to stretch, jump or run for a minute! This can either be done at the board or
by giving the students a worksheet with
Answers extra games and examples. It’s fun and
different and it reviews verb patterns in a
1 stressful 2 excited 3 interested
learner- centred way. To extend the activity,
4 stressed 5 frustrated 6 relaxed
ask students to make their own boards and
examples. This gets them more involved and
Extra ideas: Write these sentences on minimises your preparation.
the board and ask students to choose the MA Write the -ed / -ing adjectives in a word
correct adjective: bank on the board. This enables weaker
I was disappointed / disappointing with the students to look at the board and choose
movie; I expected it to be better. adjectives to complete the sentences.
Are you interested / interesting in football?
The game was quite excited / exciting.
8 YOUR STORY Students work in pairs to
It’s embarrassed / embarrassing when you ask and answer each other’s questions. Walk
have to ask people for money. around and note down any good sentences
I was really amazed / amazing when I got or small mistakes you hear. Get feedback,
the job. highlight good use of English and correct as
She has made astonished / astonishing needed. Ask a few students to retell their
progress in her English. partner’s story to the rest of the class.
I didn’t find the situation very funny.
I wasn’t amused / amusing.
Tip: Play gentle background music to create a
I really liked the book, it was really
relaxed atmosphere (instrumental music
interested / interesting.
usually works best). It breaks the silence
Bungee jumping was a terrified / terrifying
and students will generally talk more if
experience.
they think no one is listening to them. It
I was shocked /shocking when I heard the
encourages them to speak more loudly
news.
and clearly, too.
The lesson was so bored / boring.

100 Unit 5
Vocabulary 2 Words connected with the
therapist is advising him to do something
body relaxing, such as move to the country, do
9 Students complete the text and check their some gardening and go for walks, so that
answers. Explain the expression get butterflies he doesn’t have a heart attack.
in your stomach and elicit examples of when
students have had that feeling. Ask if they
Transcript
have similar idioms in their language(s).
therapist What seems to be the problem,

Answers Mr Beaver?
steve I’m so tired. I work and work and
1 neck 2 shoulders 3 heart 4 mouth
5 throat 6 stomach 7 eyes 8 ears work all day, and I can’t sleep at
9 mind night. Every day, I’m in my office
from eight in the morning until eight
Mind is different, because it isn’t a physical
at night and the phones never stop
part of the body.
ringing. And I always get stuck in a
traffic jam on my way home. It takes
10 Students explain how they felt. Ask them extra two hours, and my phone never
questions: Do you always feel that way when stops ringing. What can I do? I’m so
you take tests? Why? What things do you do stressed! Soooo stressed!
to calm down? therapist Well, Mr Beaver, I’m afraid that …
steve Oh no! Excuse me. Hello? Yes? Yes?
Listening Yes, do it now. If you do it now,
11 Students put the words into the two it’ll arrive tomorrow! If you do it
categories. Explain that it isn’t the words now, it won’t arrive late. OK? Right.
themselves that are stressful or not, it’s the Goodbye. I’m sorry about that.
things they’re associated with. Then students Please, go on.
compare with a partner to see if they agree. therapist Well, Mr Beaver, I’m afraid that …
steve Oh no! Excuse me. Hello? Yes? Yes?
Be flexible when checking answers, as some
people find phones stressful but others like Yes, do it now. If you don’t do it
to talk to their friends and find it relaxing, for now, it won’t arrive tomorrow! If you
example. However, few students are likely to don’t do it now, it’ll arrive late. OK?
consider a heart attack as ‘not stressful’! Right. Goodbye. I’m sorry about that.
Please, go on.
therapist Please switch off your phone, Mr
Suggested answers
Beaver. If you keep answering your
stressful: city, work, heart attack,
phone, we won’t make any progress.
insomnia, phone, pressure, tired, traffic jam
steve Yes, of course. I’m so sorry.
not stressful: country, exercise, fresh air,
therapist Well, Mr Beaver, I’m afraid that if you
gardening, sleep, therapist, walk
go on like this, you’ll have serious
health problems. In fact, you’ll
12 2.3 PREDICT Students make predictions probably have a heart attack!
about the cartoon in pairs. Encourage them to steve If I go on like this, I’ll have a heart
use modal verbs (eg He could be ... , He might attack? Really?
be ... , He must be ...). Play the recording so therapist Yes, really. How old are you?
they can listen and check their answers. steve I’m 45.
therapist Well, if you don’t slow down, you
Answer won’t get to 60! In fact, if you don’t
The man is seeing a therapist because he slow down, you probably won’t get
finds work and commuting stressful and to 50!
is constantly answering his phone. The steve Oh my goodness! And if I learn to
relax a bit?

Unit 5 101
therapist If you learn to relax a bit? You’ll feel
much better if you learn to relax a bit! Extra idea: Ask extra questions and draw
steve Really?
a timeline and scale on the board to check
therapist Really. Why don’t you buy a little
students’ understanding of the function
place in the country, do some and form of the first conditional.
gardening, go for walks and breathe 1 2
in the pure country air? Then I’m If you relax a bit, you’ll feel much better.
sure ... relax feel better
past ___________________________
X X future
now
Tip: Before students listen to a recording,
ask questions about the content and possible, quite likely _____________
X unlikely
elicit predictions. You don’t have to
acknowledge correct answers; try to get • How many parts does the sentence
peer verification instead and throw the have? (two)
answers back to the class (eg What do • When is the sentence about? (the
you think? Do you agree? Why?). future)
• What does he have to do to feel better?
13 Students answer the questions in pairs. Play (relax a bit)

the recording again so they can check their • Will he relax? (maybe)
answers. • What word tells us it is not definite? (if)
MA Weaker students may need to listen to • Is it possible or likely in future? (yes)

the recording again before answering the
questions. You could also demonstrate inversion and
use of the comma:
Answers You’ll feel much better if you relax a bit.
1 He works in the office all day. • Can we change the sentence like that?
2 The phones never stop ringing. (yes)
3 He always gets stuck in a traffic jam. • Is there anything different? (no comma)
4 He can’t sleep. • So when do we put a comma? (when
5 He is interrupted by phone calls. the if clause is first)
6 The therapist tells him to move to the • When do we use the first conditional?
country, do some gardening, go for walks (when things are possible or quite likely
and breathe in the pure country air. in future)

Grammar First conditional
 15 Students look at the pictures and the example,
then make predictions about the other pictures
14 Students complete the sentences. Encourage using the first conditional. Check answers
them to look at the transcript to check their in feedback and correct any grammatical
answers. They then discuss the questions in mistakes you hear. You could ask students to
pairs. switch the order of the clauses in each answer
for practice.
Answers MA You may need to help weaker students
1 If you go on like this, you will with the vocabulary to express their ideas for
(probably) have a heart attack! some of the pictures.
2 If you don’t slow down, you won’t
get to sixty! Suggested answers
3 You’ll feel much better if you learn to
1 If he cycles to work, he’ll get there
relax a bit.
more quickly and lose some weight.
1 present tense 2 If he smokes less, he’ll feel better. / If he
2 will + base form stops smoking, he’ll reduce his risk of a
3 yes heart attack.

102 Unit 5
Possible language for the client’s problem:
3 If he does more exercise / goes to the Every time I see / hear X, I do Y.
gym, he’ll get fitter / feel better. If I X, Y happens.
4 If he switches off his phone sometimes / Students then do the role-play together using
uses his phone less, he’ll be more the prompts. Walk around, monitor and correct
relaxed. as needed.
5 If he goes walking / takes more
MA Let weaker students look back at the
exercise, he’ll feel better / lose weight.
transcript to help them.
6 If he eats fewer hamburgers / more
healthily, he’ll lose weight and feel
Extra idea: Think of 15 words you want
more energetic.
to review from earlier in the unit. Write
them on the board. Tell students to choose
Extra idea: This activity can be used to any five of them and write them down.
change pairs, encourage speaking and also Read the 15 words out in any order. When
review the grammar. Write first conditional students hear one of the words they’ve
sentences on slips of paper and cut them written down, they cross it out. The first
into two parts. Mix them up and turn person to cross out all of their words shouts
them over. Then ask students to pick up ‘Bingo!’.
the sentence halves. They walk around
the room and say their clause to another
student. If it doesn’t match, they have
to do the same again until they make a
Lesson 2 Face to face with a
correct sentence. Then they sit down with bear! pp46–47
their new partner. Make sure that they
don’t shout out the clause on their slip, Aims
show anyone or group together. This limits The focus of this lesson is unless + the first
the amount of speaking they do. conditional. Students also read about the human
stress response mechanism and our fight-or-flight
reaction in dangerous situations. In the Speaking
Writing and speaking
section at the end of the lesson, students come up
16 PREDICT Students work in pairs to make with a list of physical activities that relieve stress.
predictions and complete Steve’s story. They
read out their endings and vote on the best one. You first!
They then compare with the original on page Students look at the photo and work in pairs to
73. Is the ending the same / similar? If it’s not, think about the best way to escape, then share
which ending do they prefer? their ideas and choose the best options. Note that
although students are actually using the second
17 ROLE-PLAY Give students time to write conditional here to speculate, the focus is on the
the role-play with a partner and offer useful ideas, not the grammar, so don’t labour the point.
language to help them. Elicit the kinds of Just present I’d + verb as the structure they should
question the therapist might ask for each of use.
the three phases: MA You could give weaker students these options
1 What’s the problem? (Draw students’ to choose from: run, shout, climb a tree, walk
attention to the more indirect / polite form away slowly, fight it, play dead, go upwind from it,
in the example and the recording: What go downwind from it, punch it on the nose, talk
seems to be the problem?) to it gently.
2 Can you tell me a bit more about that?
When / Where does it happen? How long Answers
have you had this problem? How is it a run: Bears can run fast and can easily catch
problem? you. Bad choice!
3 If you do X, I think it will help. shout: This will frighten the bear and make
it even more aggressive. Bad choice!

Unit 5 103
3 Students read through the statements with
climb a tree: You probably haven’t a partner and decide whether they’re true or
climbed a tree since you were ten years false. Don’t check their answers at this stage or
old. Anyway, bears can climb trees too. Bad ask them to correct the false ones; this will be
choice! done in 4.
walk away slowly and don’t make any
sudden movements: Bears are less likely 4 Students read the article and check if their
to attack if they don’t feel threatened. predictions in 2 and 3 were correct. Set a time
Lowering your gaze and wandering limit so they read quickly for gist and don’t
nonchalantly away may make the bear worry too much about unknown vocabulary.
realise you are not a threat and leave you Encourage them to correct any false answers.
alone. Good choice!
fight it: The bear always wins. Bad choice! Answers
play dead and don’t move: Bears have 1 False (We have always had the stress
bad eyesight, so if you don’t move, they are response mechanism.)
less likely to see you. Good choice! 2 False (The response is quick and
go downwind from the bear: Bears automatic.)
don’t have good eyesight and rely on their 3 True
sense of smell. If you’re downwind, they 4 False (More blood flows to our brain
won’t be able to smell you. Good choice! and muscles.)
go upwind from the bear: No! The bear 5 False (It’s better for physical situations.)
will be able to smell you and find you. Bad 6 False (It can cause major illnesses too.)
choice!
punch it on the nose: You shouldn’t hit
the bear. Fighting back will only result in Extra idea: Write the phrase fight or flight
more serious injuries. on the board and ask students to explain
talk to it gently: Bears probably don’t what it means (= the two natural responses
understand English, so it won’t help. Bad to a threatening situation: stay and fight
choice! or run away). Explain that flight here is
not linked to planes or birds, it’s the noun
related to the verb flee (= run away).
Reading
1 Students circle or underline the words EXPLORE ONLINE
connected to the body. Check answers in This can be done as homework or in class.
feedback. Ask students which words are very Students look up information about the link
similar in their own language and which are between stress and illness using their smartphones
very different. or tablets and report back to the class.

Answers 5 Students read the article again and work in


pairs to find the words and phrases. Check
blood vessel, brain, heart, hormone, illness,
answers in feedback and help with any other
immune system, infection, muscle, skin,
unknown vocabulary.
stomach
Answers
2 PREDICT Students read the definition and
1 enabled 2 kicked in 3 automatically
guess the words from 1 that are connected to
4 affect 5 heal 6 use up 7 get rid of
it. Check their ideas quickly (the answers given
8 damage
below are those that students are most likely
to guess, not those that are actually featured in
the article).

