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ICR

Quarterly
International Cement Review December 2003

The Global White Cement Report


2003
The Global White Cement Report
2003
ICR
Quarterly
2003

The Global
White Cement
Report 2003
ICR
Quarterly
The Global White Cement Report
2003
2003

Acknowledgements
The publishers would like to acknowledge, with
grateful thanks, all those individuals, companies
and trade associations who helped in providing
information, data and commentary in the
compilation of this report. This publication has been
compiled by the staff of International Cement
Review.

Photo credits
While maps, graphs and part of the photos were
supplied by in-house graphic services, we would like
to thank the following companies for supplying
below photographs : Aalborg Portland –
photographs on p. 5, 41, 42, 54, 62, 75, 77, 78, 81.
Cementa AB – photograph on p. 52. Cementos del
Nare – photographs on p. 5, 34, 49, 54, 55. Cemex
– photograph on p. 7, 18, 22, 25, 27, 32, 36, 58,
86. Lehigh Cement Co – photographs on p. 55, 60.

Although every effort has been made to ensure the


accuracy and completeness of this publication, the
publishers do not accept any responsibility for any
errors or omissions. Any views expressed are those of
the publishers and their correspondents.

The Global White Cement Report – its text, maps and graphs –

must not be reproduced, photocopied, stored or conveyed by

any means of mechanical or electronic device without prior

written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd.

The Global White Cement Report is published by Managing Editor David Hargreaves
Editor Chris Blasdale
Tradeship Publications Ltd Technical Editor Dr Michael Clark
Old King’s Head Court, 15 High Street, Dorking,
Surrey, RH4 1AR, UK Production Editor Muriel Bal
Tel. +44 (0) 1306 740363 Design Storm Creative Partnership
Fax +44 (0) 1306 740660
E-mail: info@CemNet.co.uk Advertising Gary Morton
Website: www.CemNet.com Subscriptions Susan Hargreaves

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Contents

Introduction 7

Executive summary 9

World production base 13


The global white cement production base has a capacity of
17.5Mta and an annual output of 12Mt. This chapter identifies key
producing countries and provides their output and capacity figures.

World producers 39
A third of global production is manufactured by five producers. The
report focuses on the Big Five and also outlines other important
players.

World consumption 49
Although world demand is less than one per cent of per capita grey
cement consumption, white cement is a key niche market. Sales are
particularly strong in Europe and China.

Marketing & promotion 61


A key constituent in a wide range of applications, white cement is
marketed and promoted with increasing effectiveness.

Trading 65
A quarter of white cement is traded across the globe. This chapter
investigates the reasons for high trading volume and also looks at
competition and pricing trends.

Global industry outlook 69


The outlook for the international white cement industry is generally
positive as the world looks forward to increasing demand.

White cement technology 71


Dr Michael Clark outlines the specific technological requirements in
the various stages of white cement production.

Appendices 87
Appendix I – Production base by region and country.
Appendix II – Consumption by region and country.

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Introduction

T
his is the first report produced by International Cement
Review (ICR) on white cement, a sector which has
previously been relatively undocumented, apart from a
few articles and conference papers. Why, though, the interest
in the white cement sector which is generally regarded as a
niche market only, and where worldwide production at 12Mt
is less than total cement consumption in a country of the size
of the UK? The answer possibly lies in the fact that usage of
white cement is at the forefront of the visual representation of
concrete in the ‘built’ world, and as such is important to the
cement and concrete sectors in terms of promoting all of its
products and applications. Additionally, there are interesting
comparisons to be drawn of the white cement sector compared
to grey cement, which is 150 times larger in volume terms, in
relation to consumption patterns and company participation.
This report looks at many of the key points of interest
within the white cement sector including:
I a review of world production
I analysis of global, regional and national consumption levels
I the patterns of trade, including major markets and suppliers
I corporate analysis of major companies within the sector
I detailing of white cement applications, and marketing and
promotional challenges
I technical considerations in terms of production
I an outlook on future trends within the sector
The report does not include assessments of the availability
and relative scarcity of suitable limestone reserves for white
cement production globally. Additionally, it has not been
possible to compare all existing production units in terms of
quality and whiteness of product. It should also be stated that
while some companies and industry associations were willing to
divulge basic market information, many others were not
prepared to do so. Therefore some of the data contained within
the report is produced from as informed as possible estimates.
Chris Blasdale

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Executive summary
The global white cement industry is a small segment of the overall cementitious sector. With
estimated output in 2002 of around 12Mt it represents by volume less than one per cent of
the worldwide grey cement sector. Nevertheless, for the cement/concrete participants in the
construction materials sector, white cement represents one of the most effective visible means
of promoting their product in applications against competing materials. While considered
purely a niche market by many, for the companies involved in white cement manufacture, its
importance can range from being the sole or major business activity of that company (eg
Federal White Cement of Canada) through to being merely an interesting adjunct to
mainstream activities (Lafarge is a top-5 player in white cement, but this activity is estimated
to represent directly less than one per cent of its total turnover).

T
he white cement industry is experiencing compared to 2002. For this to occur then, existing
considerable change. The overall market has high consuming regions will need to more than
grown by five to six per cent since 1994, a sustain current levels of demand, and lower
growth rate ahead of grey cement. This has resulted consuming regions will need to grow significantly.
in major capacity additions in a relative sense. These The drivers of demand for white cement are not
additions have generally been founded on highly necessarily of similar weighting as for grey cement. It
efficient plants targeting both domestic and is less of a commodity product, and therefore
significant export sales. A profile of the industry demand could be advanced by positive perceptions
would be one of an increasingly global nature, with in terms of fashion/aesthetics and effective
over 3Mt being traded internationally. In terms of promotion of its applications.
the major players, both Aalborg White and Çimsa, to Headline comments from the report are as
whom white cement represents a major part of their follows:
overall business, have been at the forefront of this
globalism, extending their influence in certain Production base
regions. Overall the industry has become more I Total global production of white cement in 2002 is
competitive, and this has resulted in recent years estimated at just below 12Mt with indicated capacity
with lower prices in many markets. An apparent levels of 17.5Mt.
anomaly remains, however, in that in some I Europe is both the largest producer (28 per cent of
countries, prices have remained high and supply has global output) and has the highest capacity
continued to take place from relatively high cost utilisation of all the regions.
domestic producers. Across the world this can be put I China is already responsible for an estimated 23
down to a variety of factors, including potentially per cent of global white cement output, although
high handling and distribution costs for importers, definitions of what represents white cement differ.
the desire of many consumers of white cement for I The Mediterranean Basin (from North Africa
consistency of product, and control of existing around to Greece) is responsible for an estimated 14
producers over channels of distribution. This per cent of global output and the relative importance
situation becomes more understandable given that of this region is set to grow.
this report has only identified 76 white cement I The Middle East has more than doubled its white
plants globally in 45 different countries (excluding cement capacity (currently around 2.1Mta) in the
China). last 10 years.
If growth in demand for white cement continues I Asia, excluding China, is responsible for just over
at its current rate for the next 10 years, then a 10 per cent of global output, and has mixed
further 7.5 to 9.5Mt will be consumed in 2011 prospects.

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I Latin America, with the exception of Mexico, proportions. The ‘white cement’ market in China is
forms a relatively insignificant part of the global estimated to be around 2.6Mt, with a per capita
white cement production base. consumption of 2kg annually.
I In North America, the US production base remains I The rest of Asia is estimated to have consumed
old, and only represents 25 per cent of domestic around 1.23Mt in 2002. The average per capita
demand. consumption over the region is considerably lower
I The top-5 producing nations are: China, Spain, than China at 0.8kg annually.
Turkey, Mexico and Denmark – markedly different I Latin America consumes around seven per cent of
from grey cement. global cement output, with Mexico as the leading
I The top-10 producers are responsible for 49 per nation.
cent of global white cement output from 45 per cent I Estimated consumption in North America in 2002
of global capacity. Excluding China, these shares was around 1.3Mt, 11 per cent of global demand.
would respectively be 64 per cent and 60 per cent. Per capita consumption in the region is 4.1kg
I The top-5 global grey cement players are all in the annually, just over double the global average.
top-10 of white producers. I The five largest white cement consuming nations
I Major capacity additions between 1995 and 2003 are China, Spain, USA, France and India.
are estimated at 3.5Mt, excluding China.
Leading producers
Consumption I The top-5 producers are estimated to be Cemex,
I Consumption of white cement in 2002 is Aalborg White, Lafarge, Italcementi and Çimsa.
estimated to be 12Mt and 9.4Mt excluding China. I Cemex with an estimated 11 per cent global
This represents an average per capita usage of only market share in 2002 has benefited from strong
1.9kg, and is less than one per cent (0.7 per cent) of market positions and demand conditions in Spain,
grey cement production worldwide. Mexico and USA. Its market leadership is set to
I Europe is estimated to be the largest white cement come under challenge.
consuming region representing 27 per cent of the I Aalborg White with a seven per cent market share
global market – considerable disparities on a per is currently No 2, but with recent additions has
capita basis exist across the region. higher capacity than Cemex. White cement
I The Mediterranean Basin is characterised by high represents one of two core activities for its parent,
consumption levels of white cement. The region is FLS Industries, and global market leadership is an
responsible for nearly 12 per cent of global output expressed objective.
and per capita consumption is estimated at 6kg I Lafarge with a five per cent market share is
annually in 2002, and 1.3 per cent of grey cement currently trying to embrace the increased globalism
consumption. of the white cement market; as the world’s largest
I The Middle East is estimated to be responsible for cement company they should not be under-
just over 10 per cent of global white cement estimated in terms of future initiatives.
demand. Of all of the regions, it has the highest per I Italcementi is currently a European player only in
capita usage of 7.3kg annually, with the Gulf states white cement – it accounts for five per cent of the
in particular showing a high intensity of usage. global market. Like some other companies, they
I Africa, excluding Mediterranean North African appear to have heightened interest in white cement,
countries, is a very low consumer of white cement, as evidenced by a recent small white cement
representing only just over one per cent of the global investment in Bulgaria.
market. I Çimsa also has a similar market share (around five
I China, the largest single market globally is per cent), but its profile is very different. With over
responsible for 68 per cent of Asian white cement 1Mta capacity at one location, it has been a major
consumption, fairly in line with grey cement influence on recent competitive changes in the

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sector. It too has declared aspirations to be No 1, to six per cent annually continues for the next 10
although whether this is possible from one years, then demand in 2012 will be between 19.5 to
production location is questionable. 21.5Mta – an increase of 7.5 to 9.5Mt above
I Other leading white cement companies include existing levels.
Holcim, which has recently centralised its white I Should that be the case, then capacity additions of
cement activities and has just announced sizeable the order of 7-10Mta would be required, expected
investments in Romania and is now even looking to mainly at existing production facilities, with any new
extend its influence beyond Europe. Finally, production facilities where they do occur, most likely
HeidelbergCement, another significant force, to be in Asia, North Africa, Middle East and Latin
although its white cement strategy is more America.
ambivalent at present. I The proportion of white cement traded is likely to
rise further given the above scenario. A further boost
Trading to this view would be given by increased
I In excess of 3Mt of white cement was traded concentration of ownership by the existing larger
outside of the country where it was produced in producers.
2002. This represents over 25 per cent (32 per cent I The previously low level of corporate activity in
excluding China) of the global white cement. As a terms of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) or
comparison, grey cement traded globally is around marketing agreements within white cement is
seven per cent of the overall market. expected to increase.
I Leading trading companies, in order are Aalborg
White, Cemex, Çimsa, RAK White,
HeidelbergCement and Federal.
I Main import markets are USA, Spain, Germany,
Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Israel and UK.
I Increased trading levels and the number of
meaningful suppliers has led to increased
competition. This has impacted on prices since 2000
in particular. Achieved prices in export markets have
halved in some cases, although this has to be
examined on a specific market basis.

Marketing
I White cement is used in many external and visual
applications of concrete and mortars, etc – the
challenge is for the industry to increase usage in a
range of current and new applications.
I Improved promotion of white cement is underway,
with Aalborg White and Holcim White two of the
noticeable companies. More needs to be done
particularly in currently low/medium consuming
countries and other countries where there is not a
local producer. Global industry initiatives whilst
desirable are probably not practical.

Outlook
I If the recent growth of demand estimated at five

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World production base


Total global production of white cement in 2002 is estimated to be just below 12Mt with
indicated capacity levels of 17.5Mt. For the purposes of these estimates, product is deemed
‘white cement’ if that is how it is described in the specific market where it is produced. For
instance, off-white cement is described as such in Australia and therefore is not included,
whereas considerable tonnages of perhaps questionable material from China are included. In
research carried out it became clear that it would be untenable to create a cut-off point (eg
whiteness) that could be applied across the global sector.

T
he research has identified 76 white cement relatively high cost structures. In Western Europe,
plants globally excluding China. These plants most of the capital investment recently has been in
are located in 45 different countries, and are terms of efficiencies, environmental improvements
responsible for an estimated output of 9.3Mt in and small-scale capacity improvements. Aalborg
2002 from a capacity exceeding 13Mt. In China, White is the exception where a 200,000tpa capacity
output of 1.5Mt of white cement is estimated from increase has been carried out in 2003. In Eastern
40 identified plants and a further 70 small Europe, the challenge appears to be to improve
unspecified plants. An additional 1.2Mt output of production facilities and build up regional output
‘white cement’ from unlicensed plants is also that is low. Italcementi commenced production of
estimated in China. white cement at its Devnya plant in Bulgaria in late
Global production of just below 12Mt represents 2002.
an average per capita usage of only 1.9kg, and is China is discussed in detail in the specific country
less than one per cent (0.7 per cent) of grey cement section. While the quality of a good portion of its
production worldwide. ‘white cement’ output appears questionable, China’s
Regional analysis of the production base is role in the global white cement sector is very likely
shown in Table 1 – Estimated white cement to increase in the future given better export
production by region, 2002. prospects and a generally low cost base. China is
Europe is both the largest producer (28 per cent already responsible for an estimated 23 per cent of
of global output) and has the highest capacity global white cement output.
utilisation of all the regions. It has a long established The Mediterranean Basin (from North Africa
production base, which generally would indicate around to Greece) is responsible for an estimated 14

Table 1 – Estimated white cement production by region, 2002

Region Capacity Output Capacity Plants


(000tpa) (000tpa) utilisation (%)

Europe 4150 3400 82 21


Asia – China only 4150 2700 65 >100*
Mediterranean Basin 2625 1680 64 11
Middle East 2190 1290 59 10
Asia – excluding China 2180 1290 59 15
Latin America 1360 1050 77 15
North America 800 585 73 4
* Total number unknown

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3
2 100
2 6
7 2 3
3 4 4 10
2
2 7
4 2 2
2
2

Figure 1 – The global white cement production base

per cent of global output. With nearly 1Mta capacity The Middle-East has more than doubled its
added recently (Çimsa’s second line and Aalborg’s white cement capacity (currently around 2.1Mta) in
Sinai White) there is clear scope (and strategic the last 10 years. With high consuming local
expectation by some companies) that the importance markets, and a low cost production base in Iran and
of this region will grow in terms of the global white UAE in particular, the relative performance of this
cement industry. region in output terms also looks set to grow.

Table 2 – Estimated top-10 white cement producing countries

Region Capacity Output Capacity Plants


(000tpa) (000tpa) utilisation (%)

China 4150 2700 65 >100


Spain 1490 1250 84 6
Turkey 1250 690 55 3
Mexico 645 615 95 5
Denmark 820 575 70 1
Iran 930 560 60 5
France 530 500 94 2
India 700 470 67 2
Italy 530 450 85 4
Egypt 720 430 60 3
* Total unknown but indicators suggest over 100 factories have the capability to produce some form of white
cement

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Table 3 – Estimated top-10 white cement producers, 2002

Company Capacity Output Capacity Share in global Plants


(000tpa) (000tpa) utilisation (%) output (%)

Cemex* 1470 1330 90 11 8


Aalborg White* ** 1530 880 58 7 3
Lafarge 750 625 83 5 6
Italcementi 740 590 80 5 5
Çimsa/Sabanci 1100 580 53 5 1
HeidelbergCement* 500 465 93 4 4
RAK White 450 380 84 3 1
Federal 500 300 60 3 1
Holcim 495 290 59 2 5
Grasim 400 280 70 2 1

* Lehigh White allocated according to equity ** Includes 2003 capacity addition

Asia, excluding China, is responsible for just over cement producing countries) are responsible for
10 per cent of global output. While output prospects nearly 70 per cent of global output. For specific
for India and to a lesser extent Southeast Asia country comments, see below.
appear good, the more developed economies of It should be noted that white cement is traded
Japan, Korea and Taiwan are likely to decline further much more extensively in proportional terms than
in importance. grey cement, mainly because of its higher value per
Latin America, with the exception of Mexico and tonne and the fact that it is only produced in 46
Colombia, forms a relatively insignificant part of the countries globally. This explains why Denmark, a
global white cement production base. small producer of grey cement, should figure in the
In North America, while Federal in Canada has top-5 producers. Aalborg White, from its Danish
invested in new capacity, the US production base facility, for example, exports around 90 per cent of
remains old, and only represents 25 per cent of its production.
domestic demand. This is a much more extreme Drawing comparisons to top grey cement
version of what occurred in the US grey cement producing nations, notable exclusions from the top-
sector. Investment in new capacity in
Figure 2 – Share of top-10 white cement
the future can certainly not be assumed
producers in global output, 2002
however.
In all regions, the growing presence
and interest of cement majors in white
cement, plus companies such as Çimsa
and Aalborg, to whom white cement is
a major part of their business, could be
expected to lead to further inter-
regional trading, and global rather than
regional white cement production and
sourcing strategies.
The top-10 producing countries
(see Table 2 – Estimated top-10 white

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10 are USA, Japan, Korea and Brazil. Spain, Iran


White cement production in Iran
and Turkey (as well as Denmark) all have
advanced white cement producing rankings
compared to grey cement.
Table 3 – Estimated top-10 white cement
producers, 2002 shows an overview of key
companies in the global white cement industry.
Specific individual comment on the major players
is made below.
Collectively, the top-10 players are estimated
to be responsible for 48 per cent of global white
cement output from 45 per cent of global
capacity. Excluding China, these shares would
respectively be 62 per cent and 60 per cent.
The top-5 global grey cement players are all
in the top-10 of white producers with Cemex
holding a heightened position compared to grey
cement, and Holcim and arguably, Lafarge an
underweight position. It is worth emphasising
though that overall white cement production is
less than one per cent of grey production, and
therefore to the majors is unlikely ever to be more
than a niche market, albeit a potentially profitable a niche part of their business. In cement terms, their
one and of disproportional importance in terms of white activities are likely to represent more than 50
promoting overall cement and concrete usage. per cent of their overall business in turnover. Both
To Aalborg White and Çimsa, both grey companies (like Cemex) have an objective to be
producers as well, white cement is much more than market leader in white cement globally.

Table 4 – The 10 largest white cement production locations by estimated output,


2002

Country Plant Company Ownership Process Capacity Output


(000tpa) (000tpa)

Turkey Mersin Çimsa Sabanci Dry 1100 580


Denmark Rørdal* Aalborg Aalborg Wet 820 575
Spain San Vicente Valenciana Cemex Dry 454 380
UAE RAK RAK White Independent Dry 450 380
Canada Woodstock Federal White Independent Dry 500 300
Italy Rezzato Italcementi Italcementi Semi-dry 250 285
India Rajashree Nagar Grasim White Grasim Dry 400 280
Spain El Alto Cementos Independent Wet 280 276
Portland
France Le Teil Lafarge Lafarge Dry 280 270
Spain Buñol Valenciana Cemex Dry 310 250
* Includes 2003 capacity addition

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Table 5 – White cement capacity additions, 1995-2003

Year Country Plant Company Ownership Add cap


(000tpa)

1995- Iran Saveh Saveh Independent 350


2002
1996 India Rajashree Nagar Grasim White Grasim 250
1997 UAE RAK RAK White Independent 280
1997 Iran Neyriz Neyriz Independent 150
1999 Turkey Mersin Çimsa Sabanci 500
2000 Iran Uremieh Uremieh Independent 180
2001 Brazil Pedro Leopoldo Camargo Correa Independent 110
2001 Canada Woodstock Federal White Independent 300
2001 Egypt Sinai Sinai White Aalborg 410
2002 Saudi Arabia Al-Muzahimiyah Saudi White Independent 210
2002 Kuwait Shuaiba Kuwait Cement Independent 100
2002 Iran Benvid Benvid Independent 180
2002 Bulgaria Devnya Italcementi 50
2002 Malaysia Perak RCI Aalborg 200
2003 Denmark Rørdal Aalborg Aalborg 230
TOTAL 3500

Federal, and perhaps arguably, RAK White, are Historically during the development of the white
not directly involved in grey cement, and are cement sector, some wet grey kilns were converted
committed to white cement as their main business to white production as the margins were generally
activity. This may mean that over the long-term they higher and allowed the usage of what was inefficient
may suffer a competitive disadvantage in terms of capacity. From the late-1980s to the early-1990s this
lacking synergistic value addition related to logistics, ceased to be the case. Capacity added since then has
marketing and overheads, although benefits of focus been predominantly efficient dry-process, using
may compensate. alternative fuels wherever possible, and seeking to
The other top-10 producer, Grasim, has recently minimise the high milling costs of white cement
become the market leader in grey cement in India production. The individual capacities of dry white
and will benefit from the synergistic benefits noted kilns introduced in the last 15 years have been
above albeit primarily in India only. generally a quantum step higher than existing
Another contrast is that the top-5 cement majors capacity. Kiln capacities added have mainly been in
all have a number of production locations ranging the range of 150,000-500,000tpa.
between four and eight (including grinding stations), Capacity additions between 1995 and 2003 are
whereas Çimsa, Federal, RAK White are all single estimated at 3.5Mta, excluding China (see also Table
unit white cement companies. 5 – White cement capacity additions, 1995-2003).
The top-10 plants are responsible for some 39 Moreover, further small-scale upgrades, plant
per cent of global white cement output (excluding optimisations and other capacity enhancing activities
China) from 36 per cent of capacity (see Table 4 – will have taken place in the period. Nearly 1.8Mta
The 10 largest white cement production locations by capacity is estimated to have been added since
estimated output, 2002). Individual plants are 2001, quite a dramatic increase compared to the
discussed in the section below. previous periods.

