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Soil resistivity calculation

Name of substation – 220 KV Gadchandur substation under MSETCL , Chandrapur circle.

Details of Earth Tester – Make – Shanti , Crank Type , Serial no – 616A , Range – 0 – 10 , 0 – 100 ohm.

Surface layer soil – BLACK COTTON SOIL.

Sr.no Distance ( meter) Reading (ohm) Soil resistivity 2πar Average soil resistivity
Ohm - meter Ohm - meter

1) 2 0.5 6.28

2) 4 0.2 5.05

3) 6 0.2 7.54

4) 2 0.4 5.03

5) 4 0.2 5.03

6) 6 0.2 7.54

7) 2 0.2 2.51

8) 4 0.2 5.03
7.78
9) 6 0.1 3.77

16) 2 0.6 7.54

Single phase fault level = 3650 MVA. , 6.4 KA.

Three phase fault level = 3980 MVA. , 8.8 KA.
Soil Resistivity = 07.78 ohm – meter.

STE P - 1

1) ESTEP ( 70 KG ) = ( 1000 + 6Csρs ) 0.157 / Гts Equation no 30 IEEE 80 – 2000

Considering 70 KG Body.

Cs = 0.695 is determined from equation 27 IEEE 80 - 2000

ρs = 3000 is surface layer resistivity in ohm – meter.
ts = duration of shock period ( 0.5 )
Inserting the above values
ESTEP ( 70 KG ) tolerable = 3000 volts.

Etouch ( 70 KG ) tolerable = 916.43 volts.

3) EMESH ( 70 KG ) Calculated = ρ x Km x Kim x IG / Lm IEEE 80 - 2000

Km = 1 / 2h { ln [ D2 / 16hd + ( D + 2h )2 / 8Dd - h / 4d ] + Kii / Kh ln [ 8 / π ( 2n – 1 ) ] }

h = depth of burial of conductor in M = 0.5 M
D = Spacing between parallel conductor = 15.00 M
d = diameter of grid conductor = 0.022 M
LP = Peripheral length of grid = 570.00 M
LX = maximum length of grid in x – direction = 2032.00 M
Ly = maximum length of grid in y – direction = 1745.00 M
Total no of vertical rod = 0 nos.
LR = total length of vertical rod = no vertical rods are used.
LT = LX + LY = 3777.00 M
A = Area of the grid m 2 = 25,959 M 2
KII = 1 / ( 2n )( 2/n) few view vertical rod on periphery = 0.64
Kh = ( 1 + h ) 0.5 = 1.22
n = na x nb x nc x nd
n = 15.77 FOR L-SHAPE MAT nd = 1
Kim = Kis = 0.644 + 0.148n = 2.97 inserting the values in the formula K m = 5.93
EMESH calculated = 7.78 x 5.93 x 2.97 x 6144 / 3777 = 223.00 volts.

4) EStep Calculated = KS X Kis x ρ x I / L

KS = 1 / π { 1 / 2h + 1 / D + h + 1 / D [ 1 – 0.5 n-2 }
Inserting value in formula Ks = 0.37

RG = ρ [ 1 / LT + 1 / Г 20A ( 1 + 1 / 1 + hГ20/A )] IEEE 80 - 2000

LT = Total length of buried conductor. = 3777.00 Meter.
A = area of grid = 25959 M 2
Inserting the values in the above formula.

RG = 0.02 Ohm.
STEP – 4 CALCULATION OF GPR

GPR = IG X RG = ( 6144 ) X 0.02 = 146 Volts.

THE STEP POTENTIAL AND TOUCH POTENTIAL ARE WITHIN LIMIT. HENCE THE EARTH MAT
DESIGN IS SAFE.
SUMMARY OF RESULTS -

Sr.no parameters value

1) Length of grid conductor in x – direction ( L X ) 2032.00 METER
2) Length of grid conductor in y – direction ( L Y ) 1745.00 METER
3) Length of vertical rod ( LR ) 00.00 METER
4) Total length ( LM ) 3777.00 METER
5) Peripheral length of grid ( LP ) 570.00 METER
6) Touch potential tolerable ( ETOUCH ) 916.43 VOLTS
7) Step potential tolerable ( ESTEP ) 3000.00 VOLTS
8) MESH potential calculated ( EMESH ) 223.00 VOLTS
9) Step potential calculated ( ESTEP ) 13.00 VOLTS
10) Ground potential rise ( GPR ) 146.00 VOLTS
11) Grid resistance ( RG ) 0.02 OHM
12) Spacing between grid conductors ( M ) 15.00 METER
13) Depth of burial of conductor ( M ) 0.50 METER
14) Equivalent diameter of conductor ( M ) 0.022 METER
15) Size of grid conductor ( MM ) 50 X 8 MM
75 X 10 MM
16) Tatal no of vertical rod and size ( 150MM, 3M) 107 NOS.
17) Area A ( M2) 25959 M2
TECHNICAL NOTE

1) The earth mat is to be connected to the following in a substation.

a) The neutral point of each system through its own independent earth.

c) All extraneous metallic frame work not associated with equipment.

d) The earth point of lightning arrester in the substation through their permanant independent earth
electrode.

2) Separate earth electrodes shall be provided to the fencing. Use 25mm dia.7 Feet long G.I Pipe.

3) A crushed stone layer of 40 mm size, layer thickness 100 mm shall be spread in switchyard.

4) Separate earth electrode shall be provided to the earthing of equipments in control room.

5) Watering arrangement for all electrodes shall be done, So that required moisture for each Earth pit
can be maintained

6) Use alternate layer of Earthing powder ( 80 Kg ), Salt & B.C soil for refilling earth pit

7) Station transformer neutral & body Earth shall be done. ( 25mm dia. 7 feet long G.I Pipe )

8) The position of earth pits can be changed as per convenience as per site conditions. As per as
possible distance between two electrode shall be more than 6 meter. Joints of Grid conductors and
Main conductors are done by Nut Bolting and welding.

Proprietor
M/s Prayag Electrical
Akola