Suggested answers
blood vessel, brain, danger, heart,
hormone, muscles, skin, survival

104 Unit 5
Tip: Although some teachers don’t Answers
encourage the use of dictionaries, they Stress hormones will stay in our body
are useful, especially in mixed-ability unless we do something physical.
classes. It’s obviously great if students 1 b
can figure out meaning from context and 2 a present tense
read quickly, but not everyone can do b will + verb (base form)
it! Weaker students are often shy about 3 negative
asking questions, and just having the
ability to check words occasionally makes
them feel more relaxed. Taking their Extra idea: To help weaker students in
dictionaries away could cause them to mixed-ability classes, write first conditional
feel more nervous and stressed, which is sentences with if and unless on the board
the last thing you want. so they can compare them in a clear, more
visual way. Cross out don’t in clauses
6 Students guess the meaning of the orange beginning with unless:
words and phrases in context. They should If we don’t take action, stress hormones
look at the co-text (the rest of the sentence will stay in our body.
around the highlighted words) to help them. Unless we don’t take action, stress
hormones will stay in our body.
Answers Ask questions to check students
hunter-gatherer: person that lives by understand function and form:
hunting and gathering fruit, etc, rather • Is it possible that stress hormones will
than farming remain in our body? (yes)
swelling: when part of the body becomes • Why do we say sentences like this?
bigger when injured or ill (to warn people or give advice)
factor: a fact or reason why something • Which words are different? (if and unless)
happens • When do we use the negative ‘don’t?’
minor: small, having little importance (in if clauses)
major: more important or serious • Do we use the negative ‘don’t’ in clauses
with ‘unless?’ (no)

7 Students work in pairs to complete the You could also review clause inversion:
diagram and write notes about the stress Stress hormones will stay in our body if we
response mechanism in preparation for their don’t take action.
talk / paragraph. Stress hormones will stay in our body
unless we don’t take action.
MA Weaker students can look back at the
• Can we change the order of the
article to help them at any stage in the process.
clauses? (yes)
• When the result clause comes first in
Answers the sentence, is there a comma? (no)
1 brain 2 system 3 cortisol 4 heart
5 blood vessels 6 organs 7 beats faster SEARCH AND THINK Students will need
9
8 goes up 9 skin and stomach
to look at the transcript for this exercise.
10 brain and muscles 11 breathe
Alternatively, play the recording again, pausing
12 (physical) energy
after each if statement, so students can listen
and adapt the sentences. Look at the example
GRAMMAR unless + first conditional
 together and point out how the verb (keep)
has been changed to stop to preserve the
8 Students complete the sentences and discuss
meaning. Check answers in feedback and
the grammar rules in pairs. Check answers in
correct any mistakes you hear.
feedback.
MA Stronger students could also rewrite
Steve’s if sentences (shown in brackets in the
Answers).
Unit 5 105
Answers The jobs pictured are:
(Unless you do it now, it won’t arrive 1 firefighter 2 doctor 3 teacher
tomorrow!) 4 miner 5 businessman / businesswoman /
(Unless you do it now, it’ll arrive late.) manager 6 journalist 7 librarian
Unless you stop answering your phone, we 8 nursery teacher / nurse 9 hairdresser
won’t make any progress. 10 pilot 11 police officer 12 vet
I’m afraid that unless you stop, you’ll have
serious health problems.
Extra idea: Do an online image search
(Unless I stop, I’ll have a heart attack?)
and find about 20 photos of different jobs.
Unless you slow down, you won’t get to 60!
Tell students you’re going to show them
Unless you slow down, you probably won’t
images and give them about five seconds
get to 50!
to look at each photo. Put students in pairs
You won’t feel much better unless you learn
and give them one minute to write as many
to relax a bit!
down as they can remember. The pair that
gets the most wins the game.
Extra idea: Make a card game with if /
unless clauses written on them. Mix them Vocabulary Words connected with work (1)
up and turn them over so students have
no idea what they are choosing. Put them 1 Check that students know the word rating.
in pairs or groups of three. They take turns They discuss the questions and rate the jobs
picking up a card, reading it and reacting from least to most stressful. Ask students
immediately by thinking of a consequence. which words are very similar in their own
language and which are very different.
Speaking Listening 1
10 Students make lists and then compare with 2 2.4 Students listen to the conversation and
other groups. Alternatively, they could walk check if their predictions from 1 were correct.
around the room and tell each other the things Play and pause the recording as necessary.
they do to help them deal with stress. Try a few
of the suggestions in the classroom if possible! Answers
Miner 8.3, librarian 2.0, police officer 7.7,
Lesson 3 Nine to five pp48–49 airline pilot 7.5, journalist 7.5, doctor 6.8,
firefighter 6.3, teacher 6.2, senior manager
Aims 5.8, nursery nurse 3.3, hairdresser 4.3, vet
4.5, soldier 4.7
The focus of this lesson is words connected with
work; students discuss the most enjoyable and
stressful jobs in the Writing and speaking section. Transcript
They also find out about the advantages and woman Hi there.
disadvantages of being a pilot and listen to the man Hi. What are you doing?
song Nine to Five by Dolly Parton. woman I’ve got this project to do for Monday
about stressful occupations. I’m just
You first! looking at some research they did at
Students look at the photos and discuss the UMIST in 1987.
questions. Ensure they know the vocabulary man Interesting?
to describe the jobs shown, and their own job woman Yes, very. What would you guess the
if necessary. If they haven’t got much work most stressful job was in 1987?
experience to date, change the activity and ask man Um, dentist? Heart surgeon?
them which jobs they would most like to do in the woman Nah! Miner. They gave it a rating
future, giving reasons for their ideas. of 8.3.

106 Unit 5
man Miner? Really? Mind you, I can 3 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Get
imagine being a miner must be a really feedback and check their ideas and opinions.
difficult job. Did they rate the least
stressful job, too? Answer
woman Yes, being a librarian. Stress rating 2! 2 Dentist, heart surgeon and soldier are
man That’s low. Let’s have a look – police mentioned in the recording, but not
officer’s high, isn’t it? 7.7. And airline pictured.
pilot and journalist both have a rating
of 7.5!
woman Yes. Then doctor 6.8, firefighter 6.3,
Listening 2
teacher 6.2 and senior manager 5.8. 4 2.5 GUESS Give students time to read the
man Really? I would expect being a questions and ask them to predict any changes
firefighter to be a lot more stressful to the ratings. Play and pause the recording as
than being a journalist. What about the necessary.
least stressful jobs? What’s down here?
woman Um, being a nursery nurse is OK – 3.3. Transcript
And hairdresser at 4.3 is just a bit less
man You still there? What are you doing
stressful than vet – 4.5.
now?
man Oh, that’s a surprise – soldier 4.7!
woman Now I’m looking at a more recent
I would expect it to be a lot higher
survey – 2014, in fact.
than that.
man Oh. And are the ratings still the same?
woman Yes, but remember this was 1987.
woman Well, this one doesn’t actually have
Things are a bit different nowadays.
ratings, but a lot of the most stressful
man True. Well, I’m just going out for a run.
jobs in 1987 are still high on the
I’ll see you in a while.
list: firefighters, airline pilots, senior
woman Fine. See you. Have a good run!
managers, journalists, police officers –
all of those jobs are still up at the top.
Extra ideas: Write the following jobs man What about the least stressful jobs?
on the board for students to guess what woman Lots of those have stayed the same,
ratings they were given in the same survey: too.
builder (7.5), dentist (7.3), actor (7.0), man So being a librarian or a hairdresser is
ambulance driver (6.3), musician (6.3), still a good choice if you want to avoid
social worker (6.0), salesman (5.7), hotelier stress?
(5.3), accountant (4.8), farmer (4.8), travel woman Absolutely. But there have been some
agent (4.8), secretary (4.7), civil servant major changes, too. Miners – which
(4.4), estate agent (4.3), solicitor (4.3), were top of the list in 1987 – were
architect (4.0), scientist (3.4). completely absent from the list of the
Students complete the sentences in the ten most stressful jobs in 2014.
Grammar spot with the correct information. man So what was top of the list this time?
woman Military personnel! Soldiers!

Tip: Tell students that it’s important to keep 5 Students talk about the questions and offer
listening even if they think they know the their ideas. This activity also provides a nice,
answer. They’ll often hear something, quick review of comparative and superlative
assume it’s the answer and then switch adjectives.
off. This is a mistake, because the
thing that they hear first, especially in Answers
exams, is usually there to distract them.
1 Most of the most stressful jobs
The information in the recording is
(firefighters, airline pilots, senior
deliberately not given consistently from
managers, journalists, police officers)
most to least stressful, so they have to
are the same, as are most of the least
listen to the end of the conversation in
stressful jobs (librarian and hairdresser).
order to get the correct answers.

Unit 5 107
But miners have disappeared from the Extra idea: Students find other songs
list completely, and soldiers are now at about working. Do they generally give a
the top. negative or a positive view of working life?
2 Mines have been closing in many MA Point weaker students in the direction
countries in recent years and so there of Lee Dorsey’s 1966 hit Working in a
are many fewer miners than there Coalmine.
used to be. On the other hand, wars
– involving international forces – have
been increasing around the world,
Listening 3
making a soldier’s job more stressful. 6 Write the word shift on the board and elicit
what it means (a period of time during the day
Song link or night when people work). Give an example
This could be done at home or in the classroom (eg doctor, nurse) and ask students to think of
using smartphones and tablets. Students find the jobs that typically involve shift work.
song online and answer the questions.
7 2.6 GUESS Students listen carefully for
key words and clues. Play and pause the
Answers
recording for students to guess the job.
1 The song was written and sung by Dolly
Parton for the 1980 film of the same Answers
name.
She is an air traffic controller. Likely key
2 They are her bosses.
words: JFK, guiding planes ... onto and off
3 A typewriter
the runways, eight-hour shifts.

Extra idea: Create a gap-fill exercise with


Transcript
the song lyrics. Play it (on audio or video)
in class for students to listen and fill in the Well, it’s a wonderful job and the people I
gaps. Play it again for them to compare work with are great, but it’s an enormous
answers with a partner. responsibility. Being responsible for the safety
of so many people can be extremely stressful.
But the pay is good because of that – it’s a very
Culture note well-paid job.
Dolly Parton (born 19 January, 1946) is an It’s absolutely exhausting, though. We work
American singer-songwriter best known eight-hour shifts here in the States, which can
for her country music. She wrote the song be morning or evening or night shifts – night
Nine to Five for the 1980 film of the same shifts are the hardest. You often feel exhausted
name, starring Jane Fonda, Lily Tomlin and the next day if you work overnight. And we
Parton herself, and it became something sometimes only get about eight hours rest
of an anthem for office workers. It gained between shifts. Eight hours is just not long
an Academy Award nomination and four enough – unless you live nearby, you don’t
Grammy nominations, and reached the get much rest. And most of us live a long
number-one spot in the American charts. It way away. By the time you get out of JFK, get
is one of the few songs to feature the noise home, get something to eat and spend some
of a typewriter; Parton relates that she used time with your family, there isn’t much time for
her false nails to work out the rhythm of sleep! I often get less than four hours’ sleep
the typewriter when writing the song. and it’s hard to concentrate when you’re so
tired. And in my work, you have to concentrate
every single minute. If you don’t concentrate,
you’re putting a lot of lives at risk. When
you’re guiding planes full of passengers and
crew onto and off the runways and around
an airport, you need to be very awake! Some
people have fallen asleep on the job on the
108 Unit 5
night shift. It’s very rare, but they’ll fire you if 11 Students work in pairs and think of possible
they catch you asleep. Though it’s actually not opposites. They can use their dictionaries or
dangerous unless you’re working alone, and smartphones to look up words if necessary.
most of the time we aren’t.
Suggested answers
8 Play and pause the recording again for
difficult: understanding, supportive,
students to write the answers. They then check
congenial, friendly
in pairs. Go through some of the vocabulary
long: short, reasonable
afterwards (eg rare, fire) for students to guess
low: high, good, OK
the meanings.
negative: positive
noisy: quiet
Answers
tight: flexible, generous
1 Because you are responsible for the
uncomfortable: comfortable
safety of lots of people.
unfriendly: nice, friendly
2 They are eight-hour shifts.
3 The breaks between shifts are about
eight hours. Extra idea: You could also add other
4 Go home, get something to eat and useful language such as:
spend some time with their family; a lack of: appreciation, support, challenges,
there isn’t much time for sleep. training, career prospects,
5 You put a lot of lives at risk. not enough / too much: competition,
6 They’ll fire you. travel, danger, noise, variety, overtime,
responsibility
9 Students write a list. Then play the
recording again so they can check how many 12 YOUR STORY Students talk about the
things they remembered correctly. questions in pairs. Encourage them to use the
vocabulary in 10 and 11. They report back,
Answers then vote for the best ideas on making work /
The enormous responsibility, the fact studies more enjoyable and less stressful.
that it’s exhausting, the different shifts
(especially the night shifts), the short time
Take a break
to rest between shifts, travelling to and Students do some research on ways that a working
from JFK, the lack of sleep, having to or studying environment could be made less
concentrate every minute. stressful. Ask them if they’ve heard of feng shui,
the Chinese system of establishing harmony with
the environment, which includes lots of theories
Vocabulary Words connected with work (2) about ways to make a space calmer.
10 Students match the words. Tell them there may
sometimes be more than one possibility.
Writing and speaking
13 VIDEO OPTION Students record a short
Answers video using their smartphones. If they’re
difficult: boss, colleagues, environment, in work, they can focus on that; if they’re
working hours students, they can choose a hobby or pastime,
long: working hours or choose a job they’d like to do. If they’re a
low: salary bit shy and reluctant to upload their videos,
negative: feedback, boss, colleagues that’s fine. Just encourage them share them in
noisy: environment, colleagues small groups.
tight: deadlines
14 Students watch each other’s videos and decide
uncomfortable: uniform
who has the most / least stressful job. Ask
unfriendly: boss, colleagues, environment
extra questions (eg Which jobs did you find
These are all factors that can cause stress in interesting? Which jobs would you like to do?
a job. Why?).