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Of these six plants, only Cemex, Vilanova and


Tudela Veguin are dedicated white cement facilities.
Sustained growth has been experienced in the last
decade with production almost doubling from
640,000t in 1992-93. At current production levels,
capacity utilisation rates are now around 90 per cent.
This increase in production is due both to growth in
INDIVIDUAL PLANT REVIEW BY COUNTRY
the internal market (see consumption section) as well
EUROPE in exports.
Exports have grown from around 120,000t in
1993 (18 per cent of total white production) to
Europe has a long established white cement 390,000t in 2002 (31 per cent of total white
production base and has the highest capacity production). Clinker exports only represented about
utilisation of all the regions, ie 82 per cent. It two per cent of this total in 2002, although in the
accounts for 28 per cent of global output, mostly mid-1990s they were a more significant part of the
concentrated in Western Europe. It is in this part of total (1995 – around 100,000t of white clinker was
Europe that capital investment has been focused on exported). The major areas that white cement was
environmental improvements, efficiency and small- exported to were North Africa (165,000t – mainly to
scale capacity improvements. Key producing nations Algeria:109,000t and Morocco:40,000t), North
are Spain, Denmark, Italy and France. America (132,000t), Europe (65,000t – mainly
UK:30,000t and Turkey:21,000t) and Israel
Spain (25,000t). In 2002, imports rose to 215,000t, with
Spain is the second largest white cement producing the main sources being Turkey (145,000t) and
nation after China. In 2002, it produced 1.25Mt Greece (39,000t).
across six plants (see Table 6 – White cement Cemex is the leading producer of white cement
factories in Spain). in Spain with estimated production in 2002 of

Figure 3 – White cement plants in Europe

2 2
2
4

2 2

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Table 6 – White cement factories in Spain, 2002

Company Factory Production capacity (tpa)


Clinker Cement
Cementos Portland, SA El Alto – Morata de Tajuña (Madrid) 280,000 280,000
Cemex España, SA Buñol (Valencia) 247,500 310,000
San Vicente del Raspeig (Alicante) 363,000 453,750
Vilanova i la Geltrú (Barcelona) 75,000 100,000
Lafarge Asland, SA Sagunto (Valencia) 125,000 100,000
SA Tudela Veguin Tudela Veguin (Princip of Asturias) 125,000 200,000
TOTAL PRODUCTION CAPACITY 1,215,500 1,343,750
Source: Oficemen

around 750,000t from its three plants (all dry- Nazare, on the west coast. A semi-dry-process plant
process) located near Barcelona, Alicante and with a Lepol kiln, it has a clinker capacity of
Valencia. Cemex through the Valenciana group from 80,000tpa and cement capacity of 110,000tpa. In
1992 has strongly expanded both domestic and 2002, production was 98,000t with nearly all sales
export sales of white cement. made on the domestic market. With domestic
Cementos Portland at its El Alto plant near demand increasing, white clinker production may
Madrid is the second largest player, producing well be increased after 2004. Two products are made
around 275,000t of white cement in 2002, very by Secil, a BR I 42.5 and a BR II 32.5.
close to capacity. Virtually all the sales from this Imports of white cement into Portugal were just
inland plant are supplied to the domestic market. under 10,000t in 2002, sourced from Spain and
The Tudela Veguin plant in northern Spain, in the Turkey.
principality of Asturias, by contrast is able to ship
white cement from two loading facilities at the port France
of Gijon. Annual sales are estimated at around There are two white cement plants in France located
130,000t. very close to each other in the south-east between
The final white cement plant in Spain is Lafarge’s Lyon and Avignon, and in good proximity to the
Sagunto plant near Valencia with sales in 2002 Rhone river. The plants are Cruas, owned by Ciments
approaching 100,000t. Sagunto, located 5km from Calcia (part of Italcementi /Ciments Français) and Le
Valencia port, has white clinker capacity of Teil, owned by Lafarge.
135,000tpa and cement capacity of 150,000tpa. A Cruas, which became a dedicated dry-process
small plant, Cementos Rezola, a Ciment Français white cement plant in 1981, after grey production
subsidiary was closed in the 1990s. was discontinued, had cement sales of just under
In terms of production by cement type, cement 230,000t in 2002, and is operating close to capacity.
of types BL II (42.5R and 52.5N) represent over 70 Cruas produces a high quality and pure white
per cent of the production in 2002. Cements of type cement, with reflectivity of 93 per cent (top end of
BL I are the second most important (24 per cent of the scale). Quality and consistency are viewed as the
production) and the masonry cements BL 22,5X major determinant of continuing competitive
represent about five per cent of production. advantage at this location.
Le Teil, after further optimisation in 2003, is
Portugal expected to have a cement capacity of 420,000tpa,
Secil is the only white cement producer in Portugal plus the ability to supply clinker to the Tavernola
from its Pataias Gare plant, located 15km from grinding station owned by Lafarge in Italy. Estimated

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2002 sales directly from Le Teil are estimated at smaller amounts to France and Africa. Exports
around 270,000t. represent as much as 70 per cent of total sales.
Both plants’ cement production is sold Located near the French border, Harmignies offers
predominantly in France itself, with total production four products – CEM I 42.5 and 52.5, CEM II 42.5,
in 2002 of 500,000t. Imports to France of white and a waterproof CEM I 42.5. Mean brightness of
cement are estimated at around 50,000t in 2002, these products is in a range of 82-86 per cent.
and sourced from Denmark, Italy and Belgium.
Germany
Italy White cement has been made at Dyckerhoff’s
The major white cement producer in Italy is Amoneburg plant near Wiesbaden since the early
Italcementi, with a semi-dry kiln and grinding at 1930s. White cement capacity and production is
Rezzato, near Brescia, and a grinding plant at estimated at around 75,000t in 2002.
Citavecchia, a port some 70km northwest of Rome. Germany is a net importer of white cement,
Rezzato has a white clinker capacity of 200,000tpa originating predominantly in neighbouring Belgium
and cement capacity of 250,000tpa, and and Denmark, with small amounts from Turkey.
Citavecchia, a white cement capacity of 100,000tpa. Estimated levels of white cement imports are around
Estimated total white cement production in 2002 200,000t, significantly more than the official statistics
was 285,000t, of which nearly 90 per cent was sold suggest.
in the domestic market. Italcementi produces three
different white cement products – a type I Denmark
(Italbianco), and two composite type II cements – Aalborg White’s facility at Aalborg has the second
Roccabianco, with a 80-94 per cent white clinker largest white cement capacity of all global white
constituent and Aquila Bianca, with a 65-79 per cent cement locations. The company is part of Aalborg
white clinker constituent). Portland, which in turn is 100 per cent owned by
Colacem produces white cement at its Ghigiano FLS Industries. In 2002, the decision was taken to
plant in Umbria. Estimated production in 2002 was increase white cement capacity at this site from
90,000t, across both type I and type II white cement 620,000tpa to 850,000tpa by converting another
categories. Lafarge’s Tavernola grinding plant semi-wet kiln from grey to white cement
produced around 75,000t in 2002. It is located in the manufacture. This kiln conversion at the cost of
north Italian Alps and fed with clinker from Le Teil in DKK200m is expected to be operational before the
France. end of 2003 and will mean that five kilns dedicated
Total white cement production in 2002 is to white will produce at this site. Aalborg is located
estimated at 450,000t in Italy. Imports are relatively on its own deepwater harbour on the River Limfjord.
small – about 25,000t in 2002, predominantly from Long established as the world’s largest exporter
Turkey, Spain and Denmark. of white cement, Aalborg claims to export to over 70
countries. Since Aalborg White developed new
Belgium production facilities in Egypt and Malaysia, there is
CBR’s Harmignies plant, owned by Heidelberg, is the likely to have been a refocusing on export markets
only white cement plant in the Benelux countries. supplied from Denmark. It is estimated that around
Harmignies is a wet-process plant, operational since 575,000t of white cement was produced at Aalborg
1961. Its estimated white cement capacity is around in 2002, with over 500,000t exported. Main export
200,000tpa, although actual production in 2002 is markets are USA around 130,000t (Aalborg white is
estimated slightly higher at 235,000t. Historically, a minority shareholder in Lehigh White – 24.5 per
this plant has been a major exporter to mainly cent), UK (around 80,000t), Germany (around
Germany and USA (Lehigh White, in which 50,000t) and most other European countries. Further
HeidelbergCement is the major shareholder), plus afield Aalborg has also been a significant exporter to

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Africa, parts of South America and the Caribbean, around 40,000tpa although a number of years ago
and the Middle East. In total around 80 per cent of the feasibility of a major upgrade was looked at. A
Aalborg’s sales are in bulk. Aalborg product is CEM I recent reference was made to production levels
52.5N only, and meets local standards in all of the approaching 200,000tpa, but this has not been
markets that it supplies. substantiated.

Slovakia Others
Holcim’s plant at Rohoznik, near Bratislava, is part of For the purposes of this report both Turkey and
its network of Central and Eastern European white Greece will be looked at in the Mediterranean
cement locations. It has a clinker capacity of section.
150,000tpa, and cement capacity of 160,000tpa. In Of the countries in Europe that do not have any
2002, Rohoznik produced around 120,000t of white white cement production units, the UK is the most
cement, of which less than 10,000t was consumed in notable. Production in this country ceased in the
the domestic market. Around 110,000t was exported 1980s with the closure of Blue Circle’s Swanscombe
within the region. works. Another plant to cease white cement
production in 1997 was Istra Cement, owned by
Romania Heidelberg, in Croatia.
The Turda cement plant in Romania is now the
country’s only white cement production facility.
Acquired by Holcim in 1997, this dry-process plant
has a white cement capacity of 100,000tpa. It is
estimated that 2002 production was around 60,000t.
Turda produces only a composite white cement –
Type II A42.5b – with a maximum limestone
constituent of 15 per cent. It is understood that the
Comarnic works no longer produces white cement. INDIVIDUAL PLANT REVIEW BY COUNTRY

Late-2003, Holcim announced a ¤30m investment MEDITERRANEAN


programme for its Romanian white operations.

Poland The Mediterranean is the area from North Africa


Holcim also owns Wejherowo cement in Poland. This around the Mediterranean Sea to Greece. In terms of
small wet-process white cement plant has a cement output it accounts for 14 per cent of the world total.
capacity of around 40,000tpa. However in 2003 the
plant reportedly produced no white cement. Greece
There are two white cement producing locations in
Bulgaria Greece – Titan’s Elefsis plant and Lafarge’s Volos
The Italcementi owned Devnya Cement, located plant. Neither of these are dedicated white cement
close to the Black Sea port of Varna, commenced plants. Elefsis plant has a white cement capacity of
production of white cement in late 2002. The 130,000tpa and in 2002, it is estimated that around
company reports that there will be an annual 110,000t were produced. Volos plant which came
capacity of 50,000t of white cement. into Lafarge ownership when it acquired Blue Circle
in 2001, has white clinker capacity of 115,000tpa,
Russia and white cement capacity of 90,000tpa. Estimations
Holcim lists Shcurovsky cement (part of Alfa group) show a 60,000t production in 2002.
as an associate company. This plant is still believed to Exports from Greece are in the order of
be wet-process with a white cement capacity of 80,000tpa, with major markets being Algeria, Israel

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Figure 4 – White cement plants in the Mediterranean

2
2

and Morocco. Imports are under 10,000t, and white clinker is exported (approaching 50,000t).
mainly from Turkey. Çimsa’s works is located only 7km from Mersin
port, which has deepwater facilities that can handle
Turkey up to 40,000t ships. The low cost structure of the
The largest white cement production facility in terms Mersin works (particularly when compared to much
of potential capacity in the world is Çimsa’s Mersin of the older and high cost white cement capacity
plant. Çimsa is 90 per cent owned by Sabanci Group. elsewhere) has given Çimsa scope to market white
White cement production was first established at cement aggressively in export markets, with a
Mersin in 1990, utilising a new second production declared objective of becoming the world’s leading
line designed to be interchangeable between grey white cement producer and exporter. Main export
and white. This Plant II’s capacity is 1500tpd white markets in 2002 included Spain (around 140,000t),
clinker or 2200tpd grey clinker. After sales of white Israel (over 50,000t), Syria (around 40,000t), USA
cement grew strongly throughout the mid-1990s, (around 25,000t) and Canada, and North Africa.
both in terms of domestic and export sales, a further Further penetration of export markets is expected in
line was added at the end of 1999. This Plant III is 2003. Imports to Turkey are mainly from Spain (just
dedicated to white cement production, and fully over 20,000t in 2002). This was regarded as a
automated. White clinker capacity is 500,000tpa. retaliatory market response by Cemex, Spain to
Çimsa uses Plant III for the majority of white cement Çimsa establishing white cement import operations
production, augmented by Plant II. The cost of the in Spain.
new line was reported to be US$62m and was Çimsa has also established itself as the leading
supplied by FLSmidth. Total white clinker capacity at producer within the Turkish market where it has a
Mersin would be 1Mta and white cement capacity competitive advantage compared to the other
1.1Mta, assuming full utilisation of both lines. It is producers in terms of both cost and quality. The
estimated that 2002 white cement production was whiteness of Çimsa white cement is claimed to be a
around 580,000t, with domestic sales of 180,000t minimum of 85 per cent, ahead of other Turkish
and export sales of 400,000t. Additionally, some producers.

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The largest of the other Turkish producers is Set 70,000tpa capacity plant had been producing close
owned by Italcementi) at Trakya Cimento, close to to 50,000tpa. The main export destination for
Istanbul. This is a wet-process plant with 90,000tpa Lebanese white cement is Syria. Around 30,000t was
capacity and estimated sales in 2002 of around 70,000t. exported in 2002.
Adana Cimento, with claimed whiteness of product
between 80-84, is a dry-process plant with white Egypt
cement capacity of 60,000tpa, and estimated 2002 There are three white cement production locations in
production of 40,000t. Baticim, at its Batisoke plant, has Egypt. The largest and most recent one is Sinai
produced white cement in the past, but in relatively White Cement, which only went into production at
small quantities. Total Turkish white cement production the end of 2001. The 410,000tpa plant has been
in 2002 is estimated as approaching 700,000t. built adjacent to the Sinai Cement grey plant. The
project began in 1999, with the main shareholders
Lebanon being Aalborg White (38 per cent), Danish
The only remaining white cement producer in Industrialisation Fund (11 per cent), Sinai Cement
Lebanon is Société des Ciments Blancs (in which (20 per cent) and ASEC (10 per cent). For Aalborg
Holcim has a controlling interest via its holding in White the investment gave the opportunity to build
Société des Ciments Libanais). It has an estimated new capacity in the Middle-East to complement its
cement capacity of 150,000tpa, and in 2002 it existing major production base in Denmark, and also
produced around 80,000t. The plant is located at to improve its competitive position, in Middle-East
Chekka, north of Beirut. markets, that had deteriorated in recent years. In
The other white cement plant in Lebanon, March 2002, Aalborg White acquired a further seven
Cimentière du Moyen ceased production of white in per cent of shares in Sinai White, giving them, in
2000 when it was converted by Seament, the conjunction with the Danish Industrialisation Fund,
majority owners, to grey cement production. This majority ownership.
Total project cost was reported as being around
Sinai White Cement, Egypt US$75m. ASEC was given full turnkey responsibility
for the project, with FLSmidth acting as engineers
and main equipment supplier. Exports began in mid-
2002 from El Arish port on the Mediterranean after a
considerable investment in logistics. In addition, it
has been reported that by the end of 2002, Sinai
White had also secured a 40-45 per cent market
share of the domestic Egyptian market. Total 2002
sales by Sinai White are estimated as approaching
200,000t, and likely to continue increasing steadily in
2003. Exports are also anticipated in the future into
the Red Sea and beyond possibly through Port Suez,
to Eastern Africa, and the Middle-East including the
Gulf, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and possibly also the
west coast of India.
The other two production locations are owned
by ASEC Helwan. El Menya in Upper Egypt is a dry-
process white cement plant, commissioned in 1990,
with a capacity of 220,000tpa. Additionally, there are
two small wet lines at the Cairo works with a
combined white cement capacity of 90,000tpa. It

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had been anticipated that these two lines, dating clinker from Lafarge’s Volos plant in Greece.
back to the early 1960s, would be likely to close Estimated 2002 white cement production is 60,000t.
with the onset of Sinai White. Total ASEC Helwan Additionally, imports are around 70,000tpa from
production in 2002 is estimated around 230,000t. Spain, Turkey, and Greece predominantly.
Including the Cairo works, total white cement
capacity in Egypt is 720,000tpa. A traditional export Others
market has been Saudi Arabia (around 16,000t in With the economic situation in Libya improving, and
2002) although exports will now grow substantially inward investment looking likely to grow, there is a
due to Sinai. A small amount of imports in recent strong likelihood that white cement capacity will
years have come from Turkey (around 5000tpa). come on-stream around the middle of the decade.
There is a white cement plant included within
Tunisia
Feriana Tuniso-Algerian company (SOTACIB) is the
only white cement producer in Tunisia. In 2001, it
produced 248,000t of white cement and it is
estimated similar production levels were recorded in
2002. The company is a joint-venture between the
Tunisian and Algerian governments. While being
regarded as having poor access to port facilities – it INDIVIDUAL PLANT REVIEW BY COUNTRY

is located 250km from the nearest ports – exports to MIDDLE EAST


Algeria and Libya in particular are around 80,000tpa.

Morocco
Lafarge Maroc has an 80,000tpa grinding plant for ‘planned’ projects – this would be ca. 200,000tpa.
white cement at Bouskoura, south of Casablanca. White cement capacity in the Middle East has more
Coastal-based, there may well be potential to supply than doubled to 2.1Mta over the past decade. The

Figure 5 – White cement plants in the Middle East

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Neyriz White Cement, Iran

relative output performance of the region is poised cent. Neyriz is located in southeastern Iran, 240km
for growth. The key producing nation is Iran, which from Shiraz.
accounts for around three-quarters of output capacity. Uremieh Cement is only 50km from the Turkish
border in northeastern Iran. The plant, which cost
Iran around US$70m, came on-stream in late 2000. With
Iran has built a substantial production base for white estimated capacity of 180,000tpa, production levels
cement since the mid-1990s. Overall white cement were reported to be 120,000t in 2001, and are
production capacity is estimated at over 900,000tpa. estimated to have been 135,000t in 2002. Despite
Four of the five plants have gone into production being 1200km from the nearest port, exports
since 1995, and the Iranian white cement industry is represented around 30 per cent of 2001 output.
regarded as highly efficient and with a low cost base, It was reported in early 2002, that another white
giving it the opportunity to be highly competitive in cement plant at Benvid White Cement was due for
terms of exports within the region, and further completion in mid-2002. It is located near to Esfahan
afield. Total production in 2002 is estimated as and has a capacity of 500tpd. This would give an
approaching 600,000t. annual capacity of around 180,000t.
Saveh Cement is the largest producer, with two Prior to the rapid increase of white cement
500tpd white lines built by FCB in 1995 and 2002. capacity in Iran, the only production facility was at
Saveh is 50 per cent owned by the Iranian Shemal Cement, which came on-stream in 1980.
government with the remainder owned by other This wet-process facility has capacity of around
public bodies. It has a claimed brightness of over 92 70,000tpa – 2002 production was estimated to be
per cent for its white cement – a high level of purity 60,000t, of lower grade pozzolanic white cement,
compared to most producers. The plant is located only suitable for the domestic market.
160km south west of Tehran, and despite being
800km from ports, has established a strong export Iraq
base. Capacity is around 350,000tpa and estimated The Falluja II plant of the Iraqi Cement State
sales in 2002 were 230,000t. Enterprise was established in 1978. It has a rated
Neyriz Cement that started operation in 1997 white cement capacity of 290,000tpa, although
has a white cement capacity of about 150,000tpa. In production is estimated to have been no more than
2002, it is estimated to have produced just short of around 20,000t in the late 1990s. It is believed that
100,000t of white cement, similar to 2000, and the plant was not producing in the lead up to the
above 78,000t produced in 2001, when sales were most recent Gulf War.
affected by the Indian anti-dumping actions. Overall
exports in 2002 were nearly 30,000t, mostly within Saudi Arabia
the region. Main sponsors of Neyriz are Fars and Saudi Arabia, although a large consumer of white
Khuzestan Cement as well as the Iranian Bank cement, only developed its first white cement
Saderat. Whiteness levels are in excess of 91 per production facility recently, when the Saudi White

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Cement Company came on-stream in 2001. With a


700tpd white cement kiln located at Al-
Muzahimiyah, its cement production capacity is
around 210,000tpa. In 2002, it produced around
155,000t, nearly all of which was consumed on the
domestic market.
Traditionally, imports to Saudi Arabia have come
INDIVIDUAL PLANT REVIEW BY COUNTRY
from Turkey, Denmark, and UAE. Imports in the
ASIA
period 1998-2002 averaged nearly 200,000tpa.

