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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Сибирский федеральный университет

SCREW PILES

Учебно-методическое пособие

Электронное издание

Красноярск
СФУ
2017
УДК 624.154.5(07)
ББК 38.582.5-04я73
S 41

Составители: Преснов Олег Михайлович.

S 41 Screw piles: Учебно-методическое пособие [Электронный ресурс] /


сост.: О.М. Преснов. – Электрон. дан. – Красноярск: Сиб. федер. ун-т,
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В учебно-методическом пособии приведены основные сведения о винтовых


сваях, их видах, применении, методах их установки, а так же примеры расчета в
вечномерзлых и талых грунтах.
Предназначено для студентов направления 08.03.01 «Строительство».
 
 
УДК 624.154.5(07)
ББК 38.582.5-04я73

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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

1. CLASSIFICATION OF SCREW PILES 4


1.1. General Information 4
1.2. Design features of screw piles and scope of application thereof 4
2. SCREW PILES IN THAWED SOILS 10
2.1. Types of thawed soils 10
2.2. Design of a screw pile 10
3. SCREW PILES IN PERMAFROST SOILS 12
3.1. Types of permafrost soils 12
3.2. Design of a screw pile 12
4. INSTALLATION OF SCREW PILES 13
4.1. Types of screw-piled foundation installation 13
4.2. Machines and equipment for screw piles lowering 15
4.3. Types of protective measures 17
5. BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR DESIGNING SCREW PILES 19
5.1. General provisions 19
5.2. Design of screw piles in thawed soils for bearing capacity 19
5.2.1. Design of the screw pile for pressure load 20
5.2.2. Design of the screw pile for pulling load 21
5.2.3. Design of bearing capacity of the screw piles for the material 22
5.3. Design of screw piles in permafrost soils for bearing capacity 22
5.3.1. Design of a screw pile in permafrost soils for pulling load (on
the basis of principle I with preservation of permafrost) 23
5.3.2. Design of the screw pile in permafrost soils for pulling force 24
5.4. The task for own designing a screw pile for bearing capacity 25
GLOSSARY 26
LIST OF REFERENCES 27
Appendix 1 28
Appendix 2 29
Appendix 3 30


 
1. CLASSIFICATION OF SCREW PILES
1.1. General Information

In case of loose ground-surface layers not having sufficient bearing capacity to


serve as the basis for shallow foundations of a building or structure being designed,
there arises a need to transfer the load to more firm soils located at a certain depth. In
these cases, most often pile foundations are applied.
A pile is a framed element of construction dived into the ground or formed in
the borehole to transfer load from the structure to the ground.
Screw-piled foundation is a type of foundation that is constructed on the basis
of screw piles. Screw-end piles are screwed into the ground, and through this screw a
pile bears the loads as the screw depth is below the frost line, which means protection
from soil frost heaving, and a pile does not heaves out of soil.
Screw-piled foundations are used for construction at the “problem” sites. For
example, in the cases of a high level of groundwater or when at negative temperatures
soil becomes heaving. Such features are peculiar to clay soils, dust and fine sands that
are characterized by high water saturation. Cold actively affects heaving soil layers
that entails ascent thereof.
If pressure from the foundation is distributed lower than the level of frost
heaving force, a building will be exposed to foundation heaving vertically upwards.
In spring, with positive temperatures, soil is compacting that results in subsidence of
a building or structure. More often than not, subsidence is uneven, and as a result
cracks are formed in the building structure. It should also be borne in mind that
construction of foundations at a level below the designed depth of freezing still does
not guarantee protection against frost heaving. Light buildings and structures are
particularly susceptible to this phenomenon.
Solution to this problem is to use screw structures. They are used in loose,
heaving soils, areas and sites of peat soils, as well as on deep-freezing foundations.
Screw-piled foundation in peat soils is the only possibility to guarantee a long service
life for the future building.
Construction of screw-piled foundations guarantees minimum time, effort and
money spending.

1.2. Design features of screw piles and scope of application thereof

In terms of its design a screw pile is a steel pipe with welded blades that
provide simple drilling into the ground. At the top of the pipe there is a head to which
the object being constructed is fastened. A screw pile is mounted by screwing into
the ground to the designed depth (at least 1.5 m). If underground water, layers of peat
or loose soils lie quite deep, a pile is spliced.
Advantage of the splicing technology is that this solution can be used until the
unsuitable soil layer ends. Upon screwing completion, piles are cut in accordance


