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" TARGET: KRESTA II CLASS MISSILE CRUISER! "

" RANGE: FOUR EIGHT ZERO ZERO ZERO! "


WARSHIP
" BEARING: TWO SIX SIX!"
'
ctJMMANDER
" WITH EIGHT HARPOON MISSILES--FIRE!!! "
Positive radar contact--it was a Kresta II, one of the most powerful warships in the Soviet Navy, and closing fast. If the
Harpoon salvo didn 't get him, his torpedo-carrying SSN-14 SILEX missiles would reduce our Spruance class destroyer
to scrap iron. Our radar detector had picked up his fire control radar emissions. I watched on the radar display as the
Harpoons dove in on the Kresta at just under the speed of sound . The Russians fought back hard. Surface to air missiles
burst around the incoming Harpoons, knocking one out . The rest came in through a hail of proximity fused 57mm shells.
They got two more. The Kresta's Side Globe jammers pulled another two off the ship and into the ocean, while its chaff
rocket launchers covered the ship in an umbrella of airborne tinfoil. Another Harpoon overshot and missed. In despera-
tion , the Soviet skipper pushed his big cruiser hard-a-starboard , firing with his 30mm mounts. He dodged one, but the
last one impacted amidships, diving in through the deck and exploding just above the keel. The Russians don 't build
ships for survivability--they're all offensive. The Harpoon 's warhead detonated in the engine room , snapping the keel.
Within minutes, the once proud cruiser was a mass of secondary explosions. I had one more order to five--" All hands
stand by to pick up su rvivors."

In the nerve center of a modern warship, decisions are made that decide the fate of men and sh ips within seconds. There
are no second-place winners at sea today. WARSHIP COMMANDER accurately and completely simulates the dynamic
and multi-faceted war at sea of today and tomorrow.

Modern warships range in size from the huge aircraft carriers like the Ni mitz class to the tiny but deadly missile bc 'lts.
The weapons of today's warships have changed greatly since those of World War II. The surface-to-surface missile has
replaced the big gun. These deadly weapons give even the smallest ship tremendous punch . How do you defeat them?
You jam them with electronic warfare, you blind them with chaff, you shoot them down with guns and missiles, or you
sink him before he sinks you. All of this is shown in great detail in WARSH IP COMMANDER, the first and most accurate
and complete simulation of modern naval surface actions. Playable with board game equipment, min iature ship models,
or counters, WARSHIP COMMANDE R has complete rules for all of the major elements of modern naval surface actions.
There is complete data on all of the major guns, torpedoes, surface-to-s1:1rface missiles , and surface-to-air missiles of NATO
and the Warsaw Pact with rules which accurately simu late their use in surface actions. Also, there are detailed rules
dealing with all aspects of electronic warfare, including ECM and ECCM equipment, in addition to radars and radar detec-
tors; detai led information on over one hundred NATO and Warsaw Pact radars is included. The effects of damage and
the process of damage control is accurately portrayed . There is even a detailed description of modern warships and equip-
ment to help the player learn and understand what modern naval warfare is all about; WARSHIP COMMANDER is much
more than just a game , it is a total learning experience .

This NEW edition of the classic Warship Commander rules contains information on the most up to date weapons plat-
forms and systems: the reactivated New Jersey class battleship, the AEGIS cruiser, the newest Soviet ships - Kirov,
Sovremenny, Udaloy, Slava. The vastly expanded Ship Characteristics section now provides data on many more vessels
from France, Italy, and the Netherlands to the People's Republic of Ch ina. In addition , the earlier edition rules have been
revised and updated to reflect recent declassified information as well as the lessons of the Falklands War. Even players
of the earlier edition of Warship Commander will find much n·ew ~nd valuable information in Warship Commander II.

WARSHIP COMMANDER II-Now More Than Ever-THE WAY IT REALLY IS


I I
WARSHIP
COMMANDER II
1967-1997
Present Day Tactical
Naval Combat
Revised and Updated

This manual must be burned or sunk before it is possible/or


it to fall into the hands of an enemy.

Copyright, 1984, by Ken Sm1gelski


Published in US by: ENOLA GAMES, P.O. Box 1900, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11201
Published 1n UK by: NAVWAR, 48 East View, Barn~t, Herts ENSSTN
Printed in USA
WARSHIP
COMMANDER II
1967-1997
Present Day Tactical
Naval Combat
Revised and Updated

This manual must be burned or sunk before it is possible/or


it to fall into the hands of an enemy.