Kuwait
The Kuwait Cement Company started producing Asian markets, excluding China, has a 10 per cent
white cement in 1979 and in 1999 converted share in global output figures. Key producers are
another mill from grey to white grinding. Estimated India and Thailand, but these are dwarfed when one
white cement capacity is now 190,000tpa and 2002 takes China into account with an estimated capacity
production is estimated at around 80,000t. Clinker is of 2.6Mta.
imported.
Pakistan
Jordan There are two existing white cement plants in
Arab Company For White Cement’s Khaldiya plant is Pakistan, with a third expected to come on-stream in
located 50km east of Amman. It started production 2004. Existing capacity is around 85,000tpa, and
in 1985, and is a dry process 380tpd kiln. Estimated 2002 production was close to capacity at 81,000t.
cement capacity is around 115,000tpa, and Anwarzaib White Cement came into production in
estimated production in 2002 was around 110,000t, 1989 with an Onoda manufactured 50,000tpa kiln.
with around 45,000t exported. Cement capacity is also rated at 50,000tpa, and in
2002 production is estimated at 45,000t. The Bholari
United Arab Emirates plant is situated in Sind-Hyderabad region. The other
The Ras Al Khaimah (RAK) Company for White existing producer is Maple Leaf Cement Company’s
Cement started production in 1986 and upgraded to wet process white cement plant at Iskanderabad –
a cement capacity of 450,000tpa in the mid-1990s. there are two small wet kilns dating back to 1967
RAK is one of the largest stand-alone white cement and 1973 with a combined capacity of 30,000tpa.
companies. It is located near the port of Mina Saqr, 2002 production was 36,000t. Production from both
ideally placed close to the Straits of Hormuz at the plants is consumed within the domestic market.
entrance to the Arabian Gulf. Kohat Cement recently announced the intention
Estimated production in 2002 was close to 400,000t to set up a white cement plant with a production
with exports representing some 75 per cent of the capacity of 300tpd on the same site as its existing
total. grey cement plant at Kohat-Rawalpindi. Expectation
RAK has over the years developed a strong is that the plant will go into commercial production
export base throughout the Middle-East, and further in mid-2004.
afield including USA, Africa and the Indian Sub-
continent. In 2001, RAK had anti-dumping duty India
imposed on it by the Indian Government, although it The Indian white cement sector has two modern and
was lifted after three months. RAK has aggressively efficient plants both located close to each other in
marketed white cement for export, and in some Rajasthan, in northwestern India. Grasim, the largest
cases has replaced Aalborg White cement in certain overall India cement producer, established white
markets. cement activities, under the Birla White name in

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Figure 6 – White cement plants in Asia

4 2
8

3 3
2

1988, in technological association with Onoda. Its With the location of the two Rajasthan plants,
initial capacity was 80,000tpa, and a second line was the western coastline of India from Mumbai
added with technology from Nihon Cement in 1986. downwards has often been seen as a potential point
The company has an existing clinker capacity of for imports. Imports in recent times have come from
380,000tpa and cement capacity of 400,000tpa. In Iran and UAE, and in 2001 resulted in a temporary
2002, it produced around 280,000t, with just over imposition of anti-dumping import tariffs. In effect,
10,000t exported, mainly to the Middle-East and imports have to date not been hugely significant in
smaller amounts to Sri Lanka and other parts of Asia. volume terms, although the changing competitive
The other main producer is JK White, also a grey forces in white cement are likely to lead to major
cement producer. JK started in white cement in 1984 players such as Aalborg White looking to penetrate
with a 130,000tpa plant supplied by FLS. Its clinker parts of the large Indian market.
production capacity is now reported to be
300,000tpa after a number of upgrades. In 2002, it Bangladesh
produced around 185,000t, with 8000t exported. There are reported to be two small white cement
Travancore Cement in Kerala is not believed to plants in Bangladesh both owned by Nitol Group
still produce white cement. It has a 1950s small wet- with a manufacturing capability of 60,000tpa – the
process plant and used to produce around second at Jessore was inaugurated in 2002. The
30,000tpa. Another plant Nihon Nirmaan near independence and manufacturing extent of these
Jodhpur in Rajasthan commenced production in the units has not been established. A 2002 press report
early 1990s but suffered major financial losses and mentioned that Nitol was seeking to obtain white
went into BIFR (similar to US Chapter 11) in 1997. clinker from Grasim in India, while in January 2003,
Despite revival packages being put forward, and this was confirmed when it was announced that
interest shown in taking the plant over by Aalborg Nitol would manufacture Birla White cement using
and other Indian producers nothing firm appears to clinker and technical support from Grasim.
have materialised. This plant was not believed to be Another reported initiative was Siam Cement
producing in 2002. and Siambangla, a company within the Meghna

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Group, signing a joint venture agreement to of white cement in Thailand. Based near Saraburi at
produce white cement in Dhaka, according to the Khao Wong, the company was established in 1971,
Daily Star of Bangladesh. This proposed 60,000tpa and has a clinker production capacity of 156,000tpa,
would presumably be a grinding operation. but only dedicated white cement capacity of
Production of white cement in 2002 is estimated 140,000tpa. The joint-venture with Aalborg White is
at 20,000t. Imports into Bangladesh were reported an opportunity for Siam White to leverage its
to be around 25,000t in 2002, some via presence further in the region. Estimated production
HeidelbergCement’s Scancement import terminal. in 2002 was 140,000t. The other producer noted is
Universal White, also in Saraburi, with a 70,000tpa
Malaysia clinker capacity. Estimated output is 60,000t.
The only white cement company in Malaysia, Rock Exports from Thailand increased dramatically in
Chemical Industries (RCI), was acquired by Aalborg 2002, with over 100,000t to the USA.
White in May 2000. The decision to acquire 60 per
cent of RCI was based on Aalborg’s objective to Indonesia
establish a regional manufacturing base in Asia. The HeidelbergCement’s Indocement complex at
plant at Ipoh, 200km north of Kuala Lumpur, had a Citeurup produces white cement. It has clinker
capacity of around 50,000tpa – this has now been capacity of 200,000tpa, and in 2001 produced
increased to over 200,000tpa, with a new 500tpd 118,000t. In 2002, it is estimated that production
line, provided by FLSmidth, which came on-stream in levels were 130,000t. Domestic sales were just over
late-2002. 100,000t, with the remaining 20,000t plus exported
Aalborg White Asia has supplemented this within the region, and to USA.
production facility by other commercial activities
including a joint-venture with Siam Cement of South Korea
Thailand to supply white cement to Taiwan, the There is one white cement producer – Union
purchase from Blue Circle and closure of the Cement. A subsidiary of essentially a chemical
Philippines’ only white cement plant, Premier, and a company it is not involved in grey cement
variety of other country specific initiatives within the manufacture. It has a cement capacity of 170,000tpa
region. Estimated production in 2002 was 60,000t, at its Chongju plant commissioned in 1981.
with the expectation of considerable growth to Estimated production in 2002 was 100,000t, with
2005, now that the new capacity is in place. Much exports made in the region and also to South
of this growth will come through increased exports America.
from Malaysia within the region.
Taiwan
Vietnam Until recently there was one white cement producer
According to an Aalborg White report, current white in Taiwan – Taiwan Oil Corporation. Production from
production in Vietnam is around 150,000tpa from this 20,000tpa plant has gradually dwindled from
two plants. While one of the production plants is 13,800t in 2000, to only 1500t in 2001. In 2002,
Haiphong, no information has been established less than 1000t was produced and it was reported as
about the other facility. The Vietnamese government likely that the plant would close down. Imports come
has indicated that white cement would be granted predominantly from Indonesia (7000t in 2001) and
special investment licenses in terms of foreign direct small amounts from Japan and South Korea.
investment.
Japan
Thailand The Japanese white cement industry has been in
There are two white cement production facilities in long-term decline since the 1980s. A number of
Thailand. Siam White Cement is the major producer capacity rationalisations took place in the mid-1990s

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Table 7a – Whiteness of Chinese Table 7b – Distribution of output


cement across whiteness categories

Class Whiteness Class Tonnage Share in


value (000tpa) output (%)
Special class 86 Special class 70-80 6
First class 84 First class 300 20
Second class 80 Second class 1050 70
Third class 75 Third class 60-70 3

between Onoda, Chichibu, and Nihon. Clinker Reasons for this significant fall include
capacity of white cement is reported as 307,000tpa apparently a wide increase of cheaper counterfeit
by the Japan Cement Association, although white materials masquerading as white cement – these are
cement production in 2002 was only less than generally blended materials containing as little as 20-
80,000t. The only remaining producer is regarded as 30 per cent white cement (bought from the
being the Kitakyushu plant. No imports to Japan producers) mixed with limestone and other additives
were recognised and exports are of the order of – as well as other decorative cements. These
6000tpa, mainly to Hong Kong. materials are not included in the output estimates of
1.5Mt above but their effect on overall market
China demand is discussed in the Consumption section of
China is the largest white cement producing nation this report. Output of these materials is estimated to
in the world – estimates of its total output in recent be around 1.2Mt, which would give an estimate of
years have fluctuated considerably between 1.5 and output in a wider definition of ‘white cement’ as
3Mt. As part of this report, research in the Chinese around 2.7Mt in 2002.
market was commissioned by International Cement The effect of this reduction in ‘white cement’
Review. Some of the key findings in terms of output output has been for some white cement producers
are as follows: to exit the sector and to switch to production of
Output of a close definition of ‘white cement’ other products. Research indicates that there are still
has actually fallen from a high of 2.6Mt in 1995 to around 110 white cement production locations
estimated levels of around 1.5Mt in 2002. across China with a potential output capacity of over
2.5Mta. These are mainly small- and
medium-size units, although there are
Table 7c – Product classification for Chinese
some larger-scale factories such as
white cement
Guangxi Hengxian Special Cements
White cement quality Whiteness class Grade that has an output of around
Best quality special class 625 250,000tpa. A feature of many of
525 these units is that they are not
First quality first class 525 dedicated to solely white cement
425 production.
second class 525
In terms of the question of what
425
constitutes white cement the Chinese
Accepted quality second class 325
market has the most question marks.
third class 425
A number of definitions are reported
325
to apply.

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Table 8 – Chinese white cement production capacity

Plant location Province Capacity (000tpa)

Anqing Anhui 100


Chichou Julong Anhui 80
Chongqing Tenghui Chonqing 30
Chongqing Feixue Chonqing 20
Wuping White Fujian 50
Daxinshan Guangdong 50
Guangzhou Huihua Guangdong 30
Shenzhen Dapeng Guangdong 30
Guangxi Heng Guangxi Huang 250
Baoding Deyuan Hebei 80
Shijiazhuang City Hebei 50
Baoding Ziheng Hebei 50
Mudanjiang Duocai Heilongjiang 35
Hebei Xinghua Hubei 80
Hubei Hongqi Hubei 22
Hunan Loudi Hunan 30
Nanjing Yinjia Jiangsu 150
Suzhou Guanghua Jiangsu 100
Nanjing Kunyuan Jiangsu 100
Jiangxi Fenyi Jiangxi 50
Yejin White Jiangxi 30
Jiangxi Shanggao Jiangxi 15
Jiangxi Xinfeng Jiangxi 15
Chifeng Danfeng Neimenggu 60
Ningxia Shizuishan Ninxsia 30
Zibuo Yunhe Shandong 90
Zhaoyuan Jinhua Shandong 50
Wendeng Dafang Shandong 40
Luoping City Shandong 30
Shanghai White Shanghai City 80
Shanghai Baolong Shanghai City 50
Licheng Zhenhua Shangxi 80
Shan’xi Yao Shan’xi 30
Guanghan Sichuan 50
Xinjiang Tunhe Xinjiang 50
Kunming Yunnan 30
Yuyao Zhenxiang Zhejiang 50
Changxing Huxing Zhejiang 40
Changxing Xingming Zhejiang 30
Zhejiang Lanxi Zhejiang 15
unspecified-others 400
TOTAL 2652

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Whiteness of white cement is divided into special Brighton and Boral, grinds an off-white cement at
class, first class, second class and third class, and the its works near Brisbane. Cement Australia, the newly
whiteness of each class should not fall below the formed entity from the merger of Queensland
numerical value listed in Table 7a. Cement (Holcim) and Australian Cement, produces
Research indicates a distribution of output across off-white clinker at its Rockhampton plant in
the whiteness categories as shown in Table 7b. Queensland.
In terms of product classification, the products
are divided into the best quality, first quality and
accepted quality in the following way.
Production of Chinese white cement is reported
as being mainly concentrated in Henan, Guangxi,
Jiangsu, Guangdong, Hunan, Shandong provinces -
white cement outputs from these six provinces
INDIVIDUAL PLANT REVIEW BY COUNTRY
represent around 70 per cent of the total production,
LATIN AMERICA
with Henan being the most significant province.
Identified white cement producers are shown in
Table 8.
Exports of white cement have risen considerably Latin America has relatively limited white cement
from mid-1990s levels of around 50-60,000tpa. In production capabilities when compared with most of
2002, after China’s entry into WTO during 2001, the world. Mexico forms the major exception to this
exports were 137,000t at an average price of and is an important international player.
US$52/t according to Chinese customs statistics.
Main destinations of exports were East Asia, EAC, Mexico
and Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. Imports are Cemex is the largest producer in Mexico, with three
negligible at around 1000tpa. white cement facilities. The Tepeaca plant (Tolteca)
has an estimated white cement capacity of just
Australia under 200,000tpa, and in 2002 produced close to
The Cement and Concrete Association of Australia that figure. The Monterrey plant has an estimated
reports that there is no white cement production in capacity of 100,000tpa, similar to its production in
Australia and that imports are in the range of 12- 2002, and Ciudad Valles has a capacity of
15,000tpa. However, it should be noted that an off- 165,000tpa and an estimated 2002 production of
white or cream cement is produced and used in 160,000t. The estimates would suggest that each of
applications such as roof tiles, mortars, and masonry the three Cemex plants has high capacity utilisation.
products. This off-white cement was developed by Total Cemex production is estimated to be 450,000t
the Australian industry to reduce reliance on from its Mexico facilities.
imported white cement. There are two other established white cement
All of the Australian cement companies produce producers in Mexico. Cementos Portland Blanco de
off-white cements. Blue Circle Southern Cement, Mexico, acquired by Lafarge in 1999 – the Vito plant
owned by Boral, has a wet-process kiln at Maldon, has a capacity of 80,000tpa of white cement and in
on the outskirts of Sydney. This plant producing off- 2002 it is estimated that the plant produced around
white cement only, has a clinker capacity of 70,000t. The other company is Cruz Azul at Lagunas
180,000tpa and a cement capacity of 200,000tpa. In near Hidalgo – white cement production started in
2002, it produced around 150,000t of off-white 2000 when a kiln line was converted from grey to
cement. Adelaide Brighton also produce an off-white white clinker usage. Estimated production capacity is
cement at its Angaston works in South Australia. 120,000tpa and 2002 white cement sales of around
Sunstate Cement, a joint-venture between Adelaide 100,000t were achieved. In 2001, Apasco (Holcim)

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PROFILE
White cement in
Colombia
Cementos del Nare SA is part of the Argos
Group, one of the most important
economic groups in Colombia. During the
last six decades it has been leading the production of white cement and lime in the
country. Cementos del Nare offers several types of white cement such as Type I, Type
IM, Type III, Masonry, Antique, and Colour Cements, all of them with high resistance
and high colour levels of world standards.

In the case of its white cement, the installed


production capacity is 250,000tpa, a quantity
that satisfies the domestic demands as well as
foreign markets, exporting to more than 20
countries.

The company is certified in its production


process under Norm ISO 9001 version 2000 in
the elaboration of white cement and lime. Assessments have been made to guarantee
high standards of resistance and colour consistency of Nare white cement, which abide
to regulations NTC 1362 and ASTM C - 150, depending on the application and the
target market.

The main objective of Cementos del Nare is to promote new


uses of white cement in Colombia:
n white and clear tones of concrete
n precast columns, bracket balusters, sills, wells, large tables,
bar counters, coloured concrete tiles, items for urban
furnishings and practically any construction item
n precast elements in white cement for floors (tiled terraces,
coloured, cobblestones, floor slabs, precast siding panels,
concrete blocks, side plating with slabs)
n mortars and coverings
n white cement based paints
n thin set and grouts

Cementos del Nare’s white cement has been the protagonist in


great architectural and infrastructure works (see photographs).
Its history and social presence are the best proof that, with
work and hope, the company actively takes part of Colombia's
progress. Quality is a contribution to the construction of a
better future.

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announced that plans had been initiated to Figure 7 – White cement plants in Latin America
construct a white cement plant at its Apaxca
plant. The level of progress on these plans is
not clear, although it would be unsurprising
for more capacity to come on-stream in
Mexico.
The main export market is USA with
nearly 200,000t being exported in both
2001 and 2002. A high proportion of these
sales are from Cemex to its US minority
interest, Lehigh White (24.5 per cent of
equity).

Brazil
There are two white cement producers in
Brazil. The established Votorantim wet-
process facility at Iraja in Sao Paulo state is
estimated to have a production capacity of
80,000tpa. Estimated 2002 sales were in the
order of 75,000t. A new white cement plant
came on-stream in 2001, at Camargo
Correa’s Pedro Leopoldo plant where a
production line was converted from grey to
white. Krupp Polysius modified equipment,
including the preheater and silo, as well as Another plant used to produce white cement –
supplying the engineering, the burner and the cooler, Cementos Hercules is situated close to Bogota. It is
in order to convert the 800tpd grey cement kiln line not known whether this plant, with a white cement
to 400tpd of white. Estimated capacity therefore is capacity of around 30,000tpa, is still in operation.
around 120,000tpa, although it is unknown how the
plant is performing in terms of output. Small Venezuela
amounts of imports come from Mexico and the The Cemex owned Venezolana de Cementos has a
export trade is yet to be developed significantly. white cement production capacity of an estimated
Cimento Caué at Pedro Leopoldo is a reasonably 75,000tpa. Estimated 2002 sales were 70,000t, with
significant producer of ground granulated slag a majority of these materials being exported through
however, and its presence may have depressed Cemex trading activities.
demand for white cement in Brazil.
Dominican Republic
Colombia Hispano Dominica de Cemento Blanco (HDCB) has a
Cementos del Nare, part of the Argos Group, is a 28,000tpa white cement grinding facility near the
reasonably large white cement producer. Its white capital Santo Domingo. Its 2002 estimated output
cement clinker capacity is 200,000tpa and cement was 15,000t.
capacity of 250,000tpa. In 2002, it produced over
180,000t of white cement, including 70,000t for Cuba
export. It has four wet-process kilns and four The government-owned Cementos Cubanos
dedicated mills. Export markets include the USA and produces white cement at its Siguaney plant that
the Caribbean. came on-stream in the mid-1980s when Onoda

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carried out kiln conversions. The unit has a installed Canada


capacity of 100,000tpa, but output in recent years There is one white cement producer in Canada.
has been in the 20,000-30,000tpa range. The Cuban Federal White Cement Ltd began operations in 1979
government remain keen to bring in an international in Woodstock, Ontario, with the startup of a new
partner to this operation with a view to modernising dry preheater 185,000tpa kiln for the sole purpose
and refurbishing the plant, as well as developing of producing white cement (Federal does not
export sales. produce grey cement). This was Canada’s first white
cement plant, but more importantly, it was radically
Uruguay larger and more cost efficient than any of the
Compania Nacional de Cementos produces small existing US white cement facilities. American white
amounts of white at its wet-process plant 100km cement kilns typically were old, small long dry- or
from Montevideo. 2002 production is estimated at wet-process kilns that had been converted from grey
around 5000t. cement production. The three white cement plants
that currently operate in the United States are all of
Peru this type. Being more efficient than American
Agregados Calcareos, a quarrying and mining competitors, the structure of the North American
company, has a 90tpd plant in which it produces white cement industry changed significantly as a
white cement both for the Peruvian market and result.
neighbouring countries. White cement capacity is In 2001, Federal brought on-stream a new kiln
estimated at 25,000tpa, with output below the with capacity of 900tpd or about 300,000tpa. Of
10,000t mark in 2002. further interest, the plant’s components were
specially designed to allow the kiln to be expanded
Bolivia to 2000tpd or 660,000tpa at a later stage. Current
Empresa Minera Industrial (EMISA) – now part of milling capacity is 500,000tpa, and prior to the new
the Soboce Group (in which CDC has a 44 per cent kiln coming online, white clinker was bought in,
interest) – has traditionally produced small amounts most notably from Turkey, particularly in 1999. In
of white cement for the domestic market (around 2002, it is estimated that Federal produced around
2000-3000tpa). 300,000t of white cement.
Canada is the largest exporter of white cement
to the USA. US Customs data for 2001 reported that
213,000t of white cement were imported from
Canada, with similar levels in 2002. In 2001, Canada
imported 14,000t of white cement, making it a net
exporter of 200,000t.

USA
INDIVIDUAL PLANT REVIEW BY COUNTRY
Lehigh White Cement operates two white cement
NORTH AMERICA
plants in the United States – at York, Pennsylvania,
and Waco in Texas. Each plant has one small, wet-
process kiln in service since the 1960s. Estimated
capacity for the two plants together is 170,000tpa
In the US, the white cement production base shows white clinker and 190,000tpa white cement. In
similarities, albeit in a much more extreme manner, 2002, it is estimated that the two plants together
to the grey production facilities in that works are produced around 185,000t. Waco came into
generally old. Investment in new capacity remains Heidelberg’s ownership in 1980, and York in 1982 as
limited. part of its acquisition of Medusa.

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Figure 8 – White cement plants in North America

Lehigh White Cement is a joint venture of white cement is produced in the US, Blue Circle
HeidelbergCement (51 per cent), Aalborg White launched an ‘antique white’ product in the 1990s
(24.5 per cent), and Cemex (24.5 per cent). Like and achieved sales levels of around 20,000-
Federal White Cement, Lehigh White Cement 30,000tpa.
distributes its product throughout North America. Lehigh White markets four categories of white
Local production from these two plants is Portland cement, including a type I, a water repellent
supplemented by imports into strategically located version, type III high early strength and a Type V
import terminals down the East Coast, Texas and in high sulphate resistant – and two categories of white
California. A high proportion of these imports come masonry cement.
from the joint venture partners’ white cement plants As white cement demand rose dramatically from
elsewhere in the world – Mexico and Spain in the 1980s onwards into this decade, imports into the
Cemex’s case, historically Denmark in terms of US have played an increasingly dominant role given
Aalborg White, and from time to time, Belgium and the relatively low domestic capacity.
Indonesia with Heidelberg. White cement imports rose above the
Texas Industries (TXI) operates the third white 900,000tpa mark in 2000, and progressed further to
cement facility in the United States. The plant is 936,000t in 2001.
located at Crestmore in southern California, and has Main sources of imports include Canada (2001:
two, small 40-year-old dry-process kilns with overall 213,000t), Mexico (2001: 197,000t), Denmark
white cement capacity of around 110,000tpa. In (2001:120,000t), and Spain (2001: 119,000t) with
2002, estimated sales from this plant were around other significant countries including Thailand,
100,000t. TXI acquired this plant when it purchased Venezuela, Turkey, Indonesia and Colombia. Exports
Riverside Cement from Ssangyong, Korea. Previous from USA are around the 25,000tpa mark, and are
owners had included Beazer, Gifford Hill and nearly completely cross border sales to Canada and
Amcord. Mexico. The USA is therefore estimated to be a net
Total domestic production capacity is only importer of 900,000tpa of white cement at current
300,000tpa, and 2002 output just below. Some off- demand levels.

37
Sinai White Cement is Egypt’s newest addition to its
white cement industry. The US$75m plant is capable of
producing over 400,000t of white cement annually.
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World producers
A third of global white cement production is manufactured in the plants of five producers (see
Table 9 – Estimated top-five white cement producers). Together, Cemex, Aalborg White,
Lafarge, Italcementi and Çimsa/Sabanci output some 4Mt of white cement in 2002. Below
follows a review of key white cement producers, starting with the world leader in white
cement production, Cemex.

C
emex is estimated to be the leading white cent share of domestic production. This allowed
cement producer with output of around Cemex to achieve a domestic market share of also
1.3Mt in 2002. This would represent an 11 around 60 per cent, as well as export around
per cent share of the global market (14 per cent 100,000t to USA, and around 20-30,000t to both
excluding China). In terms of capacity, Cemex, at UK and Turkey.
nearly 1.5Mta, is rated No 2 after Aalborg White. In Mexico, Cemex is estimated to have produced
Cemex is the third largest grey cement producer nearly 450,000t of white cement in 2002. This
in the world with cement tonnage of 62Mt in 2002. makes it the leading producer with over 70 per cent
In 2002, Cemex from a turnover of US$6.5bn, made of Mexican white cement output. A domestic market
an operating profit of US$1.9bn. Its three major share of over 60 per cent is augmented by exports
markets where it operates are Mexico, USA and to USA in particular of between 150-180Mta.
Spain and these are responsible for nearly 80 per Cemex has a 24.5 per cent equity interest in
cent of group turnover. These three markets are also Lehigh White in USA, along with Aalborg White
where most of Cemex’s white cement activities take (24.5 per cent) and HeidelbergCement(51 per cent).
place. This relationship has allowed the influence of these
Cemex has reaped the benefit of its presence in three major cement companies to extend
USA and Spain, the second and third largest white considerably further in the USA than the two small
cement markets globally. Their significant production white cement production facilities in Texas and
base in Mexico has also been able to meet domestic Pennsylvania. Cemex, as detailed above, is estimated
demand as well as exports to the USA. to export over 250,000tpa to the USA, with a high
In Spain, Cemex is estimated to have produced proportion of these tonnages marketed through
around 750,000t of white cement in 2002 – a 60 per Lehigh White’s extensive network of terminals.