Unit 5 109
Everyday English p50 Can you do that? That’s right. Now,
just shut your eyes for a moment
Giving advice and making suggestions and see if you can imagine the exam
tomorrow. Imagine you’re in the
1 GUESS Students look at the photo and make room. You’re sitting at the table and
predictions. What can they see? (vocabulary the examiner is on the other side.
notes) What language is it? (Spanish) Write a The examiner is smiling. And you’re
few sentence starters on the board (He might talking and talking. And now you’re
be ... , He could be ...) to prompt ideas and to both laughing. Your Spanish is perfect.
practise modal verbs. You’re talking like a native speaker!
Charlie? Charlie? Oh.
2 2.7 6 Students watch the video and check
if their predictions were correct. 3 Students work in pairs and tick the advice.
Play the recording again so they can check
Answers their answers together. Draw attention to verb
Charlie is worried about his Spanish exam forms (I suggest you breathe in ... Try breathing
at school. slowly and deeply ...). Do some repetition
drilling to practise pronunciation and help
students remember the phrases.
Transcript
dana Hey, Charlie. Answers
charlie Oh, hi Dana. If you ..., it’ll help.
dana What’s the matter with you? You look Try ...ing.
awful! I suggest you ...
charlie Gee, thanks. Just ...
dana No, really. You look as though you See if you can ...
haven’t slept in weeks!
charlie I know. I can’t sleep! I’m so stressed
4 Students work in pairs to give suggestions and
out. I’ve got my Spanish oral exam
advice using the phrases from 3. Walk around,
tomorrow.
help and correct as needed.
dana Oh, that’s right. I forgot about that.
But, don’t worry, you’ll be fine. Your 5 P 2.8 Students often don’t hear the
Spanish is terrific! contraction of will (it’s called a ‘dark l’ and is
charlie You think so? You really think so? difficult to notice), so it’s helpful to repeat the
dana Absolutely. full form and contraction. You could also point
charlie How do you know? You don’t speak out the weak form of you.
Spanish! If you relax, it’ll help.
dana Yeah, but your friend from Argentina /ɪf jə rɪˈlæks ɪtl ˈhelp/
said your Spanish was really good.
charlie But I’m so terrified that I won’t be able 6 P 2.9 Play the recording for students to
to open my mouth. repeat together. Some students might find the
dana Well, if you relax, it’ll help. sound difficult, so you may have to show them
charlie Oh? the tongue position (it’s an alveolar sound, so
dana OK, sit back and I’ll help you, all right? get them to gently touch the ridge just above
You know I have practice with this. I the top teeth).
work in a health club every weekend!
7 Students work in pairs to think of contexts for
charlie Right, good point.
the sentences (eg I bought Emma a T-shirt for
dana Are you comfortable?
her birthday – she’ll love it.). Invite a few pairs
charlie Uh-huh.
to read their sentences to the class.
dana Now. Just try breathing slowly and
deeply for a moment. Slowly and 8 Do the first one with the class as an example.
deeply. That’s right. You got it. Get feedback and ask students which
I suggest you breathe in through your suggestions they like best. Which ones do they
nose and out through your mouth. already do? Which ones will they try? Note
110 Unit 5
that there are some ‘red herrings’ which may Jobs review
mislead students (eg Do will also collocate
with yoga or tai chi, but students should work 3 Give students a couple of minutes to complete
out that this can’t be the correct match by a the jobs before they compare their answers
process of elimination.). in pairs. Encourage them to add to the list
if they can (eg painter, sculptor, designer,
Answers editor, plumber, engineer, doctor, teacher,
farm worker, factory worker, cleaner, dancer,
1i 2d 3f 4e 5g 6c 7b
driver, explorer, firefighter, hairdresser, lawyer,
8a 9h
lecturer, reporter, singer, tennis / football
player, author, sailor, professor, lecturer).
9 Students combine the suggestions with the
phrase. Remind them to say the short form of Answers
will.
1 actor 2 banker 3 conductor
10 Students create a stress-busting plan using the 4 director 5 instructor 6 manager
suggestions given and their own ideas. They 7 miner 8 soldier 9 writer
then walk around the room and share their
ideas with each other. 4 P 2.25 Students work in pairs and mark
the stressed syllables. Play the recording for
Extra idea: Students write ten recently them to check and elicit which job has a
learnt words down and test each other. different stress pattern. Play the recording
One student gives a definition, their partner again for them to practise.
guesses the word.
Answers
Vocabulary plus p66 1 actor 2 banker 3 conductor
4 director 5 instructor 6 manager
Parts of the body review 7 miner 8 soldier 9 writer
They all have the main stress on the syllable
1 Ensure that students understand internal
before -or / -er except for manager.
organs (= parts of the body under the skin that
perform particular jobs). They then work in
pairs to circle the words that refer to internal 5 Students work in pairs to make as many job
organs. titles as they can. Feed back as a class to see
which pair got the most. Ask students which
Answers words are very similar in their own language
brain, heart, lung, stomach and which are very different.
Although the skin is the largest organ in
the human body, it’s not an internal organ. Answers
company: director, manager, receptionist
2 Divide the class into two or three teams and heart: surgeon
give them a time limit (eg five minutes) to think hotel: manager, receptionist, worker
of as many parts of the body as they can to lorry: driver
add to the list in 1. You can decide whether office: assistant, manager, receptionist,
to limit this to internal organs or to accept any worker
part of the body. Have team A call out a word Pilates: instructor
from their list. If none of the other teams has prison: officer
it on their list, team A wins a point. Continue sales: assistant, director, manager
with the other teams until all the items have
been read out. The team with the most points Extra idea: Ask students which of these
wins. jobs they would love and which they would
hate. They explain their reasons.

Unit 5 111
Wordbuilder Affixes 10 Students quickly read the short paragraph and
complete it with over- words. Ask if they know
6 Remind students that a suffix is a group of any other words that begin with over-
letters added to the end of a word to change (eg overrated, overconfident).
its meaning. Ask them which three-letter suffix
can be added to all the nouns except one. Answers
1 overcrowded 2 overdone
Answer 3 overcharged 4 overjoyed
-ful
The odd one out is health (the adjective
from that is healthy). Extra idea: Students write sentences using
the other over- words from 9.

Tip: Students may be tempted to add an extra Focus on: get


l to the -ful suffix, so remind them that
only the adverb suffix -fully has two ls. a Students work in pairs to circle the words that
collocate with get, then answer the questions
7 Students work in pairs to think of things that as a class.
can be described as careful, colourful, harmful,
helpful, painful, peaceful, stressful, successful, Answers
thoughtful and wonderful. Have pairs call out All the words can collocate with get.
their ideas and write the best ones on the 1 get angry: become angry
board. get cold: become cold
get a cold: catch a viral illness that
8 Remind students that a prefix goes at the makes you sneeze and cough
beginning of a word and give them a couple get dark: become dark
of minutes to think of a prefix or suffix that get dressed: put your clothes on
creates the opposite meaning. get an email: receive an email
MA You may want to point out to stronger get a feeling: have the impression
students that sometimes different affixes can get a headache: have a pain in your
be used for different meanings. For example, head
helpless and unhelpful both exist, but mean get home: arrive at your house
different things. get an idea: have an idea
get ill: become unwell
Answer get permission: be allowed to do
-less something
It doesn’t work for health, peace, stress, get a present: receive a gift
success or wonder. The opposites of their get good results: do well in an exam or
adjectives are: unhealthy, noisy / loud, a test
unstressful, unsuccessful, awful / terrible. get scared: become afraid
get started: begin something
Wordbuilder over- get stuck: become trapped in
something or somewhere
9 Give students a couple of minutes to do the get tickets: buy tickets
matching in pairs, then check as a class and get tired: become tired
elicit the meaning of over- (= more than, too get upset: become upset
much). get well: recover from an illness / accident
2 No, it doesn’t.
Answers
1 overtake 2 overtime 3 oversleep
4 overweight 5 overcharge
6 overcrowded 7 overdone 8 overjoyed

112 Unit 5
3 Suggested answers: get married, get
divorced, get lost, get better, get up,
get out, get around, get together, get
a life, get there, get an award, get a
job, get a bargain, get a haircut, get
something to eat, get ready ...

b Students match the phrasal verbs with their


meanings.

Answers
1b 2g 3f 4e 5c 6a 7d

c Students complete the sentences. Ensure they


use the correct form of get.

Answers
1 got back; get out of 2 getting on with
3 got rid of; get to; get off

Extra idea: Students match these


expressions from page 44 (1–3) with the
correct meaning (a–c), then use them to
complete the sentences below:

1 I gave up. a) I couldn’t


think at all.
2 My mind went blank. b) I couldn’t do
it any more.
3 I froze. c) I couldn’t
move.
1 When I turned over my exam paper and
looked at the questions, __________ .
2 When I saw the snake on the path in
front of me, __________ .
3 I felt so tired, I couldn’t make it to the
top. __________ .
Answers
1b 2a 3c
1 my mind went blank 2 I froze
3 I gave up

Unit 5 113
6 Consequences
UNIT GRAMMAR: phrases for certainty and possibility; second conditional; past obligation and permission
VOCABULARY: animals and categories; the natural world; superfoods; medicine and health
FOCUS FUNCTION: describing things

Introduction p51 Answers


1 They’re birds. They can’t fly, but they’re
Aims
still birds.
The focus of this lesson is to introduce the concept 2 Only in the southern hemisphere,
of certainty and possibility via a general knowledge mainly in Antarctica
quiz. It also introduces some new animal 3 They can control the rate of blood flow,
vocabulary and the general topic of the unit, and they have special blood vessels.
which is about answering intriguing questions, 4 No, whales do.
mainly about what the consequences would be if 5 A liger – a cross between a male lion
something happened. and a female tiger (The opposite is a
Warm-up tigon – a cross between a male tiger
and a female lion – but neither exists in
Play a quick team game to review animal
the wild.)
vocabulary. Divide the class into two teams (A and
6 For up to two hours.
B) and ask each team to write a list of as many
7 To express emotions – faces would be
animals (including birds and insects) as they can
much less expressive without them!
think of in two minutes. When they’ve finished,
(They also prevent sweat dripping
ask team A to say an animal; if team B doesn’t
down into their eyes, although this isn’t
have it on its list, team A wins a point. Repeat for
mentioned in the recording.)
team B, and continue alternating between teams
8 They help us to hold and handle objects
until both teams’ lists are exhausted. The team
– it would be difficult otherwise.
with the most points wins.
9 Because the cells which give hair its
1 Tell students they’re going to do a general colour gradually die as we get older.
knowledge quiz. First, they complete the 10 Nobody seems to know the answer
questions with the correct auxiliary verb. to this yet. You could ask students to
Check their answers; they then discuss the search online to see if they can find out
questions in groups of three or four. Tell them the answer.
that the questions get progressively harder!
Monitor their discussions, checking that they’re 3 2.10 Play the recording for students to
using the phrases for expressing (un)certainty match the conversations and questions.
correctly.
MA With weaker students, do the first gap-fill Answers
(or even all ten) together to revise auxiliaries in A2 B5 C8 D1 E9 F7 G4
questions. H 6 I 3 J 10

Answers
Transcript
1 Are 2 do 3 don’t 4 Do 5 is
6 can 7 do 8 do 9 does 10 does A
man Oh, I know that one: they only live in
the southern hemisphere, mainly in
2 Compare answers as a class. Are there any
Antarctica.
questions which everyone is sure about? Any
B
questions for which no one knows the answer?
man Isn’t a tiger the biggest cat?
Which things were the most interesting and
woman No, it’s definitely a liger, with an ‘l’
most surprising?
– a cross between a male lion and a
female tiger.
114 Unit 6
man Really? I’ve never heard of that.
woman Well, it doesn’t exist in the wild. Answers
And the opposite is a tigon – a cross a) frog
between a male tiger and a female b) parrot
lion. c) salmon, shark
C d) bee, butterfly, fly, mosquito, wasp
woman I think it’s because they help us to e) badger, bat, bear, dolphin, human,
hold and handle objects – it would be mouse, rat, whale, zebra
difficult otherwise. We’d drop things. f) snake
man Really? I didn’t know that! g) spider (Spiders are arachnids, which
D have eight legs; insects have six.)
man They must be birds.
woman Yes, I agree. They can’t fly, but they’re
Extra idea: Ask students to suggest other
still birds because they have feathers
ways of categorising the animals. Ask them
and a beak and they lay eggs.
to share with a partner and explain.
E
woman I have no idea why we go grey. Do you Answers
know? Other possible categories: can fly / can’t fly;
man I think it’s because the colour cells dangerous / not dangerous; things we eat /
which give hair its colour gradually die don’t eat; colourful / black, grey or brown;
as we get older. can / can’t swim; in / not in your country
woman Oh, right. Note: These categories are not black and
F white, and students should feel free to
woman I think it’s to express emotions – our discuss them. A bee, for example, could
face would be much less expressive be dangerous if someone is allergic to bee
without them! stings.
G
man No, whales do, but I don’t know why
5 EVERYBODY UP! Give students a few
whales need such large brains. All they
minutes to look up interesting facts about the
do is swim and eat!
animals online using their phones or tablets.
H
Monitor and help and correct as needed.
man Possibly for up to two hours. I think I
Look at the example as a class (Why do zebras
read that somewhere.
have stripes?) and see if anyone can guess
woman That’s an awfully long time!
the answer. (There has never really been a
I
definitive answer to the question ‘Why do
woman No idea about penguin’s feet!
zebras have stripes?’, but recent research
man I think it might be something to do
suggests that the stripes may help protect the
with having special blood vessels to
zebras against certain kinds of parasitic flies.)
control the rate of blood flow.
woman How on earth do you know that?
Students walk around the room to ask and
man I read it somewhere. answer each other’s questions. Remind them to
woman Ah.
use the phrases of certainty and uncertainty.
J MA Stronger students could write two or three
man I have no idea what the answer is. questions.
I haven’t a clue!
EXPLORE ONLINE
woman You aren’t the only one. Nobody
If there’s enough time, students can find out the
knows!
answers online and tell the class what they’ve
4 Elicit the difference between amphibians, discovered. This can include answers to question
mammals, reptiles, etc. Students then match 10 in the quiz and any answers in 5 that no one
the animals to the correct categories. Ask could answer.
students which words are very similar in their
own language and which are very different.