Copyright, 1984, by Ken Sm1gelski


Published in US by: ENOLA GAMES, P.O. Box 1900, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11201
Published 1n UK by: NAVWAR, 48 East View, Barn~t, Herts ENSSTN
Printed in USA
13. Active homing--determining if a target is AA TABLE ........................... . . ... ' ............... _,45
TABLE OF CONTENTS: XIV. TORPEDOES. 21 acquired ............... .................. . ..... 34
1. Effectiveness of torpedoes 21 14. Active homing--target priority and size........... . .... 35 TORPEDO RESULTS CHART ...... .
1 2. Sequence of play . 21 15 Actlve missile homing ..................................... 36 48
I. INTRODUCTION. I. Torpedo Coverage Area Table
3. Torpedo launching 21 16. Spotting missiles in flight ............. , , ................. , 36 II. Torpedo Accuracy Table.
11. MODERN NAVAL WARFARE .. 1 4. Torpedo movement . 22 17. Countermeasures against missiles . . . ......... 37 llt. Torpedo Results Table
1 Naval developments since World War II 1 5. Torpedo patterns, guidance, homing, and range . 22 18. ECM before target acquisition ............................. 37
2. Modern US ship design 2 6. Determining torpedo damage. 22 19. ECM after missiles acquire targets...... . ....... 37 TORPEDO DAMAGE TABLES ................................ 48
3. Modern Soviet ship design 2 7. Determining the area of coverage. 22 20. Firing at missiles--requirements ........................... 38
4. European navies ........... . 2 8. Determining if torpedo hits are scored 23 21. Procedures for finng at missiles .......................... , 38 TORPEDO DATA TABLE .................................. , .. 50
5. Ship design 2 9. Determining the type of torpedo damage. 24 22. Adjustments lo the AA gun accuracy rates ................. 39
6. Propulsion systems 3 10. Damage adjustments. 24 23. Adjustments to SAM accuracy rates .......... 40 RADAR DETECTION TABLE................... 50
7. Fire control ... 3 11. Reloading 24 24. Effects of accuracy adjustments . . . . . . . ............... 40
8. Gunnery 3 12. "Foxers" .. 24 25. Long range SA M's . .............. . . ............... 40 RADAR ADJUSTMENT TABLE....................... 51
9. Torpedoes 4 13. Fishtailing. 24 26. Determining if the SSM hits its target ............. 41
10. Missiles 4 14. Torpedo fire control 24 27. Determining SSM damage. . ....................... 41 RADAR GUIDE........................................ 51
11. Electronic Warfare. 5 28. Special SSM. . .................................. , , . 41
12. Communications 7 XV. ELECTRONIC WARFARE .. 24 29 SSM's and armor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............. , ... 41 SSM DATA TABLE ............... , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 54
30 SSM damage to aircraft carriers . . . . . . . ........... , , ... 41
111. NECESSARY EQUIPMENT .. 7 Part A: Introduction 24 31. SSM damage to tankers and oilers ......................... 41 SSM VISUAL SIGHTING TABLE ....................... , ..... ; 55
1. Description of electronic warfare 24 32. SSM damage to ships with poor 41
IV. GAME SCALE ......... 8 2. Basic sequence of play. 24 shock mountings ....... , ................................. 41 SSM DAMAGE TABLES ...................................... 55
3. Necessary equipment 24 33 SSM reloading ................ , ................ , .......... 41
V. PREPARING FOR PLAY 8 34. Using SA M's as SS M's . . . . . . . . . . . . ................. 41 SHIP CHARACTERISTICS TABLES ............. . 59
Part B: Radar 25 Part 1: Basic ship date
.. 25
VI. SEQUENCE OF PLAY--SURFACE ACTIONS 8 1. Functions of radar .. . CHARTS AND TABLES Part 2: Weapons
2. Types of radar .......... _. 25 Part 3: Electronic&
9 3. Basic radar search procedures 25 COLLISSION DAMAGE CHART ............................... 42 Date Notes
VII. MEASUREMENT .
4. Ad1ustments to the number picked when the Notes on the US Navy
9 Radar Adjustment Table is consulted ............ . 26 GUNNERY DATA TABLE ..................................... 43 Notes on the British Naily
VIII. MOVEMENT
1. Basic movement procedures 9 5. Restrictions on the use of radars in a search mode 26 Notes on the Soviet Navy
2. "Dummy" counters ........ . 9 6. Effects and duration of detection by radar. 26 GUNNERY RESULTS CHART ............ , .................... 43
3. Basic movement rules. 9 7. Restrictions on the use of radars in a fire (Includes Gunnery Accuracy Tables, Gunnery Firing Tables, and Area
4 Movement on the playing surface. 9 control mode ... 26 Hit Tables).
27 USING THE TDD ........................................... . 68
5. Turning 9 8 Fire control tracking procedures .
9 GUNNERY DAMAGE CHART ................................. 44
6. Moving Evasively ... Superstructure EXPANDED SEQUENCE OF PLAY ............................ 69
7. Acceleration. ········· 9 Part C: Passive sensors . . . . . . .......... . 27 Deck
8. Deceleration. ........... 10 1. Description of passive sensors. 27 Hull SOURCES USED ............................... . ...... 58
9. Reversing engines 10 2. The requirements for using radar detectors 27
10. Backward movement. 10 3. Radar detection procedure 27
11. Collisions 10 4. Radar detectors and tire control 28
12 Collision damage ... ········· 11 5. Effects of detection by radar detectors . 28
6. Duration of radar detection . 28
IX. VISUAL SIGHTING 11 7. Radio detectors. 28
1. Introduction 11
2. Visibility procedures 11 Part D: Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) .. 28
11 1. Introduction. 28 INTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND EDITION:
3. Visibility restrictions
11 2. Types of ECM equipment 28 W.arship Commander was the first and probably most detailed and ac- read thorougn1y.
4. Basic visual sighting distances
3. Restrictions on the use of radar jamrners. 28 curate simulation of modern naval combat available; it has also proven 2. The rules for "toxers" have been changed somewhat.
X. GUNFIRE AGAINST SHIPS 11 4. Noise jamming procedures. 29 to be one of our most popular titles. Some time ago, the first edition went F. Electronics:
1. Gunfire requirements 11 5 Deception jamming . 29 out of print, but the demand for the book never slackened. However, since 1. The adjustment to radar system accuracy when attempting to detect
2. Firing procedures. 12 6. Deception jamming--false target generation . 29 1978 when Warship Commander first appeared, many new weapon missiles has been increased, so missiles are now more difficult to detect.
3. Accuracy adjustments 12 7. Deception jamming--range or velocity systems were developed, and more importantly, much more data on cur- 2. Unlil recently, most ship-borne jammers were simple deception jam-
4. Ammunition 13 gate pull off 30 rently existing equipment, especially electronics, has been made available. mers, without noise jamming capability.
5. Ship design and size. 13 8. Chaff--introduction 30 The recent Falklands War also provided much useful information on naval 3. Chaff systems are now rated A, B, or C. A rated systems are re-
6. Determining gunnery damage 14 9. Requirements for using chaff .. 30 equipment in action. Consequently, we decided to revise and update lhe cent automatic systems designed to fire both flares and chaff as soon
7. Effects of gunnery damage .. 14 10. Chaff launching procedures. 30 rules, rather than merely reprinting them. The basic system of play has as hostile radar is detected; 8-rated systems are manual chaff systems.
8. Damage adjustments. 14 11. Effects of chaff . 30 not been changed, although some of the details have been in order to The C rating is reserved primarily tor chaff shells fired from guns. The
9 Armor penetration 15 12. Duration of chaff 30 correct errors a:id update data; the data tables have all been revised to main effects of the ratings appear in the "Effects of Chaff' rule.
10. Fire control 15 13. Reloading chaff launchers. 30 conform to the most up to date information now available. In addition, 4. Monopulse radars can now be jammed by all A·rated ECM systems,
11. Automatic self-defense guns 15 14. Reflectors and blip enhancers 30 in response to the request for more ship data, we have greatly expanded and such jamming is more effective than it previously was.
15 Radio and data link jamming 31 the Ship Characteristics Table to include vessels from a larger number 5. Frequency agility now makes deception jamming very difficult.
16. Infra-red jamming 31 of countries (including most of NATO) as well as the recently launched 6. Phased array radars, such as SPY-1, are resistant to noise jamm-
17. Decoys .. 31 ships. The new, updated Warship Commander II now provides all the ing as indicated in the "Reducing Gain" rule.
XI. DAMAGE. 16 data needed for the naval warfare enthusiast to accurately simulate modern G. Surface to surface missiles:
1 Effects of damage 16 Part E: Electronic Counter-countermeasures (ECCM) 31 naval combat well into the 1990~. 1. Some newer Soviet missiles can be tired at targets located by radar
2. Flotation 17 1. Introduction 31 detectors. '
3. Fire l7 2. Methods of operation of radars . 31 The fol!owing is a summary of the major rule changes: 2. The SSM fire control radars on Soviet ships are not used for target
3. The effects of radar's method of operation 31 A. Gunnery: tracking; they are designed to track the missile and any targeting aircraft
XII. DAMAGE CONTROL . 18 4. Frequency agility 32 1. The separate firing tables for each gun have been eliminated due in order to allow mid-course correction. This is explained in the "Re-
1. Damage control--basic rules .. 18 5. Reducing gain .. 32 to lack of space. A new system (using a single firing table with separate quirements tor Launching SSMs" and the "Missile Movement" rules.
2. Damage control parties and tasks .. 18 6. Moving target indicator (MTI) 32 accuracy rates for each gun) has replaced it, so the firing procedures are 3. Missiles capable of multiple methods of homing (Radar, IA, home
3. Determining success of damage control attempts. 18 7. J ittered PRF . 32 now somewhat different. on jamming) need not be set for the type of homing to be used. All systems
4. Flooding control . 18 2. The Manual Override rule has been eliminated, as the short dura- are in use simultaneously; they are complementary, not competitive. As
5. Fire fighting 19 XVI. SURFACE TO SURFACE MISSILES (SSM"S) . . . 32 tion of nearly all gunnery actions makes the rule unnecessary. explained in the "Active Homing-Target Priority and Size" rule, such
6. Weapons repair .. 19 1. Introduction. ........... . 32 B. Damage: missiles first attempt to detect a target by radar. If a target is detected,
7 Electronics repair . 19 2. Basic SSM procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 1. Several factors contrfbut1ng ·to increased flooding and fire damage then IA, if available, is used to reject chaff targets. If the missile is unable
8. Propulsion system repair . 19 3. SSM sequence of play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 have been added. to detect a target by radar due to jamming, a home on jamming function
9. Flight deck repair . 20 4. Requirements for launching SS M's .................. 32 2. A new type of damage, called a "Damage Control Hit," has been allows it to lock onto the jammer.
5. SSM launching procedure ...... ·.......................... 32 added. 4. The effects of the chaff system ratii:igs on SSM acquisition appears
XIII. COMMUNICATIONS AND DATA LINK 20 6. Semi-active homing--description and The two changes above, as well as the damage control change below, 1n the "ECM after Target Acquisition" rule as well as the rule indicated
1. Communication. . ....... . . . ". ' ... 20 restrictions ................................ , .............. 33 are in accordance with recent data concerning the sinking of the Sheffield . in (3) above.
2 Short range communications 20 7. Active homing--descriptlon and restrictions ......... , ...... 33 C. Damage Control: 5. Some of the newer SAM fire control radars and launchers can
3. Long range communications 20 8. Missile movement .. , ........•. , .... , .......... , ........... 33 1. Fire fighting: Uncontrolled fires aboard recently built ships spread engage more than one target simultaneously, as indicated in the "Firing
4. Uses of communication 20 9. Misslle flight trajectory ...... , ... , .... , .. , , , . , , , ... , ••.. , .. 34 more rapidly than on older vessels. at Missiles-Requierments'' rule.
5. Effects of communication 20 10. Semi-active missile homing ............................... 34 D. Communications: 6. The SS-N-14 missile carriers only an acoustic homing torpedo, not
6. Data link 20 11. Active rnissile--target acquisition and homing . . . . . . 34 1. Data link is more easily jammed. a nuclear depth charge.
7. Communications procedures 20 12 Active homtng--determining the missile's E. Torpedoes: H. Data changes:
a. Laser communication . . 21 area of search ....................... . ... " .... 34 1. Extensive changes have been made to the procedures tor deter- 1. All tables have been revised and should 'be read carefully when
mining hits by acoustic homing torpedoes, so these sections should be required.
13. Active homing--determining if a target is AA TABLE ........................... . . ... ' ............... _,45
TABLE OF CONTENTS: XIV. TORPEDOES. 21 acquired ............... .................. . ..... 34
1. Effectiveness of torpedoes 21 14. Active homing--target priority and size........... . .... 35 TORPEDO RESULTS CHART ...... .
1 2. Sequence of play . 21 15 Actlve missile homing ..................................... 36 48
I. INTRODUCTION. I. Torpedo Coverage Area Table
3. Torpedo launching 21 16. Spotting missiles in flight ............. , , ................. , 36 II. Torpedo Accuracy Table.
11. MODERN NAVAL WARFARE .. 1 4. Torpedo movement . 22 17. Countermeasures against missiles . . . ......... 37 llt. Torpedo Results Table
1 Naval developments since World War II 1 5. Torpedo patterns, guidance, homing, and range . 22 18. ECM before target acquisition ............................. 37
2. Modern US ship design 2 6. Determining torpedo damage. 22 19. ECM after missiles acquire targets...... . ....... 37 TORPEDO DAMAGE TABLES ................................ 48
3. Modern Soviet ship design 2 7. Determining the area of coverage. 22 20. Firing at missiles--requirements ........................... 38
4. European navies ........... . 2 8. Determining if torpedo hits are scored 23 21. Procedures for finng at missiles .......................... , 38 TORPEDO DATA TABLE .................................. , .. 50
5. Ship design 2 9. Determining the type of torpedo damage. 24 22. Adjustments lo the AA gun accuracy rates ................. 39
6. Propulsion systems 3 10. Damage adjustments. 24 23. Adjustments to SAM accuracy rates .......... 40 RADAR DETECTION TABLE................... 50
7. Fire control ... 3 11. Reloading 24 24. Effects of accuracy adjustments . . . . . . . ............... 40
8. Gunnery 3 12. "Foxers" .. 24 25. Long range SA M's . .............. . . ............... 40 RADAR ADJUSTMENT TABLE....................... 51
9. Torpedoes 4 13. Fishtailing. 24 26. Determining if the SSM hits its target ............. 41
10. Missiles 4 14. Torpedo fire control 24 27. Determining SSM damage. . ....................... 41 RADAR GUIDE........................................ 51
11. Electronic Warfare. 5 28. Special SSM. . .................................. , , . 41
12. Communications 7 XV. ELECTRONIC WARFARE .. 24 29 SSM's and armor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............. , ... 41 SSM DATA TABLE ............... , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 54
30 SSM damage to aircraft carriers . . . . . . . ........... , , ... 41
111. NECESSARY EQUIPMENT .. 7 Part A: Introduction 24 31. SSM damage to tankers and oilers ......................... 41 SSM VISUAL SIGHTING TABLE ....................... , ..... ; 55
1. Description of electronic warfare 24 32. SSM damage to ships with poor 41
IV. GAME SCALE ......... 8 2. Basic sequence of play. 24 shock mountings ....... , ................................. 41 SSM DAMAGE TABLES ...................................... 55
3. Necessary equipment 24 33 SSM reloading ................ , ................ , .......... 41
V. PREPARING FOR PLAY 8 34. Using SA M's as SS M's . . . . . . . . . . . . ................. 41 SHIP CHARACTERISTICS TABLES ............. . 59
Part B: Radar 25 Part 1: Basic ship date
.. 25
VI. SEQUENCE OF PLAY--SURFACE ACTIONS 8 1. Functions of radar .. . CHARTS AND TABLES Part 2: Weapons
2. Types of radar .......... _. 25 Part 3: Electronic&
9 3. Basic radar search procedures 25 COLLISSION DAMAGE CHART ............................... 42 Date Notes
VII. MEASUREMENT .
4. Ad1ustments to the number picked when the Notes on the US Navy
9 Radar Adjustment Table is consulted ............ . 26 GUNNERY DATA TABLE ..................................... 43 Notes on the British Naily
VIII. MOVEMENT
1. Basic movement procedures 9 5. Restrictions on the use of radars in a search mode 26 Notes on the Soviet Navy
2. "Dummy" counters ........ . 9 6. Effects and duration of detection by radar. 26 GUNNERY RESULTS CHART ............ , .................... 43
3. Basic movement rules. 9 7. Restrictions on the use of radars in a fire (Includes Gunnery Accuracy Tables, Gunnery Firing Tables, and Area
4 Movement on the playing surface. 9 control mode ... 26 Hit Tables).
27 USING THE TDD ........................................... . 68
5. Turning 9 8 Fire control tracking procedures .
9 GUNNERY DAMAGE CHART ................................. 44
6. Moving Evasively ... Superstructure EXPANDED SEQUENCE OF PLAY ............................ 69
7. Acceleration. ········· 9 Part C: Passive sensors . . . . . . .......... . 27 Deck
8. Deceleration. ........... 10 1. Description of passive sensors. 27 Hull SOURCES USED ............................... . ...... 58
9. Reversing engines 10 2. The requirements for using radar detectors 27
10. Backward movement. 10 3. Radar detection procedure 27
11. Collisions 10 4. Radar detectors and tire control 28
12 Collision damage ... ········· 11 5. Effects of detection by radar detectors . 28
6. Duration of radar detection . 28
IX. VISUAL SIGHTING 11 7. Radio detectors. 28
1. Introduction 11
2. Visibility procedures 11 Part D: Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) .. 28
11 1. Introduction. 28 INTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND EDITION:
3. Visibility restrictions
11 2. Types of ECM equipment 28 W.arship Commander was the first and probably most detailed and ac- read thorougn1y.
4. Basic visual sighting distances
3. Restrictions on the use of radar jamrners. 28 curate simulation of modern naval combat available; it has also proven 2. The rules for "toxers" have been changed somewhat.
X. GUNFIRE AGAINST SHIPS 11 4. Noise jamming procedures. 29 to be one of our most popular titles. Some time ago, the first edition went F. Electronics:
1. Gunfire requirements 11 5 Deception jamming . 29 out of print, but the demand for the book never slackened. However, since 1. The adjustment to radar system accuracy when attempting to detect
2. Firing procedures. 12 6. Deception jamming--false target generation . 29 1978 when Warship Commander first appeared, many new weapon missiles has been increased, so missiles are now more difficult to detect.
3. Accuracy adjustments 12 7. Deception jamming--range or velocity systems were developed, and more importantly, much more data on cur- 2. Unlil recently, most ship-borne jammers were simple deception jam-
4. Ammunition 13 gate pull off 30 rently existing equipment, especially electronics, has been made available. mers, without noise jamming capability.
5. Ship design and size. 13 8. Chaff--introduction 30 The recent Falklands War also provided much useful information on naval 3. Chaff systems are now rated A, B, or C. A rated systems are re-
6. Determining gunnery damage 14 9. Requirements for using chaff .. 30 equipment in action. Consequently, we decided to revise and update lhe cent automatic systems designed to fire both flares and chaff as soon
7. Effects of gunnery damage .. 14 10. Chaff launching procedures. 30 rules, rather than merely reprinting them. The basic system of play has as hostile radar is detected; 8-rated systems are manual chaff systems.
8. Damage adjustments. 14 11. Effects of chaff . 30 not been changed, although some of the details have been in order to The C rating is reserved primarily tor chaff shells fired from guns. The
9 Armor penetration 15 12. Duration of chaff 30 correct errors a:id update data; the data tables have all been revised to main effects of the ratings appear in the "Effects of Chaff' rule.
10. Fire control 15 13. Reloading chaff launchers. 30 conform to the most up to date information now available. In addition, 4. Monopulse radars can now be jammed by all A·rated ECM systems,
11. Automatic self-defense guns 15 14. Reflectors and blip enhancers 30 in response to the request for more ship data, we have greatly expanded and such jamming is more effective than it previously was.
15 Radio and data link jamming 31 the Ship Characteristics Table to include vessels from a larger number 5. Frequency agility now makes deception jamming very difficult.
16. Infra-red jamming 31 of countries (including most of NATO) as well as the recently launched 6. Phased array radars, such as SPY-1, are resistant to noise jamm-
17. Decoys .. 31 ships. The new, updated Warship Commander II now provides all the ing as indicated in the "Reducing Gain" rule.
XI. DAMAGE. 16 data needed for the naval warfare enthusiast to accurately simulate modern G. Surface to surface missiles:
1 Effects of damage 16 Part E: Electronic Counter-countermeasures (ECCM) 31 naval combat well into the 1990~. 1. Some newer Soviet missiles can be tired at targets located by radar
2. Flotation 17 1. Introduction 31 detectors. '
3. Fire l7 2. Methods of operation of radars . 31 The fol!owing is a summary of the major rule changes: 2. The SSM fire control radars on Soviet ships are not used for target
3. The effects of radar's method of operation 31 A. Gunnery: tracking; they are designed to track the missile and any targeting aircraft
XII. DAMAGE CONTROL . 18 4. Frequency agility 32 1. The separate firing tables for each gun have been eliminated due in order to allow mid-course correction. This is explained in the "Re-
1. Damage control--basic rules .. 18 5. Reducing gain .. 32 to lack of space. A new system (using a single firing table with separate quirements tor Launching SSMs" and the "Missile Movement" rules.
2. Damage control parties and tasks .. 18 6. Moving target indicator (MTI) 32 accuracy rates for each gun) has replaced it, so the firing procedures are 3. Missiles capable of multiple methods of homing (Radar, IA, home
3. Determining success of damage control attempts. 18 7. J ittered PRF . 32 now somewhat different. on jamming) need not be set for the type of homing to be used. All systems
4. Flooding control . 18 2. The Manual Override rule has been eliminated, as the short dura- are in use simultaneously; they are complementary, not competitive. As
5. Fire fighting 19 XVI. SURFACE TO SURFACE MISSILES (SSM"S) . . . 32 tion of nearly all gunnery actions makes the rule unnecessary. explained in the "Active Homing-Target Priority and Size" rule, such
6. Weapons repair .. 19 1. Introduction. ........... . 32 B. Damage: missiles first attempt to detect a target by radar. If a target is detected,
7 Electronics repair . 19 2. Basic SSM procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 1. Several factors contrfbut1ng ·to increased flooding and fire damage then IA, if available, is used to reject chaff targets. If the missile is unable
8. Propulsion system repair . 19 3. SSM sequence of play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 have been added. to detect a target by radar due to jamming, a home on jamming function
9. Flight deck repair . 20 4. Requirements for launching SS M's .................. 32 2. A new type of damage, called a "Damage Control Hit," has been allows it to lock onto the jammer.
5. SSM launching procedure ...... ·.......................... 32 added. 4. The effects of the chaff system ratii:igs on SSM acquisition appears
XIII. COMMUNICATIONS AND DATA LINK 20 6. Semi-active homing--description and The two changes above, as well as the damage control change below, 1n the "ECM after Target Acquisition" rule as well as the rule indicated
1. Communication. . ....... . . . ". ' ... 20 restrictions ................................ , .............. 33 are in accordance with recent data concerning the sinking of the Sheffield . in (3) above.
2 Short range communications 20 7. Active homing--descriptlon and restrictions ......... , ...... 33 C. Damage Control: 5. Some of the newer SAM fire control radars and launchers can
3. Long range communications 20 8. Missile movement .. , ........•. , .... , .......... , ........... 33 1. Fire fighting: Uncontrolled fires aboard recently built ships spread engage more than one target simultaneously, as indicated in the "Firing
4. Uses of communication 20 9. Misslle flight trajectory ...... , ... , .... , .. , , , . , , , ... , ••.. , .. 34 more rapidly than on older vessels. at Missiles-Requierments'' rule.
5. Effects of communication 20 10. Semi-active missile homing ............................... 34 D. Communications: 6. The SS-N-14 missile carriers only an acoustic homing torpedo, not
6. Data link 20 11. Active rnissile--target acquisition and homing . . . . . . 34 1. Data link is more easily jammed. a nuclear depth charge.
7. Communications procedures 20 12 Active homtng--determining the missile's E. Torpedoes: H. Data changes:
a. Laser communication . . 21 area of search ....................... . ... " .... 34 1. Extensive changes have been made to the procedures tor deter- 1. All tables have been revised and should 'be read carefully when
mining hits by acoustic homing torpedoes, so these sections should be required.
,,I,I
I
naval warfare. The first ol these was the ~s~~ulness of the submanne.
I. INTRODUCTION: Although relatively few in number and pnm1t1ve by modern ~tandards. World War ll, mechanical computers were used to compute firing
the German U-boat in the first half of World War 11 was_ a serious threat solutions for shipborne weapons. After World War II the much faster improvement· to the ECM suite carried on board ships called DPEWS,
Warship Commander is a set of rules for recreating present day naval to the allied war effort. The allies expended ~uch _time and energy analog computer was developed. The computers on most modern is beginning. Improved fire control systems, using digital computers,
actions using military miniatures or cardboard counters. The rules can against these vessels, finally defeating them pnmarily by using large ships are analog. Recently, the digital computer, was developed. It have been installed on some new ships which will enable them to
be used with military miniatures of any scale, although we recommend numbers of aircraft to detect and attack the:m _on the surface. World operates faster than the analog computer, thus increasing accuracy. respond quickly to any missile threat. Finally, the US Navy has
the new 1:3000 scale models. The game 1s designed to be played by War II submarines had to spend most of their time on the surface an? As computers improved, combat procedures became more developed its own surface to surface missile, the Harpoon, which is
two players or teams. Regardless of the number of player~. Warship were very slow when submerged. Toward the end of the war, when it automated. Currently, several countries are working on a completely being installed on frigates, destroyers, and cruisers. Modernized US
Commander is a thoroughly playable, highly detailed, and was too late to have an effect, the Germans developed snorkel- automated lire control system; the computer will automatically direct Navy ships are again capable of engaging surface, sub-surface, and air
equipped submarines that seldom needed to surface and could travel targets without the aid of aircraft carriers.
exceptionally realistic game. the appropriate weapons against any enemy target detected by radar
atmost as fast submerged as they could when surfaced. Such subs or other sensors without any human linger on the trigger or order
warship Commander is the culmination of three years of research in~o would have been very difficult to detect and co~ld not have been being given.
defeated by the methods available c:it that time. Current day 3. MODERN SOVIET SHIP DESIGN:
the weapons, tactics, and battle damage of World War It as. well a~ in
submannes are based on this type of design and constitute one of the Another recent development that has had a great effect on modern Until the 1960's, the Soviet Navy was rather weak. tt had no aircraft
depth research into present day nav_al. weapons and tactics. It is a
most important types of vessels carriers, and in fact, no prior experience with carrier operations, and
highly detailed an.d unique game, and 111s unlike ~nyother naval_ ~ame naval warfare was the development of the surface to surface "missile.
These were developed in the 1950's and provide an accurate anti- its main force of cruisers and destroyers was no match for the Western
ever produced. Most of the game's mechanics wil! be as unf_amll1ar to
The other important development was electronic warfare. Elec~ronic shipping weapon to navies without aircraft carriers. Even the US, navies. Recent developments have changed this In the late 1950's and
the veteran naval wargamer as they are to the novice. For this reas~n.
warfare began in World War ti to combat the threat posed by aircraft which has a large number of aircraft carriers, now uses a surface to early 1960's, the Soviet Navy, to some extent, overcame its lack of
we strongly recommend that players learn. th~ game gradually, adding aircraft carriers by developing long range anti-shipping missiles and
in new complexities only alter the basic ideas are ma~tered. '!Je and submarines. Radar was used from the earliest days of the war to surface missile. Surface to surface missiles ($$M's) are usually
detect affcraft well beyond visual sighting range. ~ater, a .radar was difficult to detect at long range, and are available in such large installing these weapons on heavy bombers and newly built cruisers,
suggest that players should first learn to play surface actions using destroyers and missile boats. These missiles. some with ranges of over
one ship per player, with neither side possessing torpedoes, developed which could detect surface targets, and finally ,_fire con.trol numbers that it is very difficult to defeat them with the essentially long
radars were developed which could a~l?w accurate fl_ri~Q .against range, slow firing surface to air missiles. The most effective weapon a hundred miles, gave Soviet ships and aircraft greater striking
electronics, or missiles. It w1!1 only be nece_ssa~y to _rea~ through the capability than any Western ship, other than the carriers, and made
rules sections up to and including Commun1cat1ons 1n this c~se. Once unseen targets at night or under cond1t1ons of poor v1s1b1l_1ty. T~e against SSM's is the small and medium caliber anti-aircraft gun. Thus,
efficient US fire control radar was responsible for the great victory in the development of anti-shipping missiles has revived interest in naval them a threat to Western naval operations. More importantly, however,
these basic rules are mastered. torpedoes should be included. the Soviets greatly enlarged their submarine fleet. adding nuclear
Electronics should be added afterwards, and do not attempt to add Surigao Strait and it was an effective airborne search radar that guns. Many ships built in the 1950's treated guns solely as a secondary
enabled allied aircraft to defeat surfaced U-boats. weapons system; guns on modern ships are an integral part of the powered submarines armed with ballistic nuclear missiles,
missiles until the Electronics rules are thoro~ghly mastered. As the submarines designed to sink other submarines and submarines
game becomes more familiar, the number of ships used byea~h P!ayer ship's main defensive system.
As radar became an effective weapon, col:lnt_ermeasures were designed to attack ships, a type largely extinct in the West. Currently,
can be gradually increased. H_owe~er, Warship Commander IS h~ghly the Soviet submarine fleet is the largest in !he world. The Soviets view
detailed and is designed primarily f~r small-scale naval actions, developed against it. A device to detect radarem1ss1ons, called ~etox, Improvements in communications have also had an effect. One
was installed on German submarines which enabled submarii:ies to significant development has been the development of data hnk. Data their submarines in the same manner that the US Navy views its aircraft
therefore, we believe that the game 1s mos.t enioyable when the carriers. These are the ships having the greatest value, and will be
number of ships commanded by each player is kept rather small. detect airborne radar beyond the effective range of the radar. Th ts was link is a direct communication link between computers which allow
later countered by an airborne radar which operated at_a ~reque~cy many ships to be immediately aware of all of the information available protected at all costs. Any naval war involving the Soviet Union would
which the Metox could not detect. The Japanese had a s1m1lar device to the sensors of all ships. This data is accurate enough to allow firing surely involve anti-submarine warfare to a very great degree, and it
Since information on modern ships a_nd weap.oi:is is not readily could very well be the decisive element in the naval war.
available we have included a large section describing modern naval by 1943 which they used in the battle of Kula Gulf. - ships having data lrnk are able to fire accurately against targets not
warfare a'nd how it rel8tes to the rules of t_he game We rec_om~end t~at actually detected by their own sensors. Another important
The Soviets have recently begun building aircraft earners, but these
all players read this section before reading the rules, as 1t will provide In addition to detecting devices, other .equipm_ent w~s de~,elope.~ development is communication by satellite which is much more
which would make the radars ineffective. Window , or cha_ff , dtlficuH to detect (and jam) than normal radio communications. carriers differ greatly from their Western counterparts. While Western
the information needed to thoroughly understand the rules. In order to carriers are large, and carry a very large number of the most advanced
play Warship Commander well, a player will n.eed to .thoroughly consisted of aluminum strips cut to half the teng~h of the opposing Satellites are also capable of detailed reconnaissance over wide areas,
radar frequency. This would reflect. m ost radar s1gn.~ts b<;tck to !he aircraft, Soviet Kiev class carriers are fairly small, carry a relatively
understand modern n21vi:il warfare, not just memorize a series of rules. greatly increasing the ability of task forces to detect and intercept each
transmitter resulting in an electronic 1smokescreen behind which
0
other. Surprise attacks will probably be a rarity in modern war. small number of low performance VSTOL aircraft and/or helicopters,
aircraft coUld escape radar detection. ~ater, "noi~e" jammers were yet are heavily armed with anti-air missiles, surface to surface missiles,
developed. These were basically radio t~ansm1tters t~at woul_d and anti-submarine weapons. The Soviet carriers, while no match for
II. MODERN NAVAL WARFARE: Modern naval weapon systems are radically different from World War
Western carriers, still seem to be able to perlorm a large array of
broadcast a loud noise on th~ trequencx atwh1c~ the opposing ~adar is II weapon systems, relying on great accuracy rather than volume of
operating. Since radar receives range 1nformat1on by n:ieasunng the fire. For this reason, modern ships have much fewer weapons. but functions, and are probably extremely good at anti-submarine
1. NAVAL DEVELOPMENTS SINCE WORL.D WAR. II: warfare. Their main purpose is still unknown.
When comparing present day ships with their World War II time it takes for a sound wave to travel from the transmitter, echo a.ft these weapons are much more effective than earlier weapons. The
counterparts, one is immediately struck by the fact that World War 11 the target, and return to the.receiver. i~ s~ould bE'. clear that ra.d~r will niost effective weapon against ships is still aircraft, but now surface-
ships, usually bristlihg with armament, seem t~ ~e m~ch bet.ter be unable to determine range 1f 11 1s cont1nuall~ ~ece.1.v1ng a to-surface missiles provide great combat power for those countries
broadcasted signal, since it would be ~nablE'. to d1st1i:igu1sh the 4. EUROPEAN NAVIES:
weapon systems th~n current day ships of s1m1lar size which without aircraft carriers. SSM's may result in the revival of In many ways, the navies of Western Europe are somewhat more
frequently carry only one or two guns or missile laui:i'?hers. Yet. broadcasted signal from the echo. These 1amm1n~ techniques were effectiveness of ships other than carriers. Until these missiles
used much more extensively than most people realize. Cha~f was use~ advanced than the US Navy. While the US Navy could afford to build
modern ships are mu,g,h more capable of fulfilling th.e trad1t1~nal ~aval appeared, frigates, destroyers, and cruisers in the US Navy were
large aircraft carriers, the Western European countries could not, so
tasks than were their ~arid War 11 counterparts, and 1n m~st s1tuat1~n.s, throughout most of the war in both the European. an~ Pac~f1c theater_s, relegated to the secondary function of providing anti-aircraft and anti-
ultimately, 20,000 tons of chaff wa~ pr<?duce.d. No1seiamm1ng b~gan 1_n instead, they concentrated on building improved smaller ships.
1f a modern warship were ever to engage a ~orld War II v1ntage~h1p1n submarine support tor carriers. SSM's allow such ships to again be
Western European navres concentrated on developing electronic
action, the World Wa~ II ship would have little chance of surv1v1ng: 1943. The Bth Air Force used noise Jamming to great effec_t 1n their useful in surface to surface actions.
bomber offensive, greatly reducing their losses. Many ships were countermeasures and have succeeded in designing more effective
equipped with jammers which successfully detested th~ threat created equipment than that available in the current US Navy. Also, Western
Modern ships are the,:culmination of an evolutionary process in ship
by German glide bombs. Since the war, a great deal of llmeand.e!1ergy Europe navies have developed and widely deployed a number of
design that began with the development of the Dre~dnough_t at the turn 2. MODERN U.S. SHIP DESIGN:
has been expended on the development of electronic warfare; 1t 1s one advanced surface to surface missiles, such as the Exocet and Otomat.
of this century. At th~t time, the gun was the main offe~s1ve weapon Throughout the 1950's and into the 1960's, the U.S. Navy built ships
of the most important components of modern naval warfare Most of the European ships built within the last ten years or so are
and the ships carrying the lar~est num~er <?f the heav1e~t guns_. the conforming to lhe developments experienced in World War II. The
battleships comprised the main naval fighting force. Th_1s persisted main striking force was concentrated in the large aircraft carriers; all equipped with such missiles. Although the Western European navies
During the war, guided missiles were developed. S~b~equently, most would have difficulty coping with a large scale attack, they should be
until the be9inning of fJorld War II at which time i,t was realized ~hatthe other ships existed to sink submarines and protect aircraft carriers
most effective weapori in naval warfare at that time was the airplane. countries found that these weapons made ideal ant1-a1rcraft we~pons very useful in small scale battles and anti-submarine warfare.
from aircraft which might succeed in evading the carrier's combat air
The aircraft carrier becpame the most important naval weapon, and th.e since they could be fired to extremely long ranges (twenty miles or 'patrol. Thus. most surface ships built after the war were armed with
battleships were mair11y relegated to shore bombardme_nt a.nd anti- more) and had good accuracy even at l?ng range. The development of several surface-to-air missile launchers, sonar and anti-submarine
the surface-to-air guided missile eliminated the need for most guns S. SHIP DESIGN:
aircraft support. In fact. in the major naval battles which 1~volve:d weapons, and only one to four guns of either 3" or 5" caliber, usually
aircraft carriers, the l~rge guns were useless; the only etf~ct1ve ship since missiles were much more effective against aircraft than guns Present day ships are designed to tolerate more battle damage than
mounted on the side. One ship, the Long Beach, was originally
borne weapons were the smaller anti-aircr~ft weapons. "':his resul.ted could be Guns now became secondary weapons, useful only for shore completed without any guns at all, but later, two obsolete 5"/38 were their World War II predecessors. Most present day vessels can
in a great increase in the number of small caliber guns earned by s_h1p_s, bombardment and as a back up for the main weapon systems withstand a great amount of underwater damage without sinking due
mounted on it due to pressure from Washington. The differences
and frequently larger caliber gun mounts were removed from ships in to improvements in compartmentalization. Soviet ships are not as well
between types of ships began '"to disappear. Cruisers as well as
order to mak~ room, for the small caliber_ AA mounts. Thus, the Precision guided weapons led to further developmen~s .in the compartmented as NATO vessels, while British and Canadian ships
destroyers were equipped with anti-submarine weapons, and are particularly well compartmented
armament of ships be9an to ch~nge from a surfa~e-to-surface ro.le to a electronic equipment used by ships. Mod_ern long ran~e m1s~1l_es a~e destr.oyers became about as large as cruisers. Improved radars were
surface-to-air role; and the main purpose of ships o~her lhan_ aircraft incapable of operating without radar guidance, and 1n add1t1on, in developed. Surprisingly, the US did not make a great effort to improve
order to take advantage of the long range of su.ch weapons, long range A controversial feature found on recent US frigates, destroyers and
carriers was being transformed from that of an offensive force into that its electronic countermeasures equipment, apparently believing that
search radars became more necessary. For this reason, more and cruisers is the use of aluminum in super-structures. While aluminum
of an anti-aircraft screen for the carriers. their ships were armed with enough "hard Kill" weapons to make ECM
better radars were installed on ships. Of col:lrse, as electronic greatly reduces weight, it also reduces the ability to absorb damage.
equipment unnecessary. Even today, the ECM equipment on most US Aluminum is particularly vulnerable to fire because it melts at a much
Interestingly, in early World War II night actions when aircraft co~ld detection and fire control systems became more important, the need ships is inadequate to the demands of modern naval combat.
tor electronic countermeasures arose. lower temperature than steel The British and Canadians refuse to use
not operate. the large caliber gun was. s!ill not t~e most ~ffect1ve aluminum at all, preferring steel for both superstructures and hulls.
weapon. Because visibility was greatly l1m1ted at night, med1~m a~d Recently. US Naval philosophy has begun to change. Due to great
small caliber guns could be brought in_lo the range ~here their rapid Modern weapons rely on electronic sensors, and electronic w~rfare is increases in Soviet naval strength, the US Navy has apparently
perhaps the most important element of m_odern wa~are The. s1d~ that In one respect Soviet-designed ships are superior to NATO ships. Roll
rates of fire more than made up for their shorter maximum range and become worned that its reliance solely on the aircraft carrier and "hard stabilizers have been fitted on approximately 70°/o of Soviet destroyers
smaller shell. 1n the first battle of Guadalcanal, US 8" cruisers an~ 5" controls the electromagnetic spectru~ will be the~1de that will w.1n ~he kill" weapons might be misplaced There can only be a limited number
next war at sea. All navies constantly improve th~1r radars and similar and frigates, while such devices have been installed on only about 30%
destroyers succeeded in knocking a 14". gun ba_ttleship out of action. of aircraft earners, currently thirteen, and they cannot be everywhere
sensors to make them more resistarit to.electronic counterme~sures, of American destroyers. Roll stabilizers greatly reduce the effects of
Although effective, even small and medium caliber guns_ were not as at once. The proliferation of the surface to surface missile, which can heavy seas on a ship, thereby reducing crew discomfort and
useful in night actions as was the torpedo. Even when a1rcralt cou!d while also improving their own electronic i::ountermeasure devices t_o knock most ships out of action with a single hit, has increased the
make them more effective against opposing radars. The el~ctron1c increasing combat effectiveness. In rough weather, most small Soviet
not operate, the gun was not necessarily the prime naval weapon in danger to the carriers, and the large number of such missiles available
battle, called "The Wizard's War" by Churchill, is no less real 1n peace s~ips will operate more effectively than most NATQ vessels of asimilar
World War 11. to the Soviets makes ii unlikely that all threats could be defeated by size.
time. "hard kill" weapons alone. For this reason the US Navy has recently
Aside from revealing the importance of aircraft and, conversely, .the begun a program to improve the effectiveness of its smaller ships. To
The development of computers has also affected naval weapons In Since World War II, there has been some experimenting with new
decline in importance in gunnery, World War_ll also wa.s responsible increase the ability of the ships to defeat missiles, an automatic 20mm
types of hulls for patrol boats and small ships. The new types of hull
for two other developments which play a prominent parl 1n current day Vulcan AA cannon, the Phalanx, will be installed on many ships. An
designs include hydrofoils, hovercraft, and surface effect ships.
2
,,I,I
I
naval warfare. The first ol these was the ~s~~ulness of the submanne.
I. INTRODUCTION: Although relatively few in number and pnm1t1ve by modern ~tandards. World War ll, mechanical computers were used to compute firing
the German U-boat in the first half of World War 11 was_ a serious threat solutions for shipborne weapons. After World War II the much faster improvement· to the ECM suite carried on board ships called DPEWS,
Warship Commander is a set of rules for recreating present day naval to the allied war effort. The allies expended ~uch _time and energy analog computer was developed. The computers on most modern is beginning. Improved fire control systems, using digital computers,
actions using military miniatures or cardboard counters. The rules can against these vessels, finally defeating them pnmarily by using large ships are analog. Recently, the digital computer, was developed. It have been installed on some new ships which will enable them to
be used with military miniatures of any scale, although we recommend numbers of aircraft to detect and attack the:m _on the surface. World operates faster than the analog computer, thus increasing accuracy. respond quickly to any missile threat. Finally, the US Navy has
the new 1:3000 scale models. The game 1s designed to be played by War II submarines had to spend most of their time on the surface an? As computers improved, combat procedures became more developed its own surface to surface missile, the Harpoon, which is
two players or teams. Regardless of the number of player~. Warship were very slow when submerged. Toward the end of the war, when it automated. Currently, several countries are working on a completely being installed on frigates, destroyers, and cruisers. Modernized US
Commander is a thoroughly playable, highly detailed, and was too late to have an effect, the Germans developed snorkel- automated lire control system; the computer will automatically direct Navy ships are again capable of engaging surface, sub-surface, and air
equipped submarines that seldom needed to surface and could travel targets without the aid of aircraft carriers.
exceptionally realistic game. the appropriate weapons against any enemy target detected by radar
atmost as fast submerged as they could when surfaced. Such subs or other sensors without any human linger on the trigger or order
warship Commander is the culmination of three years of research in~o would have been very difficult to detect and co~ld not have been being given.
defeated by the methods available c:it that time. Current day 3. MODERN SOVIET SHIP DESIGN:
the weapons, tactics, and battle damage of World War It as. well a~ in
submannes are based on this type of design and constitute one of the Another recent development that has had a great effect on modern Until the 1960's, the Soviet Navy was rather weak. tt had no aircraft
depth research into present day nav_al. weapons and tactics. It is a
most important types of vessels carriers, and in fact, no prior experience with carrier operations, and
highly detailed an.d unique game, and 111s unlike ~nyother naval_ ~ame naval warfare was the development of the surface to surface "missile.
These were developed in the 1950's and provide an accurate anti- its main force of cruisers and destroyers was no match for the Western
ever produced. Most of the game's mechanics wil! be as unf_amll1ar to
The other important development was electronic warfare. Elec~ronic shipping weapon to navies without aircraft carriers. Even the US, navies. Recent developments have changed this In the late 1950's and
the veteran naval wargamer as they are to the novice. For this reas~n.
warfare began in World War ti to combat the threat posed by aircraft which has a large number of aircraft carriers, now uses a surface to early 1960's, the Soviet Navy, to some extent, overcame its lack of
we strongly recommend that players learn. th~ game gradually, adding aircraft carriers by developing long range anti-shipping missiles and
in new complexities only alter the basic ideas are ma~tered. '!Je and submarines. Radar was used from the earliest days of the war to surface missile. Surface to surface missiles ($$M's) are usually
detect affcraft well beyond visual sighting range. ~ater, a .radar was difficult to detect at long range, and are available in such large installing these weapons on heavy bombers and newly built cruisers,
suggest that players should first learn to play surface actions using destroyers and missile boats. These missiles. some with ranges of over
one ship per player, with neither side possessing torpedoes, developed which could detect surface targets, and finally ,_fire con.trol numbers that it is very difficult to defeat them with the essentially long
radars were developed which could a~l?w accurate fl_ri~Q .against range, slow firing surface to air missiles. The most effective weapon a hundred miles, gave Soviet ships and aircraft greater striking
electronics, or missiles. It w1!1 only be nece_ssa~y to _rea~ through the capability than any Western ship, other than the carriers, and made
rules sections up to and including Commun1cat1ons 1n this c~se. Once unseen targets at night or under cond1t1ons of poor v1s1b1l_1ty. T~e against SSM's is the small and medium caliber anti-aircraft gun. Thus,
efficient US fire control radar was responsible for the great victory in the development of anti-shipping missiles has revived interest in naval them a threat to Western naval operations. More importantly, however,
these basic rules are mastered. torpedoes should be included. the Soviets greatly enlarged their submarine fleet. adding nuclear
Electronics should be added afterwards, and do not attempt to add Surigao Strait and it was an effective airborne search radar that guns. Many ships built in the 1950's treated guns solely as a secondary
enabled allied aircraft to defeat surfaced U-boats. weapons system; guns on modern ships are an integral part of the powered submarines armed with ballistic nuclear missiles,
missiles until the Electronics rules are thoro~ghly mastered. As the submarines designed to sink other submarines and submarines
game becomes more familiar, the number of ships used byea~h P!ayer ship's main defensive system.
As radar became an effective weapon, col:lnt_ermeasures were designed to attack ships, a type largely extinct in the West. Currently,
can be gradually increased. H_owe~er, Warship Commander IS h~ghly the Soviet submarine fleet is the largest in !he world. The Soviets view
detailed and is designed primarily f~r small-scale naval actions, developed against it. A device to detect radarem1ss1ons, called ~etox, Improvements in communications have also had an effect. One
was installed on German submarines which enabled submarii:ies to significant development has been the development of data hnk. Data their submarines in the same manner that the US Navy views its aircraft
therefore, we believe that the game 1s mos.t enioyable when the carriers. These are the ships having the greatest value, and will be
number of ships commanded by each player is kept rather small. detect airborne radar beyond the effective range of the radar. Th ts was link is a direct communication link between computers which allow
later countered by an airborne radar which operated at_a ~reque~cy many ships to be immediately aware of all of the information available protected at all costs. Any naval war involving the Soviet Union would
which the Metox could not detect. The Japanese had a s1m1lar device to the sensors of all ships. This data is accurate enough to allow firing surely involve anti-submarine warfare to a very great degree, and it
Since information on modern ships a_nd weap.oi:is is not readily could very well be the decisive element in the naval war.
available we have included a large section describing modern naval by 1943 which they used in the battle of Kula Gulf. - ships having data lrnk are able to fire accurately against targets not
warfare a'nd how it rel8tes to the rules of t_he game We rec_om~end t~at actually detected by their own sensors. Another important
The Soviets have recently begun building aircraft earners, but these
all players read this section before reading the rules, as 1t will provide In addition to detecting devices, other .equipm_ent w~s de~,elope.~ development is communication by satellite which is much more
which would make the radars ineffective. Window , or cha_ff , dtlficuH to detect (and jam) than normal radio communications. carriers differ greatly from their Western counterparts. While Western
the information needed to thoroughly understand the rules. In order to carriers are large, and carry a very large number of the most advanced
play Warship Commander well, a player will n.eed to .thoroughly consisted of aluminum strips cut to half the teng~h of the opposing Satellites are also capable of detailed reconnaissance over wide areas,
radar frequency. This would reflect. m ost radar s1gn.~ts b<;tck to !he aircraft, Soviet Kiev class carriers are fairly small, carry a relatively
understand modern n21vi:il warfare, not just memorize a series of rules. greatly increasing the ability of task forces to detect and intercept each
transmitter resulting in an electronic 1smokescreen behind which
0
other. Surprise attacks will probably be a rarity in modern war. small number of low performance VSTOL aircraft and/or helicopters,
aircraft coUld escape radar detection. ~ater, "noi~e" jammers were yet are heavily armed with anti-air missiles, surface to surface missiles,
developed. These were basically radio t~ansm1tters t~at woul_d and anti-submarine weapons. The Soviet carriers, while no match for
II. MODERN NAVAL WARFARE: Modern naval weapon systems are radically different from World War
Western carriers, still seem to be able to perlorm a large array of
broadcast a loud noise on th~ trequencx atwh1c~ the opposing ~adar is II weapon systems, relying on great accuracy rather than volume of
operating. Since radar receives range 1nformat1on by n:ieasunng the fire. For this reason, modern ships have much fewer weapons. but functions, and are probably extremely good at anti-submarine
1. NAVAL DEVELOPMENTS SINCE WORL.D WAR. II: warfare. Their main purpose is still unknown.
When comparing present day ships with their World War II time it takes for a sound wave to travel from the transmitter, echo a.ft these weapons are much more effective than earlier weapons. The
counterparts, one is immediately struck by the fact that World War 11 the target, and return to the.receiver. i~ s~ould bE'. clear that ra.d~r will niost effective weapon against ships is still aircraft, but now surface-
ships, usually bristlihg with armament, seem t~ ~e m~ch bet.ter be unable to determine range 1f 11 1s cont1nuall~ ~ece.1.v1ng a to-surface missiles provide great combat power for those countries
broadcasted signal, since it would be ~nablE'. to d1st1i:igu1sh the 4. EUROPEAN NAVIES:
weapon systems th~n current day ships of s1m1lar size which without aircraft carriers. SSM's may result in the revival of In many ways, the navies of Western Europe are somewhat more
frequently carry only one or two guns or missile laui:i'?hers. Yet. broadcasted signal from the echo. These 1amm1n~ techniques were effectiveness of ships other than carriers. Until these missiles
used much more extensively than most people realize. Cha~f was use~ advanced than the US Navy. While the US Navy could afford to build
modern ships are mu,g,h more capable of fulfilling th.e trad1t1~nal ~aval appeared, frigates, destroyers, and cruisers in the US Navy were
large aircraft carriers, the Western European countries could not, so
tasks than were their ~arid War 11 counterparts, and 1n m~st s1tuat1~n.s, throughout most of the war in both the European. an~ Pac~f1c theater_s, relegated to the secondary function of providing anti-aircraft and anti-
ultimately, 20,000 tons of chaff wa~ pr<?duce.d. No1seiamm1ng b~gan 1_n instead, they concentrated on building improved smaller ships.
1f a modern warship were ever to engage a ~orld War II v1ntage~h1p1n submarine support tor carriers. SSM's allow such ships to again be
Western European navres concentrated on developing electronic
action, the World Wa~ II ship would have little chance of surv1v1ng: 1943. The Bth Air Force used noise Jamming to great effec_t 1n their useful in surface to surface actions.
bomber offensive, greatly reducing their losses. Many ships were countermeasures and have succeeded in designing more effective
equipped with jammers which successfully detested th~ threat created equipment than that available in the current US Navy. Also, Western
Modern ships are the,:culmination of an evolutionary process in ship
by German glide bombs. Since the war, a great deal of llmeand.e!1ergy Europe navies have developed and widely deployed a number of
design that began with the development of the Dre~dnough_t at the turn 2. MODERN U.S. SHIP DESIGN:
has been expended on the development of electronic warfare; 1t 1s one advanced surface to surface missiles, such as the Exocet and Otomat.
of this century. At th~t time, the gun was the main offe~s1ve weapon Throughout the 1950's and into the 1960's, the U.S. Navy built ships
of the most important components of modern naval warfare Most of the European ships built within the last ten years or so are
and the ships carrying the lar~est num~er <?f the heav1e~t guns_. the conforming to lhe developments experienced in World War II. The
battleships comprised the main naval fighting force. Th_1s persisted main striking force was concentrated in the large aircraft carriers; all equipped with such missiles. Although the Western European navies
During the war, guided missiles were developed. S~b~equently, most would have difficulty coping with a large scale attack, they should be
until the be9inning of fJorld War II at which time i,t was realized ~hatthe other ships existed to sink submarines and protect aircraft carriers
most effective weapori in naval warfare at that time was the airplane. countries found that these weapons made ideal ant1-a1rcraft we~pons very useful in small scale battles and anti-submarine warfare.
from aircraft which might succeed in evading the carrier's combat air
The aircraft carrier becpame the most important naval weapon, and th.e since they could be fired to extremely long ranges (twenty miles or 'patrol. Thus. most surface ships built after the war were armed with
battleships were mair11y relegated to shore bombardme_nt a.nd anti- more) and had good accuracy even at l?ng range. The development of several surface-to-air missile launchers, sonar and anti-submarine
the surface-to-air guided missile eliminated the need for most guns S. SHIP DESIGN:
aircraft support. In fact. in the major naval battles which 1~volve:d weapons, and only one to four guns of either 3" or 5" caliber, usually
aircraft carriers, the l~rge guns were useless; the only etf~ct1ve ship since missiles were much more effective against aircraft than guns Present day ships are designed to tolerate more battle damage than
mounted on the side. One ship, the Long Beach, was originally
borne weapons were the smaller anti-aircr~ft weapons. "':his resul.ted could be Guns now became secondary weapons, useful only for shore completed without any guns at all, but later, two obsolete 5"/38 were their World War II predecessors. Most present day vessels can
in a great increase in the number of small caliber guns earned by s_h1p_s, bombardment and as a back up for the main weapon systems withstand a great amount of underwater damage without sinking due
mounted on it due to pressure from Washington. The differences
and frequently larger caliber gun mounts were removed from ships in to improvements in compartmentalization. Soviet ships are not as well
between types of ships began '"to disappear. Cruisers as well as
order to mak~ room, for the small caliber_ AA mounts. Thus, the Precision guided weapons led to further developmen~s .in the compartmented as NATO vessels, while British and Canadian ships
destroyers were equipped with anti-submarine weapons, and are particularly well compartmented
armament of ships be9an to ch~nge from a surfa~e-to-surface ro.le to a electronic equipment used by ships. Mod_ern long ran~e m1s~1l_es a~e destr.oyers became about as large as cruisers. Improved radars were
surface-to-air role; and the main purpose of ships o~her lhan_ aircraft incapable of operating without radar guidance, and 1n add1t1on, in developed. Surprisingly, the US did not make a great effort to improve
order to take advantage of the long range of su.ch weapons, long range A controversial feature found on recent US frigates, destroyers and
carriers was being transformed from that of an offensive force into that its electronic countermeasures equipment, apparently believing that
search radars became more necessary. For this reason, more and cruisers is the use of aluminum in super-structures. While aluminum
of an anti-aircraft screen for the carriers. their ships were armed with enough "hard Kill" weapons to make ECM
better radars were installed on ships. Of col:lrse, as electronic greatly reduces weight, it also reduces the ability to absorb damage.
equipment unnecessary. Even today, the ECM equipment on most US Aluminum is particularly vulnerable to fire because it melts at a much
Interestingly, in early World War II night actions when aircraft co~ld detection and fire control systems became more important, the need ships is inadequate to the demands of modern naval combat.
tor electronic countermeasures arose. lower temperature than steel The British and Canadians refuse to use
not operate. the large caliber gun was. s!ill not t~e most ~ffect1ve aluminum at all, preferring steel for both superstructures and hulls.
weapon. Because visibility was greatly l1m1ted at night, med1~m a~d Recently. US Naval philosophy has begun to change. Due to great