Table 9 – Estimated top-five white cement producers, 2002

Company Capacity Output Capacity Share in global Plants


(000tpa) (000tpa) utilisation (%) output (%)

Cemex* 1470 1330 90 11 8


Aalborg White** 1530 880 58 7 3
Lafarge 750 625 83 5 6
Italcementi 740 590 80 5 5
Çimsa/Sabanci 1100 580 53 5 1

* Lehigh White allocated according to equity


** Includes 2003 capacity addition

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Table 10 – Cemex white cement plant locations

Country Plant Company Ownership Process 2002 est. 2002 est.


capacity production
(000tpa) (000tpa)
LATIN AMERICA
Venezuela Venezolana Venezolana Cemex Wet 75 70
Mexico Tolteca Cemex Cemex Dry 190 185
Mexico Ciudad Valles Cemex Cemex Dry 165 160
Mexico Monterrey Cemex Cemex Dry 100 100
Dominican Sto Domingo HDCB Cemex Grinding 28 15
Republic

NORTH AMERICA
USA Waco, Tx Lehigh White Cemex Wet 90 95
USA York, Pa Lehigh White Cemex Wet 100 90

EUROPE
Spain San Vicente Valenciana Cemex Dry 454 380
Spain Buñol Valenciana Cemex Dry 310 250
Spain Villanova Valenciana Cemex Dry 100 120

* Cemex has a 24.5 per cent share in Lehigh White

White cement shipments from Cemex, Spain are cement, Cemex faces considerable challenges in the
imported through Miami, and from Mexico, through future. When Çimsa started exporting white cement
Laredo and El Paso in Texas. Some 30,000tpa are to Spain, Cemex was quick to retaliate by establish
also imported from Cemex in Venezuela. exports into Çimsa’s home Turkish market. Cemex
Besides the strong positions that Cemex holds in has benefited from the high growth levels in demand
Spain, USA and Mexico, the company also produces within its Spanish, Mexican and USA markets, which
white cement in Venezuela and the Dominican have probably allowed decent returns from its white
Republic. It is strong in the Caribbean, and being a cement assets, ahead of Çimsa and probably also
leading trader of cement in general is strategically Aalborg White, both of which until 2001, had
well positioned in other markets. operated from one production base.
Cemex, similar to other companies which are Cemex, if it is not already, will need to consider
leading players in grey cement, as well as aggregates additions to its white cement capacity, which should
and concrete, falls into the category of white cement prove interesting in terms of the strategic route it
only forming a very small part of its overall activities. decides on.
In Cemex’s case, turnover from white cement is
unlikely to represent much more than three per cent Aalborg White – #2
of its overall business. Nevertheless Cemex has Aalborg White is estimated to have been the second
tended to promote a high profile to its white cement largest producer of white cement in 2002, with
activities – particularly the market leadership output of around 880,000t, giving it a market share
element. of just over seven per cent (9.5 per cent excluding
With Aalborg White and Çimsa both having China). Including a capacity addition at Rørdal plant
aspirations to become the global leader in white in Denmark in 2003, Aalborg White is estimated to

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have the highest white cement capacity of all No 2 white cement producer Aalborg White

Courtesy of Aalborg Portland


the producers at just over 1.5Mta. With
recent new lines at Sinai White and Malaysia
building up utilisation levels, Aalborg White
looks well placed to challenge Cemex’s
position as global market leader in white
cement.
FLS Industries, the owner of Aalborg
White, has carried out considerable
restructuring since 2000. Its strategy is now to
concentrate on two main business areas –
cement making equipment/engineering and
building materials. In terms of the building
materials side, activities include fibre cement,
readymix concrete and mortars. Cement
activities under Aalborg Portland include grey
cement produced in Denmark (approaching
2Mt) and white cement. Growth in white cement cement) contributed EBIT of DKK 0.3 billion, with
production globally forms a key part of FLS some other companies in the building materials
Industries future strategy. posting losses at the EBIT level.
In 2002, FLS Industries on turnover of DKK 16.4 The group’s position in white cement had prior
billion made EBIT of DKK 0.65 billion. The building to 2000 already been strong with a long established
materials division had turnover of DKK3.9 billion, presence from its production base in Denmark,
and EBIT of DKK 0.33 billion. Within the building supplying up to 70 countries globally. Since then
materials division, Aalborg Portland (grey and white there have been a number of moves designed to

Table 11 – Aalborg white cement plant locations

Country Plant Company Ownership Process 2002 est. 2002 est.


capacity production
(000tpa) (000tpa)
MEDITERRANEAN
Egypt Sinai Sinai White Aalborg Dry 410 200

EUROPE
Denmark Rørdal Aalborg Aalborg Wet 820 575

ASIA
Malaysia Perak RCI Aalborg Dry 250 60
Republic

NORTH AMERICA
USA Waco, Tx Lehigh White Cemex Wet 90 95
USA York, Pa Lehigh White Cemex Wet 100 90

* Aalborg has a 24.5 per cent share in Lehigh White

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establish Aalborg as the global market leader in Other internal initiatives have been the
white cement: establishment of a strong and separate identity –
I In 2000, Aalborg signed a new 10-year joint- Aalborg White – backed by a dedicated technical
venture agreement in relation to Lehigh White in the and sales team. In addition, research and
USA. This involved acquiring 4.5 per cent of Cemex’s development activity has been increased significantly.
shares in Lehigh White making the two companies Promotional activities have also been increased with
equal partners with 24.5 per cent each, and the launch of a quarterly magazine, available on the
HeidelbergCement retaining a 51 per cent majority internet, designed to both promote Aalborg White,
stake. At the same time, future levels of supply of and the usage of white cement in general. An
white cement from Aalborg to the joint-venture were important part of Aalborg’s development strategy
increased to levels of around 200,000tpa. has also been to establish distribution centres for
I In 2000, Aalborg acquired Rock Chemical white cement in a number of countries, including
Industries (RCI) of Malaysia. This brought a Poland, Czech Republic and Vietnam.
50,000tpa white cement plant, and it was A stated company aim is to increase current
announced that new 200,000tpa capacity would be white cement capacity from around 1.5Mta to 3Mta,
added. and to be market leader in Europe, the USA and East
I In 2001, Sinai White Cement plant came on- Asia. The recent moves detailed above make Aalborg
stream with Aalborg as the major shareholder (in increasingly well positioned to achieve such a
2002, its stake was increased to 45 per cent). This strategy. As sales from Sinai White and RCI increase
added 410,000tpa capacity to Aalborg White’s towards capacity in 2003-04, then Aalborg sales of
activities. white cement may well approach Cemex’s.
I In 2001, a marketing joint-venture was The Egypt and Malaysia plants can be expected
announced with Siam Cement of Thailand, designed to improve Aalborg White’s competitive position
to develop sales jointly in Taiwan and other Asian dramatically. In the case of Sinai White, besides the
markets. Other smaller initiatives were announced in domestic market of Egypt, target markets are likely
Asia. to be via the Mediterranean to North Africa,
I In 2002, the new RCI plant came on-stream. including Libya and Algeria, and via the Red Sea,
I In 2002, it was announced that a fifth white Saudi Arabia, Gulf states, Yemen and India. In the
cement kiln (converted from grey production) would case of Aalborg in Asia, target markets are likely to
be added at Rørdal in Denmark, taking capacity from be Malaysia itself, Singapore, Philippines, Indonesia,
620,000tpa to around 850,000tpa. Hong Kong and Australia. This will have the added
beneficial effect for white cement production from
Denmark to be targeted towards Europe and USA,
Rørdal plant, Aalborg White
with an obvious benefit in shipping and general
distribution.

Lafarge – #3
Lafarge is estimated to be the third largest white
cement producer in 2002 with output of around
625,000t. This makes it a long way behind Cemex
and Aalborg White in both capacity and sales terms,
and only just ahead of Italcementi and Çimsa. Its
estimated market share is only just above five per
cent (approaching seven per cent, excluding China).
Lafarge is the largest building materials supplier
Courtesy of Aalborg Portland in the world, and also the largest grey cement
producer (2002 – 106Mt). In 2002, the group made

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Table 12 – Lafarge white cement plant locations

Country Plant Company Ownership Process 2002 est. 2002 est.


capacity production
(000tpa) (000tpa)
LATIN AMERICA
Mexico Vito Blanc de Mex Lafarge Dry 70 70

MEDITERRANEAN
Greece Volos Heracles Lafarge Dry 90 60
Morocco Bouskoura Lafarge Grinding 80 60

EUROPE
France Le Teil Lafarge Dry 280 270
Italy Tavernola Lafarge Grinding 80 75
Spain Sagunto Asland Lafarge Dry 150 90

an operating profit of ¤3.1bn, on a turnover of plans to renew the kiln. Vito represents an important
¤14.6bn. Lafarge’s white cement activities are likely foothold in the Mexican white cement market.
to represent less than one per cent of the group’s A profile of Lafarge’s white cement activities
total turnover. collectively would be of a presence in some of the
Lafarge has four integrated white cement larger markets – France, Italy and Mexico – with a
facilities and two grinding stations. The Le Teil plant high proportion of sales made within plants’
in France is the group’s largest facility and is in the domestic markets (at arguably higher margins than
process of an optimisation upgrade. Lafarge has an the export side). Lafarge currently, apart from
estimated market share of just under 50 per cent in Greece, has little capability to trade white cement.
France, the world’s fourth largest white cement As an example, Blue Circle in the UK is estimated to
market, and one with a currently low level of sell around 70,000tpa of white cement, packed
imports. under its own brand name of Snowcem – after
Clinker from Le Teil feeds the Tavernola plant in Lafarge acquired Blue Circle it is understood that
northern Italy. Lafarge has an estimated market share existing sourcing of white cement from Denmark
of above 15 per cent in Italy, but only less than 10 and Spain was largely left in place. Access to a
per cent in Spain, where the Sagunto plant is quality in-house source of white cement would give
thought to have spare capacity, even given the Lafarge the chance to leverage its many strong
strong growth in the Spanish market. The acquisition market positions in cement worldwide.
of Blue Circle in 2001 included Heracles of Greece, Lafarge as a group is probably the prime
with a white cement line at Volos. This line is likely example of how relatively insignificant white cement
to be renewed in 2003-04. The Greek white cement can be within the overall cement market, and even
facility increases the ability of Lafarge to trade white more so within the heavyside construction materials
cement from its own source internationally. The sector.
grinding plant at Bouskoura, in Morocco, holds However, there is evidence to suggest that while
approaching a 50 per cent market share, with other white cement will remain a niche market only to
white cement being imported. The Vito plant in Lafarge, the company’s presence in white cement is
Mexico came into the group in 1999, and while still set to grow. From an organisational perspective,
capacity is currently around 70,000tpa there are also the group now appears to be regarding white

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Table 13 – Italcementi white cement plant locations

Country Plant Company Ownership Process 2002 est. 2002 est.


capacity production
(000tpa) (000tpa)
MEDITERRANEAN
Turkey Trakya Set Italcementi Wet 90 70

EUROPE
Bulgaria Devnya Italcementi Dry 50 3
France Cruas Calcia Italcementi Dry 250 230
Italy Rezzato Italcementi Semi-dry 250 285
Italy Civitavecchia Italcementi Grinding 100 0

cement as more of a global product and less perhaps white cement production at its Devnya plant in
of a domestic ‘cash cow’. Bulgaria.
This recent initiative is interesting in that it

Italcementi – #4 appears representative of the increased interest by

Italcementi is estimated to be the fourth largest the cement majors in white cement – it could more

producer in 2002, with output of just under specifically be regarded as a positive reaction to
600,000t. This represents a global market share in Holcim White’s increased activity within Central and
white cement of five per cent (over six per cent, Eastern Europe – markets that look set to grow in
excluding China), just lower than Lafarge and similar terms of white cement consumption.
to Çimsa. Similar to Lafarge, until recently, Italcementi was
Italcementi is the fifth largest grey cement likely to have regarded its white cement activities as
producer in the world (2002 – 45Mt). In 2002, on a niche element to its overall cement activities in
turnover of ¤4.2bn it made an operating profit of Italy and France, in particular. Further progress
¤1.1bn. Italcementi’s white cement activities are within the white cement sector by Italcementi now
likely to represent less than two per cent of group seems likely.
turnover.
Italcementi’s white cement business has until Çimsa – #5
recently been very much concentrated on Italy and Çimsa is estimated to have produced around
France. In Italy, it is the largest white cement 580,000t of white cement in 2002, giving a global
producer from its integrated facility at Rezzato, and market share of five per cent. In addition to its white
grinding plant at Civitavecchia. Italcementi is cement production, an unspecified amount of white
estimated to have a 60 per cent plus market share of clinker was sold. The clinker sales are not included as
the Italian market – the seventh largest white cement Çimsa output in this report, but given that they were
market in the world. around 100,000t in 2001, would have been enough
In France, Italcementi through its 71 per cent if at the same level in 2002, and accredited to
equity interest in Ciments Français, owns the Calcia Çimsa, to make them the No 3 player.
plant at Cruas. Cruas’ market share of the French The majority shareholder in Çimsa is Sabanci
market – the fourth largest – is estimated to be Holdings, a Turkish conglomerate. In 2002, Sabanci
above 40 per cent. In addition, the group owns a achieved an operating profit of US$1.15bn on a
white cement plant in Turkey after its acquisition of turnover of US$5.2bn. In 2002, Çimsa’s turnover
Set, and more recently, in late 2002, introduced rose from US$116m in 2001 to US$131m. Çimsa

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also produces grey cement at its Mersin plant (2002 Others


– 2.1Mt) and is involved in readymix. Mention in this section should also be made of
In certain respects, Çimsa, after bringing its first Holcim and Heidelberg, No 2 and 4 respectively in
white cement line (interchangeable with grey) on- the overall global cement market.
stream in 1990, and followed by a second line in In 2002, Holcim created Holcim White, primarily
1999, has instigated considerable change in the a sales and marketing organisation, designed to
white cement sector. White cement capacity in major leverage its position in Central and Eastern Europe,
excess of Turkey’s domestic market, and efficient low where four of its five white cement plants are
cost production, led to Çimsa’s strategy of located. The creation of such an organisation could
aggressively seeking export markets. Export sales in be taken as acknowledgement by Holcim of the
2002 were approaching 400,000t of white cement. potential for market growth for white cement in
There are few European and Mediterranean general, but particularly in this specific region where
countries that Çimsa does not export to, as well as consumption is low. Holcim, like Lafarge, is
further afield. Major export markets include Spain, underweight in white cement compared to its grey
Israel, Syria, Italy and also North America. Çimsa has cement activities. The Holcim White initiative, with
established import operations with local partners in news of a ¤30m investment programme for its
Spain and Germany, and also has two import Romanian white cement production facilities, as well
subsidiaries in Florida and Texas. as the possible new plant in Mexico, could be taken
Çimsa operating on a single-plant location basis as the first steps to redress this.
has certainly ‘ruffled the feathers’ of established HeidelbergCement appears to tend to treat its
players. This has certainly led to retaliatory actions, white cement businesses in USA, Belgium and
but more importantly, to other players re-assessing Indonesia more as regional rather than global
their white cement strategies. Çimsa has become a businesses. In one respect the influence of
recognised major player in white cement. HeidelbergCement in terms of white cement is more
Çimsa, like Aalborg White, has a declared than it appears in pure output terms. As the 51 per
objective to be market leader in white cement. cent owner of Lehigh White, it presides over not only
Whether it can achieve this from a single location, the output from the two relatively small plants in USA,
albeit a very efficient one, is debatable. In early but also the sales and marketing of materials supplied
2003, there was unsubstantiated press speculation in by Cemex, Aalborg White and itself, to Lehigh White.
Turkey that Sabanci was in talks to buy ‘unnamed Some industry observers feel that HeidelbergCement
white cement plants in Belgium, Italy, Germany and over the next two years or so, may need to make
USA’. With Sabanci and HeidelbergCement each disposals of cement assets with low synergies, to
holding a 39.7 per cent stake in Akçansa, the leading reduce gearing. Should that be the case, then disposal
Turkish grey cement producer, the possibility of some of white cement assets could be an option, with
form of consolidation of Sabanci interests in cement Lehigh White appearing an obvious one, given that
(including white) should also not be ruled out in the Cemex and Aalborg are the ‘junior’ partners.
future.

Table 14 – Çimsa white cement plant locations

Country Plant Company Ownership Process 2002 est. 2002 est.


capacity production
(000tpa) (000tpa)
MEDITERRANEAN
Turkey Mersin Çimsa Sabanci Dry 1100 580

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World consumption
Consumption of white cement in 2002 is estimated to be 12Mt, according to the criteria used
in this report. Global consumption excluding China is assessed at 9.4Mt. This represents an
average worldwide per capita consumption of 1.9kg, less than one per cent of world per
capita grey cement consumption. Europe is the key white cement consuming region,
responsible for over a quarter of all white cement sales. It is closely followed by China, where
22 per cent of global white cement demand originates (see also Table 15 – Estimated white
cement consumption by region, 2002). In the report that follows a snapshot is given of the
white cement industry, compiled from a variety of sources and estimates, as there are no
publicly available statistics measuring demand for white cement. One of the leading white
cement producers has referred since 2001 to global growth in the white cement industry of
four to six per cent annually.

T
he last time that ICR measured the white
cement sector was in 1994 and 1995. The
global white cement market then was
assessed as being 8.2Mt in 1993 (excluding China,
5.4Mt) and in 9Mt in 1994 (excluding China, 6Mt).
Using the 1994 as a base, then the global white
cement market excluding China, has grown in the
order of five to six per cent annually between 1994 WORLD CONSUMPTION REVIEW BY COUNTRY

and 2002. This would amount to an additional EUROPE


3.4Mt in 2002 compared to 1994. This would be
reasonably consistent with capacity additions over
the period. Major upgrades or new plants are Europe is estimated to be the largest white cement
assessed at around 3.5Mt and with minor upgrades consuming region representing 27 per cent of the
and efficiencies elsewhere, a figure of total additional global market with per capita usage of over 4kg and
capacity of 4Mt over the period appears reasonable. a white-to-grey proportion of 1.2 per cent.

Table 15 – Estimated white cement consumption by region, 2002

Region Total Share of global Proportion Per capita


consumption consumption to grey consumption
(000tpa) (%) (%) (kg)

Europe 3200 27 1.2 4.1


China 2600 22 0.4 2.0
Mediterranean Basin 1400 12 1.5 5.9
North America 1300 11 1.1 4.1
Middle East 1250 10 1.7 7.3
Asia (excl China) 1250 10 0.3 0.6
Latin America 800 7 0.7 1.5
Africa (excl North) 150 1 0.4 0.2
TOTAL 11950 100 0.7 1.9

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Figure 9 – Absolute regional white cement consumption

Cement consumption
(000t)
0-500
501-1000
1001-2000
>2000

Figure 10 – Per capita regional white cement consumption

Cement consumption
(kg/inhabitant)
0-1
1.1-2
2.1-5
>5

Considerable disparities exist across the region with (480,000t), Italy (400,000t), Germany (275,000t),
Western Europe consuming an estimated 88 per cent UK (115,000t) and Portugal (105,000t).
of the total (see also Table 16 – Estimated white
consumption Europe, 2002). Western Europe
Spain dominates European consumption and is In Western Europe, the above average per capita
responsible for approaching a third of the total at consuming nations, as well as Spain, are Denmark,
over 1Mt. Spain has the third highest global Portugal and France. The below average consumers
consumption per capita at 25kg annually. The next are UK (below 2kg per capita annually) and
highest estimated consuming nations are France Germany. In the case of the UK, it is the third

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Table 16 – Estimated white cement consumption in Europe, 2002

Region Total Share of European Proportion Per capita


consumption consumption to grey consumption
(000tpa) (%) (%) (kg)

Western 2820 88 1.5 7.4


Central 240 7 0.7 2.0
Eastern 180 5 0.3 0.5
TOTAL 3240 100 1.2 4.1

highest white cement consuming nation after Algeria With the major exceptions of Spain and
and Israel, that does not have its own domestic Portugal, absolute consumption levels may be close
production facility. Customer research carried out in to peaking in many of the developed countries in
the UK indicates that white cement is not effectively Western Europe where much of the infrastructure is
promoted by the importing companies (mainly the in place and repairs, maintenance and improvements
domestic grey cement producers). This, in take a relatively high proportion of the construction
conjunction with other considerations such as usage economy compared to new construction. Only
of alternative materials/applications, may explain the significant improvements in promotion of white
relatively low consumption levels. Denmark, by cement and development of new applications would
contrast has a strong domestic producer in Aalborg be likely to fuel significant further growth.
White, and has per capita consumption over five France is a reasonable example of a developed
times that of the UK. Individual countries’ estimated white cement market. It is the fourth largest white
white cement consumption, and other indicators cement market globally. Sales of white cement are
appear as an appendix to this report. around 80 per cent bulk and 20 per cent bagged. Of

Figure 11 – European absolute white cement consumption


Cement consumption
(000t)
0-10 Iceland
11-50
51-100 Sweden
101-250
Finland Russia
251-500 Norway
>500
Estonia Kazakhstan
Latvia
Ireland United
Lithuania
Kingdom
Belarus
Thhe Netherlands
Poland
Belgium Germany Uzbekistan
Czech Rep Ukraine
France Switzerland AustriaSlovakia Moldova
Hungary Turkmenistan
Italy Croatia Romania
Yugoslavia Georgia Azerbaijan
Portugal
Spain Bulgaria
Albania

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Table 17 – Europe’s 10 largest white cement markets

Country Total consumption Per capita consumption Proportion to grey


(000tpa) (kg) (%)

Spain 1050 25.4 2.37


France 480 8.1 2.35
Italy 400 6.9 0.99
Germany 275 3.3 0.96
UK 115 1.9 0.80
Russia 105 0.7 0.30
Portugal 105 10.1 1.00
Netherlands 70 4.3 1.31
Belgium 70 6.8 1.28
Poland 60 1.6 0.53

the bulk sales, around half go to applications such as period, compared to a 90 per cent increase in grey
adhesives, waterproofing, and coloured mortars, consumption. Therefore in a period of intense and
plasters and grouts. A further 30 per cent of bulk sustained growth of the Spanish construction sector,
sales are estimated to be within the smaller concrete white cement outperformed grey in growth terms,
products categories such as pavers, slabs, street resulting in a high proportion of white to grey
furniture as well as swimming pools. The remainder consumption estimated by ICR as being around 2.4
is largely consumed within larger precast categories per cent compared to the European average of 1.2
such as architectural cladding and panels. per cent.
Consumption of white cement in Spain – the Another interesting feature of the Oficemen
world’s third largest white cement market – has more report is to highlight the significant regional variation
than doubled from just above 500,000t in 1993 to within Spain of white cement consumption. The
around 1.50Mt in 2002. Oficemen reports a 110 per Mediterranean region is the principal consumer of
cent increase in white cement demand over the white cement in Spain. During 2001 consumption
there reached 635,000t representing
more than 60 per cent of the national
total. The Mediterranean region also
has a higher proportion of white to
grey, some 25 per cent higher than
Courtesy of Aalborg Portland/Cementa AB

the national average, with Andalucia


being more than 50 per cent above
the national average.
The island regions of Spain have
much more modest white cement
consumption levels. Across the
Canary Islands and Balearics,
consumption in 2001 was around
30,000t, less than three per cent of
the national total, and less than one
Arlanda airport, Sweden per cent of grey cement consumption.