Unit 6 115
Did you know? Reading
Write the question Does anything eat wasps? on
1 PREDICT Students discuss the question in
the board and try to elicit the answer. Encourage
pairs. Check their ideas in feedback.
students to use the phrases from 1 and ask if they
know any other strange book titles (there is an 2 Students read the article quickly and check if
annual competition to find the oddest book title – their predictions were correct. How many of
students could find out more about this online). their words from You first! were mentioned in
the article?
Answer
Yes. (And there’s a clue on the book cover!) Answer
Bears, badgers, bats, rats, mice, frogs … No, we probably wouldn’t die, but life
lots of animals do. Wasps are an important would be more difficult.
part of the food chain.
3 Students read and answer the questions in
pairs. Check answers in feedback.
Lesson 1 What would we do
without them? pp52–53 Answers
1 They are dying because of pesticides,
Aims parasites, disease and loss of habitat.
The focus of this lesson is vocabulary of the 2 a) Other kinds of creature would
natural world; the Grammar section highlights pollinate instead.
the second conditional to talk about hypothetical b) We could pollinate crops ourselves,
future situations. Students also read about the but it would take a lot of time and
importance of honey bees to the ecosystem and money.
discuss the consequences of extinction in the c) Food would be more expensive.
natural world. d) Life would be more difficult.

You first! 4 Students read the article again and work in


Pre-teach the expression come to mind (= think of pairs to guess the meaning of words from the
suddenly). Students make word associations with context.
the photo, then compare and explain their ideas
with a partner. Were they the same or different? Answers
wax: a solid substance containing fat that
Suggested answers becomes soft and melts when warm
honey, wax, dance, black and yellow, wings, pollinate: something bees do to flowers
sting, hive, summer, flowers, buzz, nature, … and plants that makes them produce seeds
pesticides: chemicals used to kill insects and
wild plants
Background note
parasites: animals or plants that live on
The western honey bee is native to Europe,
other animals or plants and feed off them
Asia and Africa, but was also introduced
habitat: the natural environment where
to America in the 17th century. The honey
things live
bee is of great importance to humans, as it
fill the gap: take over a job or vacancy
pollinates crops, orchards and fields. It also
provides wax and honey, which are used
in commercial products. Unfortunately, 5 SEARCH AND THINK Students answer the
European honey-bee populations face questions together, then check their ideas with
threats to their survival from insecticides the article. For question 2, encourage them to
and predators such as hornets, wasps and stretch themselves by making it into a game.
dragonflies. They get a point for every insect, animal or
food that no one else has thought of.

116 Unit 6
Suggested answers Extra idea: Ask extra questions and draw
1 a) insects: honey bees, other bees, a timeline and scale on the board as shown
flies, butterflies, pesticides, below to check students’ understanding
parasites, pollinate of the function and form of the second
b) animals: cows, pigs, sheep, conditional.
chickens, habitat, creatures, humans Look out for typical mistakes. Students
c) food: honey, fruit, vegetables, often confuse the first and second
grasses, cereals, starve conditional, so highlight the difference in
3 cow: beef, pig: pork, sheep: lamb / meaning (first conditional is more likely,
mutton, chickens: chicken second conditional is unlikely). The past
tense verb in the if clause also confuses
them, so show them that the second
Extra idea: Write the name of an animal conditional is about a hypothetical future
on the board. Students think of another and not the past.
animal whose name begins with the last 1 2
letter of the previous word (eg dog – If honey bees disappeared, life would be a
giraffe – elephant – tiger). Put them in lot more difficult.
pairs to play the game. To make it more
challenging and fun, give them a time limit disappeared be difficult
of ten seconds to think of the next animal! past __________________________
X X future
now
Grammar Second conditional
possible, quite likely ____________
X unlikely
6 Students complete the sentences in the table.
Remind them they can look back at the article
• How many parts does the sentence
to help them if necessary. They then answer
have? (two)
the questions and figure out the grammar rules
• When is the sentence about? (the future)
with a partner. Check answers in feedback.
• Could honey bees disappear? (maybe)
• What word tells us it is not definite? (if)
Answers
• Is it likely or unlikely in the future?
1 Would 2 didn’t exist 3 disappeared (unlikely)

4 would 5 wouldn’t starve • When do we use the second conditional?
6 disappeared (to talk about hypothetical, unlikely
1 a) hypothetical situations in the present events in the future)
or future
2 past simple • What tense is the verb in the ‘if’ clause?
3 would / could + base form of the verb. 
 (past simple)
4 Would we die if honey bees didn’t • What word comes before the verb in the
exist? result clause? (would / could)
If there weren’t any honey bees, what You could also show inversion and ellipsis:
would we do without them? Life would be a lot more difficult if honey
If they disappeared completely, would bees disappeared.
we starve?
• Can we change the sentence like that?
If that ever happened, some other
(yes)
creatures could help fill the gap.
• Is there anything different? (no comma)
If we did it ourselves, it would take a
lot of time and it would cost a lot of Life would be a lot more difficult if honey
money. bees disappeared.
We probably wouldn’t starve if honey • Have honey bees already been
bees disappeared. mentioned? (yes)
Life would be a lot more difficult [if • Do we still understand the sentence?
honey bees disappeared]. (yes)

Unit 6 117
7 FINISH IT Students write their sentences;
Suggested answers
alternatively, elicit possible endings from the
class. Encourage students to refer back to the 1 disaster, Ice Age, Iceland, submarines,
article if necessary. Then elicit different ways wobble
of saying the second conditional sentences 2 climate, day, die, energy, humans,
(ie clause inversion, beginning with If we ...). photosynthesis, plants, sunlight, survive,
temperature, trees
3 cold, dark, lean over, moonlight, night,
Suggested answers
oceans, orbit, tides, werewolves
We could help to protect honey bees
if we ...
stopped using pesticides. Speaking and listening
protected their natural habitat. 10 Students discuss the questions in small groups.
stopped them catching diseases. Model the activity to encourage them to use
protected them as much as we can. the words from 8 and the second conditional.
MA Stronger students could discuss both
Did you know? questions.
Another interesting honey-bee fact is that they can
find their way to a particular area of flowers many Tip: It’s helpful to model activities. Even if
times, even if they are a long way away. They can your instructions are super clear, students
also communicate the location of the flowers to sometimes lose concentration, don’t
other bees by doing a form of dance. listen carefully enough and are not sure
what to do. Giving an example and
Take a break modelling the activity provides a clear,
Demonstrate how to ‘buzz’ a song – it’s similar to visual clue of the task and also reminds
humming, but uses the word buzz! Some students students of language they can use.
may feel self-conscious doing this, so allow them
to work in groups of four if necessary, with each 11 2.11 Tell students they’re going to listen
pair choosing a song to ‘buzz’ to the other pair. to an interview about the sun and the moon.
They listen and check if their predictions from
Vocabulary The natural world
10 were correct. The recording is quite long,
8 Check students know the words in box. so you may want to play the section about the
You could either pre-teach them or tell them to moon, then pause it and play the information
look them up in their dictionaries. Ask students about the sun afterwards. Check as a class if
which words are very similar in their own there were any ideas that students thought
language and which are very different. of which weren’t mentioned in the radio
interview (eg Some people have suggested
Extra idea: Make cards with the words that because we wouldn’t produce vitamin D,
on. Put students into pairs or groups of which helps absorb calcium, we’d all develop
three and give them a set of word cards. bone diseases – but we wouldn’t live long
One student takes a card and describes enough for that to be a problem!).
the word on it. The rest of the group has
to guess what the word is. Set a time limit Answers
of three minutes, telling them that this is a) It would be darker without moonlight,
to encourage them to go quickly and race tides would be much smaller, the Earth
against the clock. The team that gets the would wobble and lean over more,
most correct answers wins. resulting in shorter days and a more
extreme climate. There would be no
9 Students answer the questions in pairs and put more werewolves, either.
the words from 8 into the correct category.
They should explain the reasons for their ideas.

118 Unit 6
interviewer So life wouldn’t be very different
b) It would be a disaster. The Earth’s without a moon?
temperature would drop to –73˚C professor Not radically different, no. Probably
within a year, part of all the oceans the biggest effect would be that
would freeze, all plants (apart from the Earth would wobble and lean
some large trees) would die, as they over more as it spins. And, as a
wouldn’t be able to photosynthesise, result, we would have shorter days
and the animals that eat those plants and our climate would be more
(including humans) would also die. extreme.
Humans could possibly live under the interviewer And I suppose there wouldn’t be
oceans in submarines or in countries any werewolves? They only come
such as Iceland which have geothermal out at night when there’s a full
energy. moon, don’t they?
professor No. Definitely no werewolves!
Transcript There wouldn’t be any romantic
songs about the moon either!
interviewer Good evening and welcome to
interviewer What about the sun? What would
Sci-time, the radio programme
happen to the world if there was
where we play with ideas and
no sun?
try to answer all your What if …
professor Now that would be a disaster! The
questions. Last week, we talked
Earth would get extremely cold.
about bees. What if there were no
Within a week, the temperature
more bees? And this week, we’re
would fall below 0° Fahrenheit
going to talk about the moon and
(that’s minus 17 degrees Celsius),
the sun. What if there was no
and within a year it would go
moon? What if there was no sun?
down to minus 100° Fahrenheit
With me to discuss those questions
(that’s minus 73 degrees Celsius!)
in the studio tonight is Professor
and the top part of all the oceans
Ruth Patterson from Imperial
would freeze, too.
College, London. Very nice to have
interviewer Would anything survive?
you here, Professor Patterson,
professor No, not for long. Some large
thank you so much for coming.
trees could survive for several
professor It’s a pleasure.
decades, but most other plants
interviewer Now then, we’ve had lots of emails
would die because they need the
this week asking about the moon
sun’s energy for photosynthesis.
and the sun. First of all, what
And that means, of course, that
would happen to the world if
the animals that eat those plants
there was no moon? Would things
would also die, and the animals
be very different? Would it be a
that eat those animals and so on.
disaster?
Including humans.
professor Well, without moonlight, nights
interviewer Isn’t there anywhere humans could
would obviously be darker, but
go?
that wouldn’t be too much of a
professor Well, we could live in submarines
problem.
at the bottom of the ocean, where
interviewer But there wouldn’t be any tides,
the water would be warmer, or we
would there? Because tides
could camp out in Iceland, which
depend on the moon, don’t they?
has lots of geothermal energy! But
The sea would stop coming in and
I don’t think either option would
going out – the level would stay
be much fun!
the same.
interviewer No, I agree living on a submarine
professor Actually, there would still be tides,
forever would be absolutely awful.
because the sun also pulls the
It would be a nightmare. But
oceans, but it’s true they would be
camping out in Iceland? That could
much, much smaller.
be interesting!
Unit 6 119
professor But there’s another problem. The Writing and speaking
sun doesn’t just heat the Earth.
It also keeps it in orbit. So if it 14 Write What if ... didn’t exist? on the board and
suddenly disappeared, we would tell students to choose a topic to write about.
fly off into space! Give them about five or ten minutes to find
interviewer Really? That sounds terrible! out information and make notes using their
professor Yes, it does. But don’t worry. It
smartphones or tablets. Walk around and offer
isn’t going to happen. We’re just help and useful language if necessary.
speculating. 15 MINI-TALK Students use their notes from 14
interviewer Well, that’s a relief. Professor
and prepare a short talk about their topic. Put
Patterson, thank you very much. them in pairs and encourage them to read and
professor Thank you. correct each other’s work. Then put them in
12 Students listen again and answer the questions small groups to give their talks. Walk around,
with a partner. Check answers in feedback. making notes of good sentences and any small
mistakes you hear. Get feedback and highlight
good uses of English.
Answers
1 The loss of the sun would be the Extra idea: To introduce the topic,
greater disaster because the Earth show a movie trailer of An Inconvenient
would freeze and almost everyone and Truth (https://www.youtube.com/
everything would die. watch?v=Bu6SE5TyrCM). Elicit students’
2 Because they’re just speculating, it’s reactions to the clip and global warming,
very unlikely to happen. then encourage them to find out more
about endangered species, deforestation,
13 Students answer the questions using the global warming and pollution.
second conditional. Do the first one with the Tell them to choose a topic and make a
class as an example (If there was no moon, short presentation. Provide links to websites
the Earth would be darker). Monitor, help and like https://www.worldwildlife.org and
correct as needed. http://www.foei.org.