small caliber guns could be brought in_lo the range ~here their rapid Modern weapons rely on electronic sensors, and electronic w~rfare is increases in Soviet naval strength, the US Navy has apparently
perhaps the most important element of m_odern wa~are The. s1d~ that In one respect Soviet-designed ships are superior to NATO ships. Roll
rates of fire more than made up for their shorter maximum range and become worned that its reliance solely on the aircraft carrier and "hard stabilizers have been fitted on approximately 70°/o of Soviet destroyers
smaller shell. 1n the first battle of Guadalcanal, US 8" cruisers an~ 5" controls the electromagnetic spectru~ will be the~1de that will w.1n ~he kill" weapons might be misplaced There can only be a limited number
next war at sea. All navies constantly improve th~1r radars and similar and frigates, while such devices have been installed on only about 30%
destroyers succeeded in knocking a 14". gun ba_ttleship out of action. of aircraft earners, currently thirteen, and they cannot be everywhere
sensors to make them more resistarit to.electronic counterme~sures, of American destroyers. Roll stabilizers greatly reduce the effects of
Although effective, even small and medium caliber guns_ were not as at once. The proliferation of the surface to surface missile, which can heavy seas on a ship, thereby reducing crew discomfort and
useful in night actions as was the torpedo. Even when a1rcralt cou!d while also improving their own electronic i::ountermeasure devices t_o knock most ships out of action with a single hit, has increased the
make them more effective against opposing radars. The el~ctron1c increasing combat effectiveness. In rough weather, most small Soviet
not operate, the gun was not necessarily the prime naval weapon in danger to the carriers, and the large number of such missiles available
battle, called "The Wizard's War" by Churchill, is no less real 1n peace s~ips will operate more effectively than most NATQ vessels of asimilar
World War 11. to the Soviets makes ii unlikely that all threats could be defeated by size.
time. "hard kill" weapons alone. For this reason the US Navy has recently
Aside from revealing the importance of aircraft and, conversely, .the begun a program to improve the effectiveness of its smaller ships. To
The development of computers has also affected naval weapons In Since World War II, there has been some experimenting with new
decline in importance in gunnery, World War_ll also wa.s responsible increase the ability of the ships to defeat missiles, an automatic 20mm
types of hulls for patrol boats and small ships. The new types of hull
for two other developments which play a prominent parl 1n current day Vulcan AA cannon, the Phalanx, will be installed on many ships. An
designs include hydrofoils, hovercraft, and surface effect ships.
2
n1ost firing was done slowly so that the fall of shot could be spotted and Some smaller short range SAM's are equipped with an optical tracking
Hydrofoils are boats whose hulls are designed to lift out of the water at It might appear that systems using one set of engines ror cruise only the firing solution corrected. In modern gunnery, spotting the fall of system which enables them to engage targets without radar assistance
high speed. Contact with the water is retained only by the foils and another set tor high speed operations are less efficient fhan those shot is not very important, and guns can fire at their maximum rate at provided the target can be visually !racked from the launching
protruding from the bottom of the hulls. Reducing the amount of hull which use both sets during high speed operat"lons. This is not the case. all times. limited only by ammunition supply, platform.
that is actually in contact with the water greatly reduces the amount of In order to use two different types of engines simultaneously, a very
drag. For this reason, hydrofoils are capable of very high speed heavy and expensive set of gears is required; frequently, the advantage The maximum rate of tire of modern guns has increased over that of Many SAM's can be used against surface targets but are not very
(frequently around 50 kts) with relatively small engines. Also, since of using all of the engines simultaneously is more than offset by.the guns rrom earlier periods. Most modern guns are loaded automatically effective in that role as they have an arcing trajectory which is ideal for
only a small part of the craft touches the water, the effects of heavy additional weight and expense. Incidentally, ships having all gas and those that are not have improved machinery that aids 1n loading. engaging air targets, but it results in the fact that the SAM's can hit
seas are greatly reduced. Hydrofoils are very stable in bad wi;:ather, turbine propulsion usually have two different types of gas turbine All of this increases the maximum rate of fire. Some guns have no crew surface targets only within a very limited area. Also. the SAM's
much more so than conventional boats of similar size. Hydrofoils can engines, one designed for low speed (and some fuel economy) and the at all, while other guns have a crew to supplement the automatic warheads are small, to reduce weight and increase speed.
operate in a conventional mode, but the relatively small size of their other designed for high speed. The engines of the Spruance class are loading system. Interestingly, gun crews for short periods of time can
engines makes them very slow. of this .type, which can be abbreviated COGAG. load guns faster than the automatic loader, and can double the rate of SSM's and AS M's are designed solely to engage s·urface targets and
fire of a gun for several minutes before exhaustion slows them down, at are completely ineffective against air targets. They have very large
Hovercraft are vessels equipped with giant fans which create an air which time rhe automatic loader will take over. In an emergency, a ship warheads, and, when compared to SAM's, rather low speeds
cushion on which the vessel flies. When moving, hovercraft never having a gun that can be manually loaded has an advantage over ships (generally Mach 9 for surface skimmers) Most SSM's and ASM's are
actually touch the water; drag is reduced to zero. For this reason. 7. FIRE CONTROL: having purely automatic weapons. active homing, that is, the missiles themselves contain all of the
hovercraft are capable of extremely high speeds; some hovercraft can During World War II, tire control solutions were usually plotted by a equipment needed to acquire a target. SSM's and ASM's can acquire
move at 100 kts. Hovercraft should be very useful 1n amphibious mechanical computer. Later, analog computers could provide a more In addition to being more accurate and having higher rates of fire, targets by one of the following methods:
warfare due to their high speed and also to the fact thal shallow water accurate solution as less time was required for its calculations. Recent modern guns have one other advantage over earlier weapons. Modern
is no obstacle to them. Hovercraft also have a limited ab1hty to travel digital computers are even faster than analog, thereby providing gun ammunition is generally heavier than World War II ammunition, a. Radar: Radar homing missiles are equipped with a radar
over small patches of land as well as water. greater accuracy and shorter response times. In the game. units are and improvements in explosives have also made them capable of which detects the target.
given a fire control rating from A to H which represents the causing more damage. For example, a modern 5'/54 HE will cause b. Anti-radiation: Anti-radiation missiles are equipped with
Surface effect ships are very similar to hovercraft and also travel on a effectiveness of its fire control system. An "A" system is a lully- about as much damage as a World War rt 6" HE round. Improved fuses radar receivers and will detect and acquire targets using
cushion of air. The main difference between hovercraft and surface automated system based on a modern digital computer. Such systems make modern gun rounds more reliable against both surface and air radar.
effect ships is that the "hulls" of hovercraft are usually made of automatically detect and fire upon targets without the need for human targets c. Infra-red: Infra-red homing missiles detect the heat radiated
rubberized canvas, while surface effect ships have rigid hulls. Surface interference, and are the most accurate and fastest systems available. by ships, and they home in on the largest source of heat.
effect ships having a much greater displacement than hoverc~aft are Few ships have all A systems, but many ships have secondary Should modern ships come to within gun range of each other, d. Home on jamming: Missiles designed to home on jamming
capable of being built. As with hovercraft, surface effect ships are weapons which have their own self-contained fire control systems improved accuracy, high rates of fire, and improved explosives can detect the presence of "noise" jamming and will home in
capable of extremely high speeds. rated A. The Vulcan-Phalanx and Soviet 23mm systems are examples guarantee that a great deal of damage will be sustained within a very on the source of this 1amming.
of "A" rated secondary weapon systems. "B" systems are modern short period of time. Therefore, any damage sustained by the gunnery
6. PROPULSION SYSTEMS: manual fire control systems based on digital computers. These system of a ship involved in such an action could well be dec1s1ve. The homing heads of sotne missiles can operate only tor short periods
As In World War II, most large modern _ships are propelle~ by_oil systems are somewhat slower and less accurate than A systerns, but of time. Before such missiles can be launched, they must be
burning steam turbine engines. Steam engines can produce fairly high they are still extremely effective The US MK86 system installed on the 9. TORPEDOES: programmed to turn on their homing heads at a time when the target
power and are economical on fuel ii cruising speed is not exceeded Spruance class is an example of a "B" system. "C" s~1stems are syslems Torpedoes are no longer an important anti-shipping weapon due to will be within the area searched by the homing head. 1n order to
However, as the speed of a ship increases, the amount of power built around early digital computers or the rnost niodern analog their short range. Most current torpedoes are designed for sinking accomplish this, the firing unit must track the target with a proper fire
required to increase the speed also increases but at a disproportionate computers. "D" systems are older than "C" systems and are built submarines, so are acoustic homing and have rather small explosive control radar. The computer will calculate the target's course and
rate. The amount of power required for a ship to accelerate from 90°/o of around analog computers. The US MK68 system is a "D" system as are charges. While some ships, especially Soviet ones, carry torpedoes determine the time the missile's homing head should activate This
its maximum speed up to its maximum speed is about the same most Soviet systems. An "E" system is a system based on a very early which can be used against both submarines and surface targets, most information is immediately programmed into the missile which can
amount that is required for the ship to accelerate from 0 up to 50°/o of its analog computer. Some old Soviet ships have "E"' systems. An "F" do not. The MK46 torpedo carried on most US and many NATO ships then be fired.
maximum speed. Thus, steam turbine engines must greatly increase system is actually similar to a "D", being built around similar analog is not capable of being used against surface targets; its minimum
fuel consumplion whenever the cruising speed iS exceeded. Other computers. but where" D" systems are designed primarily to deal with depth is well below the depth at which it can strike or damage a ship. The homing heads of some missiles can operate for much longer
main disadvantages of steam turbines are slow acceleration rates, and surface targets, "F" systems are designed to engage air targets. "F" Most submarines still carry a few anti-shipping torpedoes, but these periods Such missiles may be programmed to begin searching for
the fact that it takes several hours to start up an engine systems are inaccurate against surface targets but are more accurate are frequently old World War II models, useful primarily for self targets as soon as they are launched, and they will continue searching
than "D" systems when engaging fast moving air targets. The US MK56 defense. until they acquire a target or reach their maximum range. Before these
Nuclear powered ships also have conventional steam turbines, but use system is an example of an "F" system. A "G" systerri is a World War II missiles are fired, it is not necessary for the firing unit to track the
nuclear power rather than oil as their source of fuel. Unlike oil, nuclear system based on a mechanical computer. The "H" system is actually There are three basic types of torpedoes; straight running, pattern target, and the firing unit may even launch such missiles at targets
fuel is not expended and nuclear powered ships have a practically no system at all; it is local control. All units which do not l)av.e an running, and wire guided. Straight running torpedoes will move 1n the whose bearing is known but whose range is unknown. Missiles fired in
unlimited range and can travel at their maximum speed practically at operating computer must use the accuracy rates and response times direction they are launched until they either hit a target or reach their this manner are less accurate than those programmed to intercept a
all times. Since nuclear fuel is not expended. there is no need to given lor H systems. maximum range. Pattern running torpedoes wrll move 1n a pattern, target that has been tracked by a fire control radar, because missiles
conserve it to increase range. frequently elliptical, until they detect and home in on a target. Wire fired at untracked targets must be set to search a very wide area. Since
Fire control systems accept data received by visual sighting and by guided torpedoes are connected to the launching platform by a thin missile homing heads can search only a small section of such areas at
While steam turbines are common for large ships, they are bulky and electronic Sensors and compute firing information that is then wire along which the launching unit can transmit guidance one time. it is possible for the missile to pass by the target without
inefficient for small ships. The most common propulsion system for transferred to the appropriate weapon. The systems are, of course, information. Wire guided torpedoes can be steered by the tiring unit. detecting it.
smaller ships is'the diesel engine. These engines, similar to large truck greatly dependent upon the data gathered by electronic sensors and
engines, can provide enough power for small ships to enable them lo visual sighting since incorrect data wHI result in a false solut"1on. Most Torpedoes may either be rion-homing or acoustic homing. Non- Some missiles have the capability for mid-course guidance. This
move about as fast as the larger ships. In addition, diesel engines can lire control systems are designed to obtain information prin1arily from homing torpedoes cannot detect targets and will hit a target only if it means that the course originally programmed into a missile can be
be started up in only a few minutes. and have a very rapid acceleration fire control radars which, under most conditions, provide the most intercepts it. Acoustic homing torpedoes are equipped with sonar and altered, after it is fired, by a unit having the proper radio equipment.
rate. As with steam engines, fuel consumption greatly increases as accurate data. However, if the fire control radar is not operating or if it can detect targets. If the torpedo's sonar detects a target, the torpedo Mid-course guidance is a feature found on all long range missiles. The
speed increases, so diesel-powered ships normally cruise at less than is jammed, data can be obtained from search radars and by the visual will automatically steer toward its sonar contact and attempt to hit 1t. missile can be fired in the general direction of the target, then when it
maximum speed. sighting of the gun director, but such data is not as accurate as th'.3-t Non-homing torpedoes are used only against surface targets; acoustic approaches the vicinity of the target, fr\:ndly ships, aircraft, or
obtained from a fire control radar. If search radars and the main homing torpedoes are used against submarines and occasionally helicopters can track the target and transm~1 the accurate data to the
A new development in naval propulsion has been the development of director are knocked out, the fire control system cannot function. against surface targets. Acoustic torpedoes are the most effective missile. Missiles without mid-course guidance cannot be re-
the gas turbine engine. Gas turbines are modified je~ aircraft engines, weapon against submarines since they are relatively last, can dive to programmed after firing.
characteri-sed by very rapid acceleration rates and high power. A ship After processing the data, the fire control solution is used to direct the deep levels, and can detect and home in on submarines very
propelled by gas turbines can accelerate from a full stop to its proper weapon to the correct position. This ts done automatically. The accurately. They are less useful against surface ships because only In order to have sufficient time to plot an accurate in(ercept course, the
maximum speed in about one minute. Gas turbines are suitable for use fire control solution will take tnto account practically every factor about two torpedoes can be fired in one direction at the same time. If target must be detected by the missile thirty seconds before it reaches
in large ships and have already been installed on the US Spruance which affects accuracy including temperature and the pitch and yaw more were fired, the torpedoes would begin homing in on each other. the target's position. For this reason, targets which are less than thirty
class and Soviet Krivak class destroyers. of the firing platform. After firing begins. the computer continues to Also, frequently these torpedoes home in on the wake of ships, since seconds away from the missile at the time its homing head activates
calculate data received to update the firing solution. sonar waves bounce off the wake. Finally, acoustic torpedoes can be may not be acquired by the missile.
The main disadvantage of the gas turbine, and what has hindered its deflected by towed rioise makers ("foxers") which are carried by many
development for many years, is the fact that the amount of fuel A ship's fire control system is at the heart of its combat capability. If the ships (and submarines). After a missile acquires a target and begins homing in, it can be
expended does not decrease to any large extent as the speed computer sustains damage or if all active sensors and directors are defeated by electron.ic countermeasures (ECM) or shot down. For
decreases Gas turbines expend large amounts of fuel at low speeds as knocked out, the system cannot function. Also, most NATO .ships 10. MISSILES: such action to be taken against a missile, the missile must be detected
well as at high, and ships equipped with gas turbines usually have a concentrate the consoles controlling the radars and weapons 1n the The most important weapons carried on modern ships are missiles. by the opposing force as early as possible. A missile can be detected
much lower range than other ships. In order to overcome this Combat Information Center (!he CIC). If the CIC is hit the fire control There are two types of missiles: anti-aircraft missiles (called SAM's) by radar or visual sighting. In addition, radar homing missiles can be
disadvantage, many ships were built with two sets of engines, one set system cannot function. On many NATO ships, the CIC is well below and surface-to-surface missiles (called SS M's). Aircraft frequently are detected by radar detectors as soon as their homing heads activate. To
for cruising and gas turbines for high speed operations. The type of the waterline, bu! on most US ships, the CIC is in the superstructure. a equipped with air~to-surface missiles (ASM's) which are similar to avoid detection for as long as possible, many missiles are designed to
propulsion systems carried by such ships is designated by the more vulnerable position. Sov"1et-designed ships do not have a SSM's. SAM's are designed to shoot down air targets. They are very fly at surface skimming altitude (usually five to ten meters above the
abbreviations COSAG, COOOG, COOAG. etc In the abbreviation, the concentrated CIC as NATO ships do, but rathe( the co111f'ol consoles fest, with a relatively long range and small warhead. Most SAM's are water) which, combined with their small size, makes them difficult to
CO stands for combined. The letter following CO refer to the type of are located in various parts of the ship, fO soviet ships wil' not lose all semi-active homing; that Is, they mount a small radar In the nose which detect. Whenever possible, the homing heads of radar homing missiles
cruise engines: S means steam tui"bine, 0 means diesel, and G means of their weapons should the CIC be hit. However, the dispersal of the homes in on targets tracked bye mlsalle guidance radar mounted on are not activated untll the last possible moment In order to prevent
gas turbine. This is followed by 0 or A. "O" stands for "or"; in such control centers makes the command process more difficult, the firing ship. A SA~ target mu1t fl rat be detected by radar orvlaual early detection by radar detectors.
ships, only the cruise engines are used at low speed, and when high increas·1ng the amount of time needed to respond to a threat. sighting. The SAM'• ship-mounted guldanoe radar Is then locked-on
speed is desired, the cruise engines are turned off and the high speed lo tho target and wili autom1tlc1lly track the target. The ml11U1 l1 then Once an SSM or ASM haa been detected, all nell breaks loose on the
engines are used exclusively. "A" stands tor "and''; in such ships the launched. In It• nos• 11 R radar receiver which reoelvea the guldaneo opposing ships. Warfare has often been described as hours of
cruise engines remain on during high speed and their power is added radar's signals that "echo" from the target, and the missile wlll boredom punctuated by minutes of sheer terror. In modern naval
to that of the high speed engines. Flnally, the last letter refers to the 8. GUNNERY: automatically fly to Intercept the source of the echo. Modern SAM's warfare, the terror is more Intense than ever before in the history of
type of engine used for high speed operations; as before, S means Gunnery is much more accurate today than dunng World War II due are extremely accurate. war. Modern captains must make a split·second decision to defeat
steam, D means diesel, and G means gas turbine. primarily to improvements in theftre control systems. In World War II, 4
3
n1ost firing was done slowly so that the fall of shot could be spotted and Some smaller short range SAM's are equipped with an optical tracking
Hydrofoils are boats whose hulls are designed to lift out of the water at It might appear that systems using one set of engines ror cruise only the firing solution corrected. In modern gunnery, spotting the fall of system which enables them to engage targets without radar assistance
high speed. Contact with the water is retained only by the foils and another set tor high speed operations are less efficient fhan those shot is not very important, and guns can fire at their maximum rate at provided the target can be visually !racked from the launching
protruding from the bottom of the hulls. Reducing the amount of hull which use both sets during high speed operat"lons. This is not the case. all times. limited only by ammunition supply, platform.
that is actually in contact with the water greatly reduces the amount of In order to use two different types of engines simultaneously, a very
drag. For this reason, hydrofoils are capable of very high speed heavy and expensive set of gears is required; frequently, the advantage The maximum rate of tire of modern guns has increased over that of Many SAM's can be used against surface targets but are not very
(frequently around 50 kts) with relatively small engines. Also, since of using all of the engines simultaneously is more than offset by.the guns rrom earlier periods. Most modern guns are loaded automatically effective in that role as they have an arcing trajectory which is ideal for
only a small part of the craft touches the water, the effects of heavy additional weight and expense. Incidentally, ships having all gas and those that are not have improved machinery that aids 1n loading. engaging air targets, but it results in the fact that the SAM's can hit
seas are greatly reduced. Hydrofoils are very stable in bad wi;:ather, turbine propulsion usually have two different types of gas turbine All of this increases the maximum rate of fire. Some guns have no crew surface targets only within a very limited area. Also. the SAM's
much more so than conventional boats of similar size. Hydrofoils can engines, one designed for low speed (and some fuel economy) and the at all, while other guns have a crew to supplement the automatic warheads are small, to reduce weight and increase speed.
operate in a conventional mode, but the relatively small size of their other designed for high speed. The engines of the Spruance class are loading system. Interestingly, gun crews for short periods of time can
engines makes them very slow. of this .type, which can be abbreviated COGAG. load guns faster than the automatic loader, and can double the rate of SSM's and AS M's are designed solely to engage s·urface targets and
fire of a gun for several minutes before exhaustion slows them down, at are completely ineffective against air targets. They have very large
Hovercraft are vessels equipped with giant fans which create an air which time rhe automatic loader will take over. In an emergency, a ship warheads, and, when compared to SAM's, rather low speeds
cushion on which the vessel flies. When moving, hovercraft never having a gun that can be manually loaded has an advantage over ships (generally Mach 9 for surface skimmers) Most SSM's and ASM's are
actually touch the water; drag is reduced to zero. For this reason. 7. FIRE CONTROL: having purely automatic weapons. active homing, that is, the missiles themselves contain all of the
hovercraft are capable of extremely high speeds; some hovercraft can During World War II, tire control solutions were usually plotted by a equipment needed to acquire a target. SSM's and ASM's can acquire
move at 100 kts. Hovercraft should be very useful 1n amphibious mechanical computer. Later, analog computers could provide a more In addition to being more accurate and having higher rates of fire, targets by one of the following methods:
warfare due to their high speed and also to the fact thal shallow water accurate solution as less time was required for its calculations. Recent modern guns have one other advantage over earlier weapons. Modern
is no obstacle to them. Hovercraft also have a limited ab1hty to travel digital computers are even faster than analog, thereby providing gun ammunition is generally heavier than World War II ammunition, a. Radar: Radar homing missiles are equipped with a radar
over small patches of land as well as water. greater accuracy and shorter response times. In the game. units are and improvements in explosives have also made them capable of which detects the target.
given a fire control rating from A to H which represents the causing more damage. For example, a modern 5'/54 HE will cause b. Anti-radiation: Anti-radiation missiles are equipped with
Surface effect ships are very similar to hovercraft and also travel on a effectiveness of its fire control system. An "A" system is a lully- about as much damage as a World War rt 6" HE round. Improved fuses radar receivers and will detect and acquire targets using
cushion of air. The main difference between hovercraft and surface automated system based on a modern digital computer. Such systems make modern gun rounds more reliable against both surface and air radar.
effect ships is that the "hulls" of hovercraft are usually made of automatically detect and fire upon targets without the need for human targets c. Infra-red: Infra-red homing missiles detect the heat radiated
rubberized canvas, while surface effect ships have rigid hulls. Surface interference, and are the most accurate and fastest systems available. by ships, and they home in on the largest source of heat.
effect ships having a much greater displacement than hoverc~aft are Few ships have all A systems, but many ships have secondary Should modern ships come to within gun range of each other, d. Home on jamming: Missiles designed to home on jamming
capable of being built. As with hovercraft, surface effect ships are weapons which have their own self-contained fire control systems improved accuracy, high rates of fire, and improved explosives can detect the presence of "noise" jamming and will home in
capable of extremely high speeds. rated A. The Vulcan-Phalanx and Soviet 23mm systems are examples guarantee that a great deal of damage will be sustained within a very on the source of this 1amming.
of "A" rated secondary weapon systems. "B" systems are modern short period of time. Therefore, any damage sustained by the gunnery
6. PROPULSION SYSTEMS: manual fire control systems based on digital computers. These system of a ship involved in such an action could well be dec1s1ve. The homing heads of sotne missiles can operate only tor short periods
As In World War II, most large modern _ships are propelle~ by_oil systems are somewhat slower and less accurate than A systerns, but of time. Before such missiles can be launched, they must be
burning steam turbine engines. Steam engines can produce fairly high they are still extremely effective The US MK86 system installed on the 9. TORPEDOES: programmed to turn on their homing heads at a time when the target
power and are economical on fuel ii cruising speed is not exceeded Spruance class is an example of a "B" system. "C" s~1stems are syslems Torpedoes are no longer an important anti-shipping weapon due to will be within the area searched by the homing head. 1n order to
However, as the speed of a ship increases, the amount of power built around early digital computers or the rnost niodern analog their short range. Most current torpedoes are designed for sinking accomplish this, the firing unit must track the target with a proper fire
required to increase the speed also increases but at a disproportionate computers. "D" systems are older than "C" systems and are built submarines, so are acoustic homing and have rather small explosive control radar. The computer will calculate the target's course and
rate. The amount of power required for a ship to accelerate from 90°/o of around analog computers. The US MK68 system is a "D" system as are charges. While some ships, especially Soviet ones, carry torpedoes determine the time the missile's homing head should activate This
its maximum speed up to its maximum speed is about the same most Soviet systems. An "E" system is a system based on a very early which can be used against both submarines and surface targets, most information is immediately programmed into the missile which can
amount that is required for the ship to accelerate from 0 up to 50°/o of its analog computer. Some old Soviet ships have "E"' systems. An "F" do not. The MK46 torpedo carried on most US and many NATO ships then be fired.
maximum speed. Thus, steam turbine engines must greatly increase system is actually similar to a "D", being built around similar analog is not capable of being used against surface targets; its minimum
fuel consumplion whenever the cruising speed iS exceeded. Other computers. but where" D" systems are designed primarily to deal with depth is well below the depth at which it can strike or damage a ship. The homing heads of some missiles can operate for much longer
main disadvantages of steam turbines are slow acceleration rates, and surface targets, "F" systems are designed to engage air targets. "F" Most submarines still carry a few anti-shipping torpedoes, but these periods Such missiles may be programmed to begin searching for
the fact that it takes several hours to start up an engine systems are inaccurate against surface targets but are more accurate are frequently old World War II models, useful primarily for self targets as soon as they are launched, and they will continue searching
than "D" systems when engaging fast moving air targets. The US MK56 defense. until they acquire a target or reach their maximum range. Before these
Nuclear powered ships also have conventional steam turbines, but use system is an example of an "F" system. A "G" systerri is a World War II missiles are fired, it is not necessary for the firing unit to track the
nuclear power rather than oil as their source of fuel. Unlike oil, nuclear system based on a mechanical computer. The "H" system is actually There are three basic types of torpedoes; straight running, pattern target, and the firing unit may even launch such missiles at targets
fuel is not expended and nuclear powered ships have a practically no system at all; it is local control. All units which do not l)av.e an running, and wire guided. Straight running torpedoes will move 1n the whose bearing is known but whose range is unknown. Missiles fired in
unlimited range and can travel at their maximum speed practically at operating computer must use the accuracy rates and response times direction they are launched until they either hit a target or reach their this manner are less accurate than those programmed to intercept a
all times. Since nuclear fuel is not expended. there is no need to given lor H systems. maximum range. Pattern running torpedoes wrll move 1n a pattern, target that has been tracked by a fire control radar, because missiles
conserve it to increase range. frequently elliptical, until they detect and home in on a target. Wire fired at untracked targets must be set to search a very wide area. Since
Fire control systems accept data received by visual sighting and by guided torpedoes are connected to the launching platform by a thin missile homing heads can search only a small section of such areas at
While steam turbines are common for large ships, they are bulky and electronic Sensors and compute firing information that is then wire along which the launching unit can transmit guidance one time. it is possible for the missile to pass by the target without
inefficient for small ships. The most common propulsion system for transferred to the appropriate weapon. The systems are, of course, information. Wire guided torpedoes can be steered by the tiring unit. detecting it.
smaller ships is'the diesel engine. These engines, similar to large truck greatly dependent upon the data gathered by electronic sensors and
engines, can provide enough power for small ships to enable them lo visual sighting since incorrect data wHI result in a false solut"1on. Most Torpedoes may either be rion-homing or acoustic homing. Non- Some missiles have the capability for mid-course guidance. This
move about as fast as the larger ships. In addition, diesel engines can lire control systems are designed to obtain information prin1arily from homing torpedoes cannot detect targets and will hit a target only if it means that the course originally programmed into a missile can be
be started up in only a few minutes. and have a very rapid acceleration fire control radars which, under most conditions, provide the most intercepts it. Acoustic homing torpedoes are equipped with sonar and altered, after it is fired, by a unit having the proper radio equipment.
rate. As with steam engines, fuel consumption greatly increases as accurate data. However, if the fire control radar is not operating or if it can detect targets. If the torpedo's sonar detects a target, the torpedo Mid-course guidance is a feature found on all long range missiles. The
speed increases, so diesel-powered ships normally cruise at less than is jammed, data can be obtained from search radars and by the visual will automatically steer toward its sonar contact and attempt to hit 1t. missile can be fired in the general direction of the target, then when it
maximum speed. sighting of the gun director, but such data is not as accurate as th'.3-t Non-homing torpedoes are used only against surface targets; acoustic approaches the vicinity of the target, fr\:ndly ships, aircraft, or
obtained from a fire control radar. If search radars and the main homing torpedoes are used against submarines and occasionally helicopters can track the target and transm~1 the accurate data to the
A new development in naval propulsion has been the development of director are knocked out, the fire control system cannot function. against surface targets. Acoustic torpedoes are the most effective missile. Missiles without mid-course guidance cannot be re-
the gas turbine engine. Gas turbines are modified je~ aircraft engines, weapon against submarines since they are relatively last, can dive to programmed after firing.
characteri-sed by very rapid acceleration rates and high power. A ship After processing the data, the fire control solution is used to direct the deep levels, and can detect and home in on submarines very
propelled by gas turbines can accelerate from a full stop to its proper weapon to the correct position. This ts done automatically. The accurately. They are less useful against surface ships because only In order to have sufficient time to plot an accurate in(ercept course, the
maximum speed in about one minute. Gas turbines are suitable for use fire control solution will take tnto account practically every factor about two torpedoes can be fired in one direction at the same time. If target must be detected by the missile thirty seconds before it reaches
in large ships and have already been installed on the US Spruance which affects accuracy including temperature and the pitch and yaw more were fired, the torpedoes would begin homing in on each other. the target's position. For this reason, targets which are less than thirty
class and Soviet Krivak class destroyers. of the firing platform. After firing begins. the computer continues to Also, frequently these torpedoes home in on the wake of ships, since seconds away from the missile at the time its homing head activates
calculate data received to update the firing solution. sonar waves bounce off the wake. Finally, acoustic torpedoes can be may not be acquired by the missile.
The main disadvantage of the gas turbine, and what has hindered its deflected by towed rioise makers ("foxers") which are carried by many
development for many years, is the fact that the amount of fuel A ship's fire control system is at the heart of its combat capability. If the ships (and submarines). After a missile acquires a target and begins homing in, it can be
expended does not decrease to any large extent as the speed computer sustains damage or if all active sensors and directors are defeated by electron.ic countermeasures (ECM) or shot down. For
decreases Gas turbines expend large amounts of fuel at low speeds as knocked out, the system cannot function. Also, most NATO .ships 10. MISSILES: such action to be taken against a missile, the missile must be detected
well as at high, and ships equipped with gas turbines usually have a concentrate the consoles controlling the radars and weapons 1n the The most important weapons carried on modern ships are missiles. by the opposing force as early as possible. A missile can be detected
much lower range than other ships. In order to overcome this Combat Information Center (!he CIC). If the CIC is hit the fire control There are two types of missiles: anti-aircraft missiles (called SAM's) by radar or visual sighting. In addition, radar homing missiles can be
disadvantage, many ships were built with two sets of engines, one set system cannot function. On many NATO ships, the CIC is well below and surface-to-surface missiles (called SS M's). Aircraft frequently are detected by radar detectors as soon as their homing heads activate. To
for cruising and gas turbines for high speed operations. The type of the waterline, bu! on most US ships, the CIC is in the superstructure. a equipped with air~to-surface missiles (ASM's) which are similar to avoid detection for as long as possible, many missiles are designed to
propulsion systems carried by such ships is designated by the more vulnerable position. Sov"1et-designed ships do not have a SSM's. SAM's are designed to shoot down air targets. They are very fly at surface skimming altitude (usually five to ten meters above the
abbreviations COSAG, COOOG, COOAG. etc In the abbreviation, the concentrated CIC as NATO ships do, but rathe( the co111f'ol consoles fest, with a relatively long range and small warhead. Most SAM's are water) which, combined with their small size, makes them difficult to
CO stands for combined. The letter following CO refer to the type of are located in various parts of the ship, fO soviet ships wil' not lose all semi-active homing; that Is, they mount a small radar In the nose which detect. Whenever possible, the homing heads of radar homing missiles
cruise engines: S means steam tui"bine, 0 means diesel, and G means of their weapons should the CIC be hit. However, the dispersal of the homes in on targets tracked bye mlsalle guidance radar mounted on are not activated untll the last possible moment In order to prevent
gas turbine. This is followed by 0 or A. "O" stands for "or"; in such control centers makes the command process more difficult, the firing ship. A SA~ target mu1t fl rat be detected by radar orvlaual early detection by radar detectors.
ships, only the cruise engines are used at low speed, and when high increas·1ng the amount of time needed to respond to a threat. sighting. The SAM'• ship-mounted guldanoe radar Is then locked-on
speed is desired, the cruise engines are turned off and the high speed lo tho target and wili autom1tlc1lly track the target. The ml11U1 l1 then Once an SSM or ASM haa been detected, all nell breaks loose on the
engines are used exclusively. "A" stands tor "and''; in such ships the launched. In It• nos• 11 R radar receiver which reoelvea the guldaneo opposing ships. Warfare has often been described as hours of
cruise engines remain on during high speed and their power is added radar's signals that "echo" from the target, and the missile wlll boredom punctuated by minutes of sheer terror. In modern naval
to that of the high speed engines. Flnally, the last letter refers to the 8. GUNNERY: automatically fly to Intercept the source of the echo. Modern SAM's warfare, the terror is more Intense than ever before in the history of
type of engine used for high speed operations; as before, S means Gunnery is much more accurate today than dunng World War II due are extremely accurate. war. Modern captains must make a split·second decision to defeat
steam, D means diesel, and G means gas turbine. primarily to improvements in theftre control systems. In World War II, 4
3
discover their range, bearing and altitude. Normal air search r~dars a~e
threats that often move al supersonic spee~s. ~emember tha~ the NATO and Soviet doctnne calls for ships at war to turn off all radars
two dimensional and can only detern:ii_ne range and bearing. This target echo. Chaff, however, is particularly useful against radar
Soviet Navy will, whenever possible, attack with aircraft, submarine~j except when absolutely necessary By remaining in this condition,
information is not sufficient lo allow firing at the _target. In order to homing missiles, since the missiles obviously have no"radarman" and
and ships using SSM's, ASM's, torpedoes, bor:ibs. and guns, a called EMCON, the ships will avoid revealing their positions
obtain altitude, another radar is needed: Som~ ships use a separate have great difficulty distinguishing a chaff echo from a target echo.
coordinated to arrive within a 90 second period. ~aturat1ng the prematurely. As some missiles can be fired off information provided by
defenses. NATO captains have 90 seconds to deal with all of these height finding radar which can determine altitude and_ range ?nly.
When a target is detected by the air s.earch radar, the .height f1noer is radar detectors alone, detection could be devastating. Thus, in a
th reals modern war ship-borne radars will be used infrequently and only when An ECM device which is used to some degree is a blip enhancer. Blip
directed at it to determine the altitude. Other ships ha~e ttiree enhancers are electronic devices which greatly increase the size of the
In most situations, approximately thirty seconds is ~equir~d for a ship dimensional air search radars which can detect ranQe. bearing, 1d ;u. necessary; both the US and Soviet Navy will rely on aircraft radars for
early detection of opposing forces. unit's radar echo, thus, for example, making helicopters or small boats
altitude simultaneously. Such radars are more effect!ve than the .wo appear as large ships on the opposing radar. The Israelis used blip
to respond to a missile contact, although automatic _equ1p~en\(e.g.
dimensional search radar and height finder cor:ib1nat1on, but they are enhancers very effectively in the 1973 war using helicopter-mounted
Fire control systems rated A) can greatly re~uce this reaction . 1~~­ very expensive and bulky. Ships equipped with 30 radars ar~ also The third eleme11t of modern electronic warfare is electronic
Frequently, there are only a few secon~s available before the m!ss~ e blip enhancers to attract the SS-N-2 STYX missiles. The missiles
strikes its target, but this is sufficient to en~ag_e the m1ss1 e 1 equipped with normal 20 air search radars because the max1rnurn
range of a 30 radar is much less than that of a 20 radar, as the anten11<:1
countern1easure or l:CM. ECM are techniques and devices designed
to deny to the opposing force the use of their radars. ECM techniques locked onto the helicopters, which would then climb rapidly. The
successfully_ The proper ECM can quickly dr~w ~missile away from a include noise jamrnir1g. deception jamming, and the use of chaff, missiles were unable to follow this maneuver and fell into the sea.
required by the 30 is much larger than that required by the 20, su a Some ships and aircraft may carry radar reflectors which are
target, and three second of firing against a m1ss1le at close range can decoys, blip enhancers, and reflectors. Nearly all ships carry some
long range 30 radar would have a prohibitively large antenna. mechanical devices capable of increasing the size of the radar echo.
frequently shoot it down. form of ECM equiprnent. Most carry 1ammers that are capable of both
noise and deception jamming, and many also carry chaff launchers. Their effect is similar to that of blip enhancers, b:.it they cannot be
The second main type of radar is the fire contro! radar. While search turned off.
When attempting to defeat SS M's by ECM or weapons, i\i~ imft~~~~~~ radars have wide beams in order to s~arch a wide area, fire con.trol
Reflectors and decoys are not widely used.
to realize that not all of such weapons and _equ1p~en 1 ~ e_
a a inst atl missiles. Home on jamming and ant1-rad1at1on m1ss_1les can radars have narrow "pencil" beams, wh1e;h concent,rate the energy tnto Another device that could be used effectively is the decoy. Decoys are
Noise jamming involves broadcasting noise at the frequency the
b~ defeated by turning off jam.mers or radars: 0th.er EC_M ~ev1ces a~e a narrow beam so they can obtain the highly detailed range, bea~1ng,
and speed information necessary for the use of weapons. Because ol opposing radar is operating. When noise jammed, a radar will be equipped with blip enhancers and/or noise jammers and used to
ineffective against such missiles. lnfra-re.d ~om1ng m1s~l~s ~a~ be unable to distinguish the target echo from the broadcasted signal; so simulate ships or attract missiles. Apparently, no country at this time
their narrow beam, these radars must be pointed_ directly at a target or uses decoys It is probably very difficult to make a very small decoy
defeated only by flares Radar homing m1ss1les can be .e ea e . Y instead of a "blip'" occuring on the radar screen at the position of the
chaff and deception ja~m1ng: noise jamming is ineffective aga1~st they will be unable to detect it. For this reason, fire control radars can appear as a large ship. However, if this problem can be solved, decoys
only be used against targets that have already been detected either by opposing unit, a large white strobe will appear which blanks out the
homing missiles since it merely den.ies range information, not bearing could be a great aid in the defense against missiles.
visual sighting or another radar. Occassionally, if a target has already entire section of the screen 1n the direction of the jamming. By
information and a moving missile really does not n~ed ra~ge reducing gain, the width of the strobe can be reduced to that of a thin
been detected by a passive detector, a fire control radar m_ay be
information.in order to hit its target. Guns are u~ually effective aga1~~t ointed toward the target's bearing and used to search for it. b_ut line across the screen from its center out to the edge in the direction of ECM has proven to be a very vital element.in naval warfare. In 1967,
most missiles although some missiles are designed to fly_ above. ~ four SS-N-2's were fired at the Israeli destroyer, Ellat. All hit. In 1971,
frequenlly, the radar will still be unable to detect the target due to its the jamrnirig. Thus, noise jamming will deny range information, but
maximum ran'ge of guns. Surface to air missile.s are effective .agat_ns will always reveal the relative bearing of the jam mer. At close range, the Indian Navy fired thirteen SS-N-2's at Pakistani ships and twelve
missiles flying at high altitude, but less so against surface sk1r:i~1ng narrow beam. hit. None of these targets had ECM. In 1973, the Israelis equipped their
radar signals are str•Jnger than jamming signals, and noise jamming
missiles because their guidance radars are not designed _to pie h'up becomes ineffective as the radar "burns through" the jamming. missile boats with chaff launchers and cheap Italian deception
Recently the search and fire control functions have been combined jammers. During the Yorn Kippur War, over fifty SS-N-2's were fired at
tai els against a background .of ~e.a clutter, and _their arc 1ng
Into a single radar set, called a track_-while-sc~n (T.YJSl ra~ar. which
trafectories greatly increases their m1n1mum range against ~uch ve ~Y
1
these Israeli vessels, and no hits were scored.
can search an area while atthesamet1me, sending a pencil beam out If a noise jarnme1· is operating on a single frequency, it is easy for the
low targets. The fairly large minimum r.an~e of most SAM s usua Y toward targets it detected. While a fire control radar can track only one jammed radar's operator to simply tune the radar to another
limits their effectiveness to high angle m1ss1les which can be detected The fourth element of electronic warfare is electronic counter-
target at a time, TWS radars can track~ rather large num~er of targets unjammed frequency. To prevent noise jamming from being defeated countermeasures (ECCM). These are devices built into radars thatare
at long ranges. simultaneously in addition to perform1n_g a search function. Curre~t so easily, jarnrners are designed to operate in several different ways. designed to minimize the effect of opposing ECM. One ECCM device
TWS radars are essentially two dimensional and so cannot track air The first method, described above, is called spot jamming; the is built into the method of operation of the radars. Initially, all radars
If a missile is not defeated by ECM or weapons, it u~uall}:' h~s a very jam mer's energy is cbncentrated on only one frequency. Jammers can
targets. In addition, for tracking single targets, TW~ radars are less were simple pulsed systems, and ECM was originally designed to
high chance of hitting its target, although early So,v1et m1ss1les have also operate in a barrage jamming mode. Barrage jamming is the
efficient than fire control radars because the energy 1_n TWS radars is combat such systems. The conical scan radars, which include most of
great difficulty in hitting small targets. Since SSM .s have ~ery. 1a_ri9e used to search as well as track, while the ener_gy of a f1 ,re contr<?I r3dar opposite of spot jamming; in barrage jamming, the energy of the the currently available fire control radars, are examples of simple,
warheads they can do a great amount of damage. High ang e m1ss1 es jammer is spread over a large number of frequencies. Thus, barrage
is concentrated at one point. For this reaso~, 1nforma~1on provided by pulsed radars. One of the earlier attempts to build a radar that was
usually d0 more critical damage than surface skimmers because t.hey jamming produces a weaker signal than spot jamming, but it
dive into a ship and penetrate deeply into its vit~ls be!or_e exploding. a TWS radar is less accurate than that prov1d~d by a _fire cont~ol radar resistant to ECM was the development of the continuous wave radar.
and it takes the TWS radar longer to acquire the 1nformat1c_:>n. Th~ simultaneously jams a much larger number of frequencies. Another Continuous wave radars are not pulsed; they merely continuously
For this reason, some normally surface skimming missiles. sue~ a.s technique, called swept jamming, is intermediate in effect. In swept
Har oon and Otomat, are designed to pop up and dive. o~to_t e1r dispersal of the ene~gy of the TWS radar into both searching an transmit a radar signal in the desired direction. Since the signal is
jamming, a concentrated jamming signal is swept across a larger
targ~ts al the end of their flight. T~e. surface to surfa.ce r:i1ss1le is the tracking also makes 1t more vulnerable to ECM.
number of frequencies, one after another. In the game, it will not be
continuous, such radars are unable to determine range. Instead,
continuous wave radars measure the change in the target's Doppler,
rime weapon against ships and 11 1s constantly being_ improved to necessary to choose the mode of jamming because we have based the
~ake it more accurate and less susceptible to opposing ECM and The second element of electronic warfare is the radar dete~tor. Radar
detectors are receivers designed to intercept radar ~1gnals ~nd effect of noise jan1ming on the best type of jamming that can be used
and in this way, can measure the speed of the target and determine if it
is moving closer or farther away from the radar. Doppler refers to the
weapons. determine its frequency, pulse repetition rate, and other 1nformat1on under the various circumstances. In the game, a ship having a modern change in pitch of a sound coming from a moving source. As the
which would allow the radar to be identifie_d. Early radar d~tectors, radar detector also gets better results with its noise jammer. Such source approaches the receiver, the pitch of the sound rises while as
11. ELECTRONIC WARFARE: . . radar detectors unlike earlier detectors, can give more accurate and the source recedes from the receiver, the pitch of the sound descends.
Modern warfare Is electronic warfare. The side which con~rols the many of which are still used today especially by the Soviets ~nd
Americans scanned each frequency individually in order to det~rm1 ne current information on the frequencies being used by the opposing The continuous wave radars are able to measure the change in pitch of
electromagnetic spectrum and denies its use .to the :ne~y will be t~e radar, enabling the crew to tune its noise jammer to only those
winner of the next war. A ship unable .to use its el~c,ron1c sensors is if any rada~ was being used. II one was detecte:d, it wo~ld provide the the target echo and thus determine its speed. Since these radars can
information indicated above, as well as the relative bearing o! the ra~ar frequencies, rather than being forced to spread the jammer's energy easily determine target speed, they can filter out noise jamming (which
helples·s, unable to strike at the enemy or repel his blow. over a wider area. has no Doppler), and, to some extent, chaff (which moves very slowly).
source. The crew would then check data .books t~ determine which
radar fit the information received. Thus, while radar 1~pulses would be Originally, normal deception jamming techniques did not work
The first component of electronic warfare is radar. Shipboard radars The other basic type of jamrning is deception jamming. A deception against continuous wave radars, but this has been corrected and they
detected fairly rapidly (in about a le":' sec~nds) and its type (search_ or
are of \wo basic types: search and fire control. Search radars have~ jam mer records the radar impulses it receives and re-transmits them are now subject to range or velocity gate pull off. Continuous wave
fire control) could be readily determined, 11 cou!d take up to_abou_t !1ve
broad beam and are designed to detect targets at long ran~es. Ad after a short delay. Thus, the opposing radar receives not only the radars are very useful due to their resistance to noise jamming and
minutes or so before the exact name of the radar woul~ be 1dent.1f1ed
search radars can search 360°. M_ost. do this by rapidly rotating an target echo, but also the re-transmitted signal which appears on the chaff, but since they are unable to determine range, they can only be
Modern digital radar detectors search all fre9uenc1es practically
sweeping the surrounding area with its beam. A recent dev_elc_:>pment radar screen as another target echo. Modern deception 1ammers are used for missile guidance, where range information is unnecessary.
has been the fixed array radar in which the antennas are built into t~f slmultaneously. The detector's computer stores 1nformat1on on eve~y
known radar. When a radar ls detected, the comp.uter searches this capable of producing a number of echos at any range and bearing
superstructure of the ship. Such radars do not rota_te but_ are st1 I desired. T/1e false targets can even be made to appear to move. False
information to determine the name of the radar it detected. Thus, An attempt to combine the advantages of continuous wave with the
capable of a 360° search. Fixed arr~y radar, while being very target gei-1eratior; can be very effective, however, a good radarman can
modern radar detectors can provide the type of all detected rad~rs ability to determine range resulted in the development of the pulse
expensive, has a larger range than rotating radars frequently distinguish fa!se targets from actual targets. As the fire
within a very few seconds after detection, and in a!I respe~ls provide doppler radar. A pulse doppler radar operates like a pulse~ _radar and
control radars have a very narrow beam that is directed at a very small
the necessary information much faster than earlier equipment. All can obtain range information in the same manner. In add1t1on, pulse
Radar beams do not follow the curvature of the earth; th~y are direct area, it is not practical to attempt to create a number of false targets for
radar detectors are capable of detecting radars well beyond Lhe doppler radars measure doppler similar to continuous wave radars
line of sight and cannot detect units that are_ over .the horizon, th_ougt them_ However, a similar technique. called range or velocity gate pull
effective range of the radar itself. This is because the radar scatters and can to some extent eliminate chaff and to a lesser degree, noise,
beams do bend slightly and the radar horizon 1s therefore sl1g_ht Y off, is very effective against fire control radars. When a fire control
farther away than the visual horizon. The distance to t~e radar horizon "noise" over a much larger area than the area 11 ~an a~t.ually sear~h radar has locked onto a target, that target, or any other unit within the Pulse doppler fire control radars can control most weapons, and some
This noise can be detected and the radar can be 1dent1!1~d by 11. ~he recent search radars are pulse doppler also.
is based on both the height (or altitude) of the s"'.arch1ng ~ntenna a~d radar's beam, rney use the deception jam mer to generate a false echo
the size or altitude of the unit for wh1<?h the ~adar 1s_search1ng. ~e ha e noise will even "spill" over the radar horizon thus, allowing a unit to that slowly moves away from the target. The radar frequently follows
computed the radar horizons for vanous sized ships and for different detect a radar beyond the horizon. Most ship radars ~an be detected at the false echo_ When the radar's beam is moved far enough away from The most recent development in fire control radars has been the
altitude levels and the results of the calculations are given on the Radar a distance equal to about two to three times the maximum range o_f the development of the monopulse radars. Monopulse radars have several
the target, tt1e jamrrier is turned off, and the radar's tracking attempt is
radar, while airborne radars can be detected out to about five tirnes broken_ re.ceivers, usually three or four, which are separated from each other.
Detection Table.
their range. When the echo is received by the receivers, the radar can use the
The frequency at which the .radar operates has a great bearing on it~ Chalf is a very widely used and effective ECM. Chaff consists of differences in the signal received by each receiver to determine the
ESM, the process of detecting electronic emissions, is as.important in target's range and bearing. The operation of a monopulse radar is
effectiveness. Low frequencies produce very long_ ranges and are use peace time as it is in war. Currently, NATO and So~1et ships ar_e aluminum strips cut in such a way as to reflect the opposing radar
for high altitude air search radars when~ the distance to the radar signals. Chaff can actually perform two functions: it can create a analogous to some degree, to the use of a steroscopic range finder
attempting to gather as much info~mation as possible 01, 1 he.1r which compares separate images to arrive at the actual range. The
horizon can be very long. High frequencies produce shorter ranges opponent's radars. This information will be used to update radar da,a "cloud" sufficiently large enough to hide a unit from radar detection.
but greater reflection from small targ.ets. High frequ~n~1es are used for and it also can create a large number of ship-sized echos Chaff main value of monopulse radars is that normal range or velocity gate
books and computer programs to enable more accurate pull off is ineffective against them, and when an MTI filter (see below)
surface search radars where the maximum range 1s l1m1ted by the radar determinations of radar types and functions. Each radar set has a therefore performs a function similar to that of both noise and
horizon. Although air search radars and su~face search radars are deception jamming and is therefore useful against both search and tire is added to the radar, it becomes resistant to most ECM normally used
basically different, their functions overlap sl1ghtly .. Some air search unique electronic "signature" that is slightly different than that of ariy against fire control radars. Range or velocity gate pull off can be used
control radars. In actual fact, chaff is more useful against fire control
radars can detect surface targets at close range, while surface search other radar set, even other sets of the sam~ type. Modern E;~1 radars because their narrow beams can easily be captured by chaff. To against monopulse radars in only certain situations. If two jamming
radars can detect low flying aircraft equipment is making it possi_ble to often. determine t~e _actual nan ii_ cf be realty effective against a wide beam search radar, the chaff would units are within the main beam of the radar, their echos will blur into
the ship itself just by detecting one of its radar em1ss1ons need to be very evenly distributed over a wide area and in practice, this one large echo and the radar will lock onto the center of that echo
Air search radars are divided into two basic types: 20 .a~d 30. Since seldom occurs. Many radars carry devices which can cancel out chaff which should be somewhere between the two jamming units.