 
with the design calculations, and the piling shafts are further concreted up to the
cutting level.
Piles have good load-bearing abilities, which allow it to use them in a variety
of industries. To construct screw-piled foundations, two types of screw piles are used:
for thawed and permafrost soils (Table 1). They may be with a cast or welded shoes.
There is a difference between screw piles for permafrost soils and piles used in
thawed soils. In thawed soils, there are used broad-bladed anchors with pointed shoe
and a blade and pile shaft diameters ratio of > 1.5. In permafrost soils, there are used
narrow-bladed anchors with a blade and pile shaft diameters ratio of < 1.5.
Modification of piles for permafrost soils represents a lower edge of the shaft
made in the form of direct bevel or in the form of serration. A screw blade located
over the lower edge of the pipe and made from the sheet metal is welded directly to
the shaft.
In terms of modification and structure of the shoes, piles for thawed soils are
divided into single-blade, multi-blade and multi-spiral (Table 2).
Single-blade pile, designed by the Soviet designer Victor Zhelezkov, is an
obsolete type; however, it is used by most manufacturers in Russia. It is
recommended to be used only for light structures and non-load-bearing walls.
Multi-blade with two or more blades is used to improve compression and
pulling bearing capacity by at least 50 % and improve perception of horizontal loads,
constant width blade sits on the pile’s shaft. It is used for critical units of structures,
load-bearing walls, fences, piers, hangars, buildings of over 2 floors, for
constructions built on the slopes, as well as in strengthening slopes.
Multi-spiral pile consists of a pile shaft and cast shoe with a spiral blade.
Connection of the shaft with the shoe is welded. There also exist screw piles with
spiral winding along the pile’s shaft with not less than 30 % of the total length.
Increased number of small blades along the shaft (a good example is a construction
self-tapping screw) can significantly increase the bearing capacity of a screw anchor,
at the same time there is no need to increase the pipe diameter or its wall thickness.
Typically, these piles have hot-dip galvanization, which increases the service life of
metal by several times.
Screw supports are supplied of different diameters, ranging from 57 mm and
ending with section of 325 mm. A certain pile diameter is intended for use when
installing different foundations.
For fences.
For construction of foundations for fences there are used screw supports with
diameters of 57 mm and 76 mm. In the first case, wire-mesh fences are installed on
piles, and in the second case profiled constructions are applied. Bearing capacity of
these piles is about 1-3 tons. Wall thickness shall not be less than 2.5 mm.


 
Table 1
Typpes of screw
w piles by feeatures of manufacture
m e

Wiith cast shoee / С литым


м наконечн
ником With welded shooe / Со свар
рным
наконеччником
No. Purpose Н
Назначение
е Imaage Purpose Назначчение Image
For flooded
f Для For stony Для камеенистых
and thawed ообводненныхх soils
s (double грун
нтов
s
soils и талых blades for (двой
йные
(averrage size грунтов maximum лопастти для
of blades
b (среднего reliable максиммально
guaraanteeing размера coupling надежжного
e
easy лопасти, with
w the soil сцеплеения с
peneetration гаарантирующ щ and грунттом и
1 intto the ие легкое preventing предотврращение
grround п
проникновен н pile
p warping) перекосса сваи)
withhout the ие в грунт беез
rissk of риска его
loossening р
разрыхления я)
theereof)

For
F Для For
F low-rise Длля
perm
mafrost в
вечномерзлы ы construction
c малоэтаажного
soilss (small х грунтов with open- строителльства c
size of
o blades (лопасти type shoe наконеччником
for fast н
небольшого о (sstandard pilee открытоого типа
inclussion into р
размера дляя with large (стандаартная
the ground
g быстрого blades,
b ideal свая, иммеющая
withhout the введения в for normal круппные
2 rissk of грунт без soils, лопаасти,
warrping); риска provides veryy отли
ично
перекоса); reliable
r shoe подходдит для
  faastening intoo обыччных
the
t ground) грунтов,
обеспеччивает
очень наадежное
закреппление
наконеччника в
грун
нте)
For low-rise
l Для For
F low-rise Длля
consttruction ммалоэтажногго construction
c малоэтаажного
(standdard pile строительств
с в with
w closed- строителльства с
withh large а type shoe наконеччником
bladees, ideal (стандартнаяя (sstandard pilee закрытоого типа
for normal
n свая, with large (стандаартная
sooils) имеющая blades, свая, им
меющая
3 крупные suitable for круппные
лопасти, any soils) лопаасти,
отлично подходдит для
п
подходит дляя любых ггрунтов)
обычных
грунтов)


 
Table 2
Tyypes of screw
w piles on modification
m n and structture of the shoe

Naame/ Назван ние


Single-bblade/ Одноолопастнаяя Multi-bblade with two
t or moree Multi-spiral pile/
p
bladess/ Многоло опастная с Мнооговитковаяя свая
двумяя и более лопастями

For open buildings.