Answers
1 If there was no moon, the Earth would Lesson 2 Hamburgers and
be darker. pies! pp54–55
If there was no moon, the tides would
be smaller. Aims
If there was no moon, the days would The focus of this lesson is to read about the
be shorter. film Super Size Me, which focused on junk food
If there was no moon, the climate and health problems in the USA. The Grammar
would be more extreme. section introduces modal verbs to describe past
2 There wouldn’t be any stories about obligation and permission, and students talk about
werewolves or romantic songs about McDonald’s and eating at restaurants and listen to
the moon. a famous song about American culture.
3 If there was no sun, temperatures
would fall. Reading and writing
If there was no sun, the oceans would
1 To introduce the topic, write hamburger on
freeze.
the board and tell students to look at the
If there was no sun, some trees would
photo. They make a vocabulary network or
survive for a while.
word fountain, writing all the words that
If there was no sun, plants and animals
come to mind. Students might have different
would die.
opinions, so encourage positive and negative
If there was no sun, we would fly off
ideas before they read the article. They then
into space.
compare with a partner and see what words
they both included.
120 Unit 6
hearts of young children for its own profit.
Extra idea: Ask personalised questions
Super Size Me is a movie that sheds a
and encourage conversation. Dictate the
new light on what has become one of
questions and put students in pairs to
America’s biggest health problems: obesity.
discuss:
At the end of the experiment, Spurlock
Do you like McDonald’s [or another fast-
had gained 11kg in weight and had done
food restaurant]? Why? / Why not?
irreparable damage to his liver. Morgan
How often do you eat there?
Spurlock won the Best Director award at
What things do you usually eat and drink?
the 2004 Sundance Film Festival, and the
Could you eat that sort of thing every day?
film was also nominated for an Academy
What do you think would happen if you
Award for Best Documentary.
did?
Would you be ‘lovin’ it’?!*
* This is a reference to McDonald’s strapline
3 Set a time limit so students read quickly for
in their advertisements (I’m lovin’ it). Omit this gist in order to check how many of their
question if students are unlikely to know this. predictions were correct. Get their reactions to
the article in feedback.
2 PREDICT Students read the title of the article 4 THINK Students discuss the questions in
and the purple introductory text and predict pairs. Check answers together in feedback.
what happened and why Morgan became so
heavy. Answers
MA Telling weaker students that they’re going 1 The title is ambiguous. Junk could mean
to read about a film called Super Size Me may ‘junk food’ or it could mean ‘rubbish’,
give them an extra clue. ‘nonsense’, ‘stupid ideas’, etc.
2 a) It may have influenced McDonald’s
Extra ideas: Ask students to predict five decision to withdraw super-size
things they expect to see in the article. You meals and start offering salads.
could also show them the Super Size Me b) He made a lot of money from his film,
movie trailer at: https://www.youtube.com/ but he gained 11 kilos and he had
watch?v=I1Lkyb6SU5U. physical and mental health problems.
Ask students what they think about c) A lot of people saw the film, and it
accelerated weight gain like this, and what brought the topic to their attention.
the causes might be. However, you need to
be very careful with this subject, as it can
5 Students work in pairs to read the definitions
easily get too personal if any students have
and find the words in the text. Check together
weight issues, or have had them in the
in feedback.
past. Make sure you keep any discussion
very general unless students themselves
Answers
volunteer the information.
1 period 2 concerned 3 amount
4 apparently 5 discontinued 6 options
Background note 7 gain 8 issues 9 depressed 10 severe
Super Size Me is a 2004 American
documentary film directed by and
starring Morgan Spurlock, an American Extra idea: Ask students what super
independent filmmaker. Spurlock’s film means (= bigger, better or more than
follows a 30-day period from 1 February usual). Tell them to circle all the words to
to 2 March, 2003, during which he ate do with size or quantity in the text.
only McDonald’s food. The film documents Answers
this lifestyle’s dramatic effect on Spurlock’s
nothing, 30, huge, enormous, amount (of),
physical and psychological well-being, and
three, everything, once, 5,000, more or less,
explores the fast-food industry’s corporate
a lot of
influence, including how it encourages
poor nutrition and finds its way into the
Unit 6 121
6 Students read and answer the questions.
Tip: Asking students to write their own
Check answers in feedback.
comprehension questions and then
putting them in new groups to quiz each
Answers
other practises reading, writing, speaking
1 He wanted to see what would and listening skills and is also an enjoyable
happen if he ate nothing but food variation from the course book. It’s
from McDonald’s for a period of 30 learner-centred, maximises students’ work
days. / Because he was worried about and minimises your involvement too!
the obesity epidemic across the USA
and the huge profits that fast-food
7 Students summarise the article using the ideas
companies were making. He was also
in each paragraph. You may or may not want
worried about junk-food advertising
to help them start off the other four sentences
aimed at children.
too:
2 First, he had to eat three McDonald’s
meals a day. Second, he had to try 1 Spurlock made the film because he was
everything on the menu at least once concerned about three things: firstly ...
and he couldn’t eat anything that secondly ... and thirdly ... 

wasn’t on the menu. 2 Two of the rules he made himself follow
3 It made a lot of money, won awards were …
and raised awareness of the issue. 3 The film was successful because …
It may also have contributed to 4 But some people said …
McDonald’s decision to withdraw the 5 And afterwards Spurlock …
supersize option. As a follow-up, ask students to make up
4 Some people said that any diet alternative titles for the article (eg McDonald’s
high in calories and fat (and low in Man in Disaster Diet). Get feedback and vote
vitamins and minerals) might have for the best, funniest or strangest title.
caused Spurlock’s weight gain and
Grammar Past obligation and permission 

health issues, not just a McDonald’s
one. The lack of exercise may have 8 Students complete the table using the past
contributed
too. The film was also forms. Elicit the answers in feedback.
criticised for being vegan propaganda.
5 He suffered from both mental and Answers
physical health problems: he was 1 had to 2 had to 3 didn’t have to
depressed and tired, he had headaches, 4 could 5 couldn’t
and he had severe and permanent liver
damage.
Extra idea: Students often confuse have
to and must, especially when talking about
Extra idea: Write It’s Quiz Time! on the past obligation and permission, so watch
board. Put students in pairs and ask them out for mistakes like It was Saturday, so I
to write five comprehension questions mustn’t go to school or I couldn’t ate. Give
about the article. Tell them to make the clear examples and context and also show
questions difficult, but the answers have to the function and meaning through time
be located in the article (so a question like lines and scales like the following:
What pets does Morgan have? isn’t a good
question because the answer isn’t in the I had to do an exam last Saturday. It was
article!). necessary.
When they’ve finished, put students in I couldn’t eat in the exam. It wasn’t
new groups of three, so the group has 15 allowed
questions. Tell them to ask and answer
had to work
each other’s questions and see who can get
couldn’t eat
the most correct answers.
past ___________________________
X future
now
122 Unit 6
choice ______________________X no choice • Do we know the lack of exercise
contributed? (no)
• When is the sentence about? (the past) • Do we know his vegan diet was
• What words show it’s the past? (had to, responsible for his health problems? (no)
couldn’t; last Saturday, was, wasn’t) • What words show that we aren’t sure?
• Did I have a choice? (no) (could, might, must, may)
• Do we change the main verb into the • Which word shows we are fairly sure
past? (no) about something? (must)
• Which part do we change to the past? • Why? (Because we know exercise and an
(the auxiliary verb: had to, couldn’t) active lifestyle are important.)
• Which words show we are less certain?
9 Elicit the first example from the class, then (could, might, may)
ask students to find and underline other past
obligation sentences. 10 EVERYBODY UP! To introduce the activity,
show a photo of yourself when you were a
Answers child or tell a story about the things you ate
First, he had to eat three McDonald’s meals and meals at home.
a day. Check students know the meaning of sweets
Second, he had to try everything on the (= food with lots of sugar, candy), allergy
menu at least once. (= bad reaction or sickness because of certain
He couldn’t eat anything that wasn’t on the food or things) and greens (= vegetables). They
menu. walk around the room, asking and answering
He didn’t have to supersize his meal unless each other’s questions.
he was asked to do so. MA Help weaker students by eliciting the
questions on the board first to help them:
When you were a child, ...
Extra idea: Review past modals of
did you have to finish everything on your
deduction in paragraphs C and D. These
plate?
were covered in Unit 3. Ask questions to
could you eat as many sweets as you wanted?
see if students understand the meaning
were there any types of food you couldn’t eat
and see the difference in probability.
because of an allergy?
McDonald’s [...] began to offer healthier
did you have to eat your greens?
options like salads instead, but that could
have been a coincidence. Speaking
Any diet high in calories and fat [...] might
have caused Spurlock’s weight gain and 11 Students talk about two of the questions in
health issues ... small groups.
The lack of exercise must have MA Stronger students discuss all three; weaker
contributed too. students talk about just one.
Spurlock’s partially vegan diet may also
have been responsible for his health Extra idea: Put students in pairs and give
problems. them each a role card (see page 124).
• When did these things happen? (the They read their role card and think of
past) questions and answers they could say in
• What words tell us it’s the past? (have the interview. They then do the interview
been, have caused, have contributed, about the ‘Super Size Me’ experiment.
have been) Ask volunteers to do their interviews in
• Are we certain Spurlock’s McDonald’s feedback.
diet caused his problems? (no)
• Are we sure that McDonald’s
discontinued the Super Size meals
because of the film? (no)

Unit 6 123
Journalist Culture note
Don McLean is an American folk / rock
You are a journalist. Think of questions
singer, born 2 October, 1945, in New York.
you can ask Morgan about the ‘Super
He is best known for his two number-one
Size Me’ experiment (eg Why did you
hits from his second album: American
do it? What were the rules? How did
Pie and Vincent. American Pie, released
you feel?).
in 1971, is so long (nearly nine minutes)
Interview Morgan about the film and that when it was originally released as a
his experience. single, it had to be split over both sides
of the record, with the result that some
radio stations only ever played the first
Morgan Spurlock half of the song. McLean has described
You made the film Super Size Me. the song as ‘somewhat autobiographical’,
You are meeting a journalist to do an presenting an abstract story of his life
interview. Think of details about the from the mid-1950s to the late 1960s
experiment, the film (eg reasons for the when he wrote the song. The one specific
film, the rules, what happened). Talk detail that he has confirmed is that he was
to the journalist and answer his / her folding newspapers for his paper round on
questions. 4 February, 1959, when he first heard the
news of the plane crash. This gave rise to
the line ‘February made me shiver / with
Song link every paper I’d deliver’. He has also said
This activity could be done as homework or in that the references in the song to ‘the king’
class. Students find out more about this iconic and ‘the jester’ are to Elvis Presley and Bob
song and answer the questions in pairs. They can Dylan respectively. The working manuscript
use their smartphones to search for information for American Pie sold at auction in 2015 for
online, and they could use Wikipedia to search over £800,000 (over $1 million), making it
for the information and Metrolyrics for the lyrics – the third highest auction price ever paid for
they’ll need both. a literary manuscript.

Answers 12 Students look at the ingredients and


1 Something else instructions for making apple pie. Put them
2 The song is about the death of Buddy in pairs, but don’t allow them to look at each
Holly, Ritchie Valens and Jiles Perry other’s information. They ask each other
Richardson junior (the Big Bopper) in a questions using the amounts and adverbs of
plane crash on 3 February, 1959. The quantity to complete the recipe.
music of the 1950s was Don McLean’s Check students understand the different
favourite music and Buddy Holly was his measures and amounts. You could also quickly
hero, hence the line ‘the day the music review questions with How much / many ...?
died’.
3 Apple pie was a symbol of the Answers
American dream in the 1950s. When 2 pastry 3 apples 4 ingredients
those singers died, McLean felt that 6 pastry 9 cream; ice-cream.
part of the American dream died with
them. 13 VIDEO OPTION Students write about
their favourite restaurant, answering the
questions. They then video their talks on their
smartphones. They can either upload their
videos or walk around the room and show
each other.

124 Unit 6
words and photos. Ask students which words
Extra idea: Do a guided visualisation with are very similar in their own language and
the class. Tell students to relax and close which are very different.
their eyes. Tell them to imagine they’re at
a restaurant. Play some gentle background Answers
music to relax them even more and help
1 honey 2 acai berries 3 miso
them picture the scene. As the music plays,
4 coconut 5 artichoke 6 ginger
gently prompt them and guide them:
7 Brazil nuts 8 turmeric 9 pineapple
You’re in your favourite restaurant. Where
10 kiwi fruit 11 garlic
is it? Who are you with? Sit down and look
at the menu. Order your favourite food and
a drink. What can you see? What can you 2 2.12 Write acai berries on the board. Elicit
hear? How do you feel? Ah! Here comes which syllable is stressed. Write the word in
your meal! What does it taste like? What phonemic script too /ˌæsaɪˈiː ˈberiz/ and ask
can you smell? How do you feel? students to repeat. They then listen and repeat,
When the music stops, ask them to open underlining the stressed syllables in each word.
their eyes and to describe the restaurant
to their partner. Get feedback and find out Answers
more about what they could see, hear, feel, acai berries, artichoke, Brazil nuts, coconut,
smell and taste. This is a great activity, as it garlic, ginger, honey, kiwi fruit, miso,
generates so many different ideas, is really pineapple, turmeric
personalised and leads to lots of learner
interaction and speaking.
Extra idea: Students work in pairs to write
down as many fruit and vegetables as they
can. The team that has the most wins. As
Lesson 3 Magic or myth? a follow-up, write the words on the board
pp56–57 and give the class 30 seconds to look at
them. Then wipe the words away and see
Aims how many they can remember.
The focus of this lesson is on ‘superfoods’ that
have amazing healing properties and health 3 Ask the questions and elicit ideas from the
benefits. Students learn food-, medicine- and class. Ask why foods is plural here. Students
health-related vocabulary and also listen to guess using degrees of certainty from page 51.
conversations about home remedies from around
the world. Answer
You first! Food is usually an uncountable noun.
However, when we talk about ‘a type of
Put students in pairs to discuss the things they eat
food’ (like superfoods), we can use it in the
and explain the reasons why. Get quick feedback
plural form.
and ask extra questions (Really? How often? Do
you eat it on its own or with something else?
What do you make with it?). Don’t worry too Background note
much if students don’t know the names of all the A ‘superfood’ is a type of food that is
foods at this stage, as this will be covered in 1. considered to be very good for your health
They can just say this. and which may even help some medical
conditions. Superfood lists contain common
Vocabulary 1 Superfoods food choices whose nutritional value has
1 Students cover the box and see how many been long recognised as exceptional.
of the foods in the photos they can name. Examples of these are berries, nuts and
They then look at the words in the box. They’ll seeds in general, dark green vegetables
already know some of these, but there will (such as spinach and broccoli), citrus fruits,
be a few more unusual, interesting and cross- fish (such as salmon and sardines) and
cultural ones as well. They then match the peanuts, lentils and beans. Some critics
Unit 6 125
claim that the word is just a marketing
Answers
term to help sell certain products and the
benefits are often disputed by scientific medicine, infection, operation, antibiotics,
studies. doctors, bacteria, penicillin, scientists
Find out more about superfoods at http://
www.history.com/news/hungry-history/the- Transcript
ancient-origins-of-superfoods and https://
sunita What are you doing, Joe?
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superfood.
joe Oh, just looking at this website a
Mexican friend of mine told me
Vocabulary 2 Medicine and health about. It’s all about natural products in
medicine. It’s fascinating.
4 GUESS Students read the text and guess
sunita Uh-huh. So what have you found out?
which food item it is about. They then compare
joe Well, my friend Maria had a really bad
their ideas in pairs.
infection after an operation – it went
on for days and antibiotics didn’t get rid
Answer
of it, and then finally someone told her
Honey to try honey – manuka honey, in fact –
so she did, and the infection completely
Background note healed. Completely!
The honey in question is not just any old sunita Really?