aircraft operate in a three d1mens1onal environment, 1t 1s important to The information provided by radar detectors is so valuable that r11 rrcr~\ Similarly, an aircraft at low altitude can bounce its jamming signal off
echos, and a good radarman can distinguish a chaff echo from a real
the surface of the earth in addition to sending it directly at the radar;
5 6
discover their range, bearing and altitude. Normal air search r~dars a~e
threats that often move al supersonic spee~s. ~emember tha~ the NATO and Soviet doctnne calls for ships at war to turn off all radars
two dimensional and can only detern:ii_ne range and bearing. This target echo. Chaff, however, is particularly useful against radar
Soviet Navy will, whenever possible, attack with aircraft, submarine~j except when absolutely necessary By remaining in this condition,
information is not sufficient lo allow firing at the _target. In order to homing missiles, since the missiles obviously have no"radarman" and
and ships using SSM's, ASM's, torpedoes, bor:ibs. and guns, a called EMCON, the ships will avoid revealing their positions
obtain altitude, another radar is needed: Som~ ships use a separate have great difficulty distinguishing a chaff echo from a target echo.
coordinated to arrive within a 90 second period. ~aturat1ng the prematurely. As some missiles can be fired off information provided by
defenses. NATO captains have 90 seconds to deal with all of these height finding radar which can determine altitude and_ range ?nly.
When a target is detected by the air s.earch radar, the .height f1noer is radar detectors alone, detection could be devastating. Thus, in a
th reals modern war ship-borne radars will be used infrequently and only when An ECM device which is used to some degree is a blip enhancer. Blip
directed at it to determine the altitude. Other ships ha~e ttiree enhancers are electronic devices which greatly increase the size of the
In most situations, approximately thirty seconds is ~equir~d for a ship dimensional air search radars which can detect ranQe. bearing, 1d ;u. necessary; both the US and Soviet Navy will rely on aircraft radars for
early detection of opposing forces. unit's radar echo, thus, for example, making helicopters or small boats
altitude simultaneously. Such radars are more effect!ve than the .wo appear as large ships on the opposing radar. The Israelis used blip
to respond to a missile contact, although automatic _equ1p~en\(e.g.
dimensional search radar and height finder cor:ib1nat1on, but they are enhancers very effectively in the 1973 war using helicopter-mounted
Fire control systems rated A) can greatly re~uce this reaction . 1~~­ very expensive and bulky. Ships equipped with 30 radars ar~ also The third eleme11t of modern electronic warfare is electronic
Frequently, there are only a few secon~s available before the m!ss~ e blip enhancers to attract the SS-N-2 STYX missiles. The missiles
strikes its target, but this is sufficient to en~ag_e the m1ss1 e 1 equipped with normal 20 air search radars because the max1rnurn
range of a 30 radar is much less than that of a 20 radar, as the anten11<:1
countern1easure or l:CM. ECM are techniques and devices designed
to deny to the opposing force the use of their radars. ECM techniques locked onto the helicopters, which would then climb rapidly. The
successfully_ The proper ECM can quickly dr~w ~missile away from a include noise jamrnir1g. deception jamming, and the use of chaff, missiles were unable to follow this maneuver and fell into the sea.
required by the 30 is much larger than that required by the 20, su a Some ships and aircraft may carry radar reflectors which are
target, and three second of firing against a m1ss1le at close range can decoys, blip enhancers, and reflectors. Nearly all ships carry some
long range 30 radar would have a prohibitively large antenna. mechanical devices capable of increasing the size of the radar echo.
frequently shoot it down. form of ECM equiprnent. Most carry 1ammers that are capable of both
noise and deception jamming, and many also carry chaff launchers. Their effect is similar to that of blip enhancers, b:.it they cannot be
The second main type of radar is the fire contro! radar. While search turned off.
When attempting to defeat SS M's by ECM or weapons, i\i~ imft~~~~~~ radars have wide beams in order to s~arch a wide area, fire con.trol
Reflectors and decoys are not widely used.
to realize that not all of such weapons and _equ1p~en 1 ~ e_
a a inst atl missiles. Home on jamming and ant1-rad1at1on m1ss_1les can radars have narrow "pencil" beams, wh1e;h concent,rate the energy tnto Another device that could be used effectively is the decoy. Decoys are
Noise jamming involves broadcasting noise at the frequency the
b~ defeated by turning off jam.mers or radars: 0th.er EC_M ~ev1ces a~e a narrow beam so they can obtain the highly detailed range, bea~1ng,
and speed information necessary for the use of weapons. Because ol opposing radar is operating. When noise jammed, a radar will be equipped with blip enhancers and/or noise jammers and used to
ineffective against such missiles. lnfra-re.d ~om1ng m1s~l~s ~a~ be unable to distinguish the target echo from the broadcasted signal; so simulate ships or attract missiles. Apparently, no country at this time
their narrow beam, these radars must be pointed_ directly at a target or uses decoys It is probably very difficult to make a very small decoy
defeated only by flares Radar homing m1ss1les can be .e ea e . Y instead of a "blip'" occuring on the radar screen at the position of the
chaff and deception ja~m1ng: noise jamming is ineffective aga1~st they will be unable to detect it. For this reason, fire control radars can appear as a large ship. However, if this problem can be solved, decoys
only be used against targets that have already been detected either by opposing unit, a large white strobe will appear which blanks out the
homing missiles since it merely den.ies range information, not bearing could be a great aid in the defense against missiles.
visual sighting or another radar. Occassionally, if a target has already entire section of the screen 1n the direction of the jamming. By
information and a moving missile really does not n~ed ra~ge reducing gain, the width of the strobe can be reduced to that of a thin
been detected by a passive detector, a fire control radar m_ay be
information.in order to hit its target. Guns are u~ually effective aga1~~t ointed toward the target's bearing and used to search for it. b_ut line across the screen from its center out to the edge in the direction of ECM has proven to be a very vital element.in naval warfare. In 1967,
most missiles although some missiles are designed to fly_ above. ~ four SS-N-2's were fired at the Israeli destroyer, Ellat. All hit. In 1971,
frequenlly, the radar will still be unable to detect the target due to its the jamrnirig. Thus, noise jamming will deny range information, but
maximum ran'ge of guns. Surface to air missile.s are effective .agat_ns will always reveal the relative bearing of the jam mer. At close range, the Indian Navy fired thirteen SS-N-2's at Pakistani ships and twelve
missiles flying at high altitude, but less so against surface sk1r:i~1ng narrow beam. hit. None of these targets had ECM. In 1973, the Israelis equipped their
radar signals are str•Jnger than jamming signals, and noise jamming
missiles because their guidance radars are not designed _to pie h'up becomes ineffective as the radar "burns through" the jamming. missile boats with chaff launchers and cheap Italian deception
Recently the search and fire control functions have been combined jammers. During the Yorn Kippur War, over fifty SS-N-2's were fired at
tai els against a background .of ~e.a clutter, and _their arc 1ng
Into a single radar set, called a track_-while-sc~n (T.YJSl ra~ar. which
trafectories greatly increases their m1n1mum range against ~uch ve ~Y
1
these Israeli vessels, and no hits were scored.
can search an area while atthesamet1me, sending a pencil beam out If a noise jarnme1· is operating on a single frequency, it is easy for the
low targets. The fairly large minimum r.an~e of most SAM s usua Y toward targets it detected. While a fire control radar can track only one jammed radar's operator to simply tune the radar to another
limits their effectiveness to high angle m1ss1les which can be detected The fourth element of electronic warfare is electronic counter-
target at a time, TWS radars can track~ rather large num~er of targets unjammed frequency. To prevent noise jamming from being defeated countermeasures (ECCM). These are devices built into radars thatare
at long ranges. simultaneously in addition to perform1n_g a search function. Curre~t so easily, jarnrners are designed to operate in several different ways. designed to minimize the effect of opposing ECM. One ECCM device
TWS radars are essentially two dimensional and so cannot track air The first method, described above, is called spot jamming; the is built into the method of operation of the radars. Initially, all radars
If a missile is not defeated by ECM or weapons, it u~uall}:' h~s a very jam mer's energy is cbncentrated on only one frequency. Jammers can
targets. In addition, for tracking single targets, TW~ radars are less were simple pulsed systems, and ECM was originally designed to
high chance of hitting its target, although early So,v1et m1ss1les have also operate in a barrage jamming mode. Barrage jamming is the
efficient than fire control radars because the energy 1_n TWS radars is combat such systems. The conical scan radars, which include most of
great difficulty in hitting small targets. Since SSM .s have ~ery. 1a_ri9e used to search as well as track, while the ener_gy of a f1 ,re contr<?I r3dar opposite of spot jamming; in barrage jamming, the energy of the the currently available fire control radars, are examples of simple,
warheads they can do a great amount of damage. High ang e m1ss1 es jammer is spread over a large number of frequencies. Thus, barrage
is concentrated at one point. For this reaso~, 1nforma~1on provided by pulsed radars. One of the earlier attempts to build a radar that was
usually d0 more critical damage than surface skimmers because t.hey jamming produces a weaker signal than spot jamming, but it
dive into a ship and penetrate deeply into its vit~ls be!or_e exploding. a TWS radar is less accurate than that prov1d~d by a _fire cont~ol radar resistant to ECM was the development of the continuous wave radar.
and it takes the TWS radar longer to acquire the 1nformat1c_:>n. Th~ simultaneously jams a much larger number of frequencies. Another Continuous wave radars are not pulsed; they merely continuously
For this reason, some normally surface skimming missiles. sue~ a.s technique, called swept jamming, is intermediate in effect. In swept
Har oon and Otomat, are designed to pop up and dive. o~to_t e1r dispersal of the ene~gy of the TWS radar into both searching an transmit a radar signal in the desired direction. Since the signal is
jamming, a concentrated jamming signal is swept across a larger
targ~ts al the end of their flight. T~e. surface to surfa.ce r:i1ss1le is the tracking also makes 1t more vulnerable to ECM.
number of frequencies, one after another. In the game, it will not be
continuous, such radars are unable to determine range. Instead,
continuous wave radars measure the change in the target's Doppler,
rime weapon against ships and 11 1s constantly being_ improved to necessary to choose the mode of jamming because we have based the
~ake it more accurate and less susceptible to opposing ECM and The second element of electronic warfare is the radar dete~tor. Radar
detectors are receivers designed to intercept radar ~1gnals ~nd effect of noise jan1ming on the best type of jamming that can be used
and in this way, can measure the speed of the target and determine if it
is moving closer or farther away from the radar. Doppler refers to the
weapons. determine its frequency, pulse repetition rate, and other 1nformat1on under the various circumstances. In the game, a ship having a modern change in pitch of a sound coming from a moving source. As the
which would allow the radar to be identifie_d. Early radar d~tectors, radar detector also gets better results with its noise jammer. Such source approaches the receiver, the pitch of the sound rises while as
11. ELECTRONIC WARFARE: . . radar detectors unlike earlier detectors, can give more accurate and the source recedes from the receiver, the pitch of the sound descends.
Modern warfare Is electronic warfare. The side which con~rols the many of which are still used today especially by the Soviets ~nd
Americans scanned each frequency individually in order to det~rm1 ne current information on the frequencies being used by the opposing The continuous wave radars are able to measure the change in pitch of
electromagnetic spectrum and denies its use .to the :ne~y will be t~e radar, enabling the crew to tune its noise jammer to only those
winner of the next war. A ship unable .to use its el~c,ron1c sensors is if any rada~ was being used. II one was detecte:d, it wo~ld provide the the target echo and thus determine its speed. Since these radars can
information indicated above, as well as the relative bearing o! the ra~ar frequencies, rather than being forced to spread the jammer's energy easily determine target speed, they can filter out noise jamming (which
helples·s, unable to strike at the enemy or repel his blow. over a wider area. has no Doppler), and, to some extent, chaff (which moves very slowly).
source. The crew would then check data .books t~ determine which
radar fit the information received. Thus, while radar 1~pulses would be Originally, normal deception jamming techniques did not work
The first component of electronic warfare is radar. Shipboard radars The other basic type of jamrning is deception jamming. A deception against continuous wave radars, but this has been corrected and they
detected fairly rapidly (in about a le":' sec~nds) and its type (search_ or
are of \wo basic types: search and fire control. Search radars have~ jam mer records the radar impulses it receives and re-transmits them are now subject to range or velocity gate pull off. Continuous wave
fire control) could be readily determined, 11 cou!d take up to_abou_t !1ve
broad beam and are designed to detect targets at long ran~es. Ad after a short delay. Thus, the opposing radar receives not only the radars are very useful due to their resistance to noise jamming and
minutes or so before the exact name of the radar woul~ be 1dent.1f1ed
search radars can search 360°. M_ost. do this by rapidly rotating an target echo, but also the re-transmitted signal which appears on the chaff, but since they are unable to determine range, they can only be
Modern digital radar detectors search all fre9uenc1es practically
sweeping the surrounding area with its beam. A recent dev_elc_:>pment radar screen as another target echo. Modern deception 1ammers are used for missile guidance, where range information is unnecessary.
has been the fixed array radar in which the antennas are built into t~f slmultaneously. The detector's computer stores 1nformat1on on eve~y
known radar. When a radar ls detected, the comp.uter searches this capable of producing a number of echos at any range and bearing
superstructure of the ship. Such radars do not rota_te but_ are st1 I desired. T/1e false targets can even be made to appear to move. False
information to determine the name of the radar it detected. Thus, An attempt to combine the advantages of continuous wave with the
capable of a 360° search. Fixed arr~y radar, while being very target gei-1eratior; can be very effective, however, a good radarman can
modern radar detectors can provide the type of all detected rad~rs ability to determine range resulted in the development of the pulse
expensive, has a larger range than rotating radars frequently distinguish fa!se targets from actual targets. As the fire
within a very few seconds after detection, and in a!I respe~ls provide doppler radar. A pulse doppler radar operates like a pulse~ _radar and
control radars have a very narrow beam that is directed at a very small
the necessary information much faster than earlier equipment. All can obtain range information in the same manner. In add1t1on, pulse
Radar beams do not follow the curvature of the earth; th~y are direct area, it is not practical to attempt to create a number of false targets for
radar detectors are capable of detecting radars well beyond Lhe doppler radars measure doppler similar to continuous wave radars
line of sight and cannot detect units that are_ over .the horizon, th_ougt them_ However, a similar technique. called range or velocity gate pull
effective range of the radar itself. This is because the radar scatters and can to some extent eliminate chaff and to a lesser degree, noise,
beams do bend slightly and the radar horizon 1s therefore sl1g_ht Y off, is very effective against fire control radars. When a fire control
farther away than the visual horizon. The distance to t~e radar horizon "noise" over a much larger area than the area 11 ~an a~t.ually sear~h radar has locked onto a target, that target, or any other unit within the Pulse doppler fire control radars can control most weapons, and some
This noise can be detected and the radar can be 1dent1!1~d by 11. ~he recent search radars are pulse doppler also.
is based on both the height (or altitude) of the s"'.arch1ng ~ntenna a~d radar's beam, rney use the deception jam mer to generate a false echo
the size or altitude of the unit for wh1<?h the ~adar 1s_search1ng. ~e ha e noise will even "spill" over the radar horizon thus, allowing a unit to that slowly moves away from the target. The radar frequently follows
computed the radar horizons for vanous sized ships and for different detect a radar beyond the horizon. Most ship radars ~an be detected at the false echo_ When the radar's beam is moved far enough away from The most recent development in fire control radars has been the
altitude levels and the results of the calculations are given on the Radar a distance equal to about two to three times the maximum range o_f the development of the monopulse radars. Monopulse radars have several
the target, tt1e jamrrier is turned off, and the radar's tracking attempt is
radar, while airborne radars can be detected out to about five tirnes broken_ re.ceivers, usually three or four, which are separated from each other.
Detection Table.
their range. When the echo is received by the receivers, the radar can use the
The frequency at which the .radar operates has a great bearing on it~ Chalf is a very widely used and effective ECM. Chaff consists of differences in the signal received by each receiver to determine the
ESM, the process of detecting electronic emissions, is as.important in target's range and bearing. The operation of a monopulse radar is
effectiveness. Low frequencies produce very long_ ranges and are use peace time as it is in war. Currently, NATO and So~1et ships ar_e aluminum strips cut in such a way as to reflect the opposing radar
for high altitude air search radars when~ the distance to the radar signals. Chaff can actually perform two functions: it can create a analogous to some degree, to the use of a steroscopic range finder
attempting to gather as much info~mation as possible 01, 1 he.1r which compares separate images to arrive at the actual range. The
horizon can be very long. High frequencies produce shorter ranges opponent's radars. This information will be used to update radar da,a "cloud" sufficiently large enough to hide a unit from radar detection.
but greater reflection from small targ.ets. High frequ~n~1es are used for and it also can create a large number of ship-sized echos Chaff main value of monopulse radars is that normal range or velocity gate
books and computer programs to enable more accurate pull off is ineffective against them, and when an MTI filter (see below)
surface search radars where the maximum range 1s l1m1ted by the radar determinations of radar types and functions. Each radar set has a therefore performs a function similar to that of both noise and
horizon. Although air search radars and su~face search radars are deception jamming and is therefore useful against both search and tire is added to the radar, it becomes resistant to most ECM normally used
basically different, their functions overlap sl1ghtly .. Some air search unique electronic "signature" that is slightly different than that of ariy against fire control radars. Range or velocity gate pull off can be used
control radars. In actual fact, chaff is more useful against fire control
radars can detect surface targets at close range, while surface search other radar set, even other sets of the sam~ type. Modern E;~1 radars because their narrow beams can easily be captured by chaff. To against monopulse radars in only certain situations. If two jamming
radars can detect low flying aircraft equipment is making it possi_ble to often. determine t~e _actual nan ii_ cf be realty effective against a wide beam search radar, the chaff would units are within the main beam of the radar, their echos will blur into
the ship itself just by detecting one of its radar em1ss1ons need to be very evenly distributed over a wide area and in practice, this one large echo and the radar will lock onto the center of that echo
Air search radars are divided into two basic types: 20 .a~d 30. Since seldom occurs. Many radars carry devices which can cancel out chaff which should be somewhere between the two jamming units.
aircraft operate in a three d1mens1onal environment, 1t 1s important to The information provided by radar detectors is so valuable that r11 rrcr~\ Similarly, an aircraft at low altitude can bounce its jamming signal off
echos, and a good radarman can distinguish a chaff echo from a real
the surface of the earth in addition to sending it directly at the radar;
5 6
counters bearing the exact same designation. For example, there must placed beneath the ship and "dummy" counters are called "Radar
res ond to it while remaining outside the ran!;!e. of the enemy's be four "Medium Missile, 1" counters, four "Medium Missile, 2" Search Counters".
a ain the radar will be unable to determine. that it is receiving two se:Sors. Although data link is extreme_ly valuable, 1t is rather new and counters, etc_ Abou', one of these sets per ship wtll be sufficient. These
sF nais and will lock onto the point lyi~g directly b_etwee:n th.e two will fail to function properly on occasion. counters indicate the size of the missile, so determine the srze As indicated in the movement rules, the counters indicated in rules 2
51·~nals Of course these techniques require that both 1amm1ng s1gna_ls
· inate in the ~ain beam of the radar; if both are no! in the m13:1n A new communications device being installed o:n some US ships ;s
designations of the needed counters by checking the size of the
missiles carried by each ship on the SSM Data table. Of the counters tn
and 3 will be moved in lieu of the actual ship models until the unit is
visually sighted. In addition, the counters placed beneath the counters
onim the radar will pick up the two separate si~nals .and can easily laser si nailing Laser communicat'lons allow ships to commun1ca e (e). about ten of each per side should be all that rs required. In fact, will be moved along with them.
~:terrTiine the I rue target. A third technique for J_amm1ng t~o.nof~11!~ with otRer ship~ in a direct line of sight, in a s1m1lar man~er to_ she.rt probably much !ewer of the Flare and Chaff counters will be required.
radars requires the use ol Cross Eye. Cross E_ye 1s curren y_ 1ns a. ran e communications, but with the advantage th_at 1am_m1ng is Of the counters in (f) there should be at least two times as many 7. On a piece of paper. the players will secretly indicate the manner in
on US B-52's·. it is not known ii it has yet be~n installed on ships. It is 8 cur~ently impossible. Ships .would be ~ble to cc;immun1cate with other counters as there are actual ships. Allhough this sounds like a great which their units will move until an enemy contact is made. The players
jam mer having two receivers and transm1tte~s separated as_ far as ships with lasers even if their conventL~na.1 radios have been k_no~ked deal of counters, most ot them will not be used in any single game. It is must wnte down the speed at which their units will move, the direction,
ossible from each other. The signals received at o~e point are out As with short range radio commun1cat1ons, lasercof!lmun1?at1ons recommended that the players be provided with a sheet of "blank" and the point at which any turns will be made. If a uni! is going to turn,
iransmitted back to the radar from the opposite point. 'v'.'.1tht~e phg:e is directional and line of sight; ships cannot communicate via laser counters which can be filled 1n as required during the game. the player must indicate the direction of the turns and the number of
shifted b 180°. This generates large angle errors in e ra r. with units beyond the visual honzon. degrees. There is no set style in which this information is to be written,
Although YCross Eye is helpful, it can bE'. defeated by the mo;opulse It is recommended that the counters in a through c should be different but it should be clear.
radar if the radar operator \s welt trained. Mon~ful:e r~h:;sm~~~ PART 1: SURFACE ACTIONS colors for each team. Most of the counters in e will be used by both
sides. so they should be a third color. The main exception is the Example: A player may indicate that his ships will move one behind the
extremely large and e.xpensive, but th~yea~=d~~se o~~;~econverting
countries are developtng new monopu.s 111. NECESSARY EQUIPMENT: ''Missile" counters; these should be of the same color as the counters other forward for 15", then the lead ship will turn 45° to port. All ships
older equipment to monopulse processing. representing the team's ships, etc. will follow the leader's track.
This ame is designed to be played with miniatu~e ship m~de1s on a
Frequency agility is a device built into some ra~adr~ t~ e;~bl~~~e~C~ fairly ~arge playing area. Although models of any size u.~ to 1.1200 mh~y IV. GAME SCALE: Once a contact is made with any enemy unit by any method (visual
ter noise jamming to some degree. As 1n 1ca e 1n be used, the best size is 1;3000 s~ale models. In addition to the s 1p sighting, active or passive sensor), the units rriay move as desired
~~~t?on above noise ·amming is effective against a radar onl~ when the models, the following equipment 1s necessary. Each ship model represents one actual vessel. One inch on the playing thereafter as long as contact is held with at least one opposing unit; the
noise is trans'mitted at the radar's operating frequ~ncy_ requenc~ surface equals 1/3 of an nautical mile (2000 yds); one turn equals 2 written directions will no longer be binding. Beginning with the second
agility is a device that changes the radar's operating fre.qu~I'c~. a 1. A playing area. This must be a flat area at least 6' long on each minutes of real time. If using a very large playing area, the game scale turn following the turn in which all enemy contacts are lost, all units
random from pulse to pulse. Spot 1am~ing is completel~l1;ebaer~a1~: side. may be increased accordingly. Thus, each inch may equal one-sixth or must continue moving 1n a straight line until another enemy contact is
against frequency agile radars, a~~ 1n many cases, o 2. A number of rulers for mov'1ng ship mod~ls. one-twelfth of a nautical mile If space permits. made; no further turning will be allowed until a new contact is
jamming can counter frequency ag1hty. 3 A tong ruler or tape measure !or measuring ranges. obtained.
4: A number of acetate sheets or plastic.page protectors for use V. PREPARING FOR PLAY:
Another ECCM device is Moving Target Indicator (MTI) f.._1TI devices on the Tactical Data Displays described later. . a. On the same piece of paper indicated in 7, the players will indicate
easure and raduatly filter out signals which are not moving. Rada~s 5 A number of grease pencils or felt tip pens to write ~n the 1. The game is normally played by two players or teams. The players the phase in which each ship's radar, sonar and ECM devices will be
;quipped wit~ MTI are a~out as effective as pulse doppler radars in · page protectors (be sure that the ink from the pens.will not decide upon the situation and the number and type of ships, etc., that turned on and off. Until at least one enemy unit is contacted by any
filtering out chaff and noise. bead up and disappear when used on the plastic page each side will use. They must then designate the starting areas for both method, the ship's electronic equipment can only be used as indicated
protectors). h' h II ture sides. The starting areas are the areas of the playing surface where on the paper. Once a contact is made with an enemy unit (including
Finaily, Jittered pulse repetition frequency (PAF) i.s in~\~dedd1np~;ni~ 6 A deck (or decks) of playing cards from w 1c a pie each player is allowed to initially set up his forces. In most cases, the torpedoes, missiles, etc., as well as ships and aircraft) by any method
radars The time between pulses of radars h.av1ng JI ~re · cards are removed, leavi~g onl)' ace (one) through ten. starting areas should begin at the edge of the playing area and extend (visual sighting, active or passive sensors), electronic devices may be
andoml changed from pulse to pulse, and all signals which could not 7. Several twenty-sided ~ec1ma.1 dice. to a depth of approximately 6" - 12" toward the center. The length of used as desired. The unit making the actual contact and all units with a
~ossibly Ybe true echos are filtered out. This technique greatly_ redu~es a Several standard six-sided dice.
the effect'1veness of deception jamm'1ng be~ause many lamming
signals transmitted at the wrong moment, are filtered out by the radar.
s: A number of cardboard cou.nters (of 1h" or%" square). The
each starting area·should normally be several feet. The starting areas
need not be directly opposite each other. Thus, if one player's starting
area is at the North edge of the playing area, his opponent's starting
data link connection to it may begin using the devices as desired
beginning with the phase the contact occurs; alt other units may use
the devices as desired beginning with the following phase prov'1ded
following counters are required. . " ...
a. A numberofcountersbearingthedes1gnat10~ small, area need not be at the South edge. There should normally be at least they are in communication with the unit making contact. Units which
The developments In ECM and ECCM occur co~tinl:lously with new each will be numbered (e.g. Sm.all~1; Smatl-2, Small.-3. 60" between the starting areas unless the players desire that units be are not in communication with the contacting unit may not use
ECCM making old ECM equipment obsolete, which •.s then rep!aced etc.) and will have an arrow p~1nt1ng toward one side within radar or visual sighting range at the start of the game. electronics as desired until they become aware of the contact. See
by new ECM equipment resistant to ECCM E~ectron1c wa~fare 1~ the to indicate the front of the unit Section XIII tor further informarion on data link and other forms of
most dynamic, multi-faceted, and ever changing element 1n mo ern 2. Each team will then place the counters that will represent their ships communication.
warfare. at the start of the game face up anywhere within their starting areas.
The size ind'1cated on the counter must correspond with the size of the If the units make a contact which is subsequently lost, the units may
12 COMMUNICATIONS: · · Sh ship it represents: still use electronics as desired during the phase following the phase in
Th.e radio is still the most common means of comf!Jun.1cat 1 o~s. d's which the contact is lost. Thereafter, however, no change can be made
are usually equipped with a short range commun1cat1on s~1tet'an a a. Ships of under 1000 tons - use "Small counters. in the use of electronics until another contact is made. In other words,
long range communication suite. Short ranQe commu~·;~el~~o~~ b. Ships of between 1000 and 10,000 tons - use "Medium" any device used by the unit during the phase after contact is lost must
I"1 1't d by the radar horizon i e the UHF radio waves o counters. continue to be used and no new devices may be turned on until
r ;; g~ sets travel only in a str~igh·i line and do not follow the cu~vail!re b. A number of counters similar to those '1n (a) but c. Ships of over 10.000 tons - use "Large" counters. another contact is made.
of the earth. The main advantage of short ran~e UHF co ~mun1~~a~o1 ~ bearing the designation "Medium". .
· th t the radio waves can be concentrated in a sm.a 1I earl'! , c. A number of counters similar to those in (a) but The counters must be placed so that the arrow is pointing in the VI. SEQUENCE OF PLAY - SURFACE ACTIONS:
~irec~ed at the receiver. Since all of the wave~ travel in one ~~e~t~ft~ bearing the designat\on "Large". . . direction the ship is heading.
only the transmission cannot be detected ~r l~mmed excep y VHF d. A number of counters similar to those des~rib,?d.1n (al,: The following sequence of play will be followed each turn:
I in ' directly in the path ol the transm1ss1on. Long ~ange (b) and (c) but also beanng the des1gnat1on Missile 3. At the same time, the players may place a number of counters in the
Zomgmunication sets are used for communications extendtng beyond in ~ddition°to "Small", "Medium", or "Large". starting area which will not represent any ship, but will be used merely 1. The player moving first will move any or all of his units as desired.
the radar horizon. The range of such sets is probably several h':ln~~ed to confuse the opposing players. These are called "Dummy" counters 2. Both players will resolve all attempts at visual sighting. This begins
miles Unlike short range communication, long range commun1ca ion The counter$ used will be the same type as those used to represent the first combat phase of the turn_
signais cannot be concentrated into narrow beam; they must be more actual ships. The size designations used may be any size desired by 3. Both players will resolve the use of all electronic searching
or less omni-directional to be effective. Hence. ~ong range
communication is easily detectable. All ships carry radio d~te~or~
1
similar to world war 11 •'Huff-Duff" with a range of seve~a un re
SMALL
MIS~ILE t the player using them. A team may use no more than two "Dummies"
for every actual ship in its force.
equipment.
4. Both players will resolve all gunfire.
5. Both players will resolve the use of surrace to surface missiles.
miles. ln addition to revealing the me~sage being sent, ~ad10 detectors 4. Each player will be provided with a Tactical Data Display for each of 6. Both players will resolve the use of torpedoes.
can also determine the relative bearing ol the transmitter. his ships. The Tactical Data Display (TDD) will indicate the size of the 7. Both players will resolve all attempts at damage control. This ends
ship, the equipment carried, and the amount of damage sustained by the initial combat phase of the turn.
e. A number of counters bearing only the following
New 0 ortunities for secure long range communications ha~e been it. A sample TDD is included in the back of the rule book to show you 8. Both players will resolve radio and signal communications
realize~pby the development of the communication satellite. S_1n~e the designations: the format The TDD's must be kept within plastic page protectors (communication phase)
satel1'1tes operate at a very high altitude, they a~efrequentlyhw1th~n ~~e because it will need to be frequently erased and updated as the game 9. The player moving second will move any or all of his units as
radar horizon of both receiver and transmitter e~en t oug e 1) Chaff goes on. Grease pencils or felt tip pens should be used on the TDD's desired. _
receiver is at a great distance fro_m the transm1~ter. ~he~efore, 2) Flare/Illumination since they are easily erased. Opposing players should never be 1 O. Both players will resolve all attempts at visual sighling. This begins
dlrectlonal radio wa1Jes can be transm1tt.ed to ~he s.atell1te wh 1ch in turn 3) Torpedo allowed to see the other player's TDD's. the second combat phase of the turn.
will relay the message to the receiver via a d1~ect1onal radio b~am. ~~ 4) Blip 11. Both players will resolve the use of all electronic searching
this way, the security .cl .short range commun1cat1ons can be roug 5) Noise 5. On each ship's Tactical Data Display, the owning player will record equipment.
6) Radar the size and numencal designation ol the counter representing the
to long range transm1ss1ons. 7) Real 12. Both players will resolve all gunfire.
ship before the game begins. 13. Both players will resolve the use of SSM's
A recent important advance in communica.tion . has been t~e 14. Both players will resolve the use ol torpedoes.
development of the data link. Data link essent1a_lly 1s an automa~~~ f. A number of counters bearing no designation at all 6. If radar is being used in the game, two additional counters will be 15. Both players will resolve all attempts at damage control. This ends
short ran e UHF communication system connecting computers ~·. (blank counters) placed face down underneath all ol the ship and "dummy" counters the second combat phase.
one anot~er When information becomes a1Ja1lable to a computer, it _1s already placed on the playing area_ The top counter placed under the 16. Both players will resolve radio and signal communications
immediately·. automatically, transmitted ~o alt ot_her computers in The number or each type of counter that w111 be necessary is r~ally counters representing real units must indicate "blip". while the bottom (communications phase). This ends the complete turn.
range so that all computers receive the _1nlo_rma.t1on .. As with other dependent on the size of the game. However, the follow1n!il guidelines counter must indicate "real". For all "Dummy" counters, both counters
short range UHF communication, data l1~k 1~ ~1rect1ona1 and very may be used: the counters indicated in (a), (b),,,and (cl will re~esent placed beneath it must be blank Exception: as indicated in the ECM NOTE: Movement is alternate although combai is simultaneous. The players must determine
difficult to detect and jam. Tactically, data link 1s 1mpor~ant because it the ships and also will be used as ''dummies_. There must e one section of the Electronic Warfare rules, the top counter placed beneath before the game begins_which side will move d_uring t_he initial movement phase or the !urn.
allows units to engage targets beyond the range of the1~ own sensors counter indicating the proper size for each ship used, and an. equal a "Dummy" may indicate ''blip" if a deception jammer is being used and which will move during the second. They will continue moving in this way throughout !he
thereby increasing effective weapon range and reduc1~.g res~onse number to use as dummies. The counters in (d) will repre~e~t m1ss11es. (see the ECM rules section for further information). The two counters entire game.
times It is possible for a single ship or aircraft to act as~ scout for a Missile counters must be made up in sets, each set consisting of four
8
large~ force. If the scout detects the enemy, the entire force can
7
counters bearing the exact same designation. For example, there must placed beneath the ship and "dummy" counters are called "Radar
res ond to it while remaining outside the ran!;!e. of the enemy's be four "Medium Missile, 1" counters, four "Medium Missile, 2" Search Counters".
a ain the radar will be unable to determine. that it is receiving two se:Sors. Although data link is extreme_ly valuable, 1t is rather new and counters, etc_ Abou', one of these sets per ship wtll be sufficient. These
sF nais and will lock onto the point lyi~g directly b_etwee:n th.e two will fail to function properly on occasion. counters indicate the size of the missile, so determine the srze As indicated in the movement rules, the counters indicated in rules 2
51·~nals Of course these techniques require that both 1amm1ng s1gna_ls
· inate in the ~ain beam of the radar; if both are no! in the m13:1n A new communications device being installed o:n some US ships ;s
designations of the needed counters by checking the size of the
missiles carried by each ship on the SSM Data table. Of the counters tn
and 3 will be moved in lieu of the actual ship models until the unit is
visually sighted. In addition, the counters placed beneath the counters
onim the radar will pick up the two separate si~nals .and can easily laser si nailing Laser communicat'lons allow ships to commun1ca e (e). about ten of each per side should be all that rs required. In fact, will be moved along with them.
~:terrTiine the I rue target. A third technique for J_amm1ng t~o.nof~11!~ with otRer ship~ in a direct line of sight, in a s1m1lar man~er to_ she.rt probably much !ewer of the Flare and Chaff counters will be required.
radars requires the use ol Cross Eye. Cross E_ye 1s curren y_ 1ns a. ran e communications, but with the advantage th_at 1am_m1ng is Of the counters in (f) there should be at least two times as many 7. On a piece of paper. the players will secretly indicate the manner in
on US B-52's·. it is not known ii it has yet be~n installed on ships. It is 8 cur~ently impossible. Ships .would be ~ble to cc;immun1cate with other counters as there are actual ships. Allhough this sounds like a great which their units will move until an enemy contact is made. The players
jam mer having two receivers and transm1tte~s separated as_ far as ships with lasers even if their conventL~na.1 radios have been k_no~ked deal of counters, most ot them will not be used in any single game. It is must wnte down the speed at which their units will move, the direction,
ossible from each other. The signals received at o~e point are out As with short range radio commun1cat1ons, lasercof!lmun1?at1ons recommended that the players be provided with a sheet of "blank" and the point at which any turns will be made. If a uni! is going to turn,
iransmitted back to the radar from the opposite point. 'v'.'.1tht~e phg:e is directional and line of sight; ships cannot communicate via laser counters which can be filled 1n as required during the game. the player must indicate the direction of the turns and the number of
shifted b 180°. This generates large angle errors in e ra r. with units beyond the visual honzon. degrees. There is no set style in which this information is to be written,
Although YCross Eye is helpful, it can bE'. defeated by the mo;opulse It is recommended that the counters in a through c should be different but it should be clear.
radar if the radar operator \s welt trained. Mon~ful:e r~h:;sm~~~ PART 1: SURFACE ACTIONS colors for each team. Most of the counters in e will be used by both
sides. so they should be a third color. The main exception is the Example: A player may indicate that his ships will move one behind the
extremely large and e.xpensive, but th~yea~=d~~se o~~;~econverting
countries are developtng new monopu.s 111. NECESSARY EQUIPMENT: ''Missile" counters; these should be of the same color as the counters other forward for 15", then the lead ship will turn 45° to port. All ships
older equipment to monopulse processing. representing the team's ships, etc. will follow the leader's track.
This ame is designed to be played with miniatu~e ship m~de1s on a
Frequency agility is a device built into some ra~adr~ t~ e;~bl~~~e~C~ fairly ~arge playing area. Although models of any size u.~ to 1.1200 mh~y IV. GAME SCALE: Once a contact is made with any enemy unit by any method (visual
ter noise jamming to some degree. As 1n 1ca e 1n be used, the best size is 1;3000 s~ale models. In addition to the s 1p sighting, active or passive sensor), the units rriay move as desired
~~~t?on above noise ·amming is effective against a radar onl~ when the models, the following equipment 1s necessary. Each ship model represents one actual vessel. One inch on the playing thereafter as long as contact is held with at least one opposing unit; the
noise is trans'mitted at the radar's operating frequ~ncy_ requenc~ surface equals 1/3 of an nautical mile (2000 yds); one turn equals 2 written directions will no longer be binding. Beginning with the second
agility is a device that changes the radar's operating fre.qu~I'c~. a 1. A playing area. This must be a flat area at least 6' long on each minutes of real time. If using a very large playing area, the game scale turn following the turn in which all enemy contacts are lost, all units
random from pulse to pulse. Spot 1am~ing is completel~l1;ebaer~a1~: side. may be increased accordingly. Thus, each inch may equal one-sixth or must continue moving 1n a straight line until another enemy contact is
against frequency agile radars, a~~ 1n many cases, o 2. A number of rulers for mov'1ng ship mod~ls. one-twelfth of a nautical mile If space permits. made; no further turning will be allowed until a new contact is
jamming can counter frequency ag1hty. 3 A tong ruler or tape measure !or measuring ranges. obtained.
4: A number of acetate sheets or plastic.page protectors for use V. PREPARING FOR PLAY:
Another ECCM device is Moving Target Indicator (MTI) f.._1TI devices on the Tactical Data Displays described later. . a. On the same piece of paper indicated in 7, the players will indicate
easure and raduatly filter out signals which are not moving. Rada~s 5 A number of grease pencils or felt tip pens to write ~n the 1. The game is normally played by two players or teams. The players the phase in which each ship's radar, sonar and ECM devices will be
;quipped wit~ MTI are a~out as effective as pulse doppler radars in · page protectors (be sure that the ink from the pens.will not decide upon the situation and the number and type of ships, etc., that turned on and off. Until at least one enemy unit is contacted by any
filtering out chaff and noise. bead up and disappear when used on the plastic page each side will use. They must then designate the starting areas for both method, the ship's electronic equipment can only be used as indicated
protectors). h' h II ture sides. The starting areas are the areas of the playing surface where on the paper. Once a contact is made with an enemy unit (including
Finaily, Jittered pulse repetition frequency (PAF) i.s in~\~dedd1np~;ni~ 6 A deck (or decks) of playing cards from w 1c a pie each player is allowed to initially set up his forces. In most cases, the torpedoes, missiles, etc., as well as ships and aircraft) by any method
radars The time between pulses of radars h.av1ng JI ~re · cards are removed, leavi~g onl)' ace (one) through ten. starting areas should begin at the edge of the playing area and extend (visual sighting, active or passive sensors), electronic devices may be
andoml changed from pulse to pulse, and all signals which could not 7. Several twenty-sided ~ec1ma.1 dice. to a depth of approximately 6" - 12" toward the center. The length of used as desired. The unit making the actual contact and all units with a
~ossibly Ybe true echos are filtered out. This technique greatly_ redu~es a Several standard six-sided dice.
the effect'1veness of deception jamm'1ng be~ause many lamming
signals transmitted at the wrong moment, are filtered out by the radar.
s: A number of cardboard cou.nters (of 1h" or%" square). The
each starting area·should normally be several feet. The starting areas
need not be directly opposite each other. Thus, if one player's starting
area is at the North edge of the playing area, his opponent's starting
data link connection to it may begin using the devices as desired
beginning with the phase the contact occurs; alt other units may use
the devices as desired beginning with the following phase prov'1ded
following counters are required. . " ...
a. A numberofcountersbearingthedes1gnat10~ small, area need not be at the South edge. There should normally be at least they are in communication with the unit making contact. Units which
The developments In ECM and ECCM occur co~tinl:lously with new each will be numbered (e.g. Sm.all~1; Smatl-2, Small.-3. 60" between the starting areas unless the players desire that units be are not in communication with the contacting unit may not use
ECCM making old ECM equipment obsolete, which •.s then rep!aced etc.) and will have an arrow p~1nt1ng toward one side within radar or visual sighting range at the start of the game. electronics as desired until they become aware of the contact. See
by new ECM equipment resistant to ECCM E~ectron1c wa~fare 1~ the to indicate the front of the unit Section XIII tor further informarion on data link and other forms of
most dynamic, multi-faceted, and ever changing element 1n mo ern 2. Each team will then place the counters that will represent their ships communication.
warfare. at the start of the game face up anywhere within their starting areas.
The size ind'1cated on the counter must correspond with the size of the If the units make a contact which is subsequently lost, the units may
12 COMMUNICATIONS: · · Sh ship it represents: still use electronics as desired during the phase following the phase in
Th.e radio is still the most common means of comf!Jun.1cat 1 o~s. d's which the contact is lost. Thereafter, however, no change can be made
are usually equipped with a short range commun1cat1on s~1tet'an a a. Ships of under 1000 tons - use "Small counters. in the use of electronics until another contact is made. In other words,
long range communication suite. Short ranQe commu~·;~el~~o~~ b. Ships of between 1000 and 10,000 tons - use "Medium" any device used by the unit during the phase after contact is lost must
I"1 1't d by the radar horizon i e the UHF radio waves o counters. continue to be used and no new devices may be turned on until
r ;; g~ sets travel only in a str~igh·i line and do not follow the cu~vail!re b. A number of counters similar to those '1n (a) but c. Ships of over 10.000 tons - use "Large" counters. another contact is made.
of the earth. The main advantage of short ran~e UHF co ~mun1~~a~o1 ~ bearing the designation "Medium". .
· th t the radio waves can be concentrated in a sm.a 1I earl'! , c. A number of counters similar to those in (a) but The counters must be placed so that the arrow is pointing in the VI. SEQUENCE OF PLAY - SURFACE ACTIONS:
~irec~ed at the receiver. Since all of the wave~ travel in one ~~e~t~ft~ bearing the designat\on "Large". . . direction the ship is heading.
only the transmission cannot be detected ~r l~mmed excep y VHF d. A number of counters similar to those des~rib,?d.1n (al,: The following sequence of play will be followed each turn:
I in ' directly in the path ol the transm1ss1on. Long ~ange (b) and (c) but also beanng the des1gnat1on Missile 3. At the same time, the players may place a number of counters in the
Zomgmunication sets are used for communications extendtng beyond in ~ddition°to "Small", "Medium", or "Large". starting area which will not represent any ship, but will be used merely 1. The player moving first will move any or all of his units as desired.
the radar horizon. The range of such sets is probably several h':ln~~ed to confuse the opposing players. These are called "Dummy" counters 2. Both players will resolve all attempts at visual sighting. This begins
miles Unlike short range communication, long range commun1ca ion The counter$ used will be the same type as those used to represent the first combat phase of the turn_
signais cannot be concentrated into narrow beam; they must be more actual ships. The size designations used may be any size desired by 3. Both players will resolve the use of all electronic searching
or less omni-directional to be effective. Hence. ~ong range
communication is easily detectable. All ships carry radio d~te~or~
1
similar to world war 11 •'Huff-Duff" with a range of seve~a un re
SMALL
MIS~ILE t the player using them. A team may use no more than two "Dummies"
for every actual ship in its force.
equipment.
4. Both players will resolve all gunfire.
5. Both players will resolve the use of surrace to surface missiles.
miles. ln addition to revealing the me~sage being sent, ~ad10 detectors 4. Each player will be provided with a Tactical Data Display for each of 6. Both players will resolve the use of torpedoes.
can also determine the relative bearing ol the transmitter. his ships. The Tactical Data Display (TDD) will indicate the size of the 7. Both players will resolve all attempts at damage control. This ends
ship, the equipment carried, and the amount of damage sustained by the initial combat phase of the turn.
e. A number of counters bearing only the following
New 0 ortunities for secure long range communications ha~e been it. A sample TDD is included in the back of the rule book to show you 8. Both players will resolve radio and signal communications
realize~pby the development of the communication satellite. S_1n~e the designations: the format The TDD's must be kept within plastic page protectors (communication phase)
satel1'1tes operate at a very high altitude, they a~efrequentlyhw1th~n ~~e because it will need to be frequently erased and updated as the game 9. The player moving second will move any or all of his units as
radar horizon of both receiver and transmitter e~en t oug e 1) Chaff goes on. Grease pencils or felt tip pens should be used on the TDD's desired. _
receiver is at a great distance fro_m the transm1~ter. ~he~efore, 2) Flare/Illumination since they are easily erased. Opposing players should never be 1 O. Both players will resolve all attempts at visual sighling. This begins
dlrectlonal radio wa1Jes can be transm1tt.ed to ~he s.atell1te wh 1ch in turn 3) Torpedo allowed to see the other player's TDD's. the second combat phase of the turn.
will relay the message to the receiver via a d1~ect1onal radio b~am. ~~ 4) Blip 11. Both players will resolve the use of all electronic searching
this way, the security .cl .short range commun1cat1ons can be roug 5) Noise 5. On each ship's Tactical Data Display, the owning player will record equipment.
6) Radar the size and numencal designation ol the counter representing the
to long range transm1ss1ons. 7) Real 12. Both players will resolve all gunfire.
ship before the game begins. 13. Both players will resolve the use of SSM's
A recent important advance in communica.tion . has been t~e 14. Both players will resolve the use ol torpedoes.
development of the data link. Data link essent1a_lly 1s an automa~~~ f. A number of counters bearing no designation at all 6. If radar is being used in the game, two additional counters will be 15. Both players will resolve all attempts at damage control. This ends
short ran e UHF communication system connecting computers ~·. (blank counters) placed face down underneath all ol the ship and "dummy" counters the second combat phase.
one anot~er When information becomes a1Ja1lable to a computer, it _1s already placed on the playing area_ The top counter placed under the 16. Both players will resolve radio and signal communications
immediately·. automatically, transmitted ~o alt ot_her computers in The number or each type of counter that w111 be necessary is r~ally counters representing real units must indicate "blip". while the bottom (communications phase). This ends the complete turn.
range so that all computers receive the _1nlo_rma.t1on .. As with other dependent on the size of the game. However, the follow1n!il guidelines counter must indicate "real". For all "Dummy" counters, both counters
short range UHF communication, data l1~k 1~ ~1rect1ona1 and very may be used: the counters indicated in (a), (b),,,and (cl will re~esent placed beneath it must be blank Exception: as indicated in the ECM NOTE: Movement is alternate although combai is simultaneous. The players must determine
difficult to detect and jam. Tactically, data link 1s 1mpor~ant because it the ships and also will be used as ''dummies_. There must e one section of the Electronic Warfare rules, the top counter placed beneath before the game begins_which side will move d_uring t_he initial movement phase or the !urn.
allows units to engage targets beyond the range of the1~ own sensors counter indicating the proper size for each ship used, and an. equal a "Dummy" may indicate ''blip" if a deception jammer is being used and which will move during the second. They will continue moving in this way throughout !he
thereby increasing effective weapon range and reduc1~.g res~onse number to use as dummies. The counters in (d) will repre~e~t m1ss11es. (see the ECM rules section for further information). The two counters entire game.
times It is possible for a single ship or aircraft to act as~ scout for a Missile counters must be made up in sets, each set consisting of four
8
large~ force. If the scout detects the enemy, the entire force can
7
VII. MEASUREMENT: 4. Submerged subs may pivot go0 at one time regardless of b. Acceleration rates for conventional and nuclear steam engines: 10. BACKWARD MOVEMENT:
displacement.
Whenever the measurement of distances is required, always measure
a. A ship with engines_ reversed will move directly backward rather
1. If the ship's current speed at the beginning of the phase is
from the bridge (or cockpit. if measuring .from an airpraft}. FC?r s. Ships which are listed as highly maneuverable on the Ship less than 50°/o of its maximum rated speed, its sj1eed may be
than forward. The maximum reverse speed of a ship is based upon its
maximum forward speed:
example, if 1O" separates the bridges of two.ships, those sh1i;>s are said Characteristics Table (such as the Spruance c1~ss DD) i:iay increased by up to as much as is listed below:
to be 10" away from each other, regardless 1f some other points on the increase the angle of pivot by 45°. Thus, such ships may pivot
go0 the first time they pivot during the turn. 135° the second Forward Speed Reverse Speed
ships are closer or more distant than 10". Maximum Speed Increase 2.5 - 7.5 kts
time, and so on. 2.5 kts
to 10 kts 2.5 kts 10.0 - 17.5 kls 5.0 kts
VIII. MOVEMENT: 11-20kts 5 kts 20.0 - 27.5 kts 7 .5 kts
&. During any point during 8: shif;l'S move, t.he moving player 21 - 30 kts 10 kts
may designate any or all of his ships as m.ak1ng an eme~ge~cy 30.0 - 37.5 kts 10.0 kts
1. BASIC MOVEMENT PROCEDURES: 31-40kts 15 kts 40.0 - 47.5 kts
turn. Ships making emergency turns may increase the p1vot1ng 12.5 kts
Until a unit is located by visual sighting, the actual m~del will ~~t 41-50k1s 20 kts 50.0 - 57.5 kts
angle by 45°, but they will incur a greater speed loss (see (~) 15.0 kts
appear on the playing surface. Instead, the counter bearing the units
designation will be moved on the playing s~rface in its place. When !he below) than if making a normal turn, and the accuracy of their 2. If the ship's current speed at the beginning of the phase is
weapon systems will be reduced during the subsequent combat If a ship's speed exceeds 57.5 kts, continue pattern above to determine
unit is finally visually sighted, the counter 1s removed from the playing between 50o/o and 75% of its maximum speed, its speed may be its reverse speed.
surface and the actual ship model is placed at its location. phase. increased by 2.5 kts if its maximum speed is 30 kts or less, or by
up to 5 kts if its maximum speed exceeds 30 kts. b. The reverse speed of a ship is based upon its maximum forward
2. ""DUMMY COUNTERS"": c. Whenever a ship pivots, its movement s~e~d is red~ced by 1" f<!r speed .unreduced for battle damage. If a ship's maximum forward
As noted in the Setting Up section of the rules, each teem will be that turn. The number of degrees pivoted ts immaterial, the cost is 3. If the ship's current speed at the beginning of the phase is speed 1s reduced due to battle damage or other causes, its maximum
provided with a number of "Dummy" counters which can t:>e set up in always 1''. equal to or greater than 75% of its speed, its speed may be reverse speed will remain the same. However, if damage reduces a
the starting areas. These counters may be moved as desired by the increased by no more than 2.5 kts, regardless of its maximum ship's maximum forward speed to less than its rated reverse speed, the
owning player in onler to mislead his opponent as to th~ actual Exceptions: speed. ship's reverse speed will equal its current forward speed; a ship's
location of his ships. These counters may be moved as desired and 1. If a ship's speed is less than 10 kts, the movement cost for reverse speed can never exceed its maximum forward speed.
they may be removed from play and then brought back into play at any pivoting will be equal to its speed. . c. Acceleration rates tor dlesel and gas turbine engines: Ships
time the owning player desires to do so. 2. If a ship is making an emergency turn, its movement speed equipped with these engines can increase their speed by up to 50% of 11. COLLISIONS:
will be reduced by 2" rather than one. . their maximum speed each turn. Example: A ship with a maximum a. Collisions can occur when:
3. BASIC MOVEMENT RULES: 3. Submerged subs will suffer no movement pen!lty 1f they tu~n speed of 30 kts can increase its speed by up to 15 kts each turn until its
The following basic movement rules will apply to all movement: 90° or less during the turn. If th~y tl!rn o~er 90 0 , ~he subs will speed equals 30 kts. 1. Ships are within 1" of each other at the end of a movement
lose 1" of speed following the pivot 1n wh1c~ 90 is ~xceeded. phase.
a. The maximum distance a ship may move during a turn is ~ailed its Submerged subs making emergency turns will lose 1 for every d. Combined engines:
current speed. A ship must move its full current speed _dunng each pivot, rather than the normal 2". 2. A ship moves across the path of another ship which has
turn· it may not move either faster or slower than this speed. As 1. Ships which use one type of engine for cruising and another already moved during that movement phase passing astern of it
expl3.ined below, the current speed of a ship may be changed each d. After a ship has pivoted and paid the movement penal~y. it m~st for high speed (e.g. CODOG) will accelerate at th~ rate of the and within 1" of its position.
turn by acceleration or deceleration. then move directly forward for 1" before being all.owed t~ pivot again. type of engines being used.
Once it has moved this distance, it has completed its turning.maneuver 3. A ship moves across the bow of another ship that has not yet
b. Ships must move directly forward unless the engines are reversed, and may either continue to move directly forward o~ begin another 2. Ships which cruise on one type of engine and use both those moved during that movement phase and passes within 1" of its
in which case they must move directly backward. To change the pivot. This required movement need not b~ comple:ted 1n t~e same turn engines and another type of engine when high speed is desired position.
direction in which a ship's bow is pointing, players must follow the that the pivot was accomplished; i.e., a ship may P!v~t during one turn (e.g. COSAG) will accelerate as follows: if the ship's speed atthe
turning procedures given below (rule 5). If a ship is represented by a and move 1" forward in the subsequent turn 1f 1t does not have beginning of the phase is less than its cruising speed, the ship In all cases above, the distance is measured from bridge to bridge.
counter, the arrow on the counter indicates the direction in which the sufficient speed remaining after pivoting. The example shows a 3000 will accelerate at the rate of its cruise engines; if the ships speed
is equal to or greater than its cruise speed, it Will accelerate at b. At the end of a movement phase in which a collision is possible, roll
bow is pointing. ton destroyer accomplishing a 180° turn.
the rate of its high speed engines. one six-sided die to determine if a collision actually occurs. If the
c. Ships may not move through each other or within 1" _of each other number rolled, after adjustment, is 4 or higher, a collision occurs.
NEW Adjust the number rotted as follows:
without the possibility of collision. II such a move is attempted, 90° PIVOT END OF MOVEMENT STARTING e. Accelerating In reverse: When a ship accelerates in reverse, use its
immediately consult the collision rules below. If no collision occurs, maximum forward speed to determine the rate of acceleration, rather
COST - 1'" (~THIS TUAN ··· POSITION 1. Subtract 1 if either of the involved ships has a displacement