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Central Europe
In Central Europe, where total white cement
consumption is estimated to be 250,000t at an
average per capita usage of 2kg annually, scope for
future growth is clear. With the general outlook for
construction in this region reasonably positive,
effective promotion of white cement may lead to
WORLD CONSUMPTION REVIEW BY COUNTRY
increased penetration; currently estimated white
MEDITERRANEAN
cement consumption is only running at 0.67 per cent
of grey cement consumption. It has been interesting
to note Holcim White’s recently adopted strategy
within this region. Currently Poland (60,000t) and
This region from North Africa eastwards and round
Romania (40,000t) are estimated to be the two
to Turkey and Greece is characterised by high
highest consuming nations within the region.
consumption levels of white cement. At estimated
Croatia, with its lengthy coastline and indicated
consumption levels in 2002 of over 1.4Mt, the
growth in tourism, has prospects for a significant
increase in demand. region is responsible for nearly 12 per cent of global
output. Per capita consumption is estimated at 6kg
Eastern Europe annually in 2002, and approaching 1.5 per cent of
In Eastern Europe, consumption of white cement is grey cement consumption.
estimated to be less than 150,000t in total, with a The five North African states – Algeria, Tunisia,
per capita consumption of only half a kg annually. Libya, Morocco and Egypt – collectively consume
Consumption as a proportion of grey cement is a around 750,000t, with Tunisia in particular having a
low 0.27 per cent. Russia is estimated to be high per capita consumption of nearly 13kg annually.
responsible for about 75 per cent of the total Demand prospects for these countries are regarded
consumption. It would be reasonable to expect as good. Israel has traditionally been a high
growth in this region driven mainly by construction consuming white cement state with demand of
growth from major projects, utilising more around 130,000t in 2002, and per capita
sophisticated building products. consumption of nearly 20kg annually. Demand in

Figure 12 – Mediterranean absolute white cement consumption


Cement consumption
(000t)
0-10
11-50
51-100
101-250
251-500
Turkey
Greece

Morocco
Tunisia
Lebanon

Israel
Algeria

Egypt
Libya

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Courtesy of Aalborg Portland


Table 18 – Mediterranean Basin consumption by country

Region Total Per capita Proportion


consumption consumption to grey
(000tpa) (kg) (%)

Spain 1050 25.4 2.37


Turkey 350 5.2 1.40
Egypt 280 3.9 1.02
Algeria 150 4.8 1.50
Morocco 130 4.4 1.52
Israel 130 19.7 2.91
Tunisia 125 12.8 2.75
Greece 120 10.9 1.18
Libya 60 11.1 1.82
Lebanon 50 11.6 2.00
Cyprus 10 11.1 0.84
TOTAL 1405 5.9 1.45

Lebanon has fallen back in recent years. Turkey, South Africa (20,000t), Senegal and Mauritius in the
Greece and Cyprus are estimated to have consumed Indian Ocean. South Africa is an example of a
nearly 500,000t in 2002. Greece and Cyprus per country that used to have its own white cement
capita consumption is double that of Turkey at 11kg production facility – Whites in the Free State. This
annually, reflecting these countries greater bias ceased production in the early 1990s, and since then
towards tourism activity. consumption of white cement in South Africa has

Figure 13 – African absolute


white cement consumption

Morocco Tuunisia

West. Algeria Libyya


Sahara Egypt

Mauritania
WORLD CONSUMPTION REVIEW BY COUNTRY Mali
Senegal Niger Chad
Eritrea
AFRICA Burk. Faso Sudan
Guinea
Ghana Nigeria
Ivory Ethiopia
Coast Cameroon CAF
Eq Guinea Gabon Somalia
Africa, excluding Mediterranean North African Uganda
Congo Kenya
countries, is a very low consumer of white cement. It Dem Rep
of Conngo
is estimated that this region consumed around only Tanzania

150,000t of white cement in 2002, only just over Angola


Cement consumption Zambiia
one per cent of the global market. Per capita Mozaambiique
(000t)
consumption is assessed as only being 0.2kg Namibia Zimbabwe
0-10 Madaagasscarr
annually. As a proportion of grey cement 11-50 Botsswana
consumption, white only represents 0.4 per cent. 51-100
The only countries in the region estimated to 101-250 South Afriica
consume 10,000tpa or more are Nigeria (30,000t), 251-500

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virtually halved from around 40,000tpa, while the Figure 14 – Middle Eastern absolute
overall cement market has remained fairly stable. white cement consumption
This point gives further emphasis to the view that
local domestic production can act as a stimulus to Syria
Lebanon Iran
demand. Israel Iraq
Jordan
Kuwait

Saudi Arabia Bahrain


Qatar
UAE
Cement consumption
Oman
(000t)
0-10

WORLD CONSUMPTION REVIEW BY COUNTRY


11-50
51-100
MIDDLE EASTERN Yemen
101-250
251-500

With consumption approaching 1.25Mt in 2002, the the second largest market with an estimated
Middle East is estimated to be responsible for just 300,000t. The commercial sectors are particularly
over 10 per cent of global white cement demand. Of high consumers of white cement.
all of the regions, it has the highest per capita usage Iran has an estimated consumption of 420,000t
of 7.3kg annually. The Gulf states in particular show in 2002. The recent expansion of the production
a high intensity of usage, with UAE consuming on a base there will have partially stimulated demand. Per
per capita basis 34kg annually, Qatar 33kg, Bahrain capita demand remains below average at just over
nearly 30kg, and Saudi Arabia itself 13kg. Saudi is 6kg annually. The regional picture in demand terms
as a whole is subdued slightly by Iraq’s
significantly reduced demand because
Table 19 – Middle Eastern white cement
of war. Rebuilding may stimulate
consumption by country
demand.

Region Total Per capita Proport


Courtesy of Lehigh Cement Co

consump consump to grey


(000tpa) (kg) (%)

Iran 420 6.4 1.67


Saudi Arabia 300 12.5 1.61
UAE 120 34.3 2.00
Syria 110 6.4 2.24
Jordan 67 12.6 2.68
Kuwait 60 26.1 2.18
Iraq 50 2.1 0.76
Oman 30 11.5 1.83
Bahrain 20 28.6 4.00
Qatar 20 33.3 1.74
Yemen 20 1.1 1.04
Palestine 10 2.9 0.69
TOTAL 1227 7.3 1.68

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than China at 0.8kg annually. There appears strong


scope for growth in white cement markets in the
Indian Sub-continent and SE Asia particularly.
India is the fifth largest white cement market in
the world consuming an estimated 450,000t in
2002. However, this only amounts to 0.4kg annually
on an average per capita basis. The white cement
WORLD CONSUMPTION REVIEW BY COUNTRY
market has grown at a similar pace to the overall
ASIA
cement market in India, about an average six per
cent annually over the last 10 years. The growth in
demand has primarily been led by the commercial
Asia, as a whole, it is estimated consumed just over sector in the larger cities – particularly offices, hotels
3800,000t of white cement (as defined within this and apartments. Both the cement brands have a
report) in 2002. This represents 32 per cent of the high level of awareness, and sales are almost
global market, with a per capita consumption of exclusively in bags down to a 1kg size. Further
1.1kg annually, less than two-thirds of the global substantial growth is indicated. The Pakistan and
average. Compared to grey cement consumption, Bangladesh markets too have grown over recent
white cement is only 0.38 per cent. years, and expected new producers may stimulate
China, the largest market globally, is looked at in further growth in demand.
detail below. It is responsible for 68 per cent of Asian In Southeast Asia, demand for white cement has
white cement consumption, fairly in-line with grey been subdued since the late 1990s after a period of
cement proportions. The ‘white cement’ market in substantial growth in the preceding period. Vietnam
China is estimated to be around 2.6Mt, with a per is reported to have consumed around 150,000t in
capita consumption of 2kg annually. 2002, a surprisingly high figure compared to
The rest of Asia is estimated to have consumed Thailand (90,000t), Indonesia (80,000t), Malaysia
around 1.23Mt in 2002. The average per capita (40,000t) and the Philippines (30,000t). The highest
consumption over the region is considerably lower per capita consumers are Singapore (nearly 5kg

Figure 15 – Asian absolute white cement consumption

Cement consumption
(000t)
0-10
Japan
Mongolia 11-50
North Korea
51-100
South Korea 101-250
Afghanistan 251-500
China >500

Pakistan Nepal
Bhutan
India Baangladesh
Myanmar
Laos
Philippines
Thailand Vietnam
Cambodia

Sri Lanka
Malaysia

Indonesia

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products result in the 2.6Mt


Table 20 – Asia’s largest white cement markets, 2002 figure for 2002. The ‘white
cement’ market in China
Region Total Per capita appears to have become
Proportion therefore differentiated (even
consumption consumption to grey if all of the consumers do not
(000tpa) (kg) (%)
fully appreciate the fact). An
estimated 1.2Mt of the 2.6Mt
China 2600 2.0 0.41
consumed as ‘white cement’ is
India 450 0.4 0.45
made up of the inferior
Vietnam 150 1.9 0.83
Thailand 90 1.4 0.40 decorative and ‘counterfeit’

Japan 80 0.6 0.12 white cements, that will have


S. Korea 80 1.7 0.15 effectively a low level of
Indonesia 80 0.4 0.30 ‘actual’ white cement, and
Pakistan 75 0.5 0.73 therefore low structural
Bangladesh 40 0.3 0.71 properties. The fear is that the
Malaysia 40 1.6 0.31 cement, within this large
Philippines 30 0.4 0.28 segment of the market where
Hong Kong SAR 20 2.9 0.53 the applications should mainly
Taiwan 20 0.9 0.13
be restricted to domestic
Singapore 20 4.8 0.53
decoration, might be used on
major construction projects.
annually), Vietnam and Malaysia. With Aalborg The advent of revised product standards may help in
White extending its marketing and distribution this process. The view from ICR research conducted
activities on the back of the new production line in in China, is that the recognised white cement
Malaysia, more widespread promotional activity manufacturers will regain market share over the next
would be expected to lead to increased usage of five years from the current producers of the inferior
white cement in this region. ‘white cement’.

China – global #1 market Rest of Asia


The Chinese market for ‘white cement’ is estimated The demand profile is very different in Japan in
in this report at around 2.6Mt in 2002. In 1979 there particular. White cement consumption has declined
were only five factories in China and total from around 135,000tpa in 1995 to only 80,000t in
consumption was less than 70,000t. During the next 2002. Taiwan too has fallen away in terms of white
10 years, when carrying out the policy of reform and cement consumption to the extent that the local
opening to the world, white cement consumption in producer is believed to have ceased production. In
China is reported to have increased to well over 1Mt the South Asia region, Hong Kong (2.9kg annually)
by 1989. By 1997, the last year that separate and South Korea (1.7kg annually) are the highest per
statistics for white were gathered, consumption was capita consumers.
around 1.85Mt, having exceeded 2Mt in the Australia and New Zealand are included in the
previous two years. overall Asia figures. It should be noted that while
The Production Base section of this report Australia is reported to only have consumed around
describes the increasing impact of decorative 15,000t of white cement in 2002, if the off-white
cements and ‘counterfeit’ white cements, over and cement sales were also included then overall
above recognised white cement produced in China. consumption would be over 8kg per capita.
Estimates of the total consumption across these Mexico dominates consumption of white cement. At

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By contrast, estimated white cement


consumption appears unnaturally low in Brazil
(70,000t) and only a per capita usage of 0.4kg
annually. One possibility could be a high usage of
off-white cement or slag as an alternative in certain
applications. Colombia (100,000t) and the Caribbean
WORLD CONSUMPTION REVIEW BY COUNTRY grouping (50,000t) are both strong consumers of
LATIN AMERICA white cement; with the latter the continued
expansion and refurbishment of tourism related
facilities is a major driver.
In Argentina, demand has tailed off rapidly with
an estimated consumption of 380,000t in 2002 it is estimated consumption of 40,000t in 2002, being
responsible for nearly half of the sales within the substantially lower than previous levels of around
region. Total market is estimated at 780,000t in 100,000tpa.
2002, representing per capita usage of 1.5kg Demand in Chile of around 30,000tpa has been
annually. As a region, Latin America consumes more stable, but is not exhibiting significant growth.
approaching seven per cent of global white cement Long-term prospects for white cement demand
consumption. in Cuba are regarded as excellent, mainly based on
Mexico with a per capita consumption of 3.7kg the continuing expansion of tourism – current levels
annually is not far off USA levels. As the domestic of consumption have been subdued for a number of
base of Cemex, the world’s largest white cement years.
producer, promotional activity can have been
positive in terms of developing usage of white
cement in various applications.

Figure 16 – Latin American absolute


white cement consumption

WORLD CONSUMPTION REVIEW BY COUNTRY


Mexico
Cuba NORTH AMERICA
Guatemala
El Salvador Honduras
Nicaragua
Costa Rica Panama
Venezueela
Colombia Suurinam
Ecuador Estimated consumption in North America in 2002
was around 1.3Mt, 11 per cent of global demand.
Peru Brazill
Per capita consumption in the region is 4.1kg
Bolivia annually, ahead of the global average, as is the
proportion of white to grey cement consumption, at
Paraguay
1.1 per cent.
Chile USA, with an estimated consumption of 1.2Mt
Cement consumption Uruguaay
(000t) in 2002, is the world’s second largest white cement
0-10
Argentina market (see below). Canada, with estimated
11-50
consumption of 100,000t in 2002, just makes the
51-100
101-250
top-25 white cement consuming nations. Canada’s
251-500 per capita consumption is 3.2kg annually compared
to USA’s 4.2 kg annually.

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sophisticated white cement market in terms


Table 21 – Latin America’s largest white of both product and applications. A leading
cement markets, 2002 producer details the top-5 applications for
white cement in the USA as being structural
Country Total Per capita Prop
concrete, bricks/ blocks, dry mix mortars,
consump consump to grey
fibre cement and swimming pools. In the
(000tpa) (kg) (%)
small bagged market, there are a number of

Mexico 380 3.7 1.31 companies such as Whitestone and Universal


Colombia 100 2.3 1.89 that reprocess and merchant white cement.
Brazil 70 0.4 0.18 The small bagged market (as distinct from
Caribbean 50 2.3 1.19 big bags) is estimated to be around 20 per
Argentina 40 1.1 1.05 cent of the total white cement market.
Chile 30 1.9 0.82
Venezuela 25 1.0 0.68
Cuba 20 1.8 1.90

USA – global #2
Table 22 – USA imports, 2002
market
Growth in white cement demand
Year Total Growth CIF CIF P/T
in the USA over the past 20 years
imports rate (%) ($000) ($)
has been met predominantly by
imports, as the domestic 1996 390 $41,857 $107.43
production base has remained 1997 520 33 $54,480 $104.77
unchanged at around 300,000t. 1998 846 63 $76,467 $90.39
Consumption in the USA has 1999 825 -2 $100,939 $122.32
had two main periods of growth, 2000 923 12 $102,178 $110.68
linked with the construction 2001 936 1 $97,641 $104.27
cycle, from the mid to late 1980s, 2002 866 -7 $93,361 $107.81
and then from the mid-1990s Source: US Customs

onwards. Consumption is
Figure 17 – North American absolute white cement consumption
estimated as being around
350,000tpa at the start of the
1980s, and double that at the
start of the 1990s. By 2000,
consumption had reached the
1200,000t mark, not quite a
doubling of the market in the Canada
decade, but strong growth
nevertheless. The white cement
market has remained relatively
static in 2001 and 2002.
The growth of imports has USA
been dramatic between 1996 Cement consumption
(000t)
and 2000 according to US
51-100
Customs Data. >500
USA is a reasonably

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Marketing & promotion


White cement is used as a constituent material in a great variety of applications of a
decorative or structural nature within global construction sectors. The potential for wider
usage of white cement is regarded by many as considerable, with major factors determining
its demand including taste/fashion, the level of promotion, the cost of white cement and the
cost and availability of competing products.

Socio-cultural

N
early all applications of white cement result
in ‘seen’ or ‘visible’ product, whether that I Harmonises building technology with the
final product is still white, or has been environment
coloured with resins, using white cement is the ideal I Improves visibility and reflectivity of buildings in
base to such colour. any weather conditions
It is the external presence of white cement that I Enriches urban environments with comfort and
gives it a level of importance in terms of promoting distinction.
usage of concrete, and related products, compared
to competing products such as natural stone, glass, Economical
clay and steel etc. White cement could reasonably be I Increases the value of building stock
regarded as the ‘flagship’ of the cement and I Cost effective material to create intricately
concrete sectors; some companies do realise this and designed building components
ostensibly attach more importance to white cement I Raises safety in traffic (higher reflectivity).
than they should do, given that the global market is
less than one per cent of grey cement. Ecological
This report has commented on the increased I A natural product made from carefully selected
interest in white cement by a number of companies; raw materials
one, Holcim White, features some of the benefits of I Less energy intensive to produce than steel,
using white cement on its website. These benefits glass, etc
include: I Performs outstanding thermal characteristics
(peak heating and cooling loads).
Aesthetics
I Unique results in decorative effects and elegance White cement generally leads to more contact
I Adds beauty to performance of mortars, plaster with architects and specifiers, and whilst some of the
and concrete above benefits could be considered as mildly
I Freedom to choose from unlimited range in colour, subjective, they nevertheless represent a route to
shape and size influencing decision makers in these functions where
I Combines certified product quality with creativity. aesthetics and new trends are important.
A categorised but not comprehensive list of
Technological current white applications follows:
I High structural durability and lasting beauty
I Good workability and reliable strength Precast elements
performance I Products: architectural cladding, other
I Excellent properties in surface finishing and prefabricated elements and building systems, façade
treatment wall panels, slabs and kerbs, paving blocks,
I Highly moisture resistant construction material. reconstituted stone, fair faced concrete blocks,

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concrete bricks, roof tiles, staircases and balconies, I Areas of usage: interior/exterior walls and ceilings,
tunnel segments, road safety barriers, bridge roof insulations, surface bonding, renovation works,
parapets, retaining walls, lamposts and sign gantries decoration, swimming pools, water channels etc.

I Areas of usage: residential and commercial sectors Cement paint & tile grouts
both in terms of exterior and interior walls, I Self explanatory but a long established use.
landscaping, and other leisure including swimming
pools; infrastructure in terms of tunnels, high Art
visibility and safety applications. A low consuming but high profile usage including
statues, restoration of historic buildings,
I Some of the applications above are produced in reproductions, monuments, parks and civil amenities.
situ, rather than precast.
End uses
Flooring During research of this report, patchy information
I Mentioned as a separate category because of the was obtained on end-use and only in fairly general
prevalence of usage of white cement in terrazzo terms.
surfaces. Also decorative and reflective flooring is Additionally, the proportions of end-use in
cast in situ. general categories appeared to vary significantly by
country. This in many respects is unsurprising since
Mortars & plasters the absolute size of many markets is small and
I Products: Dry mix and readymix mortars and therefore could be skewed by the presence of a large
screeds, other mortars, plasters, screeds and producer of adhesives, for example, that supplies
rendering products of a decorative nature, repair and product to a regional market.
patching, levelling and industrial flooring mortars As a few random samples, end-use information
and screeds, etc. for a number of countries is shown below:

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No major conclusions can be


drawn apart from a view that the
three main consumers of white
cement are probably
mortars/plasters, concrete products
(tiles, blocks, pavers etc) and larger
structural elements, whether
precast or in situ.

Marketing
The heightened interest in white
Japan cement has been discussed from a competitive
I Paving block – 15 per cent viewpoint elsewhere in the report. Promotion of the
I Tiles – 15 per cent product has been variable in the past, with
I Masonry blocks – 31 per cent excellence by some companies in some markets but
I Mortars/plasters – 11 per cent generally little marketing effort and/or promotional
I Other – 27 per cent expenditure in many markets. Given that the
(Source- Japan Cement Association) demand for white cement is largely a derived one,
there is a clear case for white cement producers
Portugal working with downstream customers (whether
I Mortars/plasters – 39 per cent external or in-house) to promote usage within the
I RMC/in-situ concrete – 24 per cent applications.
I Precast – 29 per cent From a strategic marketing viewpoint white
I In-situ plasters – 8 per cent cement needs to be considered against not only
(Source- Portuguese Cement Association) competing materials like natural stone, clay and glass
in terms of the final application, but also against
USA other cementitious materials such as ground
I Structural – 15 per cent granulated slag, or off-white cements for certain
I Bricks – 11 per cent applications.
I Mortars drymix – 11 per cent Increased effective promotion of white cement
I Fibre cement – 8 per cent can be expected to grow the global market, with
I Swimming pools – 7 per cent perhaps the biggest gains coming in currently
I Other – 48 per cent developing economies with low to medium per
(source- company data) capita consumption, or developed countries where
there is not a domestic producer and promotional
UK effort has been low. Increases in fashion preference
I Structural – 15 per cent for white cement products could lead to a sustained
I Leisure/pools – 5 per cent growth in demand (such as the growth in demand
I Slabs/pavers – 5 per cent for granite in the mid-1990s).
I Tiles/blocks – 15 per cent If recent trends of dipping prices in some
I Mortar – 18 per cent markets continue, then the movement to longer-
I Terrazzo – 4 per cent term lower prices would be expected to support
I Paints – 8 per cent promotional initiatives. The level of price elasticity of
I Merchants – 18 per cent demand for white cement remains at this stage
I Other – 12 per cent inconclusive.
(source: company data)

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Trading
It is estimated that in excess of 3Mt of white cement was traded outside of the country where
it was produced in 2002. This would represent over 25 per cent of global white cement being
traded. Taking China out of the equation, this figure would be around 32 per cent. As a
comparison, grey cement traded globally is around seven per cent of the overall market,
according to recent ICR research.