honey, it is manuka honey, also known joe Yes, really. So I’m just looking it up to
as surgihoney. It is produced in Australia see what I can find out, and there’s
and New Zealand from the nectar of the loads of stuff if you just google manuka
manuka tree. Although there are some honey.
doubts as to the scientific basis for the sunita For example?

antibacterial qualities of manuka honey, joe There’s a true story about a man from
it has become very expensive and thus a Wales – he used to keep fish.
target for fraud. Over half of the samples sunita Fish?

tested in 2012–2013 were found not to be joe Yes, koi, and one day he got a cut from
manuka honey at all, despite being labelled one of them. He wasn’t worried about
as such. it, but then the cut became infected
and turned into a terribly painful skin
condition and it got so bad that he
5 SEARCH AND THINK Students find the
found himself in a wheelchair – he
words and meanings. They can use their
couldn’t walk.
dictionaries to help them.
sunita My goodness! How awful!
joe Yes, and then his doctors started to talk
Answers
about amputation, so the man thought
1 There are actually 16 words or phrases: ‘Right, that’s it!’ and he decided he had
medicine: healing properties, treat, to find a different solution. And guess
penicillin, antibiotics, doctors, medicine, what? He discovered it in Venezuela,
scientists, patients, hospital, operation from a street doctor. The guy told him
disease: infection, superbugs, to put honey dressings on his legs. So
resistance, bacteria, MRSA, E. coli he did, and five months later, he was
walking again!
Listening 1 sunita Really? How amazing! So how did this
honey thing all start?
6 2.13 Students listen and tick the words they joe Apparently on a farm in Chile. The
highlighted as they hear them. Play and pause owner noticed that the honey in his
the recording as necessary; students compare beehives didn’t go off, even in warm
their ideas afterwards. weather. It stayed fresh. So it must have
something special which protected it
against bacteria.
126 Unit 6
sunita So it was a lucky accident? Sounds
a bit like Alexander Fleming and the Answers
discovery of penicillin. 1c 2d 3a 4e 5b
joe Yeah, I suppose it was a bit. Anyway,
later on, scientists got interested
Extra idea: As a follow-up, students
and managed to produce a medical,
write a short story that includes each of
antibacterial honey. It’s sometimes
the phrases. They then delete the phrases
called surgihoney.
from their story and leave gaps. Finally,
sunita That is interesting. So what exactly do
they tell their stories to a partner and say
you do with it? Do you eat it?
Boo! instead of each missing phrase. Their
joe Well, you certainly can eat it. Some
partner has to guess which phrase fits the
people say eating it helps to prevent
sentence correctly.
and treat cancer or reduce high
cholesterol. But most people use it
directly on wounds or skin infections or Speaking and writing
burns.
9 Pre-teach claim (= a belief that something is
sunita What, you just put it straight on your
true, though there may not be proof). Students
skin?
match the sentences to the photos. Don’t
joe Absolutely. But not just any old honey,
confirm their answers at this stage.
remember. It needs to be a special
medical honey.
Answers
sunita Oh right. Sounds a bit sticky.
joe Yeah, sticky, but it works! 1 miso 2 acai berries 3 ginger
4 Brazil nuts 5 artichoke 6 vinegar
7 Students try to remember the answers. Play 7 pineapple 8 coconut 9 kiwi fruit
the recording again so they can check.
MA With weaker classes, give students time to
Tip: It’s great if students know the answers,
read the questions first before asking them to
but if they don’t, just encourage them
listen and write the answers.
to guess – at least there’s a chance
they might get it right! This is a good
Answers
technique for them to learn, especially
1 A website about natural products in when they’re doing exams. It’s also
medicine important for them to have a safe
2 She had a bad infection after an atmosphere where their ideas will be
operation. appreciated and praised even if they’re
3 He got a cut from one of his koi fish. not quite right.
4 It got infected and he ended up in a
wheelchair because he couldn’t walk.
10 2.14Students listen and check their ideas
5 His doctors started to talk about
together. Play and pause the recording as
amputation; he heard about manuka
necessary.
honey from a street doctor in Venezuela.
6 He noticed that the honey in his
Transcript
beehives didn’t go off, even in warm
weather. It stayed fresh. So it must have 1 Miso can apparently help prevent certain
something special which protected it types of cancer and give protection from
against bacteria. radiation.
7 You can eat it, but most people put it on 2 Many people believe that acai berries give
their skin. you energy, help you lose weight and also
slow down the aging process!
3 They say that ginger is really good for colds,
8 TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE Students match
flu and respiratory problems.
the expressions from the recording with the
4 Brazil nuts apparently have a powerful
meanings.
positive effect on your brain.

Unit 6 127
5 Artichoke may help your digestion and it 2 Chocolate! It’s really good for coughs.
also lowers cholesterol. I don’t know why. And it’s delicious of
6 Vinegar can possibly help to regulate blood course.
sugar levels. 3 A: Peanut butter. It’s great for getting
7 Pineapple is especially good for your eyes chewing gum out of your hair.
and your skin as you get older. B: Why on earth would you have chewing
8 Apparently coconut oil is excellent for your gum in your hair in the first place?
hair and skin. 4 Vinegar is brilliant for sunburn. I was
9 They say that eating kiwi fruit can help terribly burnt once and someone put
prevent skin cancer and is also good for vinegar all over me and the burn went
depression. away. I’d recommend it for a blocked drain,
too.
Extra idea: Elicit which two superfoods 5 I eat cherries to help me go to sleep.
from 1 were not featured in the recording I heard that’s because they contain
(turmeric and garlic); students find out melatonin.
what beneficial properties they’re supposed 6 And toothpaste can get rid of spots. Did
to have. you know that? It can get rid of stains like
ink and lipstick, too. And it can clean piano
11 YOUR STORY Students talk about their own or keyboard keys!
personal experiences with alternative medicine.
If they don’t have any, they can talk about the 15 Students listen again and check if their
type of food they eat to stay fit and healthy. predictions from 13 were correct. What things
Check their ideas in feedback. can each food item good for?

EXPLORE ONLINE Answers


This can be done as homework or in class using
1 Sugar gets rid of hiccups.
smartphones or tablets. Ensure that students
2 Chocolate is good for coughs.
understand all the items in the box. Alternatively,
3 Peanut butter is good for getting
students find out more about one of the items on
chewing gum out of your hair.
page 56.
4 Vinegar is good for soothing sunburn
12 MINI-TALK Put students in small groups. and unblocking drains.
They give a short talk about their superfood 5 Cherries are good for helping you sleep.
but don’t say what it is. The other students 6 Toothpaste gets rid of spots (and gets
have to listen and guess. rid of stains like ink and lipstick, and
cleans piano or keyboard keys).
Listening 2 and speaking
13 GUESS Students look at the photos and 16 VIDEO OPTION Students write about their
guess the remedies. Encourage them to use favourite magic home remedy and then video
the phrases to express degrees of certainty their talks on their smartphones. They can
from the unit. either upload them or walk around the room
and show each other.
14 2.15 Students listen to the recording and
number the photos in order. Extra idea: Use short speaking activities to
encourage learner interaction. Put students
Answers in pairs to talk about the things they do
a) 5 b) 4 c) 1 d) 6 e) 2 f) 3 to stay fit and healthy. Should they eat
differently to stay healthy? What things
should we do / avoid to live a long life?
Transcript
1 I get hiccups quite often, and I find that
if I have a spoonful of sugar, it gets rid of
them.

128 Unit 6
Everyday English p58 Answers
1 A simple tin opener.
Describing things
2 Really dangerous. Really, really
1 2.16 Students listen and answer the dangerous.
questions. 3 A simple, safe tin opener.
4 Not an electric one.
Answers 5 A simple, safe, manual tin opener.
He wants a tin opener, but the shop
doesn’t sell them, so he’s not successful. Tip: If students can’t hear the word stress
easily, hum the ‘tune’ of the sentence
Transcript and ask them to copy. Then say the
words in the same tune!
man Good morning. I wonder if you can
help me. I’d like a thing for opening
tins. 4 P Students practise pronunciation and
assistant Sorry? intonation by responding to the questions. Do
man You know, something I can use to the first one together as an example.
open tins with.
assistant Oh. You mean a tin opener? Suggested answers
man Yes, that’s it. A tin opener! One that’s 1 No, it’s really difficult.
very easy to use. 2 No, it’s really boring.
assistant So, a simple tin opener. 3 No, I’d prefer sparkling.
man Yes, a simple tin opener, and one that 4 No, I’d like it white, please.
won’t cut me when I use it. Some of 5 No, I’d like baked fish, please.
them are terrible. Really dangerous. 6 No, I’d like it well done.
Really, really dangerous.
assistant So, you want a simple, safe tin 5 Students match the items from A and B.
opener. Alternatively, shout out items in a random
man Exactly! And not an electric one, of order from box A. Students have to respond
course – I’m going camping. with the correct word from box B. Students
assistant So, a simple, safe, manual tin opener. then describe the item to each other; their
Is that right? partner has to guess what it is. Encourage
man That’s it exactly! Do you have one of them to use the expressions from 2.
those?
assistant I’m sorry. We don’t sell tin openers Answers
here! bicycle pump, bin liner, bottle opener,
2 Students listen again and complete the clothes brush, coffee maker, insect
sentence in two different ways. Play the repellent, lemon squeezer, phone charger,
recording again if necessary, giving them time potato peeler, stain remover
to write sentences.
6 ROLE-PLAY Students do their own role-plays
Answers in pairs using the language for describing
I’d like a thing for opening tins. things. They can look back at the transcript to
I’d like something I can use to open tins help them if necessary.
with. 7 GUESS Students look at the photo and
answer the questions. Ask extra personalised
3 P 2.17 Students listen and underline the questions (eg Where were you? Did you like it?
stressed syllables in each sentence. They then Do you know the ingredients?).
practise and repeat together.

Unit 6 129
Answer Culture notes
Custard is a thick, sweet sauce made from • Bouillabaisse is a traditional fish stew
milk, flour, eggs and sugar, sometimes from Provence in France. There are
flavoured with vanilla. It is often used as an at least three different kinds of fish
accompaniment for hot desserts such as or seafood in a bouillabaisse, and it’s
pies, crumbles and sponges. traditionally served with rouille, a type
of mayonnaise made of olive oil, garlic,
8 2.18 Students listen to the recording and fill saffron and cayenne pepper.
in the gaps, then compare with a partner. Elicit • Paella is a rice dish from the Valencia
why these words and phrases are used (Vague region of Spain. It’s often regarded
language is useful when we don’t want or as Spain’s national dish and comes in
need to say things exactly.). various types, including seafood paella
and mixed paella.
• Goulash is a Hungarian stew made of
Answers
meat and vegetables, seasoned with
1 a sort of 2 stuff 3 a bit like
paprika and other spices.
4 [thick]ish, [yellow]ish 5 for putting
• Feijoada is a Portuguese dish made with
6 to have
beans, beef and pork.
• Ceviche is a seafood dish popular in
9 2.19 Write the sentences with lots of gaps South America. It’s made of fresh raw
as a dictagloss (see below). Play the recording fish cured in citrus juices and spiced
just once without pausing; students then try with chilli.
to remember what she said exactly! The idea is • Borscht is a beetroot soup of Ukrainian
that they won’t be able to fill in all of the gaps. origin, now popular in much of Eastern
They find a partner and dictate what they have and Central Europe.
to each other. They then change pairs and • Karniyarik is a dish from Turkey
continue until they’ve completed the dialogue. consisting of aubergine stuffed with
The first person to finish is the winner. onions, garlic, tomatoes and ground
To increase the speaking and learner meat.
interaction, students can only talk to one • Dulce de leche is a South American
partner at a time and they can’t show each speciality made by slowing heating
other what they’ve written. sweetened milk.
You __________ __________ __________ • Tiramisu is an Italian dessert made of
__________ __________ custard __________? coffee-flavoured sponge fingers layered
It’s a __________ __________ __________ with a creamy mixture of eggs, sugar,
__________ with __________ , __________ cream and mascarpone cheese and
and __________ and __________ __________ chocolate.
__________ __________ __________ • Moussaka is an aubergine-and-potato-
or __________ __________ __________ based dish from Greece and Turkey.
__________ ! Is __________ __________ ? • Guacamole is an avocado-based dip
originally created by the Aztecs in what
Answer and transcript is now Mexico. It has become part of
[You] want to know precisely what [custard] American cuisine as a dip to go with
is? [It’s a] sweet, yellow sauce made [with] tacos.
eggs, milk [and] sugar [and] you can eat it hot • Kimchi is a traditional fermented
[or] cold with your pudding! [Is] that clearer? Korean dish made of vegetables with
a variety of seasonings. It’s often
described as spicy and sour.
10 Students discuss the questions in pairs.
Encourage them to ask extra questions (eg
Where were you when you ate it? Did you like 11 Students describe and guess other types
it? What other foreign food do you like?). of food from 10 using the vague language
from 8.