MOV~i!:·>:o ~·~~:-·~:
the intended movement may be completed; ii a collision occurs, both than its maximum reverse speed. Example: If a ship has a maximum
forward speed of 30 kts and a maximum reverse speed of 10 kts, its of less than 1000 tons or is listed as highly maneuverable.
ships are stopped at the point of impact.
MOVE 1"> \ / acceleration rate when moving in reverse will be based on a maximum

i
d. A ship's movement speed is expressed in ~erms ol .knots. For game FORWARD/ speed of 30 kts. 2. Add 1 if both of the involved ships have a displacement of
10,000 tons or more.
purposes, each ship is assigned a speed that 1s a multiple of 2.5; round FORWARD
off the actual speed of the ships to the ne•re1t multiple of 2.5 kts.
~- STARTING
8. DECELERATION:
3. Add 1 for each ship that does not have a functioning CIC and
bridge (see Damage and Damage Control).
For example: A ship with an actual speed of 36 kts will, for game ., ·.. POSITION
45
purposes, be assumed to have a speed of 35 kts, while a ship whose
actual speed is 32 kts will be assumed to have a speed of 32.5 kts.
PIVOT'- MOVE 1" FORWARD
TORN COMPLETED
n
V
a. A ship's deceleration rate is based Upon its displacement and its
maximum rated speed. The number of knots by which a ship's speed c. If a collision occurs, the involved ship which moved last is assumed
COST - 1" may be reduced each turn is as follows: to be the ship which caused the collision, while the other ship is
e. Except where specifically indicated, a player may move hi_s sh~ps considered to be the one which was collided with. Players then
determine the point of collision, and immediately move the ships as
only during his own movement phase; a player may not move his ships NOTE: The movement cost for pivoti.ng does not actu~lly !educe the Ship's Displacement Deceleratlon ·Rate indicated below:
during his opponent's movement phase or any combat phase. number of kts at which the ship is travelling. Thus, a ship wit~ a stieed Under 1000 tons 25 kts/turn
of 30 kts which pivots and so loses 1" of speed for that turn will still be 1000 - 1999 tons 20 kts/turn 1. tf the ships ended the movement phase within 1" of each
4. MOVEMENT OF THE PLAYING SURFACE: considered to have a speed of 30 kts for all purposes. 11 the ship does 2000 - 9999 tons 15 kts/turn
During each turn, all units moving on the playing surface represented not pivot during its next turn, it will continue to move at a speed of 30 other, the collision occured at the point occupied by the ship
10,000 - 29,999 tons 12.5 kts/turn collided with at the end of its move. Move the ship causing the
by either a counter or ship model, will be moved Y•" for every 2.5 ~ts of kts assuming it neither accelerates nor deceterates. 30,000 tons and over 10 kts/turn
current speed. Thus, a ship having a current speed of 20 kts will be collision in such a way that its bow is as close as possible to the
moved 2" per turn, while a ship having a speed of 22.5 kts will be moved bridge of the ship collided with (without having the models
6. MOVING EVASIVELY: physically lying on top of each other), but do not change the
2Y.''. During his movement phase, a player i'nay indicate that one or ~ore of facing direction of either ship.
his ships will move evasively during the phase. He must designate b. Double the deceleration rate if...the ship's maximum rated speed
5. TURNING: which ships will move in this manner before he actually ~oves th~m. (i.e., it.s speed as listed on the Ship Data Chart) was between 45and 85
a. Turning may be accomplished at any time during a ship's move. kts; triple the deceleration rate if the ship's maximum rated speed 2. If the collision occured when a ship passed astern or across
Ships which move evasively will be una.ble to t!-lrn and w1.ll lose 1 of the bow of another ship, the point of collision is at the point
exceeds 85 kts.
Turning requires three steps: movement speed during the phase. Th1s.IC?SS 1s treat~d 1n the same where the paths of the ships crossed. Move the ship co1lided
1. Changing facing direction. . manner as the speed loss for turni~g .. Le., 111s ~ot considered to effect with so that its bridge is at the point of collision. Next, move the
2. Paying the appropriate movement cost. c. Reduce the deceleration rate by 50% (rounding upward to the
the number of kts at which the ship 1s travelling. ship causing the collision so that its bow is as close as possible
3. Moving directly forward for a certain distance (as indicated nearest 2.5 kts) if the ship's maximum rated speed is between 11and25
kts inclusive, reduce the deceleration rate by 750/o if the ship's to the bridge of the ship collided with (without actually resting
below) before .attempting another turn. For example: A ship with a speed of Jo
kts which loses 1" for moving
maximum rated speed is 10 kts or less. on top of the model). Change the facing direction of both ships
b. The firsl slep in turning is changing the ship's lacing direction. evasively will still be considered to have a speed of 30 kts. to what it was at the point of collision.
Pivot the ship on its bow until it faces the new direction. The maximum
n.umber of degrees that a ship may pivot at one time is as follows: By moving evasively, a ship will reduce its chance ~f being hit by d. A ship may not both accelerate and decelerate during the same
enemy fife, but at the same time, its own accuracy will be reduced. turn. d. When two ships collide, their current speed immediately becomes
0, and players must follow the normal acceleration rules beginning on
1. Ships displacing 10,000 tons or more may pivot no more than the following turn to regain speed. The ship causing the collision must
45° at one time. 7. ACCELERATION: . move in reverse during that turn or neither ship may move.
a. Introduction: A ship's acceleration rate 1s depend~nt ~pon th~ type
2. Ships displacing less than 1000 tons may pivot up to 90° at of engines being used, the ship's maxi mu~ ~peed (1.e., its maximum 9. REVERSING ENGINES: e. Now, determine the damage sustained by each ship. For NATO and
one time. speed as indicated on the Ship Characteristics Table, unredu~ed .for In order to reverse engines, a ship must decelerate to a speed of 10kts Israeli warships, roll one decimal die and consult proper table on the
damage, sea state, etc.) and the ship's current speed at the beg1~n1ng or less in accordance with Rule 8 above. Beginning on the following Collision Damage Chart. There are several different damage tables
3. Ships having a displacement of between 1000 and 10,000 of the phase. The acceleration rates given bel'!w are the maximum turn, the ship may start to accelerate in the opposite direction in based on the size difference between the involved ships with separate
tons may pivot no more than 45° the first time they pivot during a rates by which a ship can increase its speed. Ships may accelerate.at accordance with Rule 7. For acceleration purposes only, such ships sections for the ship whtch caused the collision and for the ship
turn, up to go 0 the second time they pivot, 45° the third time, go0 less than the maximum rate. No ship may accele!a~e beyond its are considered to have a speed of Oat the beginning of the phase of collided with; be sure to use the proper table. To determine which table
again the fourth time and so on In the same manner. maximum speed as indicated on the Ship Characteristics Table. initial acceleration. to use, ascertain which of the situations below apply:

• 10
VII. MEASUREMENT: 4. Submerged subs may pivot go0 at one time regardless of b. Acceleration rates for conventional and nuclear steam engines: 10. BACKWARD MOVEMENT:
displacement.
Whenever the measurement of distances is required, always measure
a. A ship with engines_ reversed will move directly backward rather
1. If the ship's current speed at the beginning of the phase is
from the bridge (or cockpit. if measuring .from an airpraft}. FC?r s. Ships which are listed as highly maneuverable on the Ship less than 50°/o of its maximum rated speed, its sj1eed may be
than forward. The maximum reverse speed of a ship is based upon its
maximum forward speed:
example, if 1O" separates the bridges of two.ships, those sh1i;>s are said Characteristics Table (such as the Spruance c1~ss DD) i:iay increased by up to as much as is listed below:
to be 10" away from each other, regardless 1f some other points on the increase the angle of pivot by 45°. Thus, such ships may pivot
go0 the first time they pivot during the turn. 135° the second Forward Speed Reverse Speed
ships are closer or more distant than 10". Maximum Speed Increase 2.5 - 7.5 kts
time, and so on. 2.5 kts
to 10 kts 2.5 kts 10.0 - 17.5 kls 5.0 kts
VIII. MOVEMENT: 11-20kts 5 kts 20.0 - 27.5 kts 7 .5 kts
&. During any point during 8: shif;l'S move, t.he moving player 21 - 30 kts 10 kts
may designate any or all of his ships as m.ak1ng an eme~ge~cy 30.0 - 37.5 kts 10.0 kts
1. BASIC MOVEMENT PROCEDURES: 31-40kts 15 kts 40.0 - 47.5 kts
turn. Ships making emergency turns may increase the p1vot1ng 12.5 kts
Until a unit is located by visual sighting, the actual m~del will ~~t 41-50k1s 20 kts 50.0 - 57.5 kts
angle by 45°, but they will incur a greater speed loss (see (~) 15.0 kts
appear on the playing surface. Instead, the counter bearing the units
designation will be moved on the playing s~rface in its place. When !he below) than if making a normal turn, and the accuracy of their 2. If the ship's current speed at the beginning of the phase is
weapon systems will be reduced during the subsequent combat If a ship's speed exceeds 57.5 kts, continue pattern above to determine
unit is finally visually sighted, the counter 1s removed from the playing between 50o/o and 75% of its maximum speed, its speed may be its reverse speed.
surface and the actual ship model is placed at its location. phase. increased by 2.5 kts if its maximum speed is 30 kts or less, or by
up to 5 kts if its maximum speed exceeds 30 kts. b. The reverse speed of a ship is based upon its maximum forward
2. ""DUMMY COUNTERS"": c. Whenever a ship pivots, its movement s~e~d is red~ced by 1" f<!r speed .unreduced for battle damage. If a ship's maximum forward
As noted in the Setting Up section of the rules, each teem will be that turn. The number of degrees pivoted ts immaterial, the cost is 3. If the ship's current speed at the beginning of the phase is speed 1s reduced due to battle damage or other causes, its maximum
provided with a number of "Dummy" counters which can t:>e set up in always 1''. equal to or greater than 75% of its speed, its speed may be reverse speed will remain the same. However, if damage reduces a
the starting areas. These counters may be moved as desired by the increased by no more than 2.5 kts, regardless of its maximum ship's maximum forward speed to less than its rated reverse speed, the
owning player in onler to mislead his opponent as to th~ actual Exceptions: speed. ship's reverse speed will equal its current forward speed; a ship's
location of his ships. These counters may be moved as desired and 1. If a ship's speed is less than 10 kts, the movement cost for reverse speed can never exceed its maximum forward speed.
they may be removed from play and then brought back into play at any pivoting will be equal to its speed. . c. Acceleration rates tor dlesel and gas turbine engines: Ships
time the owning player desires to do so. 2. If a ship is making an emergency turn, its movement speed equipped with these engines can increase their speed by up to 50% of 11. COLLISIONS:
will be reduced by 2" rather than one. . their maximum speed each turn. Example: A ship with a maximum a. Collisions can occur when:
3. BASIC MOVEMENT RULES: 3. Submerged subs will suffer no movement pen!lty 1f they tu~n speed of 30 kts can increase its speed by up to 15 kts each turn until its
The following basic movement rules will apply to all movement: 90° or less during the turn. If th~y tl!rn o~er 90 0 , ~he subs will speed equals 30 kts. 1. Ships are within 1" of each other at the end of a movement
lose 1" of speed following the pivot 1n wh1c~ 90 is ~xceeded. phase.
a. The maximum distance a ship may move during a turn is ~ailed its Submerged subs making emergency turns will lose 1 for every d. Combined engines:
current speed. A ship must move its full current speed _dunng each pivot, rather than the normal 2". 2. A ship moves across the path of another ship which has
turn· it may not move either faster or slower than this speed. As 1. Ships which use one type of engine for cruising and another already moved during that movement phase passing astern of it
expl3.ined below, the current speed of a ship may be changed each d. After a ship has pivoted and paid the movement penal~y. it m~st for high speed (e.g. CODOG) will accelerate at th~ rate of the and within 1" of its position.
turn by acceleration or deceleration. then move directly forward for 1" before being all.owed t~ pivot again. type of engines being used.
Once it has moved this distance, it has completed its turning.maneuver 3. A ship moves across the bow of another ship that has not yet
b. Ships must move directly forward unless the engines are reversed, and may either continue to move directly forward o~ begin another 2. Ships which cruise on one type of engine and use both those moved during that movement phase and passes within 1" of its
in which case they must move directly backward. To change the pivot. This required movement need not b~ comple:ted 1n t~e same turn engines and another type of engine when high speed is desired position.
direction in which a ship's bow is pointing, players must follow the that the pivot was accomplished; i.e., a ship may P!v~t during one turn (e.g. COSAG) will accelerate as follows: if the ship's speed atthe
turning procedures given below (rule 5). If a ship is represented by a and move 1" forward in the subsequent turn 1f 1t does not have beginning of the phase is less than its cruising speed, the ship In all cases above, the distance is measured from bridge to bridge.
counter, the arrow on the counter indicates the direction in which the sufficient speed remaining after pivoting. The example shows a 3000 will accelerate at the rate of its cruise engines; if the ships speed
is equal to or greater than its cruise speed, it Will accelerate at b. At the end of a movement phase in which a collision is possible, roll
bow is pointing. ton destroyer accomplishing a 180° turn.
the rate of its high speed engines. one six-sided die to determine if a collision actually occurs. If the
c. Ships may not move through each other or within 1" _of each other number rolled, after adjustment, is 4 or higher, a collision occurs.
NEW Adjust the number rotted as follows:
without the possibility of collision. II such a move is attempted, 90° PIVOT END OF MOVEMENT STARTING e. Accelerating In reverse: When a ship accelerates in reverse, use its
immediately consult the collision rules below. If no collision occurs, maximum forward speed to determine the rate of acceleration, rather
COST - 1'" (~THIS TUAN ··· POSITION 1. Subtract 1 if either of the involved ships has a displacement

MOV~i!:·>:o ~·~~:-·~:
the intended movement may be completed; ii a collision occurs, both than its maximum reverse speed. Example: If a ship has a maximum
forward speed of 30 kts and a maximum reverse speed of 10 kts, its of less than 1000 tons or is listed as highly maneuverable.
ships are stopped at the point of impact.
MOVE 1"> \ / acceleration rate when moving in reverse will be based on a maximum

i
d. A ship's movement speed is expressed in ~erms ol .knots. For game FORWARD/ speed of 30 kts. 2. Add 1 if both of the involved ships have a displacement of
10,000 tons or more.
purposes, each ship is assigned a speed that 1s a multiple of 2.5; round FORWARD
off the actual speed of the ships to the ne•re1t multiple of 2.5 kts.
~- STARTING
8. DECELERATION:
3. Add 1 for each ship that does not have a functioning CIC and
bridge (see Damage and Damage Control).
For example: A ship with an actual speed of 36 kts will, for game ., ·.. POSITION
45
purposes, be assumed to have a speed of 35 kts, while a ship whose
actual speed is 32 kts will be assumed to have a speed of 32.5 kts.
PIVOT'- MOVE 1" FORWARD
TORN COMPLETED
n
V
a. A ship's deceleration rate is based Upon its displacement and its
maximum rated speed. The number of knots by which a ship's speed c. If a collision occurs, the involved ship which moved last is assumed
COST - 1" may be reduced each turn is as follows: to be the ship which caused the collision, while the other ship is
e. Except where specifically indicated, a player may move hi_s sh~ps considered to be the one which was collided with. Players then
determine the point of collision, and immediately move the ships as
only during his own movement phase; a player may not move his ships NOTE: The movement cost for pivoti.ng does not actu~lly !educe the Ship's Displacement Deceleratlon ·Rate indicated below:
during his opponent's movement phase or any combat phase. number of kts at which the ship is travelling. Thus, a ship wit~ a stieed Under 1000 tons 25 kts/turn
of 30 kts which pivots and so loses 1" of speed for that turn will still be 1000 - 1999 tons 20 kts/turn 1. tf the ships ended the movement phase within 1" of each
4. MOVEMENT OF THE PLAYING SURFACE: considered to have a speed of 30 kts for all purposes. 11 the ship does 2000 - 9999 tons 15 kts/turn
During each turn, all units moving on the playing surface represented not pivot during its next turn, it will continue to move at a speed of 30 other, the collision occured at the point occupied by the ship
10,000 - 29,999 tons 12.5 kts/turn collided with at the end of its move. Move the ship causing the
by either a counter or ship model, will be moved Y•" for every 2.5 ~ts of kts assuming it neither accelerates nor deceterates. 30,000 tons and over 10 kts/turn
current speed. Thus, a ship having a current speed of 20 kts will be collision in such a way that its bow is as close as possible to the
moved 2" per turn, while a ship having a speed of 22.5 kts will be moved bridge of the ship collided with (without having the models
6. MOVING EVASIVELY: physically lying on top of each other), but do not change the
2Y.''. During his movement phase, a player i'nay indicate that one or ~ore of facing direction of either ship.
his ships will move evasively during the phase. He must designate b. Double the deceleration rate if...the ship's maximum rated speed
5. TURNING: which ships will move in this manner before he actually ~oves th~m. (i.e., it.s speed as listed on the Ship Data Chart) was between 45and 85
a. Turning may be accomplished at any time during a ship's move. kts; triple the deceleration rate if the ship's maximum rated speed 2. If the collision occured when a ship passed astern or across
Ships which move evasively will be una.ble to t!-lrn and w1.ll lose 1 of the bow of another ship, the point of collision is at the point
exceeds 85 kts.
Turning requires three steps: movement speed during the phase. Th1s.IC?SS 1s treat~d 1n the same where the paths of the ships crossed. Move the ship co1lided
1. Changing facing direction. . manner as the speed loss for turni~g .. Le., 111s ~ot considered to effect with so that its bridge is at the point of collision. Next, move the
2. Paying the appropriate movement cost. c. Reduce the deceleration rate by 50% (rounding upward to the
the number of kts at which the ship 1s travelling. ship causing the collision so that its bow is as close as possible
3. Moving directly forward for a certain distance (as indicated nearest 2.5 kts) if the ship's maximum rated speed is between 11and25
kts inclusive, reduce the deceleration rate by 750/o if the ship's to the bridge of the ship collided with (without actually resting
below) before .attempting another turn. For example: A ship with a speed of Jo
kts which loses 1" for moving
maximum rated speed is 10 kts or less. on top of the model). Change the facing direction of both ships
b. The firsl slep in turning is changing the ship's lacing direction. evasively will still be considered to have a speed of 30 kts. to what it was at the point of collision.
Pivot the ship on its bow until it faces the new direction. The maximum
n.umber of degrees that a ship may pivot at one time is as follows: By moving evasively, a ship will reduce its chance ~f being hit by d. A ship may not both accelerate and decelerate during the same
enemy fife, but at the same time, its own accuracy will be reduced. turn. d. When two ships collide, their current speed immediately becomes
0, and players must follow the normal acceleration rules beginning on
1. Ships displacing 10,000 tons or more may pivot no more than the following turn to regain speed. The ship causing the collision must
45° at one time. 7. ACCELERATION: . move in reverse during that turn or neither ship may move.
a. Introduction: A ship's acceleration rate 1s depend~nt ~pon th~ type
2. Ships displacing less than 1000 tons may pivot up to 90° at of engines being used, the ship's maxi mu~ ~peed (1.e., its maximum 9. REVERSING ENGINES: e. Now, determine the damage sustained by each ship. For NATO and
one time. speed as indicated on the Ship Characteristics Table, unredu~ed .for In order to reverse engines, a ship must decelerate to a speed of 10kts Israeli warships, roll one decimal die and consult proper table on the
damage, sea state, etc.) and the ship's current speed at the beg1~n1ng or less in accordance with Rule 8 above. Beginning on the following Collision Damage Chart. There are several different damage tables
3. Ships having a displacement of between 1000 and 10,000 of the phase. The acceleration rates given bel'!w are the maximum turn, the ship may start to accelerate in the opposite direction in based on the size difference between the involved ships with separate
tons may pivot no more than 45° the first time they pivot during a rates by which a ship can increase its speed. Ships may accelerate.at accordance with Rule 7. For acceleration purposes only, such ships sections for the ship whtch caused the collision and for the ship
turn, up to go 0 the second time they pivot, 45° the third time, go0 less than the maximum rate. No ship may accele!a~e beyond its are considered to have a speed of Oat the beginning of the phase of collided with; be sure to use the proper table. To determine which table
again the fourth time and so on In the same manner. maximum speed as indicated on the Ship Characteristics Table. initial acceleration. to use, ascertain which of the situations below apply:

• 10
I''
1!1
,11

'i!
I~ I
1. Situation 1 - The ship causing the collision has a units and on the TDD's of all units connected to a sighting unit by data
link. This information is recorded 1n the Visual Radar box. lf a unit
1. The target must be in range. Ranges are listed on the
Gunnery Data T.a.tNe. AJways measure range from the bridge of
which is - ID 1he _,·s base aa:uracy . - . Then, oon-
sult 1he adjusDnertt section of the Gumeiy Resulls T-and appl\I
displacement that is at least 50°/o greater than the displacement
rl of the ship collided with. which was previously sighted is no longer 1n sighting range of a unit, the firing ship to the bf"idge of the target. any -opiiale - adjusamenls, H any, ID the aa::ura:y raE
' erase its designation from the unit's TDD. of Ille weapon. The "'5Ull is 1he At$ml Aauacy-of Ille gun_
1: ~· Situation 2 - The ship collided with has a displacement that 2. The -guns must be ~e to bear on tne target. This is
'!' 1s at least 50°/o greater than the displacement al the ship causing 3. VISIBILITY RESTRICTIONS: determined as follows. -:The~ligurecan newerbe_ID_maieed
i; the collision. a. No unit can visually sight another unit if it is beyond the Visual the highest aa:uracy !BE gM!n oo 1he Gunnery firing T - or
'ii Sighting Distance. a. Bow weapons may fire dtrecUy forward or u.p to an be less than 1 _ If the actual figure does maieed 1he highest raie
3. Situation 3 - Neither situation 1 nor situation 2 apply. angJe of 135° from that dVection. Y-. on the table, rt is reduced tllequal lllat r.IE; iftheadual ligure
Consult lhe proper table and sustain the damage indicated. b. All units can visually sight in all directions, i.e., within a 360° radius. ls less than 1, ft is inueased to 1 .
b. Stern weapons may fire directly aste-m M up to an
For British and Canadian warships, do the same. but subtract 1 from c. The presence of other units will not affect the visual sighting ability angE of 1 35,, from that dtrection_
the die roll when consulting the damage chart. It the result is 0, the ship of a unit. 4. Choose - type of ammumtion being used.
will sustain the damage listed for number one. c. Weap~ns mounterf on the sjde may flre dfrectly

For Soviet and Warsaw Pact warships and warships of all other
countries other than NATO and Israel .. roll the die two times and
sustain all ol the damage indicated by both rolls.

For all merchants, roll the die three times and sustain all of the
indicated damage.
d. The presence of land will block the visual sighting ability of all
ships, although in some scenarios, the players may decide that the
heigh I of the land is so low that it will only block the line of sight-of the
smaller ships.

4. BASIC VISUAL SIGHTING DISTANCES:


a. The following visual sighting distances apply only during daylight
perpendicu:lar to the sh-i.p -in the djrection they are
mounted or u:p to an ang:le of 90° from that dJrecticm.

3. The gun must not a:lr-eady 'have been fired during the co.mbat
phase. Each gun may be fired only oooe du.ring eacti combal
pnase.
-me-
5. Using Ult! actual ac:curai:y fig1n:e obtained, ro-11 one deciimal
die for each firing tJIM and oonsutt the Gunnery Firtng Tilt*..
Cross refer tile actual acc~acy rate witt1 the numbers roUed to

...-gei.

II. Adjust - --
base ....-

-
of damage points S!lWlined IJy-

damage points .. - ;,,


and when there is neither fog nor bad weather. 4. 11 ertner the target or the tiring stijp has a disp.'1.cement of -4 -.5 to dof I- 1111oit'"'lhe-numberal--
pointssustainadana..coraonapieceol _ _ _ of_
12. COLLISION OAMAGE: under 1000 ~ins, TIO s:t;ij:p of ower 1000 ions m.ust Jie doiiredly
Max. f;m,g sl!i!>, - ........, al the lalgl!l s1lip and the number al
a. Flooding: When flooding occurs, the basic number of flotation Sighting Ship Ship Being Sighted Vl1lblllly Range between the lfi.rer and the taq_;et. Similarly, if sdiller t~e ta'fgld or
points to be sustained by the ship wilt be as follows: the f.iring sn•:p has a displacement of between 1000 ant:! 10 ODD ~ l>Oints s.-ned by Hle mriiet.
Over 10,000 tons Over 10,000 tons 18 miles (54"') ~ns. f!IO ship of ove_r 10,00D tons m.u.st lie di,rectly between, the
1. Minor Flooding - 1/a of the ship's Maximum Flotation 1000 • 10,000 1ons 16 miles (48"'}
firer and tlhe target. A sh4p :is considered t[) be Jy;ing between two d. Detenn1ne tihe damage sl.'l'Stained by eacih targe1 Slhii.p tn accon:ianoe
Under 1000 tons 12 miles (36"') with Rti.fe 6 below.
Allowance. 1000 - 10,000 Ions Over 10,000 tons 16 miles (48"') other s:hips .if its bridge -rs G·ir-ec.•Uy -on a :1tne extending from the
1000 • 10,000 tons 14 miles (42"') br'idge of the ff!r~og sTI,ip to tne :bridge of the target.
2. Moderate Flooding - % of the ship's Maximum Flotation Under 1000 tons 10 miles (30")
3. ACCURACY AD.lllSTllEillTS:
Allowance. Under 1000 lons Over 10,000 tons 14 miles (42") 5. At tile time t!lf fi~ing, the target mu.51 be eit::Aer vts.lD1le to ·or e.T_t_
1000 • 10,000 tons 12 miles (36") .tocated by !bhe radar of the f·i·rin1J :Sh·ip, or it must be vistble tom
3. Heavy Flooding - 'h of the ship's Maximum Flotation Under 1000 tons 8 miles (24") Wcated Dy the adfve sensors .of a fri-endly J.J:njt _having a data ilijn:k I. 11l"""'5e tile IU:CUBcy rare by
Allowance. ro-r~.ned:ion w,itJh 1:fne fiirri~ :sf!l4:p_ Tne concept of being ,IO:cated :by ~ment exreeding 10,DllO t<ms
b. Fog: Fog can greatly reduce the maximum Visual Sighting aetiive sensors w1il I tbe full!l:y exip:laiined ~n the Electron:ic Warfa·re
4. Very Heavy Flooding - % of the ship's Maximum Flotation distances, sometimes to as low as one-third of a mile (1 "). Decide ~.of the H:~iles_. wt11 k! ttle concept of Data Li r.ik .is ·explained 2. Decrease - accuracy .rate by 2 ijf Ille 1arget !las a
Allowance. before the game the maximum Visual Sighting Distance through fog. If 11n the ·Cmnm1i1fll11c.aiti:ons Seaion. lfu;plaoement of less than 1000 l!OOS.
::I the distance between opposing ships exceeds this distance, they will
be unable to visually sight each other. G:u;nfi.re :is mot per·m·itted agairu;t targets wh1ich a.re .located only b.Tmget.,eed
b. Engine Damage: If a ship sustains engine damage due to collision
:I
I
its maximum speed will be reduced as follows:
c. Night: On bright, moonlit nights reduce all Visual Sighting Ranges
by .pass:ive :sensors.
1. Add 3 to the :accuracy rare if ti!le 1tafget ts mrt maV~ng.
i, 1. Minor Damage 5 kts by V2; on normal nights, reduce Visual Sighting Ranges by %. On Ii: All~ surface targ.e;ts mlil5t Mve been 1:n:itiail;ly :located by '\lii_su.al
2. ADd 2 if iits speed is !tess tharn -oT eqiu1a'I ro 10 ik!ts.
2. Moderate Damage 10 kts especially dark nights (no moon or cloud cover) reduce Visual Sighting or a'l1 actrve sert5!llr of eithler 1he fli,rar or .a uniit jn
I !1
3. Major Damage h of the maximum speed
1 Sighting Ranges by 7ti. Round off all results upward to the nearest 1/3 mnr;t~:Uinii.cati~ wfth the Ii rer dur,i n9 a ptiase pr'~·or to ttae phase
mile. of flt!ri"9·; that ~s .. a surtace ta·rget may.not be_ fif'ed upon d.ur.iing 3. Aad 1 ;f its Sll8ed is 11 - 2ll t;;s_
4. Very Severe Ship is dead in water
the combat phla.se ;it +s :irn~itia:Hy ·located. ,M·iss,~le .a.nd :airoraft
d. Night Time Visual Aids: targets however, may be fiired upon duoring '!Jhe pbase ttley are '- Subtraci 1 if Ille large!'s 5l>eed is <Kl - 59 Jrts_
c. Electronlcs Damage: Whenever a ship sustains electronics
damage, roll one decimal die and consult the table below to determine j.n1itiaUy :located.
1. Searchlights: Each player may decide to turn on 5. Subtract 2 if Ille large!'s Si-dis 60-19 Mis.
which piece of electronic equipment is KO'ed. If the ship sustained
severe electronics damage, roll the die two limes; it it sustained very searchlights during any Visibility Phase. If he does so, the lights 7. Eaoh gun mount-may be ifired39ainst-G111lyonesu-rfacetairget
must remain on until the following Visibility Phase. Ships with duirin-g each ·phase_, aTI.d ,if may not tire at surlaoe taf'"gets if it f1~red &. SiUbtract 3 tt the target's~ is 80 ta or moire.
severe electronics damage, roll the die three limes. It the ship does not 1

have the equipment listed on the table or if the equipment was already searchlights on can visually sight all units which are within five at the iHrcraft IJT m1issii:le targets du:ring the same pti.ase. As Wfill
knocked out, roll again until the table calls for damage to equipment miles (15") of their positions, but they, themselves, can be Ge .i:nllicat:ed .lalef, .a DJ.Jn .may f.i-re at ·more than one .a-irc:ratt or c. T..tng
which is on the ship and in working order. visually sighted by au opposing units out to the maximum m'nille d11n:ing .a :ptlase.
daylight range. 1~ U the target ;pivmed 46-90° OOring :the t1L01n of fli1din9, :reDilllOe
1- Air Search Radar 6 - Sec SAM FC Radar t f all·I of the .req-u;ire-1111le'nts aT·e :rnet, the .gun ·mot.1nts ;may be tired. - accuracy nne by 1-
2- Surface Search Radar 7 - SSM - FC Radar 2. Starshells: These may be f,1red from any gun of 3" (76mm)
3- Main Gun FC Radar 8 - Radar Detector caliber or greater during the Visibility Phase of the turn at units 2. !'IRING PROCEDURE'
4- Main SAM FC Radar 9 - Radar Jammer located by active sensors (or visual sighting). The maximum e. The acllJJal ;p;rocess o1 tiini'fll9 .g.uns wii~ll :be .s4multaneoillS-:fnr all 11J1niits,
5 - Sec Gun FC Radar 10 - Sonar range to which starshells can be fired is equal to 75°/o ol the but tile :process of 5'li1Staiiniing dama-ge, as wi:l I be ex:p4aiined :below, :is
gun's maximum range. In order to fire a starshell, the player mJ't Slimu~taneous. 3. n the ti'l'iing -5"j;p pW-oted 46-90° duirmg ltltlle_ tum of ming,
must indicate which gun will do so, and designate the ship being :reduce tne accuracy rare :by 1 ooirly !if ttheflirniog sh~p's iliireoontro:I
For the effects of all damage, see the Damage and Damage Control :rati'fllg js F, ·G, o.r 'H.
sections of the rules. fired upon. He will then place an illumination marker beyond the IL The p:layer ·llliho moved second du.r'i'l'lg precediirng ·Movemen1 Phase
target, but within 1" of its bridge. All ships within 1" of the mwaou:nces ttlle targets tor eacti of :titis fi.1'1!!'19 stiips. Ht1s opponent wirll
marker will be immediately illuminated. The illumination marker then Do tne sa r.ne. '· 'ilf the rliiifling smp piw-ated over 90'° or mowed ev~_y cduriing
IX. VISUAL SIGHTING: 1

t.ne tum , 'reduce the accuracy nlll:e Dy 1 ~f iits fiire OOl!ltmil system iis
1. INTRODUCTION:
will remain in place for one full turn. During that time. if any ship
passes within 1" of the marker it will be illuminated All ships c. Both :p•layers win then :'liire eaeh gun in any Drder they·desitr-e. The -C. DorE;-a=ncy1Jy2i1ds~ireamilrol-ngisF.,
G., or t-L T.t:.ere iis newer any :reductioln due to the mtM!men:t of the
As mentioned in the Movement section of the rules, ship models will which are illuminated can be visually sighted just as if it were *I'S ·reqllJl:ired to tire eacti gun moul!nt are as fol-lows: ·fjining .sb~ ;if the srn:iip's tma corrrtrol system :is :rated A or B.
not be placed on the playing surface until they are visually sighted by daylight.
at teast one opposing unit. Visual sighting can occur only during the 1~ Resolve the USE!_ of the gun's FC radar, H .any.
Ships that were illuminated during a Visual Sighting Phase will cease 5. U ettne.r the lfii'1il'llQ ·DJ target shq> :made ain emergemcy tum,,
Visibility Phases of each turn. :rediuce ttie aecwacy rate Dy an addiilllkmal 1.
to be illuminated at the end of the next Movement Phase if they are not 2. Meas·u·re range to :bhe taryet.
2. VISIBILITY PROCEDURES: within 1" of the marker at that time; ships which passed within 1" of an
3. Det-erm:i:rne the Daltery's acwTacy. To do itlitis., ~M:it .oomsu1tt ithte '~"' If the l.llrget ship mal<es a 1Bll emergency dluim, -
0

a. If "units (i.e., ships, aircraft, missiles) represented by either counters illumination marker which did not illuminate them during the prior
Visual S1ghtinQ Phase will cease to be illuminated at the end of the G'""""Y Data T - . T•~is table indicates 1he base acooracy ra11e """~"'cy """ ..
~1 be noaooee
i.y 3.
or actual models, are being moved on the playing surface and there is
s<!me doubt as to whether or not they are visually sighted, the players Movement Phase following the Movement Phase in which they passed "'ine !II'"· "'1<I .~ a1so 'llodicases"""
long, amd .ay long) of lhe gun. C - r e lile -
""'II"
baOOs (snort, mei>iwn,
l~llg raroge &cepli:m: 11-fioing J i l i p - an emsgencyn.m liullllasa
will take a ruler and measure the distance between all such units and within 1 '.' of the illumination marker if they are not within 1" of the
marker at that time. Remove the illumination markers at the end of the d i <1>e range band figures giwn on tl1e table. If tile aclual ~ fire corittn>I syslern rated A or B, no accuracy penalty wiillt oca11r,,
e~ch opposing unit during the visibility segment of the turn. If the ramg1"is ,1e5s !l1mn m - 1 to lrne
distamle ;lisled Jor "'Short Range '· as the ;movement of a firing shi~soequi~ wi~l;I newer affedl the
Visual Sighting Phase following the Visual Sighting Phase during
distance between those units is equal to or less than the maximum lhe Ii"' >is occming a1 snort range. If U!e aaual lining range ma:eeiis llCClllllCY al its guns.
Visual .s~ghtlng Distance (given below), the unit is visually sighted. If
th.e unit 1s represented by a counter, immediately replace the counter
which they were fired.
"'is distance. but •is less•- or ""ll'al IO Ille dmnce Hsled lDT
'"~iium Range,"' Ure lfire ·ts l>CCUfli:llQ at .medium range. Simiar- 6. If fl<ing during tt>e ilirsl comba! phase ol a him, tile pll"""
with the actual model. If the distance exceeds the maximum Visual ly, Ollhe- range exx:eedsh! 'meditJm rartgelgi,,,,, but is less ·who5e chance to mawt occurs during titne second nKM!lllllefrt
Sighting Distance, the unit is not visually sighted. If any such unit Is X. GUNFIRE AGAINST SHIPS:
tlmn or equal ID lire ""L<llllQ Ra<nge" -..:.., ll>e lire ,js at loT!l!l pnma will no! yet lmw llad'"" opportllnily lo m ...... lf """al his
represented by an actual model, immediately replace the model with a
counter. 1. GUNFIRE REOUIREMENTS: ,range, - if tile •ange exx:eeds lhis dislanoe, .it ,. a1 wry •lorl!l .ships >is firing or l>8ing - ....,.., he mmt imiiadl! befan! the
•· During the gunfire segment of each combat phase, all ships may iange. --"'"""""!l ll>e range 11aoo, ronsi.itt tile """ c:or-1
l\djusmen!T-. ~>be proper ranye- ""lllh lbe
.-ution of any lll'jng ii sud! slnlj>s willI piiw;I or "Mooe
b. Determine which units visually sighted opposing units. Write the
name or designation of each sighted unit on the TD D's ol all sighting
simultaneously fire their guns if the firing requirements are met. The
firing requirements are as follows: Fire Comrol ratil1g of !lie """"'°", - c h ;115 loond on lhe Sl>ip
Charaderistics Tab~. Tbe resutt wiill be :a pl.us ·m miinlUS irnilll!llber
& - ! ( " duMg,. ~ ,,_.,,.,, phme. Hewiilli l>e
'91!~1i"ed ID
-
"'°"" llhe ....... m:conlingty cmmg liis - -
(if ii la dll ~-j.
11 12
I''
1!1
,11

'i!
I~ I
1. Situation 1 - The ship causing the collision has a units and on the TDD's of all units connected to a sighting unit by data
link. This information is recorded 1n the Visual Radar box. lf a unit
1. The target must be in range. Ranges are listed on the
Gunnery Data T.a.tNe. AJways measure range from the bridge of
which is - ID 1he _,·s base aa:uracy . - . Then, oon-
sult 1he adjusDnertt section of the Gumeiy Resulls T-and appl\I
displacement that is at least 50°/o greater than the displacement
rl of the ship collided with. which was previously sighted is no longer 1n sighting range of a unit, the firing ship to the bf"idge of the target. any -opiiale - adjusamenls, H any, ID the aa::ura:y raE
' erase its designation from the unit's TDD. of Ille weapon. The "'5Ull is 1he At$ml Aauacy-of Ille gun_
1: ~· Situation 2 - The ship collided with has a displacement that 2. The -guns must be ~e to bear on tne target. This is
'!' 1s at least 50°/o greater than the displacement al the ship causing 3. VISIBILITY RESTRICTIONS: determined as follows. -:The~ligurecan newerbe_ID_maieed
i; the collision. a. No unit can visually sight another unit if it is beyond the Visual the highest aa:uracy !BE gM!n oo 1he Gunnery firing T - or
'ii Sighting Distance. a. Bow weapons may fire dtrecUy forward or u.p to an be less than 1 _ If the actual figure does maieed 1he highest raie
3. Situation 3 - Neither situation 1 nor situation 2 apply. angJe of 135° from that dVection. Y-. on the table, rt is reduced tllequal lllat r.IE; iftheadual ligure
Consult lhe proper table and sustain the damage indicated. b. All units can visually sight in all directions, i.e., within a 360° radius. ls less than 1, ft is inueased to 1 .
b. Stern weapons may fire directly aste-m M up to an
For British and Canadian warships, do the same. but subtract 1 from c. The presence of other units will not affect the visual sighting ability angE of 1 35,, from that dtrection_
the die roll when consulting the damage chart. It the result is 0, the ship of a unit. 4. Choose - type of ammumtion being used.
will sustain the damage listed for number one. c. Weap~ns mounterf on the sjde may flre dfrectly

For Soviet and Warsaw Pact warships and warships of all other
countries other than NATO and Israel .. roll the die two times and
sustain all ol the damage indicated by both rolls.