Main white cement traders

T
here are several reasons for the higher
proportion of trading compared to grey Of the white cement producers, the following
cement. White cement is only produced in an estimated ranking applies in terms of 2002. The
estimated 46 countries worldwide. This perforce tonnages shown are estimates of sales by that
means that the other countries (upwards of 150) company of white cement outside of the country
that consume white cement need to import the where it was produced. Any white cement
product. In addition, prices of white cement have ‘merchanted’ ie bought-in from another producer
tended to be in a magnitude of two to four times and sold on is not included.
those of grey cement. This has the effect of 1. Aalborg White 600-650,000t
distribution costs being less significant for white than 2. Cemex 450-500,000t
grey cement, therefore increasing the scope to 3. Çimsa 400-450,000t
export. 4. RAK White 250-300,000t
Moreover, the larger white cement players, 5. Heidelberg 200-230,000t
particularly Aalborg and Çimsa, have been proactive 6. Federal 200-220,000t
in terms of distribution facilities and promotion of
white cement in countries that they export to. There Main import markets
are also examples of major grey cement players White cement markets that are estimated to have
seeking to start to balance supply and demand imported more than 100,000t in 2002 are as follows:
between markets in white cement as well as in grey. The US market then is by far the most important
Lastly, in terms of white cement traded it should be in terms of trading, being responsible for importing
noted that the volumes amount to only around 3Mt 30 per cent of all white cement traded globally.
compared to an estimated 125Mt of grey. Spain, whilst being the second largest importer in
2002, has a relatively low reliance
on imports. In the case of Germany,
Table 23 – Main white cement importing nations
its geographical position in Central
Europe, makes it a logical importer
Country Imports Share of Import:
given the low level of domestic
(000t) consumption production
capacity. Saudi Arabia, until recently
ratio (%)
totally dependent on imports, has

USA 940 78 330 now brought on domestic capacity.


Spain 215 20 17 The other three countries that
Germany 200 73 267 import more than 100,000tpa –
Algeria 150 100 N/A Algeria, Israel and UK – do not
Saudi Arabia 150 50 98 produce white cement.
Israel 130 100 N/A Besides North America, the
UK 115 100 N/A other main trading regions are the

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PROFILE
US import market
US Customs defines about three dozen ‘ports of entry’ to America, including Puerto
Rico and the US Virgin Islands, but only a few receive substantial amounts of white
cement. Laredo in Texas was the largest port of entry for white cement in 2001,
followed by Detroit, Miami, Boston, Tampa, and Buffalo NY. Certain countries favour
certain ports when it comes to white cement trade. For example, Canada and Mexico
ship mainly through ports on their US borders. Countries that do not border America,
however, don’t show a particular pattern in port selection, though they all tend to
concentrate on only a few ports of entry.

Table 24 – Top 7 countries of origin of US white cement import of entry,


Jan-Nov 2002

Port of entry Canada Mexico Denmark Thailand Spain Venezuela Turkey

Maine 21
Boston MA 29,256

Ogdensburg NY 85
Buffalo NY 59,537 25
New York NY 7801
Detroit MI 126,500 316
Wilmington NC 23,816 5025
Miami FL 109,484
Tampa FL 91,408 18,454
Savannah GA 2726
Puerto Rico 6228 14,683
Virgin Islands 936
Houston TX 79,297 4501
Laredo TX 136,725
El Paso TX 20,533
Nogales AZ 330
Seattle WA 15
Alaska 5963
Great Falls MT 8879
San Diego CA 8207
San Francisco CA 8812
TOTAL 201,021 163,816 114,233 120,132 109,484 35,217 25,681

All figures in metric tonnes

In addition, other sources of white cement in this period included: Colombia (10,637t),
Greece (6058t), Egypt (5500t), Belgium (4585t) and China (3603t).
Over 50 per cent of these imports can be ascribed to Cemex and Aalborg – joint
venture partners in Lehigh White, and a further 25 per cent to Federal of Canada.

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Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East. The Suez where local merchants/traders proliferate. This can
Canal does operate as an impediment to trade have detrimental effects on the final price to the
between these two regions and indeed further afield. consumer and the overall promotion of the product
by application.
Competitive situation
A major facet of the global white cement market is Pricing trends
that the level of competition has undoubtedly During the course of researching this report, pricing
increased significantly over the past decade, and detail made available was unsurprisingly patchy and
particularly over the past five years. The reasons for infrequent. Nevertheless a few general comments
this have already been discussed in this report and can be made:
revolve around the type of new capacity brought on- I Achieved FOB prices for major white cement
stream – large (in white cement terms), efficient (in exporters have fallen dramatically since 2000 in
contrast to remaining wet and older dry kilns) and terms of some of the markets that they supply. In
with a need to generate significant sales outside of terms of one of the Mediterranean based producers,
the specific domestic market. FOB prices were estimated to have almost halved
White cement though is less of a commodity from above US$110/t to around US$65/t by 2002.
product than grey cement – product differentiation I In established markets, such as Northern Italy and
arises as a result of levels of whiteness and according France, supplied almost totally from domestic
to the needs of any particular application, where production, prices are believed to have remained
often consistency of product is the most important relatively stable and high, in the range of ¤150-
criteria. It is reported that a white cement with 200/t ex-works. Pricing levels on the Iberian
whiteness of 91-92 may generally achieve a Peninsular are somewhat lower in the range of
premium of 10 per cent in price over cement with ¤110-130/t.
whiteness of around 86. I In USA, US Customs statistics show the CIF price
An additional consideration in terms of for white cement rising to just over US$122/t in
competitiveness is the existence of import tariffs in 1999, and then falling back to around US$105/t in
some markets such as India. This can either have the 2002. A US merchant reported in 2002, an ‘over-
effect of allowing an inefficient operation to abundance’ of white cement in the South-East
continue to trade profitably, or allow a modern and region, that had resulted in a 30 per cent drop of the
efficient operation to make above average profits in small bag sales price in the region.
its own domestic market. Likewise subsidised power I Out of Iran, FOB prices of US$35/t in 2002 were
or fuel inputs can have a similar effect. claimed to be available – this was seen as a result of
Other influences on a competitive situation may the very low production costs, given new plant and
also include a grey and white cement producer being energy subsidies.
able to leverage customer relationships to the benefit I In China, average prices for white cement
of white cement supply, plus the other recognised exported in 2002 were US$53, similar to the
benefits of synergies in marketing costs and logistical previous year. Domestic FOB prices are in a range of
flexibility. US$40-90/t depending on whiteness and
For the white cement producers with an specification.
imperative to export, such as Aalborg White, Çimsa, The above comments highlight the views that
RAK White, the Iranian producers and others, the white cement is not a commodity, that access to
absolute size of many markets is too low to support certain markets is not always available, and that
import terminals and additionally, the market competitive battles for sales can impact significantly
requirement is likely to be for bagged rather than on price but possibly be restricted to flashpoints
bulk product. Therefore, this tends towards lack of rather than across regions.
control of distribution of product in many markets

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Global industry outlook


The outlook for the global white cement industry is generally positive with worldwide
demand over the next decade believed to rise by five to six per cent. Experts also predict a
higher level of trade, boosted by a higher concentration in ownership of production facilities,
and increased market penetration as a result of improvements in marketing strategies, product
availability and distribution.

Trade

I
f the recent growth of demand estimated at five
to six per cent annually continues for the next 10 The proportion of white cement traded is likely to
years, then demand in 2012 will be between increase further given the above scenario. A further
19.5 to 21.5Mta – an increase of 7.5 to 9.5Mt boost to this view would be given by increased
above existing levels. concentration of ownership by the existing larger
If these significant increases of demand are likely producers.
to be achieved then the current major consuming
nations (China, USA, Spain, etc) will need to see Prices
continued increases in demand in addition to growth One can expect white cement prices to maintain
elsewhere. ICR demand outlook by region is as current patterns with seaborne FOB prices out of
follows: (and within) Europe showing some improvements
I Europe – mildly positive in Western Europe, over the short-to-medium term.
positive in Central and Eastern
I Mediterranean Basin – positive Corporate activity
I Middle East – positive Most changes of ownership in white cement have
I Africa (excluding North Africa) – neutral come about as an associated result of larger M&A
I Asia – China mildly positive, West and activity in grey cement. While this is likely to
Southeast Asia positive, East Asia neutral continue, there may be scope for transactions in the
I Latin America – mildly positive future that involve the few stand-alone white
I North America – neutral to mildly positive cement players, such as Federal and RAK White, or
disposals of dedicated white cement facilities held by
Production essentially grey cement companies. Additionally,
Over the last decade capacity has grown more or scenarios may emerge where certain white cement
less in line with consumption, therefore should producers may cede or license the marketing of the
existing growth in demand continue (as above), then product to other, probably major, companies.
capacity additions of the order of 7-10Mta would be
required. Marketing and promotion
This report has not addressed the subject of The recent heightened interest in white cement by
availability of suitable high quality reserves for white some of the producers suggests that more
cement production worldwide, however, it would sophisticated marketing and promotion of white
seem likely that most of the capacity that may need cement is likely to be an increasing trend in the
to be added will take place at existing production future. Effective application-based marketing,
facilities, where viable. New production facilities supported by better distribution and availability of
where they do occur are most likely in Asia, North product, is likely to increase penetration of markets,
Africa, Middle East and Latin America. particularly in parts of Asia, Latin America and
Central and Eastern Europe.

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White cement technology


White cement is essentially an ordinary Portland cement with the content of any chemical
species that might colour the cement kept to a minimum. Principally this means that the iron
oxide content, Fe2O3, must be minimised as this combines with Al2O3 in the C4AF mineral,
which imparts the colour to grey Portland cement.

cement manufacturing process which are essential

I
n addition to minimising the iron oxide content,
the presence of any other potentially colouring for the production of a high quality modern white
chemical species must be eliminated. In practice Portland cement. At each stage of the manufacturing
this means that steps must be taken to avoid process these adaptations fall into three broad
contamination by oxides of the first series of the categories, (i) avoiding contamination, (ii)
transitional metals (scandium to zinc) at each stage maximising or improving the whiteness by process
of the cement manufacturing process. When these modifications, and (iii) coping with the effects of
metals are combined with oxygen ligands, as in these process modifications.
clinker, they have empty orbitals available and The quality of a white Portland cement is a
electrons absorb energy in the visible region of the function of the compressive strength development,
electro-magnetic spectrum and are promoted to setting characteristics, workability and durability, as
these higher available orbitals. This absorption can with grey cement. However the key quality defining
vividly colour the clinker. characteristic is the whiteness or brightness of the
Aside from these considerations the technology cement. This is not without its problems. White
of white cement manufacture is largely the same as cement can be defined as any cement with a
for grey cement. Raw materials are extracted from reflectance of over 80 per cent compared to
open pit or underground mines. These materials are magnesia (MgO) which has a reflectance of 100 per
then blended to familiar lime saturation and silica cent. International grade white cement is said to
modulus targets and pass through a series of size have reflectance of between 84 per cent and 88 per
reduction stages involving crushers and mills. The cent, with over 88 per cent only being achievable
resulting kiln feed is burnt in rotary kilns of all the with special raw materials.
process types used for grey cement clinker. Long This does not correspond with quoted whiteness
wet, long dry, grate preheater and suspension figures of more than 90 per cent for many white
preheater kilns both with and without precalciners. cements produced in the world. The reflectance
The resulting white cement clinker comprises the values referred to above correspond with the
calcium silicate minerals, C3S and C2S, in brightness of the cement and correspond closely
combination with the calcium aluminate mineral with the Y-value of the CIE colour system.
C3A. This clinker is then ground together with For these reasons no description of the
gypsum to produce the final white cement product technology of white cement can proceed without an
and stored in silos for despatch in bulk or bags, as understanding of colour, whiteness and brightness
with grey cement. measurement.
The purpose of this report is not to describe the The next section of the report therefore
familiar technology of grey cement manufacture. describes the competing international standards for
This is adequately described in various publications colour and whiteness measurement. Both standards
including the Cement Plant Operations Handbook, are used in different parts of the world meaning that
published by ICR, presenting a concise guide to grey careful interpretation is necessary when comparing
cement manufacture. This report will focus on the reported quality data from the different producers of
particular adaptations and modifications of the grey white cement.

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Colour and whiteness Figure 18 – Relative luminous efficiency curve


measurement
Two international standards are used for colour
and whiteness measurement. These are the
Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage system
and the US National Bureau of Standards
system devised by R S Hunter. The principles of
these two standards are described in the
following sections.

Commission Internationale de
l’Eclairage (CIE)
The human eye detects light in the visible
wavelength range, 400-700nm, but does not
perceive the same brightness over the whole
Figure 19 – Relative energy distribution C light
visible range. A plot of brightness perceived
(per unit of incident energy) against wavelength
rises to a maximum at 555nm and is called a
relative luminous efficiency curve. The detector
in a colour measuring instrument has to
simulate the luminous efficiency of the human
eye. Two standards are used by the Commission
Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE), the ‘2°
Standard Observer’ and the ‘10° Supplementary
Standard Observer’. Both are mathematical
interpretations of the response of the human
eye. The latter is claimed to give better
correspondence with most observers. When
quoting results of colour measurements the
field of observation must be specified. Figure 20 – Spectro-reflecting power –
red body under C light
The appearance of colour is also affected
by the energy distribution or spectral
composition of the illuminant or incident light.
Again two standard illuminants are used in
colour measuring instruments, D65 (daylight at
6500°K) and C (simulated average daylight
from an overcast sky). These must also be
specified along with the results.
When a body is illuminated the incident
light is either reflected or transmitted and the
percentage of light reflected at a given
wavelength is known as the spectro-reflecting
power. The spectro-reflecting power is
dependent on the colour of the body. The power and the incident light energy at that
amount of energy entering the eye at a given wavelength.
wavelength is the product of the spectro-reflecting Grassman’s law states that a mixture of three

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independent colours are needed to determine colour: x = X/(X+Y+Z)


red, green and blue. The human eye contains y = Y / ( X + Y + Z)
detectors for each of these colours and each has a These coordinates are then plotted on a diagram
different luminous efficiency curve. Reflected light known as the CIE chromaticity diagram. All visible
entering the eye stimulates each detector cell colours are contained in an area of this diagram
differently leading to three spectrum excitation defined by a curve known as the colour locus and a
curves. Integration under these three curves leads to straight line known as the locus of pure violet.
the X, Y and Z tri-stimulus values corresponding to Further information can be gained from this
the relative amounts of red, green and blue light diagram by extending a line through the x, y
respectively. trichromatic point P, from a special whiteness point
The Y tri-stimulus value (green) gives a direct N, to the colour locus. (N is close to colourless point
measure of brightness or whiteness and is the most 5). The intersection with the colour locus at S gives
commonly used measure in the quality control of the dominant wavelength, which is a measure of the
white cement. Sometimes whiteness indexes are ‘hue’, i.e. blue, yellow, red, etc. Finally the ratio of
used to give a means of comparing samples by NS / NP is a measure of the ‘stimulus purity’.
means of a single value. These are based on the tri-
stimulus values. A measure of the deviation from a National Bureau of Standards (NBS)
neutral white is given by the relationship: Colour
W = (X – Z) * 100/Y In the CIE diagram the same difference in Y value
Where a negative value indicates a colour on the and chromaticity does not give the same sensation in
blue side of neutral white and a positive value a different parts of the diagram. A uniform
colour on the red side of neutral white. A single chromaticity diagram is required for this purpose and
positive value for ranking a series of samples can be R S Hunter devised L, a and b scales to do this.
obtained from the relationship: Colours can be represented as a colour solid. The
W = 0.5 Y + 50(1-((1.019 X – 0.8458 Z)/ Y )) lightness is represented vertically by L, the distance
The full CIE colour system is given by finding the of a point within the solid from the axis gives the
ratio of the X and Y tri-stimulus values to the sum of saturation, and the angle from the centre the hue.
the X, Y and Z tri-stimulus values to give the x and y When lightness, saturation and hue are specified a
trichromatic coordinates. colour is fixed. The difference between the positions

Figure 21 – CIE chromaticity diagram

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Figure 22 – Hunter colour solid Figure 23 – Hunter colour solid


in cross-section with colours

of two samples within the solid is measured in NBS are called white. Hunter proposed the following
units which give good correspondence to sensual equation for whiteness:
colour difference. The relationship between NBS W = 100 - √((100 – L)2 + ( a2 + b2))
colour differences and sensual differences are shown In this 100 represents pure white at the top
in Table 24 – Relationship between NBS colour centre of the Hunter colour solid and the difference
differences and sensual differences. between the sample and this point is subtracted
Figure 23 shows the Hunter colour solid with from 100. There are numerous points which are
colours marked. This diagram is equivalent to the equidistant from the top centre point of the Hunter
one shown above. The distance of any point from colour solid and their appearances are different in
the centre of the solid is given by √(a2 + b2 + L2), brightness or hue or both.
and the NBS colour difference between any two The relationships between the Hunter L, a and b
points by √(_a2 + _b2 + _L2). values and the X, Y and Z tri-stimulus values are
Hunter whiteness rather than overall colour given by:
difference presents problems. A yellow material will L = 10 √ Y
give a high Hunter L reflectance, but a blue colour a = 17.5 ( 1.02 X – Y)/ √ Y
gives a better sensation of whiteness. However, a b = 7.0 ( Y – 0.847 Z)/ √ Y
blue colour will absorb some light reducing the
Hunter L value. Hunter whiteness does not usually Raw materials
correspond with the best visual sensation of The raw materials to be used for white cement
whiteness. White should be seen as a kind of colour, manufacture must provide the lime, silica and
and colours positioned at the top of the Hunter solid alumina to be combined into the calcium silicate and
aluminate clinker minerals C3S, C2S and C3A,
while at the same time avoiding contamination
Table 24 – Relationship between NBS
by having the absolute minimum of iron
colour differences and sensual
content present in any form (oxide or sulphide).
differences
As a rule of thumb an increase in the clinker or
NBS Colour Difference Sensual Differ. cement Fe2O3 content of 0.1 per cent will lead
> 0 < 0.5 Trace to a reduction in the reflectance or Y-value of
> 0.5 < 1.5 Slight 2.5 per cent. To attain international whiteness
> 1.5 < 3.0 Noticeable grades this means the clinker and cement
> 3.0 < 6.0 Appreciable Fe2O3 content should be less than 0.4 per cent
> 6.0 < 12.0 Big and therefore the total Fe content in the raw
> 12.0 Different mix should be less than 0.25 per cent.

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The lime saturation of white cement clinker and For limestone the most common practice is to scalp
kiln feed is similar to grey cement, and in excess of or screen the stone on the feeder to the crusher,
90 per cent, resulting in lime contents in clinker of with the intention of removing the fine particles.
more than 60 per cent. The combination of this and Most limestones contain some clay inclusions that
the low Fe2O3 requirement means that a high purity are rich in Fe2O3, and this screening and rejection
source of calcium carbonate (limestone or chalk) aims to remove the clay contamination and lower
makes up approximately 80 per cent of the raw mix, the Fe2O3 content of the material passing to the
and is the primary raw material requirement for a crusher and into the process. Another approach is
viable white cement factory. taken by the Buñol factory of Cemex Espãna, where
To come up to international market requirements the limestone is first crushed in a jaw crusher, and
for cement whiteness the iron content of this the clay is then separated and removed in wash
limestone or chalk, expressed as Fe2O3 equivalent, drums.
will need to be less than 0.10 per cent. This The white cement factories of the world are
effectively defines the quality requirements and therefore located adjacent to deposits of high purity
specification for limestones and chalks for white limestone or chalk. Any cement company wishing to
cement manufacture. It means that the marls and establish a white cement kiln must secure deposits of
cement rocks, which are the best raw materials for limestone or chalk that meet these purity
grey cement manufacture, are completely unsuitable specifications, or can be improved to meet this
for white cement manufacture. In general chalks are specification.
more pure than limestones and for that reason might Having secured a source of suitable limestone or
be considered the superior source of calcium chalk the requirement is then to find secondary raw
carbonate for white cement manufacture. However, materials to provide the silica and alumina to
the moisture content of the chalk means it is combine with the lime in the calcium silicate and
unsuited to the dry-process of cement manufacture aluminate clinker minerals. Again these secondary
and most modern white cement factories use high materials must be low in iron content, but as they
purity limestone as their primary raw material. make up less than 20 per cent of the total raw mix,
This represents a demanding specification and it the maximum allowable Fe2O3 content can be as
is common for run-of-quarry limestone to be unable high as one per cent, dependent on the Fe2O3
to meet this requirement. In this case steps are taken inputs in the limestone and other materials.
to improve the quality by reducing the iron content. The secondary raw material that meets these
Courtesy of Aalborg Portland

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Table 25

Limestone Silica Sand Pure Kaolin Siliceous Kaolin

SiO2 (%) 0.50 98.00 49.90 74.90


Al2O3 (%) 0.20 1.50 34.10 16.00
Fe2O3 (%) 0.05 0.05 0.80 0.10
CaO (%) 55.5 0.20 0.20 0.20

LSF Target 92.0


SM Target 4.50

Limestone (%) 79.93 79.59


Silica Sand (%) 8.97 20.41
Kaolin (%) 11.11 0.00

Raw Mix
SiO2 (%) 15.76 15.65
Al2O3 (%) 3.38 3.42
Fe2O3 (%) 0.12 0.06
CaO (%) 44.40 44.13

requirements most readily is the clay mineral kaolin. content, which presents no problem as there are
This is the most common secondary raw material abundant sources of pure silica sand available in the
used in white cement manufacture. The ideal industrial minerals market place.
location for a white cement factory would be Addition of silica sand to the raw mix does
adjacent to suitable deposits of high purity limestone present problems of abrasion in the raw material
and kaolin, however finding these minerals in close handling, blending and grinding systems due to the
proximity is a rare event. Many white cement hardness of silica sand. This abrasion of the machines
manufacturers locate their factories adjacent to a used in cement manufacture increases the
suitable limestone or chalk deposit and import the maintenance demands and reduces the life
kaolin into the factory. Inevitably this pushes up the expectancy of the components that come into
cost of white cement manufacture relative to grey contact with the raw mix. There is also the added
cement, but the premium price obtainable for the problem of contamination of the mix with iron and
product makes importing the secondary raw transitional metals from the steel of the machines,
materials worthwhile. which can potentially colour the final cement
Pure kaolin has the chemical formula product.
Al2O3.2SiO2. and the percentage chemical One response to this abrasion and
composition 54 per cent silica, SiO2, 46 per cent contamination is to use ceramic grinding media and
alumina, Al2O3. This material is deficient in silica for liners in the raw grinding mills as discussed below. As
combination with lime, CaO, in the calcium silicate a guideline if the silica sand content of the raw mix is
minerals C3S and C2S. This means some additional greater than 10 per cent it is advisable to use
silica, normally in the form of silica sand, must be ceramic media for raw grinding. However even when
added to a white cement raw mix in order to make this strategy is adopted the silica sand will abrade
up the deficiency. Again the principal specification of any metal parts with which it comes into contact,
this silica sand is that it must be low in Fe2O3 such as chutes and pneumatic delivery lines to the

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Where:
CaO1400°C = the free lime after burning for 30
minutes at 1400°C
LSF = per cent CaO/(2.8 per cent SiO2 + 1.18
per cent Al2O3 + 0.65 per cent Fe2O3)
SR = per cent SiO2/( per centAl2O3 + per cent
Fe2O3)
Q45 = per cent quartz grains greater than 45μ
C125 = per cent calcite grains coarser than 125μ
R45 = per cent acid insoluble grains coarser than
45μ.