130 Unit 6
Vocabulary plus p67 Focus on: the earth
a Students work in pairs and take turns to ask
Irregular plurals and answer the questions. Encourage them
1 Write two column headings on the board to use intonation to express surprise – what
– singular and plural. Students come to the may sound exaggerated to them may sound
board, write the word from the box in the perfectly natural in context.
‘single’ column, then complete the ‘plural’ MA Remind weaker students that adding
column with the correct word. Encourage the on earth doesn’t change the meaning of the
other students to gently correct any mistakes. question – they can take it out to see more
easily what the question is.
Answer
b Play the dialogues for students to
2.26
person – people, man – men,
compare their responses.
woman – women, child – children, foot – feet,
tooth – teeth, fly – flies, goose – geese,
Transcript
leaf – leaves, half – halves, wolf – wolves,
ox – oxen, salmon – salmon, sheep – sheep 1 a Where on earth have you been?
b Nowhere!
2 a What on earth are you doing?
Extra idea: Ask students if they know any b Nothing!
other irregular plurals, eg fish – fish, deer – 3 a Why on earth didn’t you tell me?
deer, medium – media, crisis – crises, hoof b Because I thought you’d be really cross,
– hooves, loaf – loaves. and I was right!
4 a Who on earth was that woman?
Phrasal verbs More or less of something b Oh, just someone I met on holiday.
No one special.
2 Students do the matching individually, then 5 a What on earth do you mean?
check with a partner. b I mean that I’ve changed my mind!
6 a How on earth did you get here?
Answers b Well, the flight was cancelled, so I took
1d 2a 3e 4b 5c a bus to the station and caught the
train!
3 Students work in their pairs to rewrite the c P Play the recording again for students to
sentences. Get feedback and correct any listen for the stressed words in the questions.
mistakes.
Answers
Answers
See underlining in transcript above.
1 Have you ever suddenly put on a lot of
weight?
2 Might the world run out of oil one day? Extra idea: Play the recording and ask
3 Is the cost of living going down or students to read along at the same time,
(going) up right now? shadowing the intonation of the speakers.
4 What can we do to cut down carbon
emissions? d Read the example together. Students then
work in pairs to choose one of the questions
4 Students discuss the questions in groups of and construct a short conversation. They can
three or four. Encourage them to be sensitive use the initial response given on the recording
about the first question, as not everyone is in b or their own response from a.
comfortable discussing their weight. MA Stronger students can do two or three
of these conversations; weaker students can
just practise the two-line exchanges from the
recording.

Unit 6 131
Wordbuilder Compound nouns 8 Check that students understand the
vocabulary, such as facilities (= buildings,
5 Students quickly look at the words in the boxes equipment and services provided for a
and check that they know them all. Elicit that particular purpose), freelance (= doing
all the words in A are parts of the body. Then particular pieces of work for different
give students five minutes to form as many companies rather than working all the time for
compound nouns as they can. You could make just one) and litter (= small pieces of rubbish
this a team game, with the team with the that have been left lying around in public).
most correct compounds winning. If necessary, They complete the sentences, then discuss
remind students that some parts of the body them with a partner. Get feedback to find out
can go with more than one word. the majority opinion for each sentence.

Answers Answers
armchair, background, earring, eyeball, 1 disappear 2 disabled 3 dislike
eyebrow, eyelid, eye line, fingernail, 4 disadvantages 5 disapprove
fingerprint, football, footprint, handball,
hand print, handwriting, headline, lipstick,
necklace, neckline, toenail, toothpaste

Background note
Most of these compounds have been
around for a long time, so are written as
one word. The origins of some compounds
– such as necklace – aren’t immediately
obvious, although this probably meant ‘lace
that was put around the neck’ at some
point.

6 Go through the example with the class to


make sure that students understand what they
have to do. They work in pairs to write their
sentence / question. Feed back as a class to see
who had the funniest / strangest sentence.
MA Stronger students can write two or three
sentences / questions.

Wordbuilder dis-
7 Check that students understand the negative
meaning of the prefix dis- using the example;
they then work in pairs to work out the words.
MA Weaker students start with items 3 and 5,
as these are easier.

Answers
1 disappear 2 disagree 3 dislike
4 disabled 5 disadvantage 6 disapprove

132 Unit 6
Units 5&6 Review pp59–60

Aims 3 Pre-teach words like reasonable (= fair) and


To review the vocabulary and grammar covered in traces (= a very small amount, a sign that
Units 5 and 6. Students also look at the art form of something happened). Students read and
the mini-saga and different natural remedies from identify the story that isn’t a mini-saga.
around the world.
Answers
Warm-up 1 B is not a mini-saga, as it has more than
Have a quick class discussion about stories. What 50 words.
makes a good story? What are students’ favourite 3 They are all about food and the
stories from childhood? Do they still like reading consequences of eating or drinking
or listening to stories? Ask students if they know something.
what a saga is (= a long story about past events,
usually over a long period of time). 4 THINK Students answer the questions in
pairs using modal verbs of deduction. Get
Reading and grammar feedback and correct any grammar mistakes.
1 To introduce the topic and elicit predictions,
write mini-saga on the board and invite Suggested answers
students to guess what it means. They read the A He can’t have felt terrible because of
description and check if their predictions were the tea. He must have eaten too much.
correct. Elicit the three rules orally. B Monica must be his girlfriend. He
might have told his wife he was having
Answers an affair. He could have told her he
1 It must have exactly 50 words. wanted to leave her. I think he hopes to
2 The title is not included in the word get a divorce. I don’t think he’s going to
count – it can be up to 15 words. be able to do it, because she’s poisoned
3 It must tell a story. him.
C Auntie Ivy’s advice might be wrong. It
might have been Marge’s birthday, or
2 Students fill in the gaps using the first
Marge could be pregnant. Marge’s idea
conditional. Get feedback and correct the
might be bad. It might be a good idea if
grammar if needed. Note that items 3 and
she goes on a diet.
4 say basically the same thing, but draw
students’ attention to the use of unless. Won’t
qualify and won’t be allowed are synonyms, so Extra idea: Ask students to write an
allow both as correct where there’s an option. ending for story B. You could give them
free rein, or impose a further word
Answers restriction.
1 If it doesn’t have exactly 50 words, it
won’t qualify. 
 5 FINISH IT Students finish the sentences in a
2 If there are more than 15 words in personalised way, then share with a partner.
the 
title, it won’t be allowed. 

3 Unless it tells a story, it won’t qualify. 

4 If it tells a story, it will be allowed. /
If it doesn’t tell a story, it won’t be
allowed.

Units 5&6 Review 133


Writing Tip: It’s nice to let students find things they
6 Remind students of the mini-saga rules and would like to use in class. It’s more
elicit which one story B broke (rule 1). They learner-centred, it practises skills work, it
then rewrite the story with the correct word provides authentic language and it saves
count. Remind them that they need to keep you time, too! Make sure you check and
the essence of the story, just reduce the edit as needed, though, so the language
number of words. When they’ve finished, they is level-appropriate and understandable.
share with a partner and read each other’s
work. Encourage peer correction. Preposition park
Suggested answer a Students complete the text with the missing
prepositions, then compare their answers in
‘Did you enjoy the tea?,’ she asked, taking
pairs.
the empty mug from her husband.
‘Delicious,’ he replied. ‘I had to tell you MA With a weaker class, add a preposition
about Monica. Thanks for understanding.’ word bank on the board.
‘No problem.’ She smiled. ‘If you’re happy,
that’s fine.’ She held the mug under the Answers
tap, washing away all traces of the poison. 1 about 2 for 3 by 4 as 5 of 6 to
7 against* 8 of 9 of 10 from / against
11 In 12 of
Tip: This task practises précis, which is
* It’s also acceptable to have no preposition
challenging even for native speakers. here, so don’t penalise students who can’t think
However, it really gets students thinking of one.
about how things can be rephrased and
which words are redundant, so it’s worth b Students read again and guess which
persevering, even if you have to give superfood the text describes. Which words
them a lot of support and suggestions. gave the best clues?

7 Students write their own mini-saga about Answers


food and health. Break the activity up into Garlic (allicin, vegetable, vampires)
stages. Firstly, they write notes and ideas.
Secondly, they think about what grammar and
vocabulary they could include. Thirdly, they Aspects of culture
write their story, using their notes and ideas. a GUESS Set a time limit so students don’t get
Finally, they read their work, count the number stuck on unknown vocabulary – they probably
of words and correct any mistakes they see. don’t need it to do the activity. They compare
their answers in pairs and explain their choices
Extra idea: Display their mini-sagas around and clues they found in the text.
the classroom for everyone to read and
A Morocco (Berber people are from Morocco.
vote on the class favourite.
Souk is an Arabic work for ‘market’.)
B Mexico (Aztecs and Maya are from Mexico
EXPLORE ONLINE (and countries such as Belize, Guatemala
This activity can be done as homework. Students and Honduras).)
could find interesting and enjoyable mini-sagas C Australia (Aboriginals are the indigenous
and bring them into class. They then create their people of Australia. The tea tree is an
own comprehension questions for the mini-sagas. Australian tree.)
D Brazil (The Amazon basin is situated in
Brazil.)
E Turkey (Sultans lived in Turkey (the Ottoman
Empire), and Manisa is in Turkey.)

134 Units 5&6 Review


b Students match the descriptions to the photos.

Answers
A Top photo, left-hand column (saffron)
B Top photo, right-hand column
(chicalote)
C Bottom photo, right-hand column (tea
tree)
D Bottom photo, left-hand column
(guaraná powder)
E is not pictured.

c This could also be done as a quiz in pairs.


Students take turns asking and answering the
questions.

Answers
a) tea tree oil b) chicalote
c guaraná powder d) Berber remedies
e) guaraná powder f) mesir paste
g) Berber remedies, guaraná powder

d Students discuss the best natural remedies


in their country. Get feedback and ask more
questions (eg Do they really work? Do they just
give a placebo effect?).

Extra idea: Students could use the


information they discuss as the basis of a
mini-talk about a natural remedy that they
would recommend.

Units 5&6 Review 135


Tasks

General teacher’s notes Specific task notes


1 You can either read the task instructions to Unit 1
students, or photocopy the task notes and give stage 1: Students can do some research online
them to students. or they can refer back to the lists they
2 For some tasks, students can produce a printed wrote in Unit 1 (Lesson 2, Exercise 10).
document if they have access to computers. stage 3: Elicit suggestions, eg Water is life!, Don’t
Decide if you want them to do this and waste a drop. Leaflet formats could
organise the task accordingly. range from a simple one-sided A4 sheet
3 If the task requires certain things, eg the to a more complex folded format.
facility to make an audio recording, ensure that stage 4: Encourage students to illustrate their
students have access to these. leaflets, either by drawing pictures
4 Make sure students understand each stage of themselves or finding them online. If
the task. As you go through the stages, check they have computer access, they can
students understand the example language experiment with typography and layout
and elicit more where necessary. Remember for maximum impact.
that when students are in their pairs or
groups, they’ll need language for suggestions,
agreement, etc. Where there are dialogues or Unit 2
conversations, it’s often a good idea to model stage 1: If necessary, review language for giving
them first with confident students. suggestions.
5 Tell students that when they need new stage 2: Students will probably choose to focus
language, they can use a dictionary, or ask on the key event that they identified in
each other or you for help. stage 1, but they can select any scene.
6 As students do the task, monitor them and Encourage them to choose something
help them with language. Check their written with conflict or a surprise to create
work so they have a correct final version. maximum impact when they perform
it. Remind them not to have more
7 You can do the unit task as revision after you
characters in the scene than there are
have finished the unit, or at any other point
students in the group, or they won’t be
during the unit that you feel is appropriate.
able to act it out.
8 Students will need a certain amount of help to
stage 4: Students should try to do this without
do the tasks, but at the same time encourage a script, putting as much emotion into
them to be as independent as possible, as this their performance as possible. However,
promotes learner autonomy. less-confident students should be
allowed to use prompts.
stage 5: Remind students to vote on content, not
acting ability!

136 Tasks Jetstream Intermediate Teacher’s Guide © Helbling Languages PHOTOCOPIABLE


Unit 3 Unit 5
stage 1: Weaker students could look back at page stage 1: Write a list on the board of useful
25 of the Student’s Book. phrases, eg I find ... stressful, ... stresses
stage 3: You may need to help with specialist me out, ... makes me really stressed.
vocabulary here, eg strings, mouthpiece, Elicit that verbs should be in the -ing
fingerboard, bow. If you prefer, encourage form (eg losing your job, going to the
students to paraphrase using relative dentist, flying).
clauses (eg the bit that you blow into, stage 3: Elicit suggestions, eg Some situations
the pieces that stick out the top). can be really stressful. Here are the ten
situations that would stress us the most.
4: If you want, add a final stage, where the
stage
Unit 4
class has to agree on the top ten situations.
stage 1: Give a time limit for students to choose
their work of art.
stage 3: Ensure that pairs split the presentation Unit 6
equally between them. Allow them to stage 1: Allow students to choose a different
use visuals if they want (at the very least topic if they prefer. It’s quite easy to find
they should have an image of the work ideas by typing ‘Fascinating facts
they’re presenting). about ...’ into a search engine.
stage 3: Ensure that students jumble the answers
so the correct answer isn’t always A.
stage 4: You could end with a feedback session
to find the most fascinating fact.