For all merchants, roll the die three times and sustain all of the
indicated damage.
d. The presence of land will block the visual sighting ability of all
ships, although in some scenarios, the players may decide that the
heigh I of the land is so low that it will only block the line of sight-of the
smaller ships.

4. BASIC VISUAL SIGHTING DISTANCES:


a. The following visual sighting distances apply only during daylight
perpendicu:lar to the sh-i.p -in the djrection they are
mounted or u:p to an ang:le of 90° from that dJrecticm.

3. The gun must not a:lr-eady 'have been fired during the co.mbat
phase. Each gun may be fired only oooe du.ring eacti combal
pnase.
-me-
5. Using Ult! actual ac:curai:y fig1n:e obtained, ro-11 one deciimal
die for each firing tJIM and oonsutt the Gunnery Firtng Tilt*..
Cross refer tile actual acc~acy rate witt1 the numbers roUed to

...-gei.

II. Adjust - --
base ....-

-
of damage points S!lWlined IJy-

damage points .. - ;,,


and when there is neither fog nor bad weather. 4. 11 ertner the target or the tiring stijp has a disp.'1.cement of -4 -.5 to dof I- 1111oit'"'lhe-numberal--
pointssustainadana..coraonapieceol _ _ _ of_
12. COLLISION OAMAGE: under 1000 ~ins, TIO s:t;ij:p of ower 1000 ions m.ust Jie doiiredly
Max. f;m,g sl!i!>, - ........, al the lalgl!l s1lip and the number al
a. Flooding: When flooding occurs, the basic number of flotation Sighting Ship Ship Being Sighted Vl1lblllly Range between the lfi.rer and the taq_;et. Similarly, if sdiller t~e ta'fgld or
points to be sustained by the ship wilt be as follows: the f.iring sn•:p has a displacement of between 1000 ant:! 10 ODD ~ l>Oints s.-ned by Hle mriiet.
Over 10,000 tons Over 10,000 tons 18 miles (54"') ~ns. f!IO ship of ove_r 10,00D tons m.u.st lie di,rectly between, the
1. Minor Flooding - 1/a of the ship's Maximum Flotation 1000 • 10,000 1ons 16 miles (48"'}
firer and tlhe target. A sh4p :is considered t[) be Jy;ing between two d. Detenn1ne tihe damage sl.'l'Stained by eacih targe1 Slhii.p tn accon:ianoe
Under 1000 tons 12 miles (36"') with Rti.fe 6 below.
Allowance. 1000 - 10,000 Ions Over 10,000 tons 16 miles (48"') other s:hips .if its bridge -rs G·ir-ec.•Uy -on a :1tne extending from the
1000 • 10,000 tons 14 miles (42"') br'idge of the ff!r~og sTI,ip to tne :bridge of the target.
2. Moderate Flooding - % of the ship's Maximum Flotation Under 1000 tons 10 miles (30")
3. ACCURACY AD.lllSTllEillTS:
Allowance. Under 1000 lons Over 10,000 tons 14 miles (42") 5. At tile time t!lf fi~ing, the target mu.51 be eit::Aer vts.lD1le to ·or e.T_t_
1000 • 10,000 tons 12 miles (36") .tocated by !bhe radar of the f·i·rin1J :Sh·ip, or it must be vistble tom
3. Heavy Flooding - 'h of the ship's Maximum Flotation Under 1000 tons 8 miles (24") Wcated Dy the adfve sensors .of a fri-endly J.J:njt _having a data ilijn:k I. 11l"""'5e tile IU:CUBcy rare by
Allowance. ro-r~.ned:ion w,itJh 1:fne fiirri~ :sf!l4:p_ Tne concept of being ,IO:cated :by ~ment exreeding 10,DllO t<ms
b. Fog: Fog can greatly reduce the maximum Visual Sighting aetiive sensors w1il I tbe full!l:y exip:laiined ~n the Electron:ic Warfa·re
4. Very Heavy Flooding - % of the ship's Maximum Flotation distances, sometimes to as low as one-third of a mile (1 "). Decide ~.of the H:~iles_. wt11 k! ttle concept of Data Li r.ik .is ·explained 2. Decrease - accuracy .rate by 2 ijf Ille 1arget !las a
Allowance. before the game the maximum Visual Sighting Distance through fog. If 11n the ·Cmnm1i1fll11c.aiti:ons Seaion. lfu;plaoement of less than 1000 l!OOS.
::I the distance between opposing ships exceeds this distance, they will
be unable to visually sight each other. G:u;nfi.re :is mot per·m·itted agairu;t targets wh1ich a.re .located only b.Tmget.,eed
b. Engine Damage: If a ship sustains engine damage due to collision
:I
I
its maximum speed will be reduced as follows:
c. Night: On bright, moonlit nights reduce all Visual Sighting Ranges
by .pass:ive :sensors.
1. Add 3 to the :accuracy rare if ti!le 1tafget ts mrt maV~ng.
i, 1. Minor Damage 5 kts by V2; on normal nights, reduce Visual Sighting Ranges by %. On Ii: All~ surface targ.e;ts mlil5t Mve been 1:n:itiail;ly :located by '\lii_su.al
2. ADd 2 if iits speed is !tess tharn -oT eqiu1a'I ro 10 ik!ts.
2. Moderate Damage 10 kts especially dark nights (no moon or cloud cover) reduce Visual Sighting or a'l1 actrve sert5!llr of eithler 1he fli,rar or .a uniit jn
I !1
3. Major Damage h of the maximum speed
1 Sighting Ranges by 7ti. Round off all results upward to the nearest 1/3 mnr;t~:Uinii.cati~ wfth the Ii rer dur,i n9 a ptiase pr'~·or to ttae phase
mile. of flt!ri"9·; that ~s .. a surtace ta·rget may.not be_ fif'ed upon d.ur.iing 3. Aad 1 ;f its Sll8ed is 11 - 2ll t;;s_
4. Very Severe Ship is dead in water
the combat phla.se ;it +s :irn~itia:Hy ·located. ,M·iss,~le .a.nd :airoraft
d. Night Time Visual Aids: targets however, may be fiired upon duoring '!Jhe pbase ttley are '- Subtraci 1 if Ille large!'s 5l>eed is <Kl - 59 Jrts_
c. Electronlcs Damage: Whenever a ship sustains electronics
damage, roll one decimal die and consult the table below to determine j.n1itiaUy :located.
1. Searchlights: Each player may decide to turn on 5. Subtract 2 if Ille large!'s Si-dis 60-19 Mis.
which piece of electronic equipment is KO'ed. If the ship sustained
severe electronics damage, roll the die two limes; it it sustained very searchlights during any Visibility Phase. If he does so, the lights 7. Eaoh gun mount-may be ifired39ainst-G111lyonesu-rfacetairget
must remain on until the following Visibility Phase. Ships with duirin-g each ·phase_, aTI.d ,if may not tire at surlaoe taf'"gets if it f1~red &. SiUbtract 3 tt the target's~ is 80 ta or moire.
severe electronics damage, roll the die three limes. It the ship does not 1

have the equipment listed on the table or if the equipment was already searchlights on can visually sight all units which are within five at the iHrcraft IJT m1issii:le targets du:ring the same pti.ase. As Wfill
knocked out, roll again until the table calls for damage to equipment miles (15") of their positions, but they, themselves, can be Ge .i:nllicat:ed .lalef, .a DJ.Jn .may f.i-re at ·more than one .a-irc:ratt or c. T..tng
which is on the ship and in working order. visually sighted by au opposing units out to the maximum m'nille d11n:ing .a :ptlase.
daylight range. 1~ U the target ;pivmed 46-90° OOring :the t1L01n of fli1din9, :reDilllOe
1- Air Search Radar 6 - Sec SAM FC Radar t f all·I of the .req-u;ire-1111le'nts aT·e :rnet, the .gun ·mot.1nts ;may be tired. - accuracy nne by 1-
2- Surface Search Radar 7 - SSM - FC Radar 2. Starshells: These may be f,1red from any gun of 3" (76mm)
3- Main Gun FC Radar 8 - Radar Detector caliber or greater during the Visibility Phase of the turn at units 2. !'IRING PROCEDURE'
4- Main SAM FC Radar 9 - Radar Jammer located by active sensors (or visual sighting). The maximum e. The acllJJal ;p;rocess o1 tiini'fll9 .g.uns wii~ll :be .s4multaneoillS-:fnr all 11J1niits,
5 - Sec Gun FC Radar 10 - Sonar range to which starshells can be fired is equal to 75°/o ol the but tile :process of 5'li1Staiiniing dama-ge, as wi:l I be ex:p4aiined :below, :is
gun's maximum range. In order to fire a starshell, the player mJ't Slimu~taneous. 3. n the ti'l'iing -5"j;p pW-oted 46-90° duirmg ltltlle_ tum of ming,
must indicate which gun will do so, and designate the ship being :reduce tne accuracy rare :by 1 ooirly !if ttheflirniog sh~p's iliireoontro:I
For the effects of all damage, see the Damage and Damage Control :rati'fllg js F, ·G, o.r 'H.
sections of the rules. fired upon. He will then place an illumination marker beyond the IL The p:layer ·llliho moved second du.r'i'l'lg precediirng ·Movemen1 Phase
target, but within 1" of its bridge. All ships within 1" of the mwaou:nces ttlle targets tor eacti of :titis fi.1'1!!'19 stiips. Ht1s opponent wirll
marker will be immediately illuminated. The illumination marker then Do tne sa r.ne. '· 'ilf the rliiifling smp piw-ated over 90'° or mowed ev~_y cduriing
IX. VISUAL SIGHTING: 1

t.ne tum , 'reduce the accuracy nlll:e Dy 1 ~f iits fiire OOl!ltmil system iis
1. INTRODUCTION:
will remain in place for one full turn. During that time. if any ship
passes within 1" of the marker it will be illuminated All ships c. Both :p•layers win then :'liire eaeh gun in any Drder they·desitr-e. The -C. DorE;-a=ncy1Jy2i1ds~ireamilrol-ngisF.,
G., or t-L T.t:.ere iis newer any :reductioln due to the mtM!men:t of the
As mentioned in the Movement section of the rules, ship models will which are illuminated can be visually sighted just as if it were *I'S ·reqllJl:ired to tire eacti gun moul!nt are as fol-lows: ·fjining .sb~ ;if the srn:iip's tma corrrtrol system :is :rated A or B.
not be placed on the playing surface until they are visually sighted by daylight.
at teast one opposing unit. Visual sighting can occur only during the 1~ Resolve the USE!_ of the gun's FC radar, H .any.
Ships that were illuminated during a Visual Sighting Phase will cease 5. U ettne.r the lfii'1il'llQ ·DJ target shq> :made ain emergemcy tum,,
Visibility Phases of each turn. :rediuce ttie aecwacy rate Dy an addiilllkmal 1.
to be illuminated at the end of the next Movement Phase if they are not 2. Meas·u·re range to :bhe taryet.
2. VISIBILITY PROCEDURES: within 1" of the marker at that time; ships which passed within 1" of an
3. Det-erm:i:rne the Daltery's acwTacy. To do itlitis., ~M:it .oomsu1tt ithte '~"' If the l.llrget ship mal<es a 1Bll emergency dluim, -
0

a. If "units (i.e., ships, aircraft, missiles) represented by either counters illumination marker which did not illuminate them during the prior
Visual S1ghtinQ Phase will cease to be illuminated at the end of the G'""""Y Data T - . T•~is table indicates 1he base acooracy ra11e """~"'cy """ ..
~1 be noaooee
i.y 3.
or actual models, are being moved on the playing surface and there is
s<!me doubt as to whether or not they are visually sighted, the players Movement Phase following the Movement Phase in which they passed "'ine !II'"· "'1<I .~ a1so 'llodicases"""
long, amd .ay long) of lhe gun. C - r e lile -
""'II"
baOOs (snort, mei>iwn,
l~llg raroge &cepli:m: 11-fioing J i l i p - an emsgencyn.m liullllasa
will take a ruler and measure the distance between all such units and within 1 '.' of the illumination marker if they are not within 1" of the
marker at that time. Remove the illumination markers at the end of the d i <1>e range band figures giwn on tl1e table. If tile aclual ~ fire corittn>I syslern rated A or B, no accuracy penalty wiillt oca11r,,
e~ch opposing unit during the visibility segment of the turn. If the ramg1"is ,1e5s !l1mn m - 1 to lrne
distamle ;lisled Jor "'Short Range '· as the ;movement of a firing shi~soequi~ wi~l;I newer affedl the
Visual Sighting Phase following the Visual Sighting Phase during
distance between those units is equal to or less than the maximum lhe Ii"' >is occming a1 snort range. If U!e aaual lining range ma:eeiis llCClllllCY al its guns.
Visual .s~ghtlng Distance (given below), the unit is visually sighted. If
th.e unit 1s represented by a counter, immediately replace the counter
which they were fired.
"'is distance. but •is less•- or ""ll'al IO Ille dmnce Hsled lDT
'"~iium Range,"' Ure lfire ·ts l>CCUfli:llQ at .medium range. Simiar- 6. If fl<ing during tt>e ilirsl comba! phase ol a him, tile pll"""
with the actual model. If the distance exceeds the maximum Visual ly, Ollhe- range exx:eedsh! 'meditJm rartgelgi,,,,, but is less ·who5e chance to mawt occurs during titne second nKM!lllllefrt
Sighting Distance, the unit is not visually sighted. If any such unit Is X. GUNFIRE AGAINST SHIPS:
tlmn or equal ID lire ""L<llllQ Ra<nge" -..:.., ll>e lire ,js at loT!l!l pnma will no! yet lmw llad'"" opportllnily lo m ...... lf """al his
represented by an actual model, immediately replace the model with a
counter. 1. GUNFIRE REOUIREMENTS: ,range, - if tile •ange exx:eeds lhis dislanoe, .it ,. a1 wry •lorl!l .ships >is firing or l>8ing - ....,.., he mmt imiiadl! befan! the
•· During the gunfire segment of each combat phase, all ships may iange. --"'"""""!l ll>e range 11aoo, ronsi.itt tile """ c:or-1
l\djusmen!T-. ~>be proper ranye- ""lllh lbe
.-ution of any lll'jng ii sud! slnlj>s willI piiw;I or "Mooe
b. Determine which units visually sighted opposing units. Write the
name or designation of each sighted unit on the TD D's ol all sighting
simultaneously fire their guns if the firing requirements are met. The
firing requirements are as follows: Fire Comrol ratil1g of !lie """"'°", - c h ;115 loond on lhe Sl>ip
Charaderistics Tab~. Tbe resutt wiill be :a pl.us ·m miinlUS irnilll!llber
& - ! ( " duMg,. ~ ,,_.,,.,, phme. Hewiilli l>e
'91!~1i"ed ID
-
"'°"" llhe ....... m:conlingty cmmg liis - -
(if ii la dll ~-j.
11 12
d. Ranging In: The accuracy of guns wlll be reduced due to the need 2. High Capaclly (H C): This is a high explosive warhead d. British and Canadian ships are exceptionally well built. Decrease 1. If the gunnery accuracy is reduced by 1 (due to the loss of
tor ranging in only during the combat phase that the target Is lnltlally the number of damage points sustained by British and Canadian ships ra~ars, directors, damage to the fire control system, etc.), or the
normally used against shore installations and small boats. It has
fired upon by the firing ship. Ranging In reduces the ship's accuracy more explosive charge than common ammunition, so it can by 1/6 (round off to nearest point if necessary; if the result ends in 1h, ship loses up to 1/3 of its operational guns, reduce by one-third
for only one combat phase. If the firing ship continues firing upon the cause more topside damage; however, it explodes on contact so round downward). the total number of cards remaining face down next to the
same target during the following phase, there will be no ranging In it will do little damage below decks. When a ship scores hits with damaged ship. Round the Joss off upward if necessary.
penalty during the phaee. However, 11 the firing ship shifts its fire onto H C, increase the number of damage points scored by 1/3 Example: If a ship has tour cards remaining face down next to it
~n.other target, it must range 1n again; also, if the firing ship ceases (round fractions upward to nearest digit). However. when 6. DETERMINING GUNNERY DAMAGE: end it loses one-third of its guns, it loses two of those four cards'.
f1rtng for one phase, it must again range in when it again opens lire consulting the Gunfire Damage Chart, if the result indicates that 1. After all gunfire has been completed during a combat phase add up These cards are discarded immediately.
even if it is firing on the same target. a penetration is required, no damage will be sustained. the total number of damage points scored by both sides. The re'sult will
~e ~he nur:nber of cards that must be randomly picked from the deck 2. If the gunnery accuracy is reduced by 2 or the ship loses
Exception: If a firing ship shifts fire onto another target ship that is less 3. ~haped Charge (S C): Shaped Charge warheads are 1nd1cated 1n Item 2 of the Necessary Equipment Section of this rule between 1/3 and 1/2 (inclusive) of its operatlonal guns, reduce
than 3" (1 nautical mile) away from its prior target, ranging in is designed to penetrate armor plate. Shaped Charge rounds will book .. Each card will r~solve the effects of one damage point. the number of the ship's remaining damage cards by 1/2.
unnecessary. penetrate any thickness of armor, but reduce the damage points Sometimes, however, during combat phases in which there is a great
scored by 50% when using Shaped Charges. deal of gunfire, more damage points may be scored than the total 3. If gunnery a~cura~y is redl:Jced by 3 or the ship loses between
number of available cards. When this occurs, keep track of the total 1/2 and 2/3 (1nclus1ve) of its operational guns, reduce the
Exampl_e: If a ship op.ens fire during the third combat phase of the
4. Semi-armor piercing (SAP): This type of ammunition has a number of cards each ship hes on a piece of paper. In this case, draw number of the ship's remaining cards by 2/3.
gan_le, its accuracy will be reduced for ranging in on that phase. If
dun_ng t~~ next combat phase it continues firing on the same target or smaller explosive charge than Common HE but will penetrate only the number of cards needed in step (b) below (i.e., one card for
every fol!r damage points scored). When step (b) is completed, record 4. If gunnery accuracy is reduced by 4 or the ship loses between
begins f~n~g on another target that is within 3" of the prior target, more armor. Reduce the damage points scored by 25% when
2/3 and 3/4 (inclusive) of its operational guns, reduce the
ranging 1n 1s ~nnecessary, so the accuracy of the gun tire will not be using SAP. on the piece of paper the number of cards each ship has remaining
then .resh~ffle _all cards and draw the number needed tor step (c)'. number of the ship's remaining cards by 3/4.
red~ced for this reason. I~. ho~e~er, the firer switches to another target
during t_hat phase, ral"g1ng 1n 1s necessary. In addition, if the firer b. Shell types: Continue 1n this manner until all <;lemage is resolved.
5. If gunnery accuracy is reduced by5 or the ship loses between
cea_ses f1r~ng for th_at c~mbat phase, and during any subsequent phase 3/4 and 5/6 (inclusive) of its operational guns, reduce the
reopens fire, ranging 1n is necessary regardless of the target. ·t. The common, unaaslated shell is the vehicle used to carry b. After pi~ki.ng _the cards, place one of them face down for every
damage point being re~ol.ved next to the model of the ship.that caused number of the ship's remaining cards by 5/6.
most warheads. All tables are based on using unassisted shells.
The penalty for ranging in is dependent upon the rating of the Firer's the damage. When this 1s completed, turn over simultaneously the
number of each •hip's cards equal to 25% of the total number of 6. If gunnery accuracy is reduced by 6 or more, or more than 5/6
Fire Control System: 2. Rocket Assisted Projectile (RAP): When using RAP, the of th~ s.hip's operational guns are knocked out, discard all of the
maximum range of the gun is extended by 1/3. When gunnery damage points scored by the ship during that phase. That is, if
one card has been picked for every damage point scored that phase rema1n1ng damage cards.
A, B - 1 determining acc1,1racy, reduce the actual range 1/3.
C, D, E - 2 tl!rn over 25% of each ship's cards, but if the total number of cardS
picked equalled 1/4 of the total number of damage points scored that d. All of the damage caused by cards ·which are turned over at the
F, G. H - 3 Example: If the actual range is 18", the accuracy of a RAP round same time is cumulative, so if a ship loses 1 from its gunnery accuracy
All ships not using a fire controtor;TWS radar - 1 additional will be the same as that of a normal round fired at a range of 12". turn, turn all of them over. If the total number of a ship's cards is not
equally divisible by 4, round off the number of cards to be turned (or 1/4 of its guns) based on one damage card and another 1 from its
All Soviet designed ships - 1 additional RAP rounds may have HC, COM or Shaped Charge warheads, accuracy (or 1/4 of its guns) based on another card, it will lose 1/2of its
but in all cases, reduce the damage points scored by 25% over downward to the nearest multiple of four. Thus, if a ship has
scored f~ur to seven points during a phase, turn over only one card; if it cards.
e. Silnge finder
3. Long-Range Boost Assist Projectiles (LABA): The same as scored eight through eleven points, turn over two.
Exa_mple: If a ~hip firing two guns scored twenty damage points
1. Und~r normal conditions, ships will obtain range information RAP, but the gun's range is increased by 2/3 while the number of during a phase, 11 would have a pile of twenty cards pt aced near it. Alter
from a fire control radar. However, if the fire control radar is not damage points scored is reduced by 50%. c. Take each of th,e cards turned over (one ata time) and do as follows:
t~is is done, five of these cards (25%) will be turned over
oper~ting or en~aging other targets, range information may be simultaneously, and any damage caused by them will be sustained. If
obtat~ed from e1t~er the search radar or visual spotting. Visual 4. Guided Projectlles: These projectiles are not yet 1. Using the suit of the card, determine if any damage will be
c~used. If. the target ship's displacement is under 1000 tons, it at the sam~ time, this ship's fire control radar is knocked out, forcing it
spotting.may be either director control or local control. Director operational, but they may be within a few years. Basically, these to rely on its search radar for range information, its accuracy rate will
contr?I 1s more accurate than local control, but it cannot be are shells which are guided by active or passive means to the w:111 sustain d~mage regardless of the suit. If the target ship's
d1sp1i:icement 1s 1000 tons or over, it will sustain damage if the be reduced by 1 (per Rule 3 (e) above), so 1/3 of its remaining cards will
use~ 1f the director has been knocked out, or either the director target in a similar manner as missiles. Guided Projectiles will be discarded, leaving it with ten cards not yet turned over. If one of the
or fire control radar 1s being used on another target during the have a range equal to 1/3 less than the normal gun range. They card is a club, spade or diamond. If damage is sustained, go on
to Step (2). ship's guns is also knocked out, the number of remaining cards must
phase. See the Electronic Warfare Rules for further information may have a H C, H E or Shaped Charge warhead and may be be reduced by 1/2, since the ship has lost 1/2 of its currently operating
on using search radars to secure range information. rocket assisted (RAP) which would increase its range out to guns. Thus, the ship has only five cards remaining next to it.
normal gun range in return for less damage capability. The 2. Using the number on the card, consult the Area Hit Table for
2. If a ship relies on its search radar which is notTWS, subtract 2 actual accuracy rate of Guided Projectiles will always be 12. the gun being used to determine whether the target sustains the
from its accuracy rate: if it relies on visual spotting from its damage in the hull, superstructure, or deck. 8. DAMAGE ADJUSTMENTS:
director, subtract 3 from the accuracy rate. a. The Gunnery Damage Tables indicate the damage to be sustained
c. Fu1es by the target ship. AU of the damage listed next to the number rolled
3'. Then, take two decimal dice and designate one as the ten's
3. If a ship tires from local control, it will be treated as if its fire die and the other as the unit's die. Roll the dice and combine the must be_sustaine.d. If the ship does not have the equipment listed, or if
1. Standard - The standard fuse for HE and Shaped Charges is the equipment hsted has already been knocked out, the ship will
control system is rated H. If a ship's fire control system is rated ten's die with the unit's die to obtain a number between 01 and
a delayed action tuse, while the standard fuse for HC is one that usually sustain no damage. However, if a piece of equipment is listed in
H, it does not require information either from radar or from the 00 (100). Using this number, consult the proper Gunnery
explodes on impact. The rules already take into· account the parentheses, Example: "1 Sec SAM FC radar (or 1 Main SAM FC
gun director, so no reduction would apply. Damage Table (hull, superstructure, or deck) to determine the
action of these fuses. radar)", that piece of equipment in parentheses will sustain the
damage _sustainE'.d. by the target. All of the damage sustained is
Note: In order for a ship to receive information from a search or cumulative, and 1t 1s assumed to occur simultaneously. See rule damage If the piece of equipment preceding it is already knocked out
TWS radar. the radar must be operational and turned on; it is not 2. Proximity fuse (VT) - These fuses can be used with any type or non-existent; if ~he ~quipm~nt preceding the parentheses ls not yet
of projectile and with any warhead except Shaped Charge. 7 below for the effects of gunnery damage.
necessary that the radar actually detect the target. Fire control ~necked out, the~ 1t will sustain the damage, and the equipment listed
radars, however, cannot provide any information unless they These fuses explode in the air over the target resulting in greater in parentheses will be undamaged.
successfully track the target (see the Electronics Rules for opportunity for damage to unprotected parts of ',he d .. After resolving ~11. of the damage required in step (c), turn overone-
further details). superstructure, but little damage elsewhere. To simulate this, if th1rd of th~ remaining number of each ship's cards (rounding off b. So~e results are preceded by A, P or PA. Such results can only
using VT fuses, increase the accuracy rate by 1. When downward 1f necessary) and resolve the damage as in (c). occur tf the shell can penetrate the position indicated. See the Armor
f. Capping the T: A ship is considered to be Capping the T of an determining damage (see 6 below), if the card is a club, spade or Penetra~ion Rl!les ~or a full explanation. Frequently, another damage
opposing ship if it is located off the bow or stern of the target. See the diamond, the damage will be sustained by the superstructure; if e. After resolving ~ll_of the damage required in step (d), turn overone- result will be given 1n parentheses next to these. If such is the case the
diagram below; if the firing ship is anywhere within the areas marked a heart, no damage will be sustained by the target even if the half of the rema1n1ng number of cards (rounding downward if damage listed in parentheses will occur if the shell is unable to
A, it is considered to be Capping the T of the target unit. If the firing target is smaller than 1000 tons. When consulting the necessary) and resolve the damage as in (c). penetrate the position indicated, or if the position indicated has
ship is Capping the T of the target, reduce the firing ship's accuracy by Superstructure Damage Table, ignore any Fire result or any already been destroyed or was non-existent. If the position indicated
result calling for vibration damage or damage to main gun or f. After r~s~lving all of the damage required in step {e), turn over all of b~ A, P or PA can be penetrated, the results indicated in parentheses
1. A SAM mounts. All other damage will be sustained in the normal the remBJn1ng cards and resolve the remaining damage in the same
v.90:.v
"ow/
manner. manner.

g. As damage is sustained by a ship, keep track of it on the ship's TDD.


will not occur. If no other result is listed in parentheses next to an A, P
or PA result, no damage will be sustained if penetration does not
occur.

B TARGET
The effects of all types of damage is explained in the Damage Rules
section of this book.
c. Shi.PS over 10,000_ Ions: If damage is sustained, ignore any result
occunng_ af~er the first comma on the result line. Example: If the
~TE~ 5. SHIP DESIGN AND SIZE:
•· It the target has a displacement of less than 1000 tons, increase the Remember that the cards. that are placed next to a ship represent the
damage indicated by the table reads: "1 main SAM mount, 1 surface
search radar KO", the ship will only lose the SAM mount, not the radar.
/'90:~" number of damage points scored by 1f.? (round downward if necessary
to nearest lull point).
damage caused by the ship, not the damage the ship is to sustain itself.
d. Ships of under 1000 tons: If the card governing the roll of dice is a
4. AMMUNITION: B 7. EFFECTS OF GUNNERY DAMAGE: ~eart, ignore any result occuring after the first comma on the result
b. If the target's displacement exceeds 10,000 tons, decrease damage a. All of the damage will be assumed to occur simultaneously and will !1n~. If the card is of any other suit, the ship will sustain all damage
Each round consists of a combination of warhead, shell and fuse. be immediately effective.
During each combat phase. each gun battery may fire only one by 1/3. 1nd1cated.
combination of warhead, shell and fuse types. The types available for b. If the damage affects the ship's speed the speed loss will be
use against ships as as follows: c. Soviet-designed ships are more susceptible to battle damage than e. Poor aho«?k mountings: Many ships are listed on the Ship Data
are ships designed in NATO countries. To simulate this, increase the effective during the next movement phase. ' Chart as having poor shock mountings. Whenever such ships sustain
nu_mber of damage points scored when the target is a Soviet-designed gunnery damage, in addition to the damage indicated on the Gunnery
•· Warheads: ship by i;.. (round oft to the nearest point if necessary); if the resutt ends c. !f the: damage affects gunnery, the ship's fire power will be reduced Dam~ge Tab~C?. look also at the damage result given for the number
in 1h, round it downward to the nearest point. Example: If a Soviet ship as indicated beginning with the next combat phase, and In addition, that 1s one h~ghe_r than t_he number actually rolled (e.g. if a 22 was
1. Common H E (HE): This 1s the standard type of warhead
sustains six damage points, increase the· number of damage points to the amount of damage it can cause during the remainder of the current rolled, the ship will sustain the damage listed for number 22, but also
used in anti-ship firing. It has a moderate size high explosive
seven, not eight. combat phase will be affected as follows:
warhead and is designed to penetrate into a hull before
exploding. The damage tables are based on H E ammunition. 13 14
d. Ranging In: The accuracy of guns wlll be reduced due to the need 2. High Capaclly (H C): This is a high explosive warhead d. British and Canadian ships are exceptionally well built. Decrease 1. If the gunnery accuracy is reduced by 1 (due to the loss of
tor ranging in only during the combat phase that the target Is lnltlally the number of damage points sustained by British and Canadian ships ra~ars, directors, damage to the fire control system, etc.), or the
normally used against shore installations and small boats. It has
fired upon by the firing ship. Ranging In reduces the ship's accuracy more explosive charge than common ammunition, so it can by 1/6 (round off to nearest point if necessary; if the result ends in 1h, ship loses up to 1/3 of its operational guns, reduce by one-third
for only one combat phase. If the firing ship continues firing upon the cause more topside damage; however, it explodes on contact so round downward). the total number of cards remaining face down next to the
same target during the following phase, there will be no ranging In it will do little damage below decks. When a ship scores hits with damaged ship. Round the Joss off upward if necessary.
penalty during the phaee. However, 11 the firing ship shifts its fire onto H C, increase the number of damage points scored by 1/3 Example: If a ship has tour cards remaining face down next to it
~n.other target, it must range 1n again; also, if the firing ship ceases (round fractions upward to nearest digit). However. when 6. DETERMINING GUNNERY DAMAGE: end it loses one-third of its guns, it loses two of those four cards'.
f1rtng for one phase, it must again range in when it again opens lire consulting the Gunfire Damage Chart, if the result indicates that 1. After all gunfire has been completed during a combat phase add up These cards are discarded immediately.
even if it is firing on the same target. a penetration is required, no damage will be sustained. the total number of damage points scored by both sides. The re'sult will
~e ~he nur:nber of cards that must be randomly picked from the deck 2. If the gunnery accuracy is reduced by 2 or the ship loses
Exception: If a firing ship shifts fire onto another target ship that is less 3. ~haped Charge (S C): Shaped Charge warheads are 1nd1cated 1n Item 2 of the Necessary Equipment Section of this rule between 1/3 and 1/2 (inclusive) of its operatlonal guns, reduce
than 3" (1 nautical mile) away from its prior target, ranging in is designed to penetrate armor plate. Shaped Charge rounds will book .. Each card will r~solve the effects of one damage point. the number of the ship's remaining damage cards by 1/2.
unnecessary. penetrate any thickness of armor, but reduce the damage points Sometimes, however, during combat phases in which there is a great
scored by 50% when using Shaped Charges. deal of gunfire, more damage points may be scored than the total 3. If gunnery a~cura~y is redl:Jced by 3 or the ship loses between
number of available cards. When this occurs, keep track of the total 1/2 and 2/3 (1nclus1ve) of its operational guns, reduce the
Exampl_e: If a ship op.ens fire during the third combat phase of the
4. Semi-armor piercing (SAP): This type of ammunition has a number of cards each ship hes on a piece of paper. In this case, draw number of the ship's remaining cards by 2/3.
gan_le, its accuracy will be reduced for ranging in on that phase. If
dun_ng t~~ next combat phase it continues firing on the same target or smaller explosive charge than Common HE but will penetrate only the number of cards needed in step (b) below (i.e., one card for
every fol!r damage points scored). When step (b) is completed, record 4. If gunnery accuracy is reduced by 4 or the ship loses between
begins f~n~g on another target that is within 3" of the prior target, more armor. Reduce the damage points scored by 25% when
2/3 and 3/4 (inclusive) of its operational guns, reduce the
ranging 1n 1s ~nnecessary, so the accuracy of the gun tire will not be using SAP. on the piece of paper the number of cards each ship has remaining
then .resh~ffle _all cards and draw the number needed tor step (c)'. number of the ship's remaining cards by 3/4.
red~ced for this reason. I~. ho~e~er, the firer switches to another target
during t_hat phase, ral"g1ng 1n 1s necessary. In addition, if the firer b. Shell types: Continue 1n this manner until all <;lemage is resolved.
5. If gunnery accuracy is reduced by5 or the ship loses between
cea_ses f1r~ng for th_at c~mbat phase, and during any subsequent phase 3/4 and 5/6 (inclusive) of its operational guns, reduce the
reopens fire, ranging 1n is necessary regardless of the target. ·t. The common, unaaslated shell is the vehicle used to carry b. After pi~ki.ng _the cards, place one of them face down for every
damage point being re~ol.ved next to the model of the ship.that caused number of the ship's remaining cards by 5/6.
most warheads. All tables are based on using unassisted shells.
The penalty for ranging in is dependent upon the rating of the Firer's the damage. When this 1s completed, turn over simultaneously the
number of each •hip's cards equal to 25% of the total number of 6. If gunnery accuracy is reduced by 6 or more, or more than 5/6
Fire Control System: 2. Rocket Assisted Projectile (RAP): When using RAP, the of th~ s.hip's operational guns are knocked out, discard all of the
maximum range of the gun is extended by 1/3. When gunnery damage points scored by the ship during that phase. That is, if
one card has been picked for every damage point scored that phase rema1n1ng damage cards.
A, B - 1 determining acc1,1racy, reduce the actual range 1/3.
C, D, E - 2 tl!rn over 25% of each ship's cards, but if the total number of cardS
picked equalled 1/4 of the total number of damage points scored that d. All of the damage caused by cards ·which are turned over at the
F, G. H - 3 Example: If the actual range is 18", the accuracy of a RAP round same time is cumulative, so if a ship loses 1 from its gunnery accuracy
All ships not using a fire controtor;TWS radar - 1 additional will be the same as that of a normal round fired at a range of 12". turn, turn all of them over. If the total number of a ship's cards is not
equally divisible by 4, round off the number of cards to be turned (or 1/4 of its guns) based on one damage card and another 1 from its
All Soviet designed ships - 1 additional RAP rounds may have HC, COM or Shaped Charge warheads, accuracy (or 1/4 of its guns) based on another card, it will lose 1/2of its
but in all cases, reduce the damage points scored by 25% over downward to the nearest multiple of four. Thus, if a ship has
scored f~ur to seven points during a phase, turn over only one card; if it cards.
e. Silnge finder
3. Long-Range Boost Assist Projectiles (LABA): The same as scored eight through eleven points, turn over two.
Exa_mple: If a ~hip firing two guns scored twenty damage points
1. Und~r normal conditions, ships will obtain range information RAP, but the gun's range is increased by 2/3 while the number of during a phase, 11 would have a pile of twenty cards pt aced near it. Alter
from a fire control radar. However, if the fire control radar is not damage points scored is reduced by 50%. c. Take each of th,e cards turned over (one ata time) and do as follows:
t~is is done, five of these cards (25%) will be turned over
oper~ting or en~aging other targets, range information may be simultaneously, and any damage caused by them will be sustained. If
obtat~ed from e1t~er the search radar or visual spotting. Visual 4. Guided Projectlles: These projectiles are not yet 1. Using the suit of the card, determine if any damage will be
c~used. If. the target ship's displacement is under 1000 tons, it at the sam~ time, this ship's fire control radar is knocked out, forcing it
spotting.may be either director control or local control. Director operational, but they may be within a few years. Basically, these to rely on its search radar for range information, its accuracy rate will
contr?I 1s more accurate than local control, but it cannot be are shells which are guided by active or passive means to the w:111 sustain d~mage regardless of the suit. If the target ship's
d1sp1i:icement 1s 1000 tons or over, it will sustain damage if the be reduced by 1 (per Rule 3 (e) above), so 1/3 of its remaining cards will
use~ 1f the director has been knocked out, or either the director target in a similar manner as missiles. Guided Projectiles will be discarded, leaving it with ten cards not yet turned over. If one of the
or fire control radar 1s being used on another target during the have a range equal to 1/3 less than the normal gun range. They card is a club, spade or diamond. If damage is sustained, go on
to Step (2). ship's guns is also knocked out, the number of remaining cards must
phase. See the Electronic Warfare Rules for further information may have a H C, H E or Shaped Charge warhead and may be be reduced by 1/2, since the ship has lost 1/2 of its currently operating
on using search radars to secure range information. rocket assisted (RAP) which would increase its range out to guns. Thus, the ship has only five cards remaining next to it.
normal gun range in return for less damage capability. The 2. Using the number on the card, consult the Area Hit Table for
2. If a ship relies on its search radar which is notTWS, subtract 2 actual accuracy rate of Guided Projectiles will always be 12. the gun being used to determine whether the target sustains the
from its accuracy rate: if it relies on visual spotting from its damage in the hull, superstructure, or deck. 8. DAMAGE ADJUSTMENTS:
director, subtract 3 from the accuracy rate. a. The Gunnery Damage Tables indicate the damage to be sustained
c. Fu1es by the target ship. AU of the damage listed next to the number rolled
3'. Then, take two decimal dice and designate one as the ten's
3. If a ship tires from local control, it will be treated as if its fire die and the other as the unit's die. Roll the dice and combine the must be_sustaine.d. If the ship does not have the equipment listed, or if
1. Standard - The standard fuse for HE and Shaped Charges is the equipment hsted has already been knocked out, the ship will
control system is rated H. If a ship's fire control system is rated ten's die with the unit's die to obtain a number between 01 and
a delayed action tuse, while the standard fuse for HC is one that usually sustain no damage. However, if a piece of equipment is listed in
H, it does not require information either from radar or from the 00 (100). Using this number, consult the proper Gunnery
explodes on impact. The rules already take into· account the parentheses, Example: "1 Sec SAM FC radar (or 1 Main SAM FC
gun director, so no reduction would apply. Damage Table (hull, superstructure, or deck) to determine the
action of these fuses. radar)", that piece of equipment in parentheses will sustain the
damage _sustainE'.d. by the target. All of the damage sustained is
Note: In order for a ship to receive information from a search or cumulative, and 1t 1s assumed to occur simultaneously. See rule damage If the piece of equipment preceding it is already knocked out
TWS radar. the radar must be operational and turned on; it is not 2. Proximity fuse (VT) - These fuses can be used with any type or non-existent; if ~he ~quipm~nt preceding the parentheses ls not yet
of projectile and with any warhead except Shaped Charge. 7 below for the effects of gunnery damage.
necessary that the radar actually detect the target. Fire control ~necked out, the~ 1t will sustain the damage, and the equipment listed
radars, however, cannot provide any information unless they These fuses explode in the air over the target resulting in greater in parentheses will be undamaged.
successfully track the target (see the Electronics Rules for opportunity for damage to unprotected parts of ',he d .. After resolving ~11. of the damage required in step (c), turn overone-
further details). superstructure, but little damage elsewhere. To simulate this, if th1rd of th~ remaining number of each ship's cards (rounding off b. So~e results are preceded by A, P or PA. Such results can only
using VT fuses, increase the accuracy rate by 1. When downward 1f necessary) and resolve the damage as in (c). occur tf the shell can penetrate the position indicated. See the Armor
f. Capping the T: A ship is considered to be Capping the T of an determining damage (see 6 below), if the card is a club, spade or Penetra~ion Rl!les ~or a full explanation. Frequently, another damage
opposing ship if it is located off the bow or stern of the target. See the diamond, the damage will be sustained by the superstructure; if e. After resolving ~ll_of the damage required in step (d), turn overone- result will be given 1n parentheses next to these. If such is the case the
diagram below; if the firing ship is anywhere within the areas marked a heart, no damage will be sustained by the target even if the half of the rema1n1ng number of cards (rounding downward if damage listed in parentheses will occur if the shell is unable to
A, it is considered to be Capping the T of the target unit. If the firing target is smaller than 1000 tons. When consulting the necessary) and resolve the damage as in (c). penetrate the position indicated, or if the position indicated has
ship is Capping the T of the target, reduce the firing ship's accuracy by Superstructure Damage Table, ignore any Fire result or any already been destroyed or was non-existent. If the position indicated
result calling for vibration damage or damage to main gun or f. After r~s~lving all of the damage required in step {e), turn over all of b~ A, P or PA can be penetrated, the results indicated in parentheses
1. A SAM mounts. All other damage will be sustained in the normal the remBJn1ng cards and resolve the remaining damage in the same
v.90:.v
"ow/
manner. manner.

g. As damage is sustained by a ship, keep track of it on the ship's TDD.


will not occur. If no other result is listed in parentheses next to an A, P
or PA result, no damage will be sustained if penetration does not
occur.