Courtesy of Aalborg Portland


The first part of the equation relates to the
chemical composition of the material and
homogenisation silos and the kiln. Raw mixes indicates than the lime saturation and silica modulus
containing silica sand are also prone to segregation are the principal chemical factors affecting the
in the homogenisation silos, with the silica modulus burnability. The silica ratio (SR) is the important
varying by as much as 1.0 dependent on the level in factor when using this relationship with a white
the silo as the mix is extracted to kiln feed. cement raw mix. The necessarily low iron content in
Wherever possible it is therefore advantageous the mix inevitably means that white cement raw
to minimise silica sand additions to raw mix, or avoid mixes have poor burnability. The iron oxide
them altogether. This best achieved by sourcing a containing clinker mineral C4AF is the first mineral to
siliceous kaolin on the industrial minerals market. melt in the cement kiln and promotes the formation
Mix designs using a relatively pure kaolin and silica of the C3S mineral by fluxing the combination of the
sand in comparison with a siliceous kaolin from solid free CaO liberated from the limestone and the
Turkey are presented in Table 25. This demonstrates C2S mineral to form C3S. In the white cement kiln
the dramatic reduction in silica sand addition that a the lack of iron oxide means a lack of C4AF and
siliceous kaolin can bring about. Kaolins of these poor fluxing of this combination.
Turkish deposits are exported for thousands of miles The second part of the burnability equation
to white cement companies and presumably relates to the mineralogy of the raw mix and the
represent one of the key operational advantages concentration of the minerals in the coarser fractions
enjoyed by Çimsa at its Mersin white cement factory. of the raw mix. With silica sand additions to the mix
The hardness of silica sand also raises the a high concentration of quartz in the size fraction
problem of preferential grinding of the limestone and above 45 microns is to be expected due to the
kaolin, with the silica particles concentrating in the preferential grinding of the softer limestone and
coarse residues of the raw mix. This potentially Kaolin. This further reduces the burnability of the
makes the low burnability of the white cement raw mix.
mix even worse and can be avoided by separate Two responses are possible to alleviate these
grinding of the silica sand as employed at Aalborg problems of poor burnability. The first is to grind the
and the new Sinai White cement plant where two raw mix to a high fineness to minimise the
wet process sand grinding mills are utilised. proportion of grains above 45 microns. Historically
Linda Hills in a paper to the IEEE conference, white cement raw mix might be ground to a residue
Jacksonville, 2002 quotes the following relationship of less than five per cent on a 90 micron sieve,
for the burnability of cement raw mix: however this causes problems of high dust loss from
CaO1400°C =[0.343(LSF-93) + 2.74(SR-2.3)] + modern kilns fitted with suspension preheaters. The
[0.83Q45 + 0.10C125 + 0.39R45] trend is therefore to coarser grinding of the raw mix.

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The second is to improve the burnability by the not be able to produce sufficient raw mix to feed
addition of mineralisers to the raw mix to promote these kilns. Most modern white cement factories
the combination into the clinker minerals in the therefore use hard forged media and linings in their
white cement kiln. Addition of fluorspar (calcium raw grinding mills and accept a low level of
fluoride, CaF2) to achieve this mineralisation is contamination of the mix from the steel grinding
common in white cement raw mixes. In grey cement parts. This contamination of the raw mix leads to a
there has been growing interest in the use of mixed reduction of approximately one per cent in the
fluoride and sulphate mineralisers to produce a reflectance or Y-value of the final product white
mineralised clinker with enhanced strength cement.
development characteristics. In white cement The poor burnability of white cement raw mix
manufacture the addition of fluoride mineralisers, and the need to minimise the coarse particles in the
either alone or mixed with sulphate, is intended to mix means that vertical mills employing compression
reduce the thermal energy consumption of the white grinding are ideally suited to raw grinding these
cement kiln and/or boost the output from the kiln, materials. Vertical mills can also produce the high
rather than to produce a mineralised clinker. quantities of raw mix required for the modern high
Traditionally contamination of the white cement capacity white kilns. These reasons explain the
raw mix during grinding was avoided by using mills decision taken by Sinai White to install a vertical mill
with fused alumina ceramic media and linings. This for raw grinding.
strategy continues to be pursued by some white
cement companies, however mills with ceramic Kiln burning
media and liners are much less efficient and As with grey cement the kiln is the heart of the
productive than mills with steel media and liners, or white cement manufacturing process. Kilns of all
vertical mills using compression grinding. The most process types are used for white cement
modern white cement kilns have capacities of manufacture, examples being the long wet kilns used
1500tpd and above. Mills with ceramic media would by Aalborg in Denmark, long dry kilns used by TXI at
Courtesy of Aalborg Portland

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purity of the raw materials the alkali content in the


kiln feed is low and there is insufficient alkali present
in the kilns to balance the sulphate derived from the
fuels. Large excesses of sulphate over alkalis can lead
to very hard dense coatings in the preheaters and
particularly difficult ring formations in the inlet
sections of the kilns. These rings act as dams for the
hot feed exiting the preheater into the kiln and can
lead to spillage of the feed through the seals at the
Riverside in California, various European cement inlet of the kiln. These spillages of preheated kiln
companies using grate preheater kilns including Secil feed at over 1000°C represent a considerable danger
at Patias and Cemex Espãna at Buñol, many to personnel and the kilns have to be stopped to
suspension preheater kilns throughout the Middle shoot away the rings.
East and precalciner kilns used by Çimsa at Mersin These interruptions in operation result in
and Sinai White. significant loss of production. Ras Al Khaimah is
The adaptations of the kilns for white cement reported to have added feldspars to its raw mix to
manufacture can again be broken down into (i) steps increase the alkali content and balance the sulphur
to avoid contamination, (ii) methods of maximising input from its fuels in order to avoid such operational
the whiteness in the process, and (iii) responses to problems in its kilns. There is no doubt that the
the process changes introduced to maximise the slightly reducing combustion conditions induced in
whiteness. the burning zone of white cement kilns will
Great efforts are expended to use pure, iron free exacerbate these problems as the volatility of the
raw materials to produce the raw mix for the kiln sulphates in the clinker will be enhanced. In extreme
and the same attention must be paid to the fuels cases this may mean that an alkali bypass needs to
used to fire the kiln. Coal is unsuitable due to the be installed to reduce the recirculating sulphates,
iron content of the ash that will be entrained in the however these bypasses are much less effective in
clinker imparting a grey colour. Traditionally the most removing sulphate than they are with chlorides.
common fuels for white cement kilns have therefore The other main potential source of potential
been natural gas and fuel oil, neither of which have contamination in the white kiln is from the refractory
any ash content. Anecdotally there are stories of used to line the kilns and protect the kiln shell from
purple cement being produced when white kilns the extreme temperatures in the burning zone.
were fired with crude oil or Orimulsion with high Magnesite-chrome based refractories must be
vanadium contents, however these are isolated avoided as chromium compounds impart bright
accounts. In general fuel oil and gas are safe fuels green colours to the clinker. These problems are
for white cement kilns. In the competitive avoided by lining the burning zones of white cement
Mediterranean markets Cemex Espãna and Çimsa kilns with magnesia spinel linings. The high alumina
are firing their white kilns with 100 per cent and insulating refractories used in the other sections
petroleum coke to minimise their thermal energy of the kilns present no problems of contamination of
costs. The new Çimsa line at Mersin includes an SLC- the clinker.
D (separate-line calciner downdraft) from FLS Two principal strategies are employed to
featuring extended residence time of the fuel in the maximise the whiteness of the clinker in kiln. These
calciner and combustion in pure air to promote the are to burn in a slightly reducing atmosphere and
efficient burning of petroleum coke. subsequently to quench cool the clinker. The
The sulphur contents of fuel oil, natural gas and intention of burning in a reducing atmosphere is to
particularly petroleum coke can present a process reduce the traces of iron present in the clinker into
problems in white cement kilns. Due to the high ferrous oxide, FeO, rather than ferric oxide, Fe2O3.

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FeO enters into solid solution in the C3S mineral clinker at the kiln outlet as it falls into the quencher.
meaning that no C4AF is present in white clinker These quenchers are simply inclined water baths
burnt in reducing conditions. The FeO imparts the equipped with a screw conveyor to lift the quenched
characteristic light green colour to white cement clinker out of the bath and onto a metal clinker
clinker. The purpose of quench cooling the clinker is conveyor. As the clinker falling into the water bath is
to freeze the clinker minerals in their high at a temperature in excess of 1200°C massive
temperature forms and prevent any re-oxidation of amounts of super-heated steam are generated
the FeO into Fe2O3 during the cooling of the presenting a considerable safety hazard. This super-
clinker. Various means are used to accomplish these heated steam must be ducted away from the
twin strategies of reductive burning and quench quencher to safeguard the personnel working in this
cooling. These are among the most important area of the kiln. The water flow to the quenchers is
distinguishing features of the technology of white controlled to match the production rate of the kiln,
cement manufacture from the different equipment however there can be occasions when the clinker
suppliers. exiting the quenchers contains up to 15 per cent
In modern kilns a further process modification is moisture, and therefore some mechanism for drying
required because the clinker is burnt in reducing the clinker must be provided to avoid problems of
conditions and then quenched. In a grey cement kiln lump formation in clinker storage.
the combustion air for the main burner and An interesting variant of the bleaching flame has
precalciner is preheated in the cooler raising the been reported from Russia (Zubehin, Moscow, 1979)
temperature of the secondary and tertiary air to in where the clinker is first cooled in a converter gas
excess of 1000°C with the most efficient modern before quenching. The converter gas is produced by
coolers. In a white cement kiln the clinker is quench a combination of natural gas and steam from the
cooled with water meaning that there is insufficient reaction CH4 + H2O _ CO + 3H2, with both the
heat remaining in the clinker to adequately preheat carbon monoxide and hydrogen products of the
the combustion air. Other strategies therefore have reaction being highly reducing and effective in
to be employed to achieve this and these are again converting Fe3+ to Fe2+. White cement factories
key distinguishing aspects of white cement generate an abundance of steam from their
manufacturing technology. quenching systems therefore generating this
In older kilns reductive burning can be achieved converter gas would not present major problems.
by directing a secondary ‘bleaching’ flame onto the Modern kilns employ more sophisticated means
to achieve these
objectives. Recuperators,
Table 26 heat exchangers or hot
air generators are used
Inputs kJ/kg clinker
to preheat the
Thermal energy in fuel 4950
combustion air to above
Sensible heat in feed, fuel, quenching water & air 200
200°C, thereby
TOTAL 5150
stabilising the flame and

Outputs kJ/kg clinker the combustion, and


Heat of clinker formation 1850 helping to minimise the
Preheater exhaust gases 1125 thermal energy
Quenching 1100 consumption of the kiln.
Clinker 160 A key difference from
Dust 75 grey cement kiln
Radiation 840 operation is that this
TOTAL 5150 flow of combustion air

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can be controlled and matched

Courtesy of Aalborg Portland


to the amount of fuel being
burnt on the main burner or
precalciner. With a grey cement
kiln only coarse control of the
flow of secondary and tertiary
air is possible via the main
induced draft fan speed and the
oxygen levels at the kiln inlet
and preheater exit. On a white
kiln the operator is able to fine-
tune the flow of combustion air
and ensure a slight deficiency at
the main burner and therefore a
slightly reducing kiln
atmosphere in the burning
zone. Using a bleaching flame
is therefore no longer required. major advantage of this partial quenching is that a
On kilns fitted with electrostatic precipitators for dryer is no longer required as the residual
de-dusting the ability to operate the main burner in temperature in the clinker is more than sufficient to
reducing conditions can be constrained by the ensure the clinker is completely dry before entering
danger of CO entering the precipitator and the need the clinker storage. The residual heat in the clinker
to switch off the high voltage supply to avoid can also be used to preheat the combustion air for
explosions. On kilns fitted with bag filters for de- the main burner stabilising the flame and reducing
dusting this is not a concern. the fuel consumption of the kiln.
With all white cement kilns it is vital to adjust With all processes some method of preventing
the main burner to burn as close to the nose ring the steam from quenching being drawn into the kiln
and the discharge into the quencher as possible. This has to be provided. If not the flame would be cooled
ensures that there is no cooling zone or lower and the volume of gas to be drawn out of the kiln
transition zone in the kiln and is vital to ensure that would increase. These combined effects would mean
the FeO does not re-oxidise into Fe2O3 while the fuel consumption would rise and the output of
cooling in the kiln. It is reported that if the clinker is the kiln would fall. In the FLS and BSH processes
allowed to cool by 100°C in the kiln before falling steam vents are provided to remove the steam, while
into the quencher then the brightness can be in the Onoda process the steam from the first
reduced by four to five per cent. quencher is ducted to the dryer via de-dusting
The quenching arrangements also vary between cyclones. These ducting systems for super-heated
the kilns from different suppliers. In the Onoda steam are not found in grey cement kilns and are
process the clinker is fully quenched to less than therefore a unique aspect of the white process
100°C by immersion in water baths. In the FLS and requiring particular safety precautions. Care must
BSH processes the clinker is quenched to 600°C by also be taken to insulate the ducts and ensure that
falling through a curtain of water sprays. Subsequent the temperature remains above the dew point of the
cooling of the clinker to less than 200°C is gas. If not, the combination of condensation on the
completed in a grate or rotary cooler. Quench walls of ducts, and the clinker dust carried along
cooling to 600°C is sufficient to ensure that the with the steam, will mean the ducts quickly become
clinker minerals are frozen in their high temperature restricted by coatings with the consistency of
form, and that FeO will not re-oxidise to Fe2O3. A concrete.

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In the Onoda process the preheating of the is a dedicated white kiln with single preheater behind
combustion air is achieved by extracting gas at kiln and SLC-D calciner with associated preheater
700°C from the stage 3 cyclone, which is then and double stage heat exchanger. A rotary cooler is
passed to a two-stage recuperator which preheats used on this kiln, with steam exhaust system.
combustion air to 200°C. This stabilises the flame As a consequence of the low burnability of the
and reduces the thermal energy consumption of the white cement raw mix and quenching the clinker the
process. In the BSH process, as installed at the Saudi thermal energy consumption of a white cement kiln
White factory at Umm Al Ghirban, a heat exchanger is much higher than a grey cement kiln. A typical
is installed in the downcomer to the induced draft heat balance is presented in Table 26.
fan. This preheats the combustion air for the The high burning zone temperatures required in
precalciner. Cooling air from the rotary cooler is a white cement kiln inevitably lead to high kiln shell
dedusted in cyclones and blown to the kiln hood to temperatures and radiation losses. To alleviate this a
provide preheated secondary air for the main burner. two-layer refractory lining can be installed in the
Hot air generators are also installed in both these burning zone with an insulating fireclay backing
combustion air ducts to boost the temperature and against the kiln shell and a working lining of
for start-up situations. magnesia spinel. These two layer linings are more
The new FLS kiln recently commissioned at Sinai complex and time consuming to install and require
White is a four-stage preheater plus calciner, with good workmanship to avoid relative movement
double stage heat exchanger for preheating between the two layers. If this relative movement
combustion air, and grate cooler. The second FLS kiln occurs the much heavier working lining is likely to
at Mersin was commissioned in November 1999 and grind the insulating layer away, leading to the whole
lining collapsing catastrophically. A further
drawback is that the working refractory is
itself insulated from the cooling effects of
the shell and this means that liquids and
gases from the kiln charge penetrate much
more deeply into the lining and can lead
to problems of densification and spalling.
As a consequence of the much higher
thermal energy consumption of a white
cement kiln the specific output of the kiln
is much lower than for a grey cement kiln.
Typical length to diameter ratio for a
modern kiln with preheater is 15:1. When
equipped with a precalciner the specific
output is approximately 50 per cent of a
grey kiln of equivalent dimensions ranging
from 2.5tpd/m3 to 3.0tpd/m3 of the kiln
volume inside the refractory lining. Where
the kiln is not equipped with a precalciner
the specific output falls to between 1.0
and 1.5tpd/m3.
A further consequence of the poor
burnability of the white cement raw mix
and the high thermal energy consumption
of the kiln, is that the burning zone

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temperature is higher, and the volatile cycles which As indicated in the introduction all the elements
build up in the kiln will be more intense than in a of the first row of the transition metals reduce
grey cement kiln. The purity of the raw materials and whiteness when they are incorporated in the clinker.
the normally low alkali content suppresses these However, the effect is not additive when more than
cycles, but in cases where there is higher alkali or one element is present. Traces of titanium can lead
chloride in the raw mix problems of build-up in the to an increase in whiteness in the presence of iron.
preheaters can be expected. The kaolins mined in The explanation of the colouring effects lies in the
the Sinai peninsula contain sufficient chloride to mineralogy and crystal structure of the clinker.
cause these problems and any white cement kilns The colouring effect is determined by the
operating with these kaolins need to bypass a individual metal, the metal-oxygen bond strength
proportion of the kiln exit gases to avoid blockages and coordination number. Each metal has a certain
in the preheaters. colouring potential and this will be higher if the
No discussion of white cement kilns would be metal is in a tetrahedral rather than an octahedral
complete without mention of those kilns that swing coordination site in the crystal. The coordination site
between grey and white cement production. The depends on the strength of the metal-oxygen bond
most famous example is the Çimsa kiln 1 at Mersin, relative to the other metals present. The transition
where a 12-day clean-down is reported to be metals with the strongest metal-oxygen bonds will
necessary when switching from grey to white be in tetrahedral sites and those with the weaker
cement production. The major challenge in designing bonds will be in the octahedral sites. Metal-oxygen
such a swing kiln are the arrangements to quench bond strengths decrease in the order
cool the white clinker and cool the grey clinker with Ti>V>Fe>Mn>Cr. Traces of titanium are beneficial
air in a conventional cooler. The FLS process with because the titanium occupies the tetrahedral
water sprays in the cooler throat to quench the coordination sites forcing the iron to take up
clinker before it falls onto the grate of a Folax cooler octahedral sites in the crystal structure, thereby
are the means used at Mersin. For grey cement reducing the colouring effect of iron. Vanadium has
clinker the water sprays are turned off and the duct the same effect on the coordination state of iron, but
venting the steam from the cooler throat closed to does not improve whiteness because the vanadium
allow the secondary air from the cooler to be drawn itself is more strongly colouring than iron.
into the kiln. The reason for the lower colouring effect of
Other swing kilns get round the problem by not ferrous iron, Fe2+, compared with ferric iron, Fe3+,
quenching the white clinker at all. Inevitably this is also connected to the iron-oxygen bond strengths
detracts from the whiteness of the clinker, which is and the coordination state of the iron in the clinker
not up to international standards. However in mineral crystal structure. The iron-oxygen bond
localised markets such as Australia kilns operated in strength is lower for Fe2+ than Fe3+ due to the
this way successfully produce ‘off-white’ or ‘antique- lower oxidation state. This means that Fe2+ takes up
white’ cement. These can be regarded as octahedral sites in the crystal structure and is less
intermediate products between grey and white colouring, while Fe3+ takes up tetrahedral sites and
cement. is therefore more intensely colouring.
An inevitable consequence of quenching the
white cement clinker is that the clinker structure is Finish grinding
shattered and a high proportion of fineness is After the kiln the potential whiteness of the cement
generated. Clinker from a modern white cement kiln has been determined by the raw mix composition
can often resemble light green sugar. This shattering and the processing in the kiln. The steps to be taken
of the clinker structure also means that the clinker is in finish grinding are to avoid any possible
generally softer than grey cement clinker and easier contamination of the cement which might detract
to grind in the finish mills. from the final colour and some fine tuning to

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maximise the whiteness potential of the


cement.
The white cement clinker is ground
together with gypsum to retard the
hydration of the C3A clinker mineral. Use
of white gypsum and avoiding any
reduction of the whiteness from this
source is the major means to avoid
contamination. Some cement companies
also employ ceramic media in their finish
mills, however most companies are able
to produce bright cement using hard
forged steel media and liners in their
finish mills. kiln and a very low burnability for the raw mix
The only means that the whiteness potential of demanding the addition of other fluxes and
the cement can be maximised is by the fineness of mineralisers. This sulphate resisting white cement is
grinding of the cement. The white clinker is normally unique to Aalborg and has been successfully used as
light green in colour but as it is ground it takes on a a differentiating factor to secure niches in the white
bright white colour, with the finer the grinding the cement market. The applications for a sulphate
brighter the whiteness. White cements are normally resisting white cement are strictly limited as white
ground to above 3600 Blaine for this reason. concrete is not usually used in environments
There is no need to grind the cement to this susceptible to attack by sulphate bearing ground
level of fineness to enhance the compressive waters. However there have been occasions when
strength development as this is inherently architects have specified sulphate resisting white
significantly higher than for grey cement. This is cement for prestige structures which might be
ensured by the very high level of the main strength susceptible to attack by seawater.
developing calcium silicate minerals in white cement.
The typical decorative applications of white cement Quality control
do not demand the high compressive strength that is The quality control regime of a white cement factory
required of cements being used for structural must have the same focus as the special adaptations
concrete. The high strength of white cements is of the grey cement process required for white
therefore a feature that is not adequately recognised cement manufacturing. These being (i) avoiding
or utilised by the market. contamination, and (ii) ensuring that the whiteness
When discussing the hydraulic properties or of the product is maximised in the process.
applications of white cement the unique sulphate Avoiding contamination that might detract from
resisting white cement produced by Aalborg must be the whiteness of the final product is largely a
mentioned. A sulphate resisting white cement must question of continuously monitoring all the inputs to
have an even higher calcium silicate content than the white cement process to ensure that Fe2O3
ordinary white cements, as the C4AF must be content does not rise. Steps must also be taken to
minimised to satisfy the whiteness requirements, and ensure that no exotic transitional metals are
the sulphate resisting specification means that the introduced which might have disproportionate
Al2O3 content must be reduced to ensure the C3A colouring effects on the product. Rigorous testing of
mineral content is less than four per cent. Very low all the raw materials and fuels is the correct way to
Fe2O3 and Al2O3 means that the silica modulus of achieve this.
the sulphate resisting white cement raw mix must In establishing a characteristic Fe2O3 content
rise to around 12. This means virtually no flux in the and whiteness it is important to establish this at a

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level which can be consistently provided to the is made to EN197-1 specifications, normally as pure
market. White cement is used in decorative Portland cement (CEM I) to strength class 42.5 or
applications and a consistent but slightly lower 52.5. CEM II products, with limestone or other
whiteness is much preferable to high but variable suitable fillers, are also produced mainly to strength
whiteness. Where an architect is constructing a classes 32.5 and 42.5.
major prestige project using decorative panels of I According to USA standard ASTM C-150.
white concrete any variation between panels will be Several special features that can be used to
much apparent than a consistent slightly lower enhance product ranges for specific market
overall whiteness. applications include:
Ensuring the whiteness is maximised in the I Sulphate resistance (with low C3A content)
process involves close control of fineness at the raw I High early strength (ASTM Type III or European
and finish grinding stages but is most important in strength class ‘R’)
the kiln. Firing in a slightly reducing atmosphere by I Low alkali content
close control of the combustion air availability at the I Low shrinkage
main burner, ensuring no cooling of the clinker in the I Water repellent and waterproof
kiln and optimal quenching of the clinker, are the I Masonry cement
keys to producing consistent high whiteness. Clinker I Glass fibre reinforced cement (GFRC).
quality control must focus on the whiteness of the For leading white cement producers, it is
clinker and the burning of the kiln must make this important that products are manufactured according
the first priority. to internationally recognised quality and
Other aspects of quality control such as raw mix environmental systems – EN 9002 and EN 14001.
proportioning and blending and control of the
hydraulic performance of the cement do not differ
from the techniques applied for grey cement.