Jetstream Intermediate Teacher’s Guide © Helbling Languages PHOTOCOPIABLE Tasks 137


Unit 1 TASK: Design a leaflet to promote ways of saving water.

stage 1 Work in pairs. Write a list of different stage 3 Think of a catchy slogan to go at the top
ways of saving water. of the leaflet and decide what format it’s
• Have a shower instead of a bath. going to be.
• Don’t use a hosepipe to water the stage 4 Write and design the leaflet.
garden.
stage 5 Have a class display of all the leaflets and
• …
discuss which water-saving tips are most
stage 2 Work with another pair and compare useful.
your lists. Then agree on four pieces of
‘I think [having a shower instead of a bath] is the
advice to include in your leaflet and find best way of saving water.

some facts and figures to back up your
‘If people [had showers instead of baths], that would
advice.
• Did you know that the average five-

save a lot of water.

minute shower uses about 35 litres of


water, whereas a bath uses up to 80
litres?

Unit 2 TASK: Draft the opening episode of a new soap opera.

stage 1 Work in groups of four or five and think stage 2 Choose a scene from the episode and
about the following questions: write the conversation that takes place
• Where is your soap opera going to be between two or more of the characters.
set? stage 3 Allocate roles and rehearse the scene. If
‘ ’
I think we should set it on a distant planet. you’re not acting, be the director!
‘How about setting it in a wealthy part of stage 4 Perform your scene for the other groups
Hollywood?

• When is it going to be set?
and answer any questions they may
have.
‘ItI think
would be good to set it in the future.
’ stage 5 Vote on the most interesting new soap
‘ present day.
it would be more interesting to set it in opera.
the

• What characters are going to be in it?

‘We should have a couple who are in love.



‘ We definitely need a bad guy!

• What key event is going to happen in
the first episode?

‘The couple are going to get married, but the


bad guy wants to stop them.

‘They’ve just discovered that the planet is going
to be destroyed!

138 Tasks Jetstream Intermediate Teacher’s Guide © Helbling Languages PHOTOCOPIABLE
Unit 3 TASK: Write a description of how to make a musical instrument.

stage 1 Work in groups of three or four. Make stage 4 Display all the paragraphs around
a list of as many musical instruments as the classroom. Try and guess what
you can. instrument each one describes.
stage 2 Choose an instrument from your list that
‘This
I think this one is a tuba.

you think you could make out of rubbish
or recycled material.

‘ one might be a guitar, but I’m not sure.

stage 3 Write a paragraph describing how
to make your instrument – but don’t
mention the name of it.
First, you take a large cardboard box and
make a hole in it.
Then, you get ...

Unit 4 TASK: Give a presentation of a work of art.

stage 1 Work in pairs. Decide on a work of art • when it was created


that you both like. It can be: 1904 (first bronze casting)

• a painting • why it was created


• a photograph Originally par t of a doorway surround,
begun in 1880, called ‘The Gates of Hell’
• a sculpture
• how big it is
• an installation
About 186 centimetres tall
• a statue
• where it is
• a piece of graffiti.
About 28 versions around the world
stage 2 Find out as much as you can about your (museums and public places)
chosen work and make notes. You could • how much it’s worth.
include:
Sold for over $15 million in 2013
• what it’s called
stage 3 Prepare a presentation on your chosen
‘The Thinker’ (‘Le Penseur’ in French)
work. You should include your opinion(s)
• who created it of it and why you chose it.
Auguste Rodin, French sculptor
(1840–1917)

Jetstream Intermediate Teacher’s Guide © Helbling Languages PHOTOCOPIABLE Tasks 139


Unit 5 TASK: Make a list of the top ten most stressful situations.

stage 1 Work in pairs. Discuss situations that are stage 3 Write one or two short sentences to
stressful and make a list. introduce your list.

‘IOrthink exams are really stressful.


’ stage 4 Work with the whole class. Someone
‘out. losing your job – that would really stress me from each group reads out their group’s
’ introduction and list of situations. Have
‘ things you can do.
They say that moving house is one of the most a class discussion about which situations
stressful
’ are most stressful.
‘find that stressful because I’m worried I’ll forget
I don’t like getting ready to go on holiday – I
‘II definitely think that [...] is the most stressful.

something!
’ ‘why other people think it’s stressful.
find [...] is more stressful than [...], but I can see

stage 2 Work with two more pairs and compare


stage 5 Choose two or three of the most

notes. Then agree on your top ten
stressful situations and suggest three
stressful situations and make a list of
ways of making each one less stressful.
them. Choose a title for your list.
‘You should ...

‘ You could try ...

Unit 6 TASK: Write a quiz about fascinating facts.

stage 1 Work in pairs and choose a topic area stage 3 Work with another pair and exchange
from this list: your lists of questions. For each of the
• animals other pair’s questions, add two wrong
answers to make a multiple-choice
• the human body
question.
• technology
Answer A: 60%
• natural phenomena Answer B: 70%
stage 2 Do some research to find five fascinating Answer C: 80%
facts about your chosen topic. For each stage 4 Give your combined list of ten questions
fact, write a question and the correct and multiple-choice answers to another
answer. group. Do the quiz you’re given!
Fact: About 80% of the human brain is
water.
Question: How much of the human brain is
water?
Answer: 80%

140 Tasks Jetstream Intermediate Teacher’s Guide © Helbling Languages PHOTOCOPIABLE


Technique banks

Using the video


You will not necessarily want to work through • Play the video sequence with sound only
all three stages described here every time, nor (SO) (or just play the audio) – and ask
will you always want to work through all the students to guess:
sub-stages. It depends how fast you and your o how many characters there are
class want to go and how much practice they o where they are
need. But if your goal is for students to act out a o what they look like
conversation, then – especially in the early days o what the situation is.
– you will need to build up their confidence (and Then play the sequence S+V so they can
take away their support) gradually rather than check, or look at the photo if you’re using
suddenly. audio.
This structure of gently developing a conversation • Play part of the video / audio sequence
from reception to production is ideal for exploiting (S+V / VO / SO) and pause it. Ask students
many of the conversations in Everyday English but to guess:
it will also work well with other conversations in o what X is going to say next
the book. o what is going to happen next.
Play the next part for students to see if they
Stage 1 were right.
Watch, listen to and / or read the conversation. Note: Any time you play the video S+V, you can
• Students watch or listen to* and / or do so with or without the subtitles and you can
(silently) read the conversation once or vary the order you do this, ie first without, then
twice. Make sure they understand any new with, or first with, then without. It’s very flexible!
words or expressions.
• They listen to and repeat sentences from the Stage 2
conversation, either after you or the audio / Practise using the ‘Look, look up and speak’
video. technique.
• You read one part of the conversation, This is a great technique to help students
students read the other in chorus. Swap move from listening / reading to acting out a
roles. conversation.
• Divide the class in half, each with one role. Working in pairs, students ‘read’ the conversation
Open pairs: two students read the conversation in the following way.
while the rest of the class listen. • A looks at their line, then looks up at B,
Closed pairs: students read the conversation in makes eye contact and says it.
pairs. • B then looks at their line, looks up at A,
makes eye contact and says it.
*Different ways of using video / audio
And the conversation continues in this way. It
• Play the video sequence with sound and
takes a little longer than just reading it, but it helps
vision (S+V) in the normal way. You can do
to gently take students away from the support of
this with or without the subtitles.
the written word and build up their confidence.
• Play the video sequence with vision only
You will need to demonstrate this technique with
(VO) – and ask students to imagine what is
a student in front of the whole class the first few
being said. Then play the sequence S+V so
times you use it.
they can check.

Technique banks 141


Stage 3
Act it out. and ‘perform’ in front of the class, that’s great. If
When you and your students feel they are ready, not, don’t pressurise them. Let them ‘perform’ in
students can close their books and have a go on small groups.
their own. They can do this first sitting down, Variations
then standing up and adding gestures. It doesn’t 1 Suggest students take on different moods or
matter if the words aren’t exactly the same as in ways of behaving: quiet and shy / noisy and
the video. At this stage, fluency is more important enthusiastic / happy / grumpy / angry /
than accuracy. (If students are making a lot of confused / tired, etc.
mistakes, go through stages 1 and 2 again.) 2 Bring props into the classroom if appropriate
If some students are happy to come to the front (and you can get hold of some).

Using memory games


Use it or lose it! That’s what fitness instructors say 3 Students test each other in pairs. One has their
about our muscles. And it’s what psychologists say book open, the other has their book shut.
about our memory too. If we want to be good at
remembering things, then we need to practise as Using texts
often as possible. The more we practise, the better 1 Students re-read a text they’ve already worked
we get. And as remembering is a very large part on in class, perhaps a while ago, then close
of successful language learning, it’s crucial that their books.
we give our students plenty of opportunities to 2 Ask them questions on the text or make true /
exercise their memory. false statements for them to confirm or correct.
Some memory games are already indicated in the
Variations
lessons, wherever you see this symbol: .
Can they remember the following?
Here are some more, very simple, ideas if you
• the title
would like to do more. You can do them as
• the very first word in the text
whole-class activities or, once they are familiar to
• the last word
students, do them in pairs or small groups. They
• the first line
need only take a few minutes, so make them a
• the last line
regular part of your routine if you can.
• the most frequent word
• any words that occur more than once
Using pictures
1 Ask students to look at a picture in the book for Using conversations
30 seconds then close their books. 1 Students re-read a conversation or listen to it
2 Ask them questions about the picture. again, then close their books.
Obviously what you ask will be dependent on 2 Say a line from the conversation. Students reply
the picture but here are some possibilities: with the line that comes next.
Is there a …? Are there any …s? How many Variations
…s are there?
1 Read the conversation saying just the first part
Where is X? What is in / on / under / behind of each line. Students complete the lines.
the …? What is on the left / right?
2 Choose lines from a conversation and ask
What colour is X? What is Y wearing?
students who says them.
Variations
1 Students write a list of people or objects in the Using vocabulary
picture.
Ask questions, eg Can you remember ten words
2 Students do a sketch of the picture. (We use from the last lesson?
the word sketch rather than drawing because How many words can you remember beginning
it’s somehow less stressful. Some people find with …?
the word drawing a bit scary!) How many places / countries / adjectives / irregular
verbs, etc can you remember?
142 Technique banks
A couple of other activities I like + noun
Repeat my sentence I like + activity
This is an exercise in very careful listening as well Every day I + present simple
as remembering. Students work in pairs. Student Last year I + past simple
A says a sentence (or reads one from a text or I’ve never + present perfect
conversation). Student B must repeat it word for In the future I’d like to …
word. They swap. They should do this five or six
times, with the sentences getting a little longer Note: According to memory experts, we readily
every time. forget 70% of what we learn in 24 hours unless
we recycle it before that 24-hour period is up. You
I, I, I, you, you, you!
can facilitate that as a teacher by doing two things
Another exercise in careful listening as well as
(which you may already be doing!):
remembering. Students work in pairs. Student A
makes statements about themselves beginning 1 Make sure you leave five minutes at the
with ‘I’. Student B listens carefully. After five or end of a lesson for students to recap what
six statements, Student B must repeat as many they’ve learnt in the lesson.
of Student A’s statements as they can remember, 2 Tell students just to take five or ten minutes
beginning with ‘you’. Then they swap over. to go through the lesson at home that
evening … and tell them why it’s important
This exercise can have a grammatical focus and
to do that.
function as a very personal repetition drill and it
lends itself to many different structures. Some You have control over the first one but not the
possible kinds of statements: second! Because of that, revising the previous
lesson at the beginning of the next one is also
crucial

Working with mixed-ability classes


It’s inevitable that there will be students with • Use stronger students as group leaders and
different levels of English (though not necessarily give them more responsibility for activities, like
ability) in your class, especially in larger classes. being the group ‘scribe’ and keeping a written
Some students will need extra support, some will record, for example.
need less. So here are some ideas to help you • When appropriate, give weaker students
tackle this issue. You will also find ideas in the unit- slightly easier tasks. The teacher’s notes may
by-unit notes, where you see this symbol: MA. suggest these – look for the MA icon.
• Note weaker students’ errors and give them
Note: We’ve used the terms ‘stronger’ and
extra homework.
‘weaker’ for the sake of convenience but of course
those terms are not completely accurate. Fast finishers
• Use stronger students to correct weaker If some students complete an activity more quickly
students. Make sure that you praise weaker than others, have some extra activities ready that
students for their successes just as much as they can do. Ideally, these activities should be
stronger ones. short, fun things that are easy to set up. Students
• Direct more difficult questions at stronger shouldn’t feel punished for finishing quickly by
students and easier ones at weaker students. being given something boring to do!
• Sometimes pair and group students of the same • Also suitable are the Memory games using
ability so they feel comfortable with each other. pictures on page 142, once students have
• And sometimes pair up students of different played them in class and know how they work.
levels and encourage the stronger student to • Online research is another task you can give,
help the weaker one. using the Explore suggestions, for example.
• Group weaker students together for an activity • And finally, you can offer them lots of different
and give them extra attention, leaving stronger e-zone activities to choose from.
students to work alone.

Technique banks 143


HELBLING LANGUAGES
www.helblinglanguages.com

JETSTREAM Intermediate Teacher’s Guide A


by Terry Prosser
with Jane Revell and Jeremy Harmer

© HELBLING LANGUAGES 2016

First published 2016

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