B TARGET
The effects of all types of damage is explained in the Damage Rules
section of this book.
c. Shi.PS over 10,000_ Ions: If damage is sustained, ignore any result
occunng_ af~er the first comma on the result line. Example: If the
~TE~ 5. SHIP DESIGN AND SIZE:
•· It the target has a displacement of less than 1000 tons, increase the Remember that the cards. that are placed next to a ship represent the
damage indicated by the table reads: "1 main SAM mount, 1 surface
search radar KO", the ship will only lose the SAM mount, not the radar.
/'90:~" number of damage points scored by 1f.? (round downward if necessary
to nearest lull point).
damage caused by the ship, not the damage the ship is to sustain itself.
d. Ships of under 1000 tons: If the card governing the roll of dice is a
4. AMMUNITION: B 7. EFFECTS OF GUNNERY DAMAGE: ~eart, ignore any result occuring after the first comma on the result
b. If the target's displacement exceeds 10,000 tons, decrease damage a. All of the damage will be assumed to occur simultaneously and will !1n~. If the card is of any other suit, the ship will sustain all damage
Each round consists of a combination of warhead, shell and fuse. be immediately effective.
During each combat phase. each gun battery may fire only one by 1/3. 1nd1cated.
combination of warhead, shell and fuse types. The types available for b. If the damage affects the ship's speed the speed loss will be
use against ships as as follows: c. Soviet-designed ships are more susceptible to battle damage than e. Poor aho«?k mountings: Many ships are listed on the Ship Data
are ships designed in NATO countries. To simulate this, increase the effective during the next movement phase. ' Chart as having poor shock mountings. Whenever such ships sustain
nu_mber of damage points scored when the target is a Soviet-designed gunnery damage, in addition to the damage indicated on the Gunnery
•· Warheads: ship by i;.. (round oft to the nearest point if necessary); if the resutt ends c. !f the: damage affects gunnery, the ship's fire power will be reduced Dam~ge Tab~C?. look also at the damage result given for the number
in 1h, round it downward to the nearest point. Example: If a Soviet ship as indicated beginning with the next combat phase, and In addition, that 1s one h~ghe_r than t_he number actually rolled (e.g. if a 22 was
1. Common H E (HE): This 1s the standard type of warhead
sustains six damage points, increase the· number of damage points to the amount of damage it can cause during the remainder of the current rolled, the ship will sustain the damage listed for number 22, but also
used in anti-ship firing. It has a moderate size high explosive
seven, not eight. combat phase will be affected as follows:
warhead and is designed to penetrate into a hull before
exploding. The damage tables are based on H E ammunition. 13 14
XI. DAMAGE: Roll again, if the system indicated by the table has already been
look at the damage result given for number 23). If that result indicates Armor will prevent certain damage from occuring .if t~e ~mmunition destroyed. Only the weapon system indicated by the die roll will be
either engine damage or damage to any radar, radar detector or used is unable to penetrate the armor at the point 1nd1cated. The 1. EFFECTS OF DAMAGE: affected, all other weapon systems will continue to operate normally.
jammer, the ship will sustain that damage in addition to its normal Damage Table indicates the damage which requires armor a. Weapons Systems: When a damage table indicates that a weapon's
damage. Exception: If the ship is larger than 10,000 tons, it will ~ot penetration. If the area hit is the hull, the belt armor must be penetrated mount 1s knocked out, all weapons in that mount will be unable to j. Fire Control System: If a fire control system is knocked out, firing
sustain any .additional damage if that damage occurs after the first for damage to occur; if the area hit is the deck, the deck armor must be function as soon as the damage occurs. wi It only be possible for the wea1::>ons by local control. The fire control
comma in the result line). In all cases, the ship will sustain only the penetrated. However. 1f the Damage Table indicates that a gun mount rating of the ship is immediately reduced to H. In addition, the data link
additional engine or electronics damage, not any other damage listed is to be knocked out if penetration occurs, only the turret armor must Example: If a twin gun mount is knocked out, both guns will be will cease to function if all fire control systems are knocked out.
on the line. Also, if the ship sustains normal engine damage and the be penetrated. inoperable.
damage result given tor the number that is one higher than the number k. Magazine: 1f a magazine explodes, determine whether the
rolled also calls tor engine damage, the ship will sustain only the Special: Certain aircraft carriers have hulls built of high tension steel b. Radars, radar detectors, sonar and jammers: When the damage explosion occured in the bow or the stern. If alt of the ships guns are
engine damage that is of the greater severity, it will not sustain both the which acts as armor; -such ships can never sustain any hull damage table indicates that such a device is knocked out, the device indicated located in the bow of the ship, the explosion occured in the bow; if all
engine damage indicated next to the number rolled and also the unless the armor is penetrated, even if the Damage Table indicates that will immediately cease functioning. are located in the stern, the explosion occurred in the stern. If the ship
engine damage indicated on the next line. penetration is not required. has guns both in the bow and the stern, roll one six-sided die; if there
c. Gun directors: When a gun director is knocked out, it will are an equal number of guns on both the bow and the stern, the
t. Damage to Aircraft Carriers: In addition to the normal damage b. Armor penetration is as follows: immediately cease functioning, and, in addition, one gun fire control explosion is in the bow if the roll is 1/2/3 and in the stern if the roll is
indicated by the Damage Table, aircraft carriers will also sustain the radar is also knocked out and ceases functioning. The guns controlled 4/5/6. If the ship has more guns in one area than in another, the
following damage: 1. Common HE: Guns of 7" caliber or less which fire Common by that director and radar may still fire by local control. When finng a explosion will occur in the area having the most guns on a roll of 1/2/3
HE shells can penetrate only light belt and turret armor at all gun by local control, assume its fire control system rating is H, rather or 4 and in the other area it the roll is 5/6.
ranges; they cannot penetrate any deck armor. Guns of 8" than its normal rating.
1. If the deck is to sustain damage and the number rolled when
consulting the Gunnery Damage Table is 01 through 10, one caliber or more can penetrate moderate belt and turret armor Regardless of where the explosion occurred, all sonar. radar, radar
elevator is knocked out if the deck armor can be penetrated by out to six miles range (18"), and light belt and turret armor at all d. Bridge: On most modern ships, the bridge is_ usually vacant during detectors and jammers are knocked out. The ship will also sustain
the ammo used. ranges. In addition, they can penetrate light deck armor at general quarters; all fighting and navigating occurs in the CIC. 1200 points of Flooding damage. If the explosion occurred in the bow,
ranges equal to or exceeding twelve miles (36"); they cannot However, the bridge can operate as a secondary command point 1f the all weapons forward of the bridge are knocked out; if the explosion
2. The suit of the card picked when consulting the Damage penetrate any deck armor at all at ranges of under twelve miles. CIC is knocked out. Therefore, if a ship's CIC is operating, a hit on the occurred in the stern, all weapons aft of the bridge are knocked out,
Table will determine if any aircraft are knocked out. If the carrier Common HE cannot penetrate heavy armor at any range. bridge will have no effect. However, if the CIC has already been and in addition, propeller damage is sustained. Roll one six-sided die
has twenty-five or fewer aircraft (and helicopters) on board at 2. Shaped Charge: Shaped Charge rounds can pen~trate any knocked out, a ship sustaining subsequent bridge damage must move to determine additional damage.
the time the damage is sustained, it will lose one aircraft (or thickness of armor at any range regardless of the cahber of the directly forward for one full turn. The ship may not accelerate,
helicopter) whenever a spade is picked. If the carrier has gun. decelerate, or move evasively. After one full turn is completed, the ship 0, 1 - All generators KO, very severe engine damage, all main
may move normally. FC systems KO, fire level 6; increase flooding by 600 points.
twenty-six through fifty planes on board, one will be destroyed
whenever a spade or club is picked. If the carrier has fifty-one 3. Semi-armor Piercing Rounds: Guns of 7" caliber or less
through seventy-five aircraft on board, one aircraft will be which fire SAP rounds can penetrate moderate belt and turret e. Communications: When a ship's communications are knocked 2 - Very severe engine damage, all main FC systems KO, fire
destroyed whenever a club, spade or diamond comes up. If the armor out to a range of six miles {18"), and light belt and turret out, it will be unable to receive or pass·on movement information level 6, two generators KO.
carrier has over seventy-five planes on board, one plane will be armor at all ranges. In addition, they can penetrate light deck unless laser signalling is available. Such ships must remain within 3" of
destroyed for every damage card. armor at ranges equal to or exceeding twelve miles (36"). Guns the flagship or be part of a chain of ships that are within 3" of each 3 - Very severe engine damage, all main FC systems KO, two
of 8" caliber or larger which fire SAP rounds can penetrate other and one of which is the flagship. If the ship without generators KO, increase flooding by 600 points, fire level 4.
3. Fires: Whenever an aircraft is destroyed, a level 1 fire will moderate and light belt and turret armor at all ranges, and can communications is not within 3" of the flagship, or part of the chain of
break out if the card picked to determine damage was a 1, 5, or penetrate light deck armor at ranges equal to or exceeding nine ships, it must be moved directly toward the flagship (unless evading 4 - Major engine damage, two generators KO, fire level 6.
miles (27"). mlssiles or torpedoes). If the flagship loses its communications, all
10. Also when consulting the Damage Table, look at the damage
other ships must be within 3" of It or be part of a chain of ships within 3" 5 - Major engine damage, one generator KO, fire level 4.
that is listed for the number that is one higher than the number
actually rolled (e.g., if a 22 was rolled look at the damage 4. High Capacity Rounds: This type of shell cannot penetrate cl each other and ona of which la tha flagship. Shlpo with laser
indicated for number 23). If that result is a fire, the carrier will any armor at all regardless of the caliber of the gun. signalling can continue receiving end passing on Information to units 8, 7 .. Moderate engine damage, one generator KO, fire level 4.
sustain that fire damage in addition to the damage indicated within daylight visual olghtlng range 10 that they ara not required to
next to the number actually rolled. 5. VT- Fused shells: Any shell equipped with a VT fuse cannot remain with 3" of any ship, Subtract 1 from th1 roll for Soviet and Chinese designed ships; add 1
penetrate any armor at all. for British and Canadian designed ships.
Exceptions: If the ship is larger than 10,000 tons and the fire Ships without communlc1t1on1 01nno1 r101lv1 or 0111 en t1ra1t
damage occurs afterthe first comma in the result line, it will not 10. FIRE CONTROL: Information except via data llnk, If 0!)1r1tlonal. Thu1, It wlll be unliDle I. Propell•r: If a propeller Is knocked out, the ship's maximum speed
a. The accuracy of a ship's guns is based primarily on its fire control to take any action against targets or ml11lle1, etc., which are not wlll normally be reduced by 50%. However, If the ship has ontv one
be sustained. Also, regardless of displacement, if the ~esult directly visible to it or located by Its own sensors, nor may any other
indicated next to the number actually rolled calls tor a fire to system which is rated A through H depending on its effectiveness. The propeller, it is dead in the water. Also, if a ship suffers propeller
accuracy figures given for systems A through G ~re based on the •Jnit take action aaainst anv taraet, missile, etc. that has only been damage due to a magazine explosion. it is dead in the water.
break out. and in addition, the result indicated by the number
that is one higher than that actually rolled also indicates a fire, assumption that range data is being secured bye fire control radar. located by the ship without communications. Of course. if the data link
However, if the fire control radar is not operating, range data can be is operational, the ship can pass on and receive all target information m. Engines: If a ship sustains engine damage, its maximum speed will
the ship will only sustain the higher of the two fire levels
secured by one of these other, less effici~nt methods: via the data link with any other ship possessing the data link (see the be reduced as indicated hetow:
indicated; it will not sustain both (e.g. if a 21 is rolled and the Data Link rules in the Electronics Section).
result line calls for "Fire Level 1" and result number 22 indicates 1. Search Radar: The Search Radar may be used to obtain
"Fire Level 2'', the ship will only sustain a Level 2 fire. Minor damage -- lose 5 kts.
range data, but as indicated in the Accuracy Adjustment Rules; f. Data Link: If the data link is knocked out, 1t becomes of course, Moderate damage -- lose 10 kts.
the accuracy will be reduced. immediately inoperable. See the Electronics Section for data link Major damage -- lose 50°/o of the maximum speed.
4. Whenever a damage card indicates damage to a carrier's information.
deck or superstructure, the carrier will sustain flight deck 2. Optical Sighting: If neither the fire control nor the Search Very severe damage -- ship is dead in the water.
damage in addition to other damage (if any) indicated by the Radar is operational, range data can be secured visually by the
radar director (if it is operational). This is the least efficient g. Steering circuits and rudder damage: Any ship sustaining damage All Soviet-designed ships, all merchant ships, and all ships with only
Damage Table. Flight deck damage is recorded in points. to the rudder or steering circuits must move directly forward unlil the
Normally, for every card indicating deck or superstructure method of securing range information, resulting in an accuracy one engine will lose double the amount indicated above (e.g., they will
reduction of 3 (per Rule 3 (e)). Gun directors are slaved to the damage is repaired. lose 20 kts if moderate damage is sustained).
damage, the carrier will sustain 50 points of flight deck damage;
however, the following adjustment apply: fire control radar, so if the fire control radar is being used
against one target, the director may not be used against h. Generators: Most ships have a number of generators (usually British and Canadian designed ships will lose only 1/2 of the speed
another. about four). If a ship has at least two generators functioning, it may loss indicated above.
a. If the card is a heart, no flight deck damage occurs
operate in the normal manner. If a ship has only one generator
unless an aircraft is destroyed.
b. If neither the radars nor the directors are operational, or if the fire functioning, it may move at up to 75%of its maximum speed, but it may n. Flooding: As indicated in the Flotation Rules below, each ship can
b. If an aircraft is destroyed by the same card, increase control system itself is not operation, guns may still be fired by local not use any radars, sonars, radar detectors or jammers. In addition, it take a certain amount of flooding before it sinks. The amount of
the damage by 50 points. If the card is a heart, the damage control. If this is done, the ship will be assumed to have e fire control may fire no weapons except those capable of being manually flooding is recorded in units called Flotation Points. The number of
sustained will total only 50 points. system rating of H, so use that column on the Accuracy Table to operated. If a ship loses alt of its generators,. it may not move, use any Flotation Points a ship sustains is based on the severity of the flooding
determine accuracy. Local control can only be used it the target Is radar, sonar, radar_detector or jam mer, or fire any weapon other than and the weapon causing it:
visually sighted by the firing ship at the time of firing. small. manually operated ones.
c. If the deck is hit and the ammo used can penetrate the Severity Gunllre Mlnlles end Torp1.
deck armor, increase the damage by 50 points unless the Note: Some guns are incapable of firing without radar fire control. The Very minor llood1ng 114 ~ FD rating
card is a heart. I. Combat Information Center (CIC): If the CIC on a NATO designed Minor !lood1ng 50 points 1/2 ~ FD rating
Gunnery Data Table will indicate which guns are under this restriction. ship is knocked out, the ship will be unable to fire any weapons other Normal flood111g 100 points FD rating
Such guns may not fire by optical sighting or local control. than those with a local control facility. In addition, the Fire Control Heavy flooding 150 points 1''> ~FD rating
g. Damage to tankers and oller1: In addition to the normal damage Very heavy llood1ng
sustained, look to the numbers that are either one or two higher or one System rating will immediately drop to H. The ship must also move 200 points 2 ~ FD rating
11. AUTOMATIC SELF-DEFENSE GUNS: directly forward, without turning, accelerating, decelerating or moving
or two lower than the number actually rolled. If any of these numbers Many ships are equipped with secondary guns.for close in fire against evasively for one full turn. The FD (Flotation Damage) ratings of missiles and torpedoes are
indicate a fire, the ship will sustain the fire in addition to the normal aircraft and missiles. Such guns are not tied into the main fire control
damage. If several fires are indicated, the ship will sustain only the system, so each will have its own FC rating. When firing such guns, use found on their respective data charts. The FD rating is a measurement
highest level indicated. If the CIC on a Soviet or Chinese designed ship is knocked out, roll one of the amount of floodinQ that will normally be caused by a sinQle hit
the FC rating pertaining to the guns being used. Most modern six-sided die to determine which weapons control system has been
.I' with that weapon. Double the flooding level if the target's crew was not
secondary guns are automatic and have an FC rating of A, even though knocked out:
i E.G. If a tanker (or oiler) is hit and the result number is 22, look at the the FC rating of the main battery Is usually leas. Such Secondary at battle stations.
results for numbers 20 through 24. If any of these indicate a fire, the batteries will always have their own FC radars, and cannot use the 1. SAM 0 . Fire: Whenever the damage table indicates that a lire br~a~s o~t.
I' ship will sustain only the highest fire level indicated. main FC radar. If the secondary battery has an AFC rating, It may not 2. Gun add the fire level indicated to any other fire already e.x1st.1ng 1n
be used If It• FC radar Is not operating; local control ls Impossible with 3. SSM accordance with Rule 3 below. The damaQe caused by fire is also
9. ARMOR PENETRATION: such weapons. Many secondary guns are not capable of firing against 4. ASW explained in Rule 3. Double the fire level indicated for ships built after
a. Most modern ships are unarmored, but the Ship Characteristics ships. If no Gunnery Firing Table exists for a certain gun, thlS mean• 5, 6: Roll again until 1-4 is rolled. 1960. In addition, always double the fire level if the targel's crew was not
Table will indicate those which stilt carry armor and its thickness. that the weapon Is incapable of engaging ships. at battle stations. These adjustments are cumulative.
15
18
XI. DAMAGE: Roll again, if the system indicated by the table has already been
look at the damage result given for number 23). If that result indicates Armor will prevent certain damage from occuring .if t~e ~mmunition destroyed. Only the weapon system indicated by the die roll will be
either engine damage or damage to any radar, radar detector or used is unable to penetrate the armor at the point 1nd1cated. The 1. EFFECTS OF DAMAGE: affected, all other weapon systems will continue to operate normally.
jammer, the ship will sustain that damage in addition to its normal Damage Table indicates the damage which requires armor a. Weapons Systems: When a damage table indicates that a weapon's
damage. Exception: If the ship is larger than 10,000 tons, it will ~ot penetration. If the area hit is the hull, the belt armor must be penetrated mount 1s knocked out, all weapons in that mount will be unable to j. Fire Control System: If a fire control system is knocked out, firing
sustain any .additional damage if that damage occurs after the first for damage to occur; if the area hit is the deck, the deck armor must be function as soon as the damage occurs. wi It only be possible for the wea1::>ons by local control. The fire control
comma in the result line). In all cases, the ship will sustain only the penetrated. However. 1f the Damage Table indicates that a gun mount rating of the ship is immediately reduced to H. In addition, the data link
additional engine or electronics damage, not any other damage listed is to be knocked out if penetration occurs, only the turret armor must Example: If a twin gun mount is knocked out, both guns will be will cease to function if all fire control systems are knocked out.
on the line. Also, if the ship sustains normal engine damage and the be penetrated. inoperable.
damage result given tor the number that is one higher than the number k. Magazine: 1f a magazine explodes, determine whether the
rolled also calls tor engine damage, the ship will sustain only the Special: Certain aircraft carriers have hulls built of high tension steel b. Radars, radar detectors, sonar and jammers: When the damage explosion occured in the bow or the stern. If alt of the ships guns are
engine damage that is of the greater severity, it will not sustain both the which acts as armor; -such ships can never sustain any hull damage table indicates that such a device is knocked out, the device indicated located in the bow of the ship, the explosion occured in the bow; if all
engine damage indicated next to the number rolled and also the unless the armor is penetrated, even if the Damage Table indicates that will immediately cease functioning. are located in the stern, the explosion occurred in the stern. If the ship
engine damage indicated on the next line. penetration is not required. has guns both in the bow and the stern, roll one six-sided die; if there
c. Gun directors: When a gun director is knocked out, it will are an equal number of guns on both the bow and the stern, the
t. Damage to Aircraft Carriers: In addition to the normal damage b. Armor penetration is as follows: immediately cease functioning, and, in addition, one gun fire control explosion is in the bow if the roll is 1/2/3 and in the stern if the roll is
indicated by the Damage Table, aircraft carriers will also sustain the radar is also knocked out and ceases functioning. The guns controlled 4/5/6. If the ship has more guns in one area than in another, the
following damage: 1. Common HE: Guns of 7" caliber or less which fire Common by that director and radar may still fire by local control. When finng a explosion will occur in the area having the most guns on a roll of 1/2/3
HE shells can penetrate only light belt and turret armor at all gun by local control, assume its fire control system rating is H, rather or 4 and in the other area it the roll is 5/6.
ranges; they cannot penetrate any deck armor. Guns of 8" than its normal rating.
1. If the deck is to sustain damage and the number rolled when
consulting the Gunnery Damage Table is 01 through 10, one caliber or more can penetrate moderate belt and turret armor Regardless of where the explosion occurred, all sonar. radar, radar
elevator is knocked out if the deck armor can be penetrated by out to six miles range (18"), and light belt and turret armor at all d. Bridge: On most modern ships, the bridge is_ usually vacant during detectors and jammers are knocked out. The ship will also sustain
the ammo used. ranges. In addition, they can penetrate light deck armor at general quarters; all fighting and navigating occurs in the CIC. 1200 points of Flooding damage. If the explosion occurred in the bow,
ranges equal to or exceeding twelve miles (36"); they cannot However, the bridge can operate as a secondary command point 1f the all weapons forward of the bridge are knocked out; if the explosion
2. The suit of the card picked when consulting the Damage penetrate any deck armor at all at ranges of under twelve miles. CIC is knocked out. Therefore, if a ship's CIC is operating, a hit on the occurred in the stern, all weapons aft of the bridge are knocked out,
Table will determine if any aircraft are knocked out. If the carrier Common HE cannot penetrate heavy armor at any range. bridge will have no effect. However, if the CIC has already been and in addition, propeller damage is sustained. Roll one six-sided die
has twenty-five or fewer aircraft (and helicopters) on board at 2. Shaped Charge: Shaped Charge rounds can pen~trate any knocked out, a ship sustaining subsequent bridge damage must move to determine additional damage.
the time the damage is sustained, it will lose one aircraft (or thickness of armor at any range regardless of the cahber of the directly forward for one full turn. The ship may not accelerate,
helicopter) whenever a spade is picked. If the carrier has gun. decelerate, or move evasively. After one full turn is completed, the ship 0, 1 - All generators KO, very severe engine damage, all main
may move normally. FC systems KO, fire level 6; increase flooding by 600 points.
twenty-six through fifty planes on board, one will be destroyed
whenever a spade or club is picked. If the carrier has fifty-one 3. Semi-armor Piercing Rounds: Guns of 7" caliber or less
through seventy-five aircraft on board, one aircraft will be which fire SAP rounds can penetrate moderate belt and turret e. Communications: When a ship's communications are knocked 2 - Very severe engine damage, all main FC systems KO, fire
destroyed whenever a club, spade or diamond comes up. If the armor out to a range of six miles {18"), and light belt and turret out, it will be unable to receive or pass·on movement information level 6, two generators KO.
carrier has over seventy-five planes on board, one plane will be armor at all ranges. In addition, they can penetrate light deck unless laser signalling is available. Such ships must remain within 3" of
destroyed for every damage card. armor at ranges equal to or exceeding twelve miles (36"). Guns the flagship or be part of a chain of ships that are within 3" of each 3 - Very severe engine damage, all main FC systems KO, two
of 8" caliber or larger which fire SAP rounds can penetrate other and one of which is the flagship. If the ship without generators KO, increase flooding by 600 points, fire level 4.
3. Fires: Whenever an aircraft is destroyed, a level 1 fire will moderate and light belt and turret armor at all ranges, and can communications is not within 3" of the flagship, or part of the chain of
break out if the card picked to determine damage was a 1, 5, or penetrate light deck armor at ranges equal to or exceeding nine ships, it must be moved directly toward the flagship (unless evading 4 - Major engine damage, two generators KO, fire level 6.
miles (27"). mlssiles or torpedoes). If the flagship loses its communications, all
10. Also when consulting the Damage Table, look at the damage
other ships must be within 3" of It or be part of a chain of ships within 3" 5 - Major engine damage, one generator KO, fire level 4.
that is listed for the number that is one higher than the number
actually rolled (e.g., if a 22 was rolled look at the damage 4. High Capacity Rounds: This type of shell cannot penetrate cl each other and ona of which la tha flagship. Shlpo with laser
indicated for number 23). If that result is a fire, the carrier will any armor at all regardless of the caliber of the gun. signalling can continue receiving end passing on Information to units 8, 7 .. Moderate engine damage, one generator KO, fire level 4.
sustain that fire damage in addition to the damage indicated within daylight visual olghtlng range 10 that they ara not required to
next to the number actually rolled. 5. VT- Fused shells: Any shell equipped with a VT fuse cannot remain with 3" of any ship, Subtract 1 from th1 roll for Soviet and Chinese designed ships; add 1
penetrate any armor at all. for British and Canadian designed ships.
Exceptions: If the ship is larger than 10,000 tons and the fire Ships without communlc1t1on1 01nno1 r101lv1 or 0111 en t1ra1t
damage occurs afterthe first comma in the result line, it will not 10. FIRE CONTROL: Information except via data llnk, If 0!)1r1tlonal. Thu1, It wlll be unliDle I. Propell•r: If a propeller Is knocked out, the ship's maximum speed
a. The accuracy of a ship's guns is based primarily on its fire control to take any action against targets or ml11lle1, etc., which are not wlll normally be reduced by 50%. However, If the ship has ontv one
be sustained. Also, regardless of displacement, if the ~esult directly visible to it or located by Its own sensors, nor may any other
indicated next to the number actually rolled calls tor a fire to system which is rated A through H depending on its effectiveness. The propeller, it is dead in the water. Also, if a ship suffers propeller
accuracy figures given for systems A through G ~re based on the •Jnit take action aaainst anv taraet, missile, etc. that has only been damage due to a magazine explosion. it is dead in the water.
break out. and in addition, the result indicated by the number
that is one higher than that actually rolled also indicates a fire, assumption that range data is being secured bye fire control radar. located by the ship without communications. Of course. if the data link
However, if the fire control radar is not operating, range data can be is operational, the ship can pass on and receive all target information m. Engines: If a ship sustains engine damage, its maximum speed will
the ship will only sustain the higher of the two fire levels
secured by one of these other, less effici~nt methods: via the data link with any other ship possessing the data link (see the be reduced as indicated hetow:
indicated; it will not sustain both (e.g. if a 21 is rolled and the Data Link rules in the Electronics Section).
result line calls for "Fire Level 1" and result number 22 indicates 1. Search Radar: The Search Radar may be used to obtain
"Fire Level 2'', the ship will only sustain a Level 2 fire. Minor damage -- lose 5 kts.
range data, but as indicated in the Accuracy Adjustment Rules; f. Data Link: If the data link is knocked out, 1t becomes of course, Moderate damage -- lose 10 kts.
the accuracy will be reduced. immediately inoperable. See the Electronics Section for data link Major damage -- lose 50°/o of the maximum speed.
4. Whenever a damage card indicates damage to a carrier's information.
deck or superstructure, the carrier will sustain flight deck 2. Optical Sighting: If neither the fire control nor the Search Very severe damage -- ship is dead in the water.
damage in addition to other damage (if any) indicated by the Radar is operational, range data can be secured visually by the
radar director (if it is operational). This is the least efficient g. Steering circuits and rudder damage: Any ship sustaining damage All Soviet-designed ships, all merchant ships, and all ships with only
Damage Table. Flight deck damage is recorded in points. to the rudder or steering circuits must move directly forward unlil the
Normally, for every card indicating deck or superstructure method of securing range information, resulting in an accuracy one engine will lose double the amount indicated above (e.g., they will
reduction of 3 (per Rule 3 (e)). Gun directors are slaved to the damage is repaired. lose 20 kts if moderate damage is sustained).
damage, the carrier will sustain 50 points of flight deck damage;
however, the following adjustment apply: fire control radar, so if the fire control radar is being used
against one target, the director may not be used against h. Generators: Most ships have a number of generators (usually British and Canadian designed ships will lose only 1/2 of the speed
another. about four). If a ship has at least two generators functioning, it may loss indicated above.
a. If the card is a heart, no flight deck damage occurs
operate in the normal manner. If a ship has only one generator
unless an aircraft is destroyed.
b. If neither the radars nor the directors are operational, or if the fire functioning, it may move at up to 75%of its maximum speed, but it may n. Flooding: As indicated in the Flotation Rules below, each ship can
b. If an aircraft is destroyed by the same card, increase control system itself is not operation, guns may still be fired by local not use any radars, sonars, radar detectors or jammers. In addition, it take a certain amount of flooding before it sinks. The amount of
the damage by 50 points. If the card is a heart, the damage control. If this is done, the ship will be assumed to have e fire control may fire no weapons except those capable of being manually flooding is recorded in units called Flotation Points. The number of
sustained will total only 50 points. system rating of H, so use that column on the Accuracy Table to operated. If a ship loses alt of its generators,. it may not move, use any Flotation Points a ship sustains is based on the severity of the flooding
determine accuracy. Local control can only be used it the target Is radar, sonar, radar_detector or jam mer, or fire any weapon other than and the weapon causing it:
visually sighted by the firing ship at the time of firing. small. manually operated ones.
c. If the deck is hit and the ammo used can penetrate the Severity Gunllre Mlnlles end Torp1.
deck armor, increase the damage by 50 points unless the Note: Some guns are incapable of firing without radar fire control. The Very minor llood1ng 114 ~ FD rating
card is a heart. I. Combat Information Center (CIC): If the CIC on a NATO designed Minor !lood1ng 50 points 1/2 ~ FD rating
Gunnery Data Table will indicate which guns are under this restriction. ship is knocked out, the ship will be unable to fire any weapons other Normal flood111g 100 points FD rating
Such guns may not fire by optical sighting or local control. than those with a local control facility. In addition, the Fire Control Heavy flooding 150 points 1''> ~FD rating
g. Damage to tankers and oller1: In addition to the normal damage Very heavy llood1ng
sustained, look to the numbers that are either one or two higher or one System rating will immediately drop to H. The ship must also move 200 points 2 ~ FD rating
11. AUTOMATIC SELF-DEFENSE GUNS: directly forward, without turning, accelerating, decelerating or moving
or two lower than the number actually rolled. If any of these numbers Many ships are equipped with secondary guns.for close in fire against evasively for one full turn. The FD (Flotation Damage) ratings of missiles and torpedoes are
indicate a fire, the ship will sustain the fire in addition to the normal aircraft and missiles. Such guns are not tied into the main fire control
damage. If several fires are indicated, the ship will sustain only the system, so each will have its own FC rating. When firing such guns, use found on their respective data charts. The FD rating is a measurement
highest level indicated. If the CIC on a Soviet or Chinese designed ship is knocked out, roll one of the amount of floodinQ that will normally be caused by a sinQle hit
the FC rating pertaining to the guns being used. Most modern six-sided die to determine which weapons control system has been
.I' with that weapon. Double the flooding level if the target's crew was not
secondary guns are automatic and have an FC rating of A, even though knocked out:
i E.G. If a tanker (or oiler) is hit and the result number is 22, look at the the FC rating of the main battery Is usually leas. Such Secondary at battle stations.
results for numbers 20 through 24. If any of these indicate a fire, the batteries will always have their own FC radars, and cannot use the 1. SAM 0 . Fire: Whenever the damage table indicates that a lire br~a~s o~t.
I' ship will sustain only the highest fire level indicated. main FC radar. If the secondary battery has an AFC rating, It may not 2. Gun add the fire level indicated to any other fire already e.x1st.1ng 1n
be used If It• FC radar Is not operating; local control ls Impossible with 3. SSM accordance with Rule 3 below. The damaQe caused by fire is also
9. ARMOR PENETRATION: such weapons. Many secondary guns are not capable of firing against 4. ASW explained in Rule 3. Double the fire level indicated for ships built after
a. Most modern ships are unarmored, but the Ship Characteristics ships. If no Gunnery Firing Table exists for a certain gun, thlS mean• 5, 6: Roll again until 1-4 is rolled. 1960. In addition, always double the fire level if the targel's crew was not
Table will indicate those which stilt carry armor and its thickness. that the weapon Is incapable of engaging ships. at battle stations. These adjustments are cumulative.
15
18
1. As soon as a ship sustains cumulative flot~tion d~_mage equal higher than it actually is (round the increase downward if necessary).
p. Electronic damage: Whenever a damage tEi:ble in~icates that a ship uncontrolled during the next damage control phase, the additional
to 250;0 of its Maximum Flotation Allowance: its .max1m_u~ spee_d Thus, such ships which actually have a level 4 fire raging will be treated
sustains minor electronics damage, roll a decimal die: and C?nsult th_e flotation points will be added to the original amount of uncontrolled
is reduced by 5 kts. In addition, roll one s1x-s1ded d!e; ~fa 1 !s as if the fire level were actually 6. The ship is in a sinking condition as
table below to determine which piece of elect~on1c equipment is flooding when determining how many more Flotation points the ship
rolled, one main gun mount is also knocked out, w~11e if a 2 !S soon as the fire lever reaches 22, since 22 increased by 50% equals 33. wilt receive.
knocked out. If the ship sustains severe elec_tronics dam~ge, roll the All US-designed ships, except for aircraft carriers, are considered to
die two times, and the ship will lose both pieces of ~qu1pmen~. If it rolled, one main SAM mount is knocked out. Otherwise, there is have aluminum superstructures.
sustains very severe electronics damage, ~oll the die ~hree times. no damage. Example: If a ship sustains 100 points of flotation damage which
Double the number of required rolls if the ship had over six ra~ar sets remains uncontrolled at the end of the subsequent damage control
at the beginning of the game. If the ship does not have the equ1pme~t 2. As soon as a ship sustains cumulative Flota~ion da!11age XII. DAMAGE CONTROL (Optional): segment of the phase, it will then receive an additional 10 points. If the
listed on the table or if it has already been knc;:ick~d _out, roll_ again un~11 equal to 50% of its Maximum Flotation Allowanc~, 1t~ max1!'llum flooding remains uncontrolled at the end of the next damage control
the table calls for damage to equipment which 1s 1n working order. speed will be reduced by another 5 kts. Roll the s1x-s1ded die (as 1. DAMAGE CONTROL - BASIC RULES: phase, it will receive additional damage equal to 11 points (100 +10><
in (1) above) to determine if any guns orSAMs are kno?ked out. 10%).
During the damage control segments of the turns, both players will
1 - Air Search Radar 6 - Sec SAM FC Radar Aircraft carriers will be unable to launch or recover aircraft as resolve al I damage control attempts of each of their ships. Each ship
2 - Surface Search Radar 7 - SSM FC Radar soon as their cumulative flotation damage equals 50% or more has a number of damage control parties, each of which can be b. If a ship is engaged in flooding control, all uncontrolled flooding
3 - Main Gun FC Radar a - Radar Detector of the Maximum Flotation Allowance. assigned to accomplish one task. For each of his ships, one at a time, will become controlled if the proper number is rolled. The proper
4 - Main Gun FC Radar g - Radar Jammer the owning player will assign each of the ship's damage control parties number is as follows:
,, 5 - Sec Gun FC Radar 10 - Sonar 3. As soon as a ship sustains cumulative flot~tion d~mage equal to a task and will then roll one decimal die for each task undertaken to
to 75% of its Maximum Flotation Allowance, its maximum speed determine the outcome. 1. If the amount of uncontrolled flooding is equal to or less than
11:,, If the results table indicates that all electronics are knocked out, all will be reduced by another 5 kts. Roll the six-sided die a~a1n (as 25% of the ship's Maximum Flotation Allowance, the number
·I; radars, sonars, radar detectors and jammers are knocked out. in (1) above) to determine if any gun or SAM's short-c1rcu1t. 2. DAMAGE CONTROL PARTIES AND TASKS: rolled must be 5 or higher.
4. Whenever the number of flotation points sustaine~ b~ a ~hip a. The number of damage control parties on board a ship is dependent 2. If the amount. of uncontrolled flooding is greater than 25%
q. Elevator Damage· As will be e~plaine~ in the ~ircraft Operations upon its size:
Segment of the rules, Aircraft Garners which sustain elevator damage exceeds its Maximum Flotation Allowance, the ship is s1nk.1~g. but less than or equal to 50% of the ship's Maximum Flotation
wilt have their ability to launch and recover planes reduced. Ships which are sinking are not capa~le of any ac:t1v1ty Allowance, the number rolled must be 7 or higher.
whatsoever; that is, the ship may not move, fire, use ~ny act!veor 1. Ships of under 1000 tons and all merchants - 2 parties.
'
I r. Flight Deck Damage: Aircraft carriers which have on.repaired flight passive sensors, visually sight, etc. The crew must 1m.m.e_d1ately
abandon ship, and no further dame1:ge co~trol acbv1t1es are 2. Ships of 1000 - 10,000 tons - 3 parties. 3. If the amount of uncontrolled flooding Is greater than 50%
deck damage will be unable to launch and/or.recover aircraft. See the but less than or equal to 75% of the ship's Maximum Flotation
Aircraft Operations segment for further details_ possible. If the total number of flotation po1nt_s sustained by~ Allowance, the number rolled must be 8 or higher.
ship equals 25°/o more than its Maximum Flotatic~n.All?w~nce, it 3. Ships of over 10,000 tons - 5 parties.
s. Weapons Damage: Whenever a damage table indicates weapl'.!ns sinks immediately and is removed from play. If 1t is s1nk1ng but
Increase the number of parties by two if the ship is an aircraft carrier. 4. If the amount of uncontrolled flooding is greater than 75% of
damage, roll a decimal die and consult the table bel<?w ~o detern:i1ne the number of flotation points is less ~han 25°/o m?re tha.n the the ship's Maximum Flotation Allowance, the number rolled
which weapon is knocked _01:1t .. If ~he Dama.ge Table 1nd1cates minor Maximum Flotation Allowance, the ship does not 1mmed1ately must be 9 or higher.
damage, roll the die once; 1f 1t 1nd1cates maier weapons d.am.age, r~ll sink and remains on the playing surface. Pick on.e card a~ the b. If not a single one of a ship's crew-served weapons is fired during a
the die two times. If the target does not have the weapon 1nd1ca~ed ~n end of each friendly movement phase for every friendly ship ~n phase, the owning player may increase the number 61 damage parties
As always, a roll of o is considered to be a roll of 10. The die roll will be
the table below, roll again until the table indicates a weapon that is sttll this condition. If the card picked is an ace of spades, the ship by two beginning with that phase. If he chooses to do so, none of the
adjusted as in Rule 3 above, and in addition, the following adjustments
operational on the target. immediately sinks; otherwise, it remains afloat. ship's crew-served weapons may be fired during the phases in which will apply to attempts to control flooding:
the number of damage parties is increased and also during the phase
Number Rolled Weapon Knocked Out following the phase in which this occurs. Crew-served weapons are all
3. FIRE: f' · · f - 1 for all Soviet and Warsaw Pact warships and all warships
1 1 Main gun mount weapons which re9uire at least one man to operate; fully automatic from countries other than NATO or Israel.
a. Fire on a ship is measured in levels. A level 1 (on~) ire 1s a minor _ire weapons which require no crew, such as the US Phalanx-Vulcan
2 1 Main SAM mount The maximum fire level possible is thirty-two. All fires are c~mulattve.
3 1 Main ASW mount System, may be fired even when the number of damage parties is 2 for all merchant ships except super-tankers.
so two level one fires equal one level two f_ire;_two level two f1res equal increased.
4 1 SSM mount one level four fire, etc. If a ship is on fire, 1t will be affected as follows
5 1 Torpedo bank 3 for super-tankers.
6 1 Chaff launcher c. If two friendly ships are within 1" of each other and neither moved
1. Levels 1 - 8 - No effect.
7 1 Sec. gun mount (nor will move) over 1" during the turn, all of the damage control
parties on both ships may be used to repair damage on one of them. c. Once flooding is controlled, no additional flotation hits will be
8 1 Sec. SAM mount 2. Levels 9-16 - Subtract 1 from accuracy rates if usin_g visual reoeived. However, controlled flooding will remain controlled only if at
9 1 Sec. ASW mount sighting for fire control. In addition, as ~oon as the fire. level least one of the ship's damage control parties is assigned to flooding
10 One Sec. gun and d. The possible tasks to which damage control parties can be
exceeds 8, the ship will sustain minor eng~ne da~age. I~ will not assigned are: control during every damage control phase. If at least one party is
One Sec. SAM mount sustain further engine damage due to fire until the fire-level assigned to flooding control, the flooding will automatically remain
exceeds 16. 1. Flooding control. controlled; if no party is assigned to flooding control, all controlled
2. Fire fighting. flooding will again become uncontrolled, and the proper die roll will be
t Damage Control Hit: If a damage control hit is sustaine~. a decim~I Example: lf the fire level on a ship becomes 9, i~ immedi8te_ly needed to again bring it under control. Any party assigned to flooding
die must be rolled for the ship at the start of each turf!. Until a 9 or 0 is 3. Weapons repair.
suffers minor engine damage per Rule 1 (m); 1t will not sustain 4. Propulsion system repair. control can attempt to control new floodlng while at the same time
rolled, the ship may not form any damage control part1~s (per rul~ Xll,2 further damage when the fire level reaches 10, 11, 12, etc. up to keeping old flooding under control. Such parties are not penalized In
below); in other words, the ship will be unable to flgh_t fires, flooding, or 5. Electrical equipment repair.
16. 6. Flight deck repair. any way in their attempts to perform either function.
make any repairs until a 9 or 0 is rolled. Once 9 or O 1~ rolle~. such .par·
ties may be formed any time thereafter; no further die roll 1s required. 3. Levels 17- 24 - Subtract 2 from accuracy rates if using visual Each damage control party can be assigned to only one task per d. Damage control parties assigned to flooding control may be able to
sighting for fire control. In addition, as soon as the fire level phase, but more than one party can be assigned to the same task. reduce lhe amount of controlled flooding the ship sustained. This may
exceeds 16 the ship will sustain moderate engine damage (per only be attempted during phases in which there is no uncontrolled
Note: Whenever a ship suffers a speed loss due to any cause, it will 0
flooding. If the number rolled is 9 or O (after any adjustments indicated
decelerate automatically to its new speed at th.e end of the combat Rule 1(m)). Also, roll one six-sided die and consult the table e. The damage control parties on all Soviet. Warsaw Pact, Chinese.
below for additional damage: in Rule 3). reduce the amount of controlled flotation damage as
phase, a ship need not follow normal deceleration rules when battle and Soviet-allied ships may be assigned to flooding control-, fire follows:
damage reduces its speed. fighting, and flight deck repair only; they are not capable of attempting
1 - One main gun mount KO. weapons repair, propulsion system repair, or electronic equipment NATO and Israeli warships·
repair. 25 points
Soviet and all other warships - 15 points
2. FLOTATION: . 2 - One main SAM mount KO. All merchants except super-tankers • 10 points
a. Whenever a ship sustains flooding damage, it will receive a cert~1n Super-tankers - 5 points
number of flotation points which represents the _amou~t of flood~ng 3. One main ASW mount KO.
the ship sustains. Undamaged ships have .no flotation points. Flooding The ship will be treated as if this flooding never occurred, but if speed
damage is cumula-ive, so keep a ~unn1ng total of the number. of 4 - All SSM mounts KO.
3. DETERMINING SUCCESS OF DAMAGE CONTROL ATTEMPTS: or armament was lost due to the flooding (per Damage Rule 2 above), it
flotation points received by each ship. W~en the num~er of flotation will not be regained until repaired by a weapons or propulsion system
points received by a ship ~xceeds its rr:iax1mum Flotation Allc:iwance, 5. One secondary gun mount and one secondar~ .SAM After all of a ship's damage control parties are assigned to a task, roll
one decimal die for-each task attempted to determine the results. repair party. '
the ship will sink. The maximum Flotation Allowance for a ship never mount KO In addition, roll the die again for additional
damage. Adjust the die roll as follows:
changes.