Grinding aids and additives


The same range of additives used for grey cement
can be used in white cement to enhance grinding
efficiency and product performance.
The main purpose of usage is to have a
grinding aid effect to:
I increase mill output
I lower production costs (lower kWh/t, etc)
I improve flowability, reduce packset
However, there are a number of cases where
there are other special needs and applications:
I increase in early strength
I increase in all strengths
I increase in filler content
I longer set time
I reduced false/flash set behaviour.

Standards and specifications


White cement is made to the same national
standard specifications as grey cement:
I According to European standards white cement

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Appendices

Appendix I
Production base by
region and country

Appendix II
Consumption by region
and country

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Appendix I - Production base by region


Country Plant Company (ownership) Process 2002 Est 2002 Est
Capacity Production
(000tpa) (000t)
indep = independent
govt = government
ASIA
Bangladesh Jessore Nitol (indep) Grinding 20 0
Bangladesh Nitol Nitol (indep) Grinding 40 20
India Nagaur JK White (JK Group) Dry 300 190
India Rajashree Nagar Grasim White (Grasim) Dry 400 280
Indonesia Citeureup PT Indocement Dry 200 130
(Heidelberg)
Japan Kitakyushu Onoda (Taiheiyo) Dry 300 80
Malaysia Perak RCI (Aalborg) Dry 250 60
Pakistan Bholari Anwarzaib (indep) Dry 50 45
Pakistan Iskanderabad Maple Leaf (indep) Wet 36 36
South Korea Chongju Union Corp (indep) Dry 170 100
Taiwan Tung Shan Taiwan Oil (indep) Dry 20 1
Thailand Saraburi Universal (indep) Dry 70 60
Thailand Somkiat Siam White (Siam C.) Dry 140 140
Vietnam Haiphong National Cement (govt) 80 70
Vietnam Unknown National Cement (govt) 100 80
Subtotal 2176 1292

China Anqing, Anhui Dry 100


China Chichou Julong, Anhui Dry 80
China Chongqing Tenghui, Chongqing Dry 30
China Chongqing Feixue, Chongqing Dry 20
China Wuping White, Fujian Dry 50
China Daxinshan, Guangdong Dry 50
China Guangzhou Huihua, Guangdong Dry 30
China Shenzhen Dapeng, Guangdong Dry 30
China Guangxi Heng, Guangxi Huang Dry 250
China Baoding Deyuan, Hebei Dry 80
China Mudanjiang Duocai, Heilongjiang Dry 35
China Hebei Xinghua, Hubei Dry 80
China Hubei Hongqi, Hubei Dry 22
China Hunan Loudi, Hunan Dry 30
China Nanjing Yinjia, Jiangsu Dry 150
China Suzhou Guanghua, Jiangsu Dry 100
China Nanjing Kunyuan, Jiangsu Dry 100
China Jiangxi Fenyi, Jiangxi Dry 50
China Yejin White, Jiangxi Dry 300
China Jiangxi Shanggao, Jiangxi Dry 15
China Jiangxi Xinfeng, Jiangxi Dry 15
China Chifeng Danfeng, Neimenggu Dry 60

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Country Plant Company (ownership) Process 2002 Est 2002 Est


Capacity Production
(000tpa) (000t)
China Ningxia Shizuishan, Ninxsia Dry 30
China Zibuo Yunhe, Shandong Dry 90
China Zhaoyuan Jinhua, Shangdong Dry 50
China Wendeng Dafang, Shangdong Dry 40
China Luoping City, Shangdong Dry 30
China Shanghai White, Shanghai City Dry 80
China Shanghai Baolong, Shanghai City Dry 50
China Licheng Zhenhua, Shangxi Dry 80
China Shan’xi Yao, Shan’xi Dry 30
China Guanghan, Sichuan Dry 50
China Xinjiang Tunhe, Xinjiang Dry 50
China Kunming, Yunnan Dry 30
China Yuyao Zhenxiang, Zhejiang Dry 50
China Changxing Huxing, Zhejiang Dry 40
China Changxing Xingming, Zhejiang Dry 30
China Zhejiang Lanxi, Zhejiang Dry 15
China Unspecified others - 70 plants 400
2652 1500
China Unlicensed plant 1500 1200
Subtotal 4152 2700
EUROPE
Belgium Harmignies CBR (HeidelbergCement) Wet 200
235
Bulgaria Devnya Italcementi Dry 50 3
Denmark Rørdal Aalborg Wet 820 575
France Le Teil Lafarge Dry 280 270
France Cruas Calcia (Italcementi) Dry 250 230
Germany Amoneburg Dyckerhoff Dry 75 75
Italy Civitavecchia Italcementi Grinding 100 0
Italy Ghigiano Colacem (indep) Dry 100 90
Italy Rezzato Italcementi Semi-dry 250 285
Italy Tavernola Lafarge Grinding 80 75
Poland Wejherowo Holcim Wet 40 0
Portugal Pataias Secil (indep) Semi-dry 110 98
Romania Turda Holcim Dry 100 60
Russia Shcurovsky Alfa (Holcim) Dry 100 60
Slovakia Rozhnik Holcim Dry 150 90
Spain Sagunto Asland (Lafarge) Dry 150 90
Spain Villanova Valenciana (Cemex) Dry 100 120
Spain Tudela Veguin SA Tudela Veguin (ind) Wet 200 130
Spain Buñol Valenciana (Cemex) Dry 310 250
Spain El Alto Cementos Portland (ind) Wet 280
276
Spain San Vicente Valenciana (Cemex) Dry 454 380
Subtotal 4149 3389

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Country Plant Company (ownership) Process 2002 Est 2002 Est


Capacity Production
(000tpa) (000t)

MEDITERRANEAN
Egypt Cairo Asec-Helwan (indep) Wet 90 50
Egypt El Menya Asec-Helwan (indep) Dry 220 180
Egypt Sinai Sinai White (Aalborg) Dry 410 200
Greece Volos Heracles (Lafarge) Dry 90 60
Greece Elefsis Titan Dry 130 110
Lebanon Chekka Société Libanais Dry 155 80
(Holcim)
Morocco Bouskoura Lafarge Grinding 80 60
Tunisia Sotacib Sotacib (govt) Dry 200 248
Turkey Adana Adana (Oyak) Dry 60 40
Turkey Trakya Set (Italcementi) Wet 90 70
Turkey Mersin Çimsa (Sabanci) Dry 1100 580
Subtotal 2625 1678

MIDDLE EAST
Iran Abali Shemal (indep) Wet 70 60
Iran Benvid Benvid (indep) Dry 180 40
Iran Neyriz Neyriz (indep) Dry 150 98
Iran Saveh Saveh (indep) Dry 350 230
Iran Uremieh Uremieh (indep) Dry 180 135
Iraq Fluja Iraqi Cement (govt) Dry 290 0
Jordan Khaldeya Arab Company for Dry 116 113
Cement (indep)
Kuwait Shuaiba Kuwait Cement (indep) Grinding 190 80
Saudi Arabia Al-Muzahimiyah Saudi White (indep) Dry 210 153
UAE Ras-Al-Khaimah RAK White (indep) Dry 450 380
Subtotal 21861289

NORTH AMERICA
Canada Woodstock Federal White (indep) Dry 500 300
USA York, PA Lehigh White (Cemex, Wet 100 90
HeidelbergCement,
Aalborg)
USA Waco, TX Lehigh White (Cemex, Wet 90 95
HeidelbergCem, Aalborg)
USA Crestmore, CA Riverside (TXI) Dry 110 100
Subtotal 800 585

LATIN AMERICA
Bolivia Emisa Soboce (indep) Dry 10 3
Brazil Pedro Leopoldo Camargo Correa (indep) Dry 110 40
Brazil Iraja Votorantim Dry 80 75
Colombia Bogota Hercules (indep) Wet 30 0

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Country Plant Company (ownership) Process 2002 Est 2002 Est


Capacity Production
(000tpa) (000t)

Colombia Puerto Nare Cementos del Nare Wet 250 180


(Grupo Argos)
Cuba Siguaney Cementos Cubanos Wet 100 30
(govt)
Dominican Rep Santo Domingo HDCB (Cemex) Grinding 28 15
Mexico Ciudad Valles Cemex Dry 165 160
Mexico Lagunas La Cruz Azul (indep) Ddry 120 100
Mexico Monterrey Cemex Dry 100 100
Mexico Tolteca Cemex Dry 190 185
Mexico Vito CP Blanc de Mex Dry 70 70
(Lafarge)
Peru Lima Agregados Calcareos Wet 25 10
(indep)
Uruguay Nacional de Cementos Wet 10 8
(indep)
Venezuela Venezolana Venezolana (Cemex) Wet 75 70
Subtotal 1363 1046

TOTAL 17,451 11,979

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Appendix II - Consumption by region


Country Population Grey consumption White consumption
2002 Total Per capita Total Per capita % of grey
(millions) (Mta) (kg) (000t) (kg)

WESTERN EUROPE
Austria 8.100 4.200 519 25 3.1 0.60
Belgium 10.300 5.450 529 70 6.8 1.28
Denmark 5.400 1.400 259 55 10.2 3.93
Finland 5.200 1.530 294 20 3.8 1.31
France 59.500 20.400 343 480 8.1 2.35
Germany 82.400 28.650 348 275 3.3 0.96
Iceland 0.300 0.130 433 2 6.7 1.54
Ireland 3.800 4.350 1145 15 3.9 0.34
Italy 58.100 40.250 693 400 6.9 0.99
Luxembourg 0.500 0.530 1060 5 10.0 0.94
Malta 0.400 na 10 25.0
Netherlands 16.100 5.350 332 70 4.3 1.31
Norway 4.500 1.270 282 40 8.9 3.15
Portugal 10.400 10.500 1010 105 10.1 1.00
Spain 41.300 44.250 1071 1050 25.4 2.37
Sweden 8.900 1.600 180 50 5.6 3.13
Switzerland 7.300 4.075 558 30 4.1 0.74
UK 60.400 14.350 238 115 1.9 0.80
Subtotal 382.900 188.285 492 2817 7.4 1.50

CENTRAL EUROPE
Albania 3.100 1.650 532 10 3.2 0.61
Bosnia-Herzegovina3.400 1.650 485 10 2.9 0.61
Bulgaria 7.800 1.550 199 15 1.9 0.97
Croatia 4.300 2.100 488 10 2.3 0.48
Czech Republic 10.300 3.650 354 30 2.9 0.82
Hungary 10.100 3.900 386 30 3.0 0.77
Macedonia 2.000 0.500 250 3 1.5 0.60
Poland 38.600 11.250 291 60 1.6 0.53
Romania 22.400 4.600 205 40 1.8 0.87
Slovakia 5.400 1.650 306 20 3.7 1.21
Slovenia 2.000 1.300 650 10 5.0 0.77
Yugoslavia 10.700 2.500 234 5 0.5 0.20
Subtotal 120.100 36.300 302 243 2.0 0.67

EASTERN EUROPE
Armenia 3.800 0.260 68 1 0.3 0.38
Azerbaijan 8.200 1.100 134 3 0.4 0.27
Belarus 9.900 1.500 152 5 0.5 0.33
Estonia 1.400 0.290 207 1 0.7 0.34

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Country Population Grey consumption White consumption


2002 Total Per capita Total Per capita % of grey
(millions) (Mta) (kg) (000t) (kg)

Georgia 4.400 0.380 86 1 0.2 0.26


Kazakhstan 14.800 2.315 156 5 0.3 0.22
Kyrgyzstan 5.000 0.320 64 0 0.0 0.00
Latvia 2.300 0.305 133 1 0.4 0.33
Lithuania 3.500 0.420 120 1 0.3 0.24
Moldova 4.300 0.480 112 2 0.5 0.42
Russia 143.500 35.000 244 105 0.7 0.30
Tajikistan 6.300 na 0 0.0
Turkmenistan 5.600 0.900 161 2 0.4 0.22
Ukraine 48.200 5.750 119 10 0.2 0.17
Uzbekistan 25.400 3.200 126 3 0.1 0.09
Subtotal 286.600 52.220 182 140 0.5 0.27

TOTAL EUROPE 789.600 276.805 351 3200 4.1 1.16

MEDITERRANEAN
Algeria 31.400 10.000 318 150 4.8 1.50
Egypt 71.200 27.400 385 280 3.9 1.02
Libya 5.400 3.300 611 60 11.1 1.82
Morocco 29.700 8.550 288 130 4.4 1.52
Tunisia 9.800 4.550 464 125 12.8 2.75
Cyprus 0.900 1.190 1322 10 11.1 0.84
Turkey 67.300 25.000 371 350 5.2 1.40
Greece 11.000 10.200 927 120 10.9 1.18
Israel 6.600 4.470 677 130 19.7 2.91
Lebanon 4.300 2.500 581 50 11.6 2.00
Subtotal 237.600 97.160 409 1405 5.9 1.45

AFRICA - excl North Africa


Angola 12.700 0.700 55 2 0.2 0.29
Benin 6.600 0.610 92 1 0.2 0.16
Botswana 1.600 0.510 319 2 1.3 0.39
Burkina Faso 12.600 0.300 24 1 0.1 0.33
Burundi 6.700 0.050 7 0 0.0 0.00
Cameroon 16.200 0.900 56 5 0.3 0.56
Cape Verde 0.500 0.170 340 2 4.0 1.18
CAF 3.600 na 2 0.6
Chad 9.000 na 1 0.1
Comoros 0.600 0.045 75 1 1.7 2.22
Congo 3.200 0.310 97 2 0.6 0.65
Congo (DemRep)55.200 0.190 3 1 0.0 0.53
Djibouti 0.700 0.080 114 0 0.0 0.00
Equat. Guinea 0.500 0.080 160 0 0.0 0.00
Eritrea 4.500 0.170 38 0 0.0 0.00

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Country Population Grey consumption White consumption


2002 Total Per capita Total Per capita % of grey
(millions) (Mta) (kg) (000t) (kg)

Ethiopia 67.700 1.000 15 5 0.1 0.50


Gabon 1.200 0.259 216 4 3.3 1.54
Gambia 1.500 0.115 77 1 0.7 0.87
Ghana 20.200 1.850 92 5 0.2 0.27
Guinea 8.400 0.420 50 2 0.2 0.48
Guinea-Bissau 1.300 na 0 0.0
Ivory Coast 16.800 0.960 57 1 0.1 0.10
Kenya 31.100 1.120 36 5 0.2 0.45
Lesotho 2.200 na 0 0.0
Liberia 3.300 0.140 42 1 0.3 0.71
Madagascar 16.900 0.280 17 5 0.3 1.79
Malawi 10.900 0.200 18 2 0.2 1.00
Maldives 0.300 na 4 13.3
Mali 11.300 0.650 58 1 0.1 0.15
Mauritania 2.600 0.200 77 1 0.4 0.50
Mauritius 1.200 0.680 567 10 8.3 1.47
Mozambique 19.600 0.540 28 1 0.1 0.19
Namibia 1.800 na 1 0.6
Niger 11.600 0.120 10 1 0.1 0.83
Nigeria 129.900 7.500 58 30 0.2 0.40
Reunion 0.700 na 5 7.1
Rwanda 7.400 0.180 24 0 0.0 0.00
Senegal 9.900 1.525 154 10 1.0 0.66
Seychelles 0.100 0.045 450 2 20.0 4.44
Sierra Leone 5.600 0.140 25 1 0.2 0.71
Somalia 7.800 0.100 13 0 0.0 0.00
South Africa 43.600 8.512 195 20 0.5 0.23
Sudan 32.600 0.840 26 1 0.0 0.12
Swaziland 1.100 0.200 182 1 0.9 0.50
Tanzania 37.200 0.880 24 2 0.1 0.23
Togo 5.300 0.520 98 1 0.2 0.19
Uganda 24.700 0.540 22 1 0.0 0.19
Zambia 10.000 0.300 30 1 0.1 0.33
Zimbabwe 12.300 0.650 53 1 0.1 0.15
Subtotal 692.300 34.581 50 146 0.2 0.42

MIDDLE EAST
Bahrain 0.700 0.500 714 20 28.6 4.00
Iran 65.600 25.100 383 420 6.4 1.67
Iraq 23.600 6.600 280 50 2.1 0.76
Jordan 5.300 2.500 472 67 12.6 2.68
Kuwait 2.300 2.750 1196 60 26.1 2.18
Oman 2.600 1.635 629 30 11.5 1.83
Palestine 3.500 1.450 414 10 2.9 0.69

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Country Population Grey consumption White consumption


2002 Total Per capita Total Per capita % of grey
(millions) (Mta) (kg) (000t) (kg)

Qatar 0.600 1.150 1917 20 33.3 1.74


Saudi Arabia 24.000 18.600 775 300 12.5 1.61
Syria 17.200 4.900 285 110 6.4 2.24
UAE 3.500 6.000 1714 120 34.3 2.00
Yemen 18.600 1.930 104 20 1.1 1.04
Subtotal 167.500 73.115 437 1,227 7.3 1.68

OCEANIA
Australia 19.700 7.500 381 15 0.8 0.20
Fiji 0.900 0.080 89 2 2.2 2.50
French Polynesia 0.200 na 0 0.0
New Zealand 3.900 1.000 256 5 1.3 0.50
P. New Guinea 5.000 na 1 0.2
Solomon Islands 0.500 0.180 360 0 0.0 0.00
Subtotal 30.200 8.760 290 23 0.8 0.26

INDIAN SUBCONTINENT
Afghanistan 27.800 0.850 31 5 0.2 0.59
Bangladesh 133.600 5.600 42 40 0.3 0.71
Bhutan 0.900 na 0 0.0
India 1049.500 99.010 94 450 0.4 0.45
Myanmar 49.000 na 5 0.1
Nepal 23.900 na 2 0.1
Pakistan 143.500 10.310 72 75 0.5 0.73
Sri Lanka 18.900 2.620 139 10 0.5 0.38
Subtotal 1447.100 118.390 82 587 0.4 0.50

NORTH ASIA
Japan 127.400 65.000 510 80 0.6 0.12
N. Korea 23.200 5.250 226 5 0.2 0.10
S. Korea 48.400 54.300 1122 80 1.7 0.15
Macau SAR 0.400 na 0 0.0
Mongolia 2.400 0.200 83 1 0.4 0.50
Hong Kong SAR 6.800 3.750 551 20 2.9 0.53
Taiwan 22.500 16.000 711 20 0.9 0.13
Subtotal 231.100 144.500 625 206 0.9 0.14

SOUTH ASIA
Brunei 0.400 0.240 600 0 0.0 0.00
Cambodia 12.300 0.600 49 1 0.1 0.17
East Timor 0.800 0.070 88 0 0.0 0.00
Indonesia 217.000 27.100 125 80 0.4 0.30
Laos 5.500 1.140 207 1 0.2 0.09
Malaysia 24.400 13.000 533 40 1.6 0.31

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Country Population Grey consumption White consumption


2002 Total Per capita Total Per capita % of grey
(millions) (Mta) (kg) (000t) (kg)

Philippines 80.000 10.880 136 30 0.4 0.28


Singapore 4.200 3.800 905 20 4.8 0.53
Thailand 62.600 22.610 361 90 1.4 0.40
Vietnam 79.700 18.000 226 150 1.9 0.83
Subtotal 486.900 97.440 200 412 0.8 0.42

Subtotal Asia (excl China)


2195.300 369.090 168 1228 0.6 0.33

China 1280.700 640.000 500 2,600 2.0 0.41

NORTH AMERICA
Canada 31.300 8.620 275 100 3.2 1.16
USA 287.400 111.258 387 1,200 4.2 1.08
Subtotal 318.700 119.878 376 1300 4.1 1.08

LATIN AMERICA
Argentina 36.500 3.824 105 40 1.1 1.05
Belize 0.300 0.080 267 1 3.3 1.25
Bolivia 8.800 1.100 125 10 1.1 0.91
Brazil 173.800 39.500 227 70 0.4 0.18
Caribbean 21.300 4.200 197 50 2.3 1.19
Chile 15.600 3.650 234 30 1.9 0.82
Colombia 43.800 5.300 121 100 2.3 1.89
Costa Rica 3.900 1.175 301 10 2.6 0.85
Cuba 11.300 1.050 93 20 1.8 1.90
Ecuador 13.000 3.050 235 10 0.8 0.33
El Salvador 6.600 1.273 193 5 0.8 0.39
Guatemala 12.100 1.810 150 2 0.2 0.11
Guyana 0.800 na 0.0
Honduras 6.700 1.360 203 2 0.3 0.15
Mexico 101.700 29.000 285 380 3.7 1.31
Nicaragua 5.400 0.640 119 2 0.4 0.31
Panama 2.900 0.8 276 3 1.0 0.38
Paraguay 6.000 0.570 95 2 0.3 0.35
Peru 26.700 3.699 139 10 0.4 0.27
Puerto Rico 3.900 1.700 436 5 1.3 0.29
Suriname 0.400 na 0 0.0
Uruguay 3.400 0.620 182 6 1.8 0.97
Venezuela 25.100 3.700 147 25 1.0 0.68
Subtotal 530.000 108.101 204 783 1.5 0.72

TOTAL 6,211.700 1,718.730 277 11,889 1.9 0.69

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Notes

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Notes

98
CONTENTS

7 Introduction

9 Executive summary

13 World production base

39 World producers

49 World consumption

61 Marketing & promotion

65 Trading

69 Global industry outlook

71 White cement technology

87 Appendices

EDITORIAL
Managing Editor: David Hargreaves
Editor: Chris Blasdale
Technical Editor: Dr Michael Clark
Production Editor: Muriel Bal

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