b. A ship's Maximum Flotation Allowanc~, is a numb~r of points equal 6 - All fire control systems KO. +1 for every damage control party assigned to the task other
to its displacement in tons. Thus, the Maximum Flotation Allowance of than the initial party. That is, if one party Is assigned to the task,
a 10,000 ton ship is 10,000 points. Adjust this as follows: Both the engine damage and the additional damage will occur there will be no die roll increase. However, if two parties are
as soon as the lire level exceeds 16; no further damage due to assigned, increase the roll by 1; if three are assigned increase by
2; if four are assigned, increase the roll by 3, etc. 5. FIRE FIGHTING:
1. Reduce it by 1/4 (round the loss downward to the nearest lire will occur until the fire level exceeds 24.
a. Whenever a fire breaks out on a ship, it is liable to increase in
point) for all Soviet warships. intensity until 11 is controHed At the end ol any damage control phase
4. Levels 25 - 32 - The ship becomes dead in the water and all
weapons are inoperable. in which a fire is not controlled, increase the fire by the number of
2. Increase by 1/6 for all British and Canadian warships. 4..FLOODING CONTROL: levels eaual to 10% of the number of uncontrolled levels (round
5. Levels 33 or higher ·The ship is in a sinking conditio~ and. is a. Whenever a ship sustains Flooding damage, it will immediately upward to the nearest level if necessary). Double the rate of increase (to
3. Reduce it by 1/2 for merchant ships and all normal tankers. receive the number of flotation points indicated by the damage table. 20%) for all ships built after 1960.
assumed to have suffered flotatior damage exceeding its
Maximum Flotation Allowance (see Rule 2, c (4)). At the end of each damage control phase in which the Flooding is not
4. Reduce it by 3/4 for super-tankers. "Controlled", the ship will receive additional Flotation points equal to b. JI at least one of the ship's damage control parties is engaged in fire
Special: Ships with aluminum superstructu.res (s~ch as most US- 10% of the amount of uncontrolled Flooding (round upward to the fighting, all uncontrolled fires on the ship wilt c_ome u~der ~antral if t~e
c. The effects of flotation damage are as follows: nearest point if necessary). The additional flotation points are also proper numbers are rolled First, roll the decimal die as 1nd1cated 1n
des1gned ships) will sustain fire damage as 1f the fire level were 50%
considered uncontrolled flooding, so if the flooding remains Rule 3 above. If the number rolled after adjustment is 0 or more (0
17 18 equals 10), there is a chance that the fire will coll)e under control. If the
1. As soon as a ship sustains cumulative flot~tion d~_mage equal higher than it actually is (round the increase downward if necessary).
p. Electronic damage: Whenever a damage tEi:ble in~icates that a ship uncontrolled during the next damage control phase, the additional
to 250;0 of its Maximum Flotation Allowance: its .max1m_u~ spee_d Thus, such ships which actually have a level 4 fire raging will be treated
sustains minor electronics damage, roll a decimal die: and C?nsult th_e flotation points will be added to the original amount of uncontrolled
is reduced by 5 kts. In addition, roll one s1x-s1ded d!e; ~fa 1 !s as if the fire level were actually 6. The ship is in a sinking condition as
table below to determine which piece of elect~on1c equipment is flooding when determining how many more Flotation points the ship
rolled, one main gun mount is also knocked out, w~11e if a 2 !S soon as the fire lever reaches 22, since 22 increased by 50% equals 33. wilt receive.
knocked out. If the ship sustains severe elec_tronics dam~ge, roll the All US-designed ships, except for aircraft carriers, are considered to
die two times, and the ship will lose both pieces of ~qu1pmen~. If it rolled, one main SAM mount is knocked out. Otherwise, there is have aluminum superstructures.
sustains very severe electronics damage, ~oll the die ~hree times. no damage. Example: If a ship sustains 100 points of flotation damage which
Double the number of required rolls if the ship had over six ra~ar sets remains uncontrolled at the end of the subsequent damage control
at the beginning of the game. If the ship does not have the equ1pme~t 2. As soon as a ship sustains cumulative Flota~ion da!11age XII. DAMAGE CONTROL (Optional): segment of the phase, it will then receive an additional 10 points. If the
listed on the table or if it has already been knc;:ick~d _out, roll_ again un~11 equal to 50% of its Maximum Flotation Allowanc~, 1t~ max1!'llum flooding remains uncontrolled at the end of the next damage control
the table calls for damage to equipment which 1s 1n working order. speed will be reduced by another 5 kts. Roll the s1x-s1ded die (as 1. DAMAGE CONTROL - BASIC RULES: phase, it will receive additional damage equal to 11 points (100 +10><
in (1) above) to determine if any guns orSAMs are kno?ked out. 10%).
During the damage control segments of the turns, both players will
1 - Air Search Radar 6 - Sec SAM FC Radar Aircraft carriers will be unable to launch or recover aircraft as resolve al I damage control attempts of each of their ships. Each ship
2 - Surface Search Radar 7 - SSM FC Radar soon as their cumulative flotation damage equals 50% or more has a number of damage control parties, each of which can be b. If a ship is engaged in flooding control, all uncontrolled flooding
3 - Main Gun FC Radar a - Radar Detector of the Maximum Flotation Allowance. assigned to accomplish one task. For each of his ships, one at a time, will become controlled if the proper number is rolled. The proper
4 - Main Gun FC Radar g - Radar Jammer the owning player will assign each of the ship's damage control parties number is as follows:
,, 5 - Sec Gun FC Radar 10 - Sonar 3. As soon as a ship sustains cumulative flot~tion d~mage equal to a task and will then roll one decimal die for each task undertaken to
to 75% of its Maximum Flotation Allowance, its maximum speed determine the outcome. 1. If the amount of uncontrolled flooding is equal to or less than
11:,, If the results table indicates that all electronics are knocked out, all will be reduced by another 5 kts. Roll the six-sided die a~a1n (as 25% of the ship's Maximum Flotation Allowance, the number
·I; radars, sonars, radar detectors and jammers are knocked out. in (1) above) to determine if any gun or SAM's short-c1rcu1t. 2. DAMAGE CONTROL PARTIES AND TASKS: rolled must be 5 or higher.
4. Whenever the number of flotation points sustaine~ b~ a ~hip a. The number of damage control parties on board a ship is dependent 2. If the amount. of uncontrolled flooding is greater than 25%
q. Elevator Damage· As will be e~plaine~ in the ~ircraft Operations upon its size:
Segment of the rules, Aircraft Garners which sustain elevator damage exceeds its Maximum Flotation Allowance, the ship is s1nk.1~g. but less than or equal to 50% of the ship's Maximum Flotation
wilt have their ability to launch and recover planes reduced. Ships which are sinking are not capa~le of any ac:t1v1ty Allowance, the number rolled must be 7 or higher.
whatsoever; that is, the ship may not move, fire, use ~ny act!veor 1. Ships of under 1000 tons and all merchants - 2 parties.
'
I r. Flight Deck Damage: Aircraft carriers which have on.repaired flight passive sensors, visually sight, etc. The crew must 1m.m.e_d1ately
abandon ship, and no further dame1:ge co~trol acbv1t1es are 2. Ships of 1000 - 10,000 tons - 3 parties. 3. If the amount of uncontrolled flooding Is greater than 50%
deck damage will be unable to launch and/or.recover aircraft. See the but less than or equal to 75% of the ship's Maximum Flotation
Aircraft Operations segment for further details_ possible. If the total number of flotation po1nt_s sustained by~ Allowance, the number rolled must be 8 or higher.
ship equals 25°/o more than its Maximum Flotatic~n.All?w~nce, it 3. Ships of over 10,000 tons - 5 parties.
s. Weapons Damage: Whenever a damage table indicates weapl'.!ns sinks immediately and is removed from play. If 1t is s1nk1ng but
Increase the number of parties by two if the ship is an aircraft carrier. 4. If the amount of uncontrolled flooding is greater than 75% of
damage, roll a decimal die and consult the table bel<?w ~o detern:i1ne the number of flotation points is less ~han 25°/o m?re tha.n the the ship's Maximum Flotation Allowance, the number rolled
which weapon is knocked _01:1t .. If ~he Dama.ge Table 1nd1cates minor Maximum Flotation Allowance, the ship does not 1mmed1ately must be 9 or higher.
damage, roll the die once; 1f 1t 1nd1cates maier weapons d.am.age, r~ll sink and remains on the playing surface. Pick on.e card a~ the b. If not a single one of a ship's crew-served weapons is fired during a
the die two times. If the target does not have the weapon 1nd1ca~ed ~n end of each friendly movement phase for every friendly ship ~n phase, the owning player may increase the number 61 damage parties
As always, a roll of o is considered to be a roll of 10. The die roll will be
the table below, roll again until the table indicates a weapon that is sttll this condition. If the card picked is an ace of spades, the ship by two beginning with that phase. If he chooses to do so, none of the
adjusted as in Rule 3 above, and in addition, the following adjustments
operational on the target. immediately sinks; otherwise, it remains afloat. ship's crew-served weapons may be fired during the phases in which will apply to attempts to control flooding:
the number of damage parties is increased and also during the phase
Number Rolled Weapon Knocked Out following the phase in which this occurs. Crew-served weapons are all
3. FIRE: f' · · f - 1 for all Soviet and Warsaw Pact warships and all warships
1 1 Main gun mount weapons which re9uire at least one man to operate; fully automatic from countries other than NATO or Israel.
a. Fire on a ship is measured in levels. A level 1 (on~) ire 1s a minor _ire weapons which require no crew, such as the US Phalanx-Vulcan
2 1 Main SAM mount The maximum fire level possible is thirty-two. All fires are c~mulattve.
3 1 Main ASW mount System, may be fired even when the number of damage parties is 2 for all merchant ships except super-tankers.
so two level one fires equal one level two f_ire;_two level two f1res equal increased.
4 1 SSM mount one level four fire, etc. If a ship is on fire, 1t will be affected as follows
5 1 Torpedo bank 3 for super-tankers.
6 1 Chaff launcher c. If two friendly ships are within 1" of each other and neither moved
1. Levels 1 - 8 - No effect.
7 1 Sec. gun mount (nor will move) over 1" during the turn, all of the damage control
parties on both ships may be used to repair damage on one of them. c. Once flooding is controlled, no additional flotation hits will be
8 1 Sec. SAM mount 2. Levels 9-16 - Subtract 1 from accuracy rates if usin_g visual reoeived. However, controlled flooding will remain controlled only if at
9 1 Sec. ASW mount sighting for fire control. In addition, as ~oon as the fire. level least one of the ship's damage control parties is assigned to flooding
10 One Sec. gun and d. The possible tasks to which damage control parties can be
exceeds 8, the ship will sustain minor eng~ne da~age. I~ will not assigned are: control during every damage control phase. If at least one party is
One Sec. SAM mount sustain further engine damage due to fire until the fire-level assigned to flooding control, the flooding will automatically remain
exceeds 16. 1. Flooding control. controlled; if no party is assigned to flooding control, all controlled
2. Fire fighting. flooding will again become uncontrolled, and the proper die roll will be
t Damage Control Hit: If a damage control hit is sustaine~. a decim~I Example: lf the fire level on a ship becomes 9, i~ immedi8te_ly needed to again bring it under control. Any party assigned to flooding
die must be rolled for the ship at the start of each turf!. Until a 9 or 0 is 3. Weapons repair.
suffers minor engine damage per Rule 1 (m); 1t will not sustain 4. Propulsion system repair. control can attempt to control new floodlng while at the same time
rolled, the ship may not form any damage control part1~s (per rul~ Xll,2 further damage when the fire level reaches 10, 11, 12, etc. up to keeping old flooding under control. Such parties are not penalized In
below); in other words, the ship will be unable to flgh_t fires, flooding, or 5. Electrical equipment repair.
16. 6. Flight deck repair. any way in their attempts to perform either function.
make any repairs until a 9 or 0 is rolled. Once 9 or O 1~ rolle~. such .par·
ties may be formed any time thereafter; no further die roll 1s required. 3. Levels 17- 24 - Subtract 2 from accuracy rates if using visual Each damage control party can be assigned to only one task per d. Damage control parties assigned to flooding control may be able to
sighting for fire control. In addition, as soon as the fire level phase, but more than one party can be assigned to the same task. reduce lhe amount of controlled flooding the ship sustained. This may
exceeds 16 the ship will sustain moderate engine damage (per only be attempted during phases in which there is no uncontrolled
Note: Whenever a ship suffers a speed loss due to any cause, it will 0
flooding. If the number rolled is 9 or O (after any adjustments indicated
decelerate automatically to its new speed at th.e end of the combat Rule 1(m)). Also, roll one six-sided die and consult the table e. The damage control parties on all Soviet. Warsaw Pact, Chinese.
below for additional damage: in Rule 3). reduce the amount of controlled flotation damage as
phase, a ship need not follow normal deceleration rules when battle and Soviet-allied ships may be assigned to flooding control-, fire follows:
damage reduces its speed. fighting, and flight deck repair only; they are not capable of attempting
1 - One main gun mount KO. weapons repair, propulsion system repair, or electronic equipment NATO and Israeli warships·
repair. 25 points
Soviet and all other warships - 15 points
2. FLOTATION: . 2 - One main SAM mount KO. All merchants except super-tankers • 10 points
a. Whenever a ship sustains flooding damage, it will receive a cert~1n Super-tankers - 5 points
number of flotation points which represents the _amou~t of flood~ng 3. One main ASW mount KO.
the ship sustains. Undamaged ships have .no flotation points. Flooding The ship will be treated as if this flooding never occurred, but if speed
damage is cumula-ive, so keep a ~unn1ng total of the number. of 4 - All SSM mounts KO.
3. DETERMINING SUCCESS OF DAMAGE CONTROL ATTEMPTS: or armament was lost due to the flooding (per Damage Rule 2 above), it
flotation points received by each ship. W~en the num~er of flotation will not be regained until repaired by a weapons or propulsion system
points received by a ship ~xceeds its rr:iax1mum Flotation Allc:iwance, 5. One secondary gun mount and one secondar~ .SAM After all of a ship's damage control parties are assigned to a task, roll
one decimal die for-each task attempted to determine the results. repair party. '
the ship will sink. The maximum Flotation Allowance for a ship never mount KO In addition, roll the die again for additional
damage. Adjust the die roll as follows:
changes.

b. A ship's Maximum Flotation Allowanc~, is a numb~r of points equal 6 - All fire control systems KO. +1 for every damage control party assigned to the task other
to its displacement in tons. Thus, the Maximum Flotation Allowance of than the initial party. That is, if one party Is assigned to the task,
a 10,000 ton ship is 10,000 points. Adjust this as follows: Both the engine damage and the additional damage will occur there will be no die roll increase. However, if two parties are
as soon as the lire level exceeds 16; no further damage due to assigned, increase the roll by 1; if three are assigned increase by
2; if four are assigned, increase the roll by 3, etc. 5. FIRE FIGHTING:
1. Reduce it by 1/4 (round the loss downward to the nearest lire will occur until the fire level exceeds 24.
a. Whenever a fire breaks out on a ship, it is liable to increase in
point) for all Soviet warships. intensity until 11 is controHed At the end ol any damage control phase
4. Levels 25 - 32 - The ship becomes dead in the water and all
weapons are inoperable. in which a fire is not controlled, increase the fire by the number of
2. Increase by 1/6 for all British and Canadian warships. 4..FLOODING CONTROL: levels eaual to 10% of the number of uncontrolled levels (round
5. Levels 33 or higher ·The ship is in a sinking conditio~ and. is a. Whenever a ship sustains Flooding damage, it will immediately upward to the nearest level if necessary). Double the rate of increase (to
3. Reduce it by 1/2 for merchant ships and all normal tankers. receive the number of flotation points indicated by the damage table. 20%) for all ships built after 1960.
assumed to have suffered flotatior damage exceeding its
Maximum Flotation Allowance (see Rule 2, c (4)). At the end of each damage control phase in which the Flooding is not
4. Reduce it by 3/4 for super-tankers. "Controlled", the ship will receive additional Flotation points equal to b. JI at least one of the ship's damage control parties is engaged in fire
Special: Ships with aluminum superstructu.res (s~ch as most US- 10% of the amount of uncontrolled Flooding (round upward to the fighting, all uncontrolled fires on the ship wilt c_ome u~der ~antral if t~e
c. The effects of flotation damage are as follows: nearest point if necessary). The additional flotation points are also proper numbers are rolled First, roll the decimal die as 1nd1cated 1n
des1gned ships) will sustain fire damage as 1f the fire level were 50%
considered uncontrolled flooding, so if the flooding remains Rule 3 above. If the number rolled after adjustment is 0 or more (0
17 18 equals 10), there is a chance that the fire will coll)e under control. If the
proper- number was r-olled, roll again and adjust the number rolled as 7. ELECTRONICS REPAIR: If the numb~r rol_led, after adjustment, is 1 or higher, one generator b. One method of overcoming the ease at which long range radio
foHows: This category includes all active and passive sensors. radar receivers. ma')'. be repaired; 1f the number rolled is 9 or O, the rudder, propeller or transmissions can be detected is by the use of satellite relays. This can
and jammers. FC systems. all communication and data link equipment engine may _be repaired immediately. Only one piece of equipment only be used if there is a communication satellite orbiting over the
i"
- 2 tor- all . Soviet and Warsaw Pact warships and all war-ships and steering circuits. As for weapons system, the player must specify may be rel?a1red ~ach ~amage control phase. If a generator, rudder, or battle area. When communicating with a satellite. a directional radio,
from countries other than NATO or Israel. which piece of equipment he wishes to repair and then roH one six.- propell~r is r~pa1r~d, 11 n:iay b~ put back in use immediately. If an similar to TB_S, is used, and the transmissions can never be detected
sided die per equipment indicated to determine if it can be repaired. eng1_ne 1s repaired, 1mmed1ately increase the ship's speed by 25%of ils si_nce it would be practically impossible for any opposing unit to be
- 1 for all aircraft carriers. (He may roll only once for each piece of equipment.) Steering circuits maximum speed. directly be~ween the satellite and the communicating unit for any
can always be repaired regardless of the die roll, but all other length of. time. When the satellite receives the transmission. lt will
- 2 for all merchants e.cept super-tankers. equipment can be repaired only if a 4, 5 or 6 was roHed. 9. FLIGHT DECK REPAIR (aircraft carriers only): retr.ans_m1t the message to a receiving station also using directional
a. D~m~ge repair parties assigned to Flight Deck repair will attempt to radio signals. Thus, when satellite relay is used, communication may
- 3 tor super-tankers.. If at least one electronic equipment piece can be repaired, roll the rE'.lpa1r aircraft elevators in addition to repairing flight deck damage. All never be detected or jammed.
decimal die as indicated in Rule 3 during every damage control phase. fllght d~ck damage can be repaired unless the damage table indicates
If the number- r-olled, after' this adjustment is greate..-U... or equal to If the number rolled is 8 or higher, the steering circuits can be repaired. otherwise. For elevator damage, the player must roll a six-sided die 4. USES OF COMMUNICATION:
the number- given below, the fire comes under control immediately. If the number rolled is a O. roll the decimal die again and adjust as before attempting any elevator repair. If the roll is 5 or 6, the elevator a. Long range communication will be used by long range recon units
The required numbers are based on the total amount of uncontrolled follows: can be repaired; otherwise, it is out of action for the entire game. to communicate with other units or their base whenever enemy
fires raging on the ship: sightings occur. Usually, in a game the use of long range
- 1 for all other warships except for- NA TO and Israeli vessels. b. \-\'.hen at least one damage control party is assigned to flight deck communication will occur only if scenario requires it. Example: A
Ulwwwib • ?Rrelnel ReqWed ID canbul repair, roll the decimal die as indicated in Rule 3 once per damage scenario might have a small recon force that must report any enemy
Level 1 -8 5 or- higher - 2 for all merchants except super-tankers. control phase If the number rolled is 6 through O, the amount of flight contact back to base. Unless the scenario requires the use of long
I Level 9-16 6 or higher deck damage may be reduced as follows: range communication under certain circumstances, it will probably be
Level 17- 24 7 or higher - 3 for super-tankers. unnecessary to use it.
.I
Level 25- 32 8 or higher NATO and Israeli ships - 200 points
11
If the number- rolled after adjustment is 7 or- higher, any one piece of Soviet, Warsaw Pact and all other ships -150points b. Short range communication will be used to transmit target
'I A roll of O is considered to be a roll· of. 10.. information between ships, and to guide missiles capable of mid-
electronic equipment is repaired.
c. If the number rolled is O, the owning player may attempt to repair an course guidance. In addition, it is used to transmit orders from the
c. Once an uncontrolted fire becomes controlled. it can no longer I. PROPULSION SYSTEll REPAIR: elevator rather than repairing the flight deck; a ship may not both flagship to all other ships.
i increase in intensity_ However, to delennine the effects of fire on a ship
(per Damage Rule 3 above), total up - the controlled and
a. Damage repair parties assigned to propulsion system repair may attempt to repair an elevator and repair any amount of flight deck
damage dl!ring the same dar:nage control phase. If the player chooses
11· repalf engine damage, generator damage. rudder damage, and 5. EFFECTS OF COMMUNICATION:
:; uncontrolled fires on board. Thus, if a ship has a level 2 controlled fire
and then sustains damage resulting in a level 4 fire~ the ship will be
considered to have a level 6 fire. The only advantage resulting from
propeller damage. As for weapons damage. the player must specify
which piece of equipment he wishes to repair and then roll· one six.-
th~t the ship attempt to repair an elevator, roll another decimal die and
adjust as follows:
a. Ships which are in communication with their flagship may be
moved as desired. Those not in communication with the flagship must
move as indicated in XI, 1, e.
Ii sided die to deter-mine if it can be repaired. While a player may roll only
IIi' controlling fires is that controlled fires will not continue to increase in
intensity.
once per game for the rudder and propeller, he may roll once for each
generator. but he may roll for the engines a total of four times:
- 1 for Soviet. Warsaw Pact and all ships other than NATO and
Israeli vessels. b. Whenever a unit detects opposing units by any method, all friendly
units in communication with the detecting unit are assumed to be
111 d.. A conbolled fire will remain controlled only if at least one Of the 1. When the speed loss due to damage equals 251§. or less of the If the number rolled, after the adjustment is 9 or O, one elevator is made aware of the contact during the communications phase
J
1111.
ship"s damage control parties iis assigned to fire fighting during every
damage control phase. If at least one party is assigned to fire fighting,
all controlled' fires will automatically remain controlled. If no party is
shiips maxi.mum speed.

2.. When the speed loss due to damage Ms greater lhan 251Mr but
repaired and may again be used. following the combat phase in which the detection occurred. The
designations of all detected units ere then written onto the TDD's of all
units in communication with the detecting units. Units which are made
1:! assigned to fire r-19hting. all· of the fires automatically become !less than or eq1JJal to SCJll.. of the ship's maximum. speed. aware of an enemy contact through communications are treated as if
uncontrolled and the proper die roll (per (b) _ , will be needed to they, themselves, detected the units beginning at the time they receive
again bring it under control. Any party assigned to fire fighting may 1 Whern the speed loss due to damage is greater than 50'll> but the communication; thereafter, they may use weapons and fire control
i 1:
attempt to bring new fires under control while at the same time keeping less than orr equall !:o 75"1. all !he shftp"s maxRmum. speed.
XIII. COMMUNICATIONS AND DATA LINK: radars against those opposing units. For example, if a unit detects an
111
old fires under control without any penalty.
di 4.. When the speed •oss due to damage exceeds 75%i of the
1. COMMUNICATION:
~ommur:iications refers to the ability of units to pass on and receive
opposing unit with radar during a combat phase, all units In
communication with that unit become aware of that contact during the
II il e. Dmnage control parties assigned to r;re fighting may atlempt to ship"s maxinnurm speeci 1nformat1_on . from one to the other. There are two types of subsequent communications phase. Therefore, during the next
reduce the level of fires.. Thiis can only be accomplished combat phase, all of those units will be able to use fire control radars
I!'l;i' during damage control phaseS Mn which there are no uncOJ11trolled fires
on board; rt may not be attempted when there Ms any uncontronlied fire
Tine p~ayer may rolll onlty once du.1rii111g each of the four opportuniities
~istted above.
communications: Short range and Long range. The most common
method of comm_unication is.by radio, but short range communication and weapons against the opposing unit just as if they detected it
themselves.
·111. an board, regardless of its nntensrty. If the number roHled Ms 0, reduce may also. be _carr~ed ou_t by signals. Data Link is a specialized form of
the intensity of die controlled 1lin!S on board by one lleveH if the slnRp isa ~ ltr ttflle slhlip lloses SOl!lfle speed due to damage and ttne pNayer
commun1cat1on 1n which the computer of a unit has the ability to
ex~hange data directly with the computer of another unit. While all
Note: Many weapons are incapable of being fired unless the target is
i,.1'! NATO or lsraeMi warship_ If the ship iS not one of these,. rolH the die rollHs to detterrnniine if llhe damage can be rrepalrred, he may not roH.~rn successfully tracked by a fire control radar. Units in communication
'I' again; if the number rolled is equal to or greater than the number given units are capable of both long and short range communication by both
"' the strinp S&J1stairrns addiitiionaN engWrne darrmage but tlhe ttottall engune radio and signals, not all are capable of data link. with a tracking unit are not assumed to be tracking the unit themselves,
below. redoce the fiire by one level. but If not. the fire Mevell wiiH nat be damage did not reduce the ship"s speed by over 25"11. He 111111ay oott: rrUH s,o they may not fire radar controlled weapons at the target. In order to
.11
11.11
raluced: again until the speed loss due to engine damage exceeds 25'Wt of ttlhe 2. SHORT RANGE COMMUNICATIONS: fire radar controlled weapons, a unit must either track the target with
i11' Soviet. Warsaw PACT and 8111 warships otherr 1111811'11 ship"s mmdmum speed. a. A unit with a working radio can communicate with another unit its own fire control radar or have a data link connection (see below)
NATO and lsraellii - 4 having a working radio by a system c.alled TBS (talk between ships). In with the tracking unit; merely being in communication with the
1111 If a player does not roll to determine itr engine damage cam be rrepaiirred order to do so, the distance between the ships must be less than or tracking unit is not sufficient. The concept of radar tracking and fire
11 AH nnercharnls eJU:ept super-lalllkers - 7 when the Hniitial opportlllnity arises. tthel!ll the amourmtl: otr errngiirrne danmage equal to the maximum radar detection range, for this is the maximum control is explained in the Electronic Warfare section of this book.
increases to the poiint where he would receWe armodnerr oppoirll1J.111rnitt.y to range that such communication can be effective. Maximum radar
Super--Niers -9 roH. he may ran both for the current opporttu1111Rtty anidl alll oppoirtturniill:ies detection range is based on the size of the ships communicating with 6. DATA LINK:
no1ye1.-m.. each other, and these ranges can be found on the Radar Detection 1. Data Link, called NTDS in the US Navy, is a method of
It the fire resuftled iin loss of speed or arnrTll8lllllel, these wiiHH mot be Table. TBS communication has the advantage of being directional, communication between computers. Only ships listed on the Ship
._;nec1 aulomllalicaD!y it the f"..e is raluc:ed below "1e level llhal i£ sP If a ship sustains engine damage mtTta1l rrediuces iills sjPeEd. by that is, the radio waves travel only in a line between the two Characteristics Table as having data link may use it, and both units
resulteed iirm ttllne Hoss,'; tllley nnust be rrepairred by a prropwillsiiorm syslernm or less than 25"-' and Hien later SIJISlairns addiitiiorrnall eimgUrme damage communicating units, so it can be detected and jammed only if an involved in the communication must have it in order for
resulting Hn a total speed loss due to mg~rne darrnage m: llM!tweerrn ~ opposing unit lies directly between the communicating units communication to be possible.
- - clannage con1brDI plllty..
and SOS. of ils rnmlimum speed (or ilf iii 511J151aiirms erngii111e darrrnage
L WEAPOllS REPAIR: resuhiing in a speed lass of CNel" 2i!1. alH al once). tttre pllayer rrrnay rollll lltne b. Short range communication can also be accomplished by signals if b. Data link is omni-directional, so it can be detected and jammed as long
&. Bebe nrnitiiallly assii9rming a repaiir party 1D weapurns repair,. the die two times.. He rnayewen mH lhebolh llinnes duriirng llhe sarrmedarmiage the communicating units are within 3" of each other. Communication ranee communications.
player musll. iirmdicate wllliicltl weapons lllKK.llrmt lhe wiistnes llD repaHrr arndl rulll contml phase. by signal cannot be jammed and can only be detected by opposing c. If units are connected by Data Link, all information available to one
one siiJl:-siided diie.. H tthe nul!llllber rrollUed is 11 ttrruUJglhl 5., 1he weapon units within 3" of the unit that is sending the message. However, unlike of the units is also immediately available to the other unit. If one unit
moull"lll: C111111lllOD: be repaiired forrtheduiratiCJ11111 all' the game;: iif a 6 is rollled,. it IL The nu11111bers needed on the siix-sided diie to allklw the possiilbliHlll:y of with radio communications, units may never fire weapons based on has contacted an opposing unit, all units with a Data Link connection
naay lbe rrepa.ired .. ThHs die roll ocaurs before utne pllayer assiigns 1asks to repairs are as folkNs: information received by signals. Units that are in communication only with that unit may fire weapons or use ECM, just as if they themselves
hiis damage cantroll parliies,, so Rf llhe desiiiredl weapons mrnmmtts carrnlllOl by signals are considered not in communication for firing purposes. made contact in the same way. Thus, units connected by Data Link can
be repatin!d, he may assign mme parties to mher - .. Thie pllayetr nnay 1. Geweariw 3 orr lhiigltnerr react to an enemy contact just as quickly as the unit actually making
ruH the dieormfty On'1ICI! perr: weapo111 l!lllOILllll1t during eadn ga:rrme,. butt he llllllY 2.. Rudder and c. There is an underwater radio which allows communication between the contact.
rullA fur as nnany mounds as possible duriirng eaclhl dmmage con1bn:JI propel!etr 6 ships and subs and between subs and subs. It is omni-directional {like
plnase.. 3.. Engines 5.,.. 6 long range communications) and can be detected by all opposing
units in range. The maximum range for communication between ships
IL If at least C111e rrmount can be repaired. roll 1he decijrnall diie as
n111dHcater:11 in RWlle 3 abcfte 011TCe every dalllllllgl! camroM phase.. ltr ttne rolll
c. 11 at least one or-elements lisll!d above caJ11 be "'ll"'ii""'" ..m11111e and a sub is 18" while the maximum range between subs is 27". 7. COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES:
a. Long range communication - Whenever a unit uses long range
deciinnal die as indicmled in Rule 3 during Ole damage cornlbroll plhlase.. lllf
Hs a 0,. roll llhe decimal dlie again and adjust as follHows: llhe number rollled is 9 or o. rolll die decilllllBll diie agaii1111 a1111d aidijUISll: as 3. LONG RANGE COMMUNICATIONS: communication. unless via satellite relay, the owning player must
lolHows: a. Long range communication may only be accomplished by radio. indicate the transmitting unit. This unit will immediately be detected
- 11 far' a~n WBJShips altnel' ttum lltaOR of NATO or nsraelL Unlike TBS, long range commun1catlon is practically unlimited in by all opposing radio deteclors. Long range communication is

- 2 Hf the ship Is an armed merdnant..


- 1 lor aiN -ps other than !hose al NATO ;md llsraell.. range, but unless satellite relays are used, long range communication
must be omni-directional, so it can be detected and jammed by
resolved during the communications phases of the turn

:,.!' - 2 lor all merdlanls - ..._-tankers.. opposing units whict-1 do not lie directly between the communicating b. Short range communication - Short range communication can be
,,
,,,
-"°""
If the ......iting roll,. - a d j - is 8 o• highe< !0=10). orne ol 1111e
mount HS repaired (ownHng playel"s c:hoicel and may ~n - 3 lor all ..._..........,.
units. The radio detection rules given in the Electronic Warfare Rule
segment will give the requirements for radio detection and jamming
used during the communicalions phases of the turn If a player uses
short range communications. he must indicate it only if an opposing

r:
lln:lionnonnally.
,. 20
unit lies directly between the communicating units. If there is such a
proper- number was r-olled, roll again and adjust the number rolled as 7. ELECTRONICS REPAIR: If the numb~r rol_led, after adjustment, is 1 or higher, one generator b. One method of overcoming the ease at which long range radio
foHows: This category includes all active and passive sensors. radar receivers. ma')'. be repaired; 1f the number rolled is 9 or O, the rudder, propeller or transmissions can be detected is by the use of satellite relays. This can
and jammers. FC systems. all communication and data link equipment engine may _be repaired immediately. Only one piece of equipment only be used if there is a communication satellite orbiting over the
i"
- 2 tor- all . Soviet and Warsaw Pact warships and all war-ships and steering circuits. As for weapons system, the player must specify may be rel?a1red ~ach ~amage control phase. If a generator, rudder, or battle area. When communicating with a satellite. a directional radio,
from countries other than NATO or Israel. which piece of equipment he wishes to repair and then roH one six.- propell~r is r~pa1r~d, 11 n:iay b~ put back in use immediately. If an similar to TB_S, is used, and the transmissions can never be detected
sided die per equipment indicated to determine if it can be repaired. eng1_ne 1s repaired, 1mmed1ately increase the ship's speed by 25%of ils si_nce it would be practically impossible for any opposing unit to be
- 1 for all aircraft carriers. (He may roll only once for each piece of equipment.) Steering circuits maximum speed. directly be~ween the satellite and the communicating unit for any
can always be repaired regardless of the die roll, but all other length of. time. When the satellite receives the transmission. lt will
- 2 for all merchants e.cept super-tankers. equipment can be repaired only if a 4, 5 or 6 was roHed. 9. FLIGHT DECK REPAIR (aircraft carriers only): retr.ans_m1t the message to a receiving station also using directional
a. D~m~ge repair parties assigned to Flight Deck repair will attempt to radio signals. Thus, when satellite relay is used, communication may
- 3 tor super-tankers.. If at least one electronic equipment piece can be repaired, roll the rE'.lpa1r aircraft elevators in addition to repairing flight deck damage. All never be detected or jammed.