Piles with a diameterr of 89 mm m are in ntended forfo foundaation of liight openn
buildingss: terraces, porches, brick fennces or decking.
d W beariing capaciity of 3-55
With
tons, wall thickness of such piles
p is 3 mm
m and ofo blades – 4 mm.
For light weight woodden buildinngs.
Hoouses madde of luumber, fraame (inclluding metal) m or logs, as well ass
constructtions of aeerated conccrete blocks are buiilt on piless with a diiameter off 108 mm.
Supports with wall thickneess of 3 mm m and 4 mm blaades are ccapable of o bearingg
maximum m load of 5-8
5 tons.
For construcction of heeavy-weighht houses..
Wiith wall thhickness of
o 4 mm and 5 mm m blades, 133 mm diameterr piles aree
intended for casting of founddation for construction of heaavy-weighht houses. Buildingss
of brick, clay, aeraated concrrete blocks, logs or gas silicaate are buiilt on supp ports withh
maximum m load of 5-8
5 tons.
For industriaal construuction.
Fouundation supports with a diiameter off 159, 219 and 3225 mm aree used inn
industry for constrruction off hangars,, towers, etc. Theyy are capaable of beearing thee
weight off 8-11 tons.


 
Various threads of piles has effect not only on exterior of the construction but
also on its bearing capacity. The most expensive and reliable are supports with two
blades. Their distinctive technical characteristics are:
• large maximum load;
• possibility of pressure distribution;
• possibility of application in any soils.
Bearing capacity of a screw pile is the maximum load that all the piles can
bear, as an overall construction, as well as soils without losing their functional
qualities. It primarily depends on the type of soil and design features of the pile itself.
Averages of bearing capacity of some types of screw piles are given in Table 3.

Table 3

Screw pile bearing capacity, kN / Несущая


Тип грунта
способность винтовой сваи, кН
Soil type VSG-1 73/250 VSG-1 89/300
solid/ medium-solid solid/ medium-solid
плотный ср. плотн / плотный ср. плотн /
Coarse gravelly Крупный
sand/ гравелистый песок 63.7 58.8 91.8 84.7
Medium coarse Песок средней
sand крупности 58.8 53.9 84.7 77.7
Fine slightly wet Мелкий маловлажный
sand песок 24.5 19.6 35.3 28.2
Fine moisture- Мелкий песок,
saturated sand насыщенный влагой 14.7 98.1 21.2 14.1
Dry sandy loam Супеси сухие 24.5 19.6 35.3 28.2
Moisture-
saturated sandy Супеси, насыщенные
loam влагой 14.7 98.1 21.2 14.1
Dry clay loam Суглинки сухие 19.6 14.7 28.2 21.2
Moisture-
saturated clay Суглинки,
loam насыщенные влагой 14.7 49.1 21.2 70.7
Dry clay Глины сухие 29.4 12.2 42.3 17.6
Moisture- Глины, насыщенные
saturated clay влагой 19.6 49.1 28.2 70.7

Screw piles have relatively small smooth lateral surface, located mainly in the
soil loosened by the pile’s screw. Such piles have both advantages and disadvantages.
Analysis of screw piles is given in Table 4.


 
Table 4

Advantages Достоинства Disadvantages Недостатки


1 1 2 2
1 Quick installation of 1 Быстрая 1 Probability of 1 Вероятность
the foundation. A установка damage when повреждения при
facility is handed over фундамента. installed in stony soilустановке в
by 15-30 % quicker Объект сдается на (scratches on каменистом грунте
than that with a 15-30 % быстрее, protective layer, (царапины защитного
concrete foundation. чем с бетонным probability of слоя, вероятность
2 Possibility to use in фундаментом. corrosion). The most возникновения
marshy soils, soils with 2 Возможность effective way to коррозии). Самый
high groundwater level, использовать на protect against эффективный способ
collapsing soils. болотистых corrosion is to защиты от коррозии –
грунтах, грунтах с increase the pile and увеличение толщины
высоким уровнем blade wall thickness стенки сваи и лопасти в
подземных вод, depending on the зависимости от
просадочных required service life необходимого срока
грунтах. службы
3 Possibility to 3 Возможность 2 High probability of 2 Высокая вероятность
completely abandon полностью corrosion processes возникновения
earthmoving operations отказаться от in presence of stray коррозионных
and not to smooth the земляных работ и currents in the soil. процессов при
site. не выравнивать 3 Screw piles are наличии блуждающих
4 Possibility to perform участок. often produced by токов в грунте.
work in immediate 4 Возможность rule of thumb, which 3 Винтовые сваи
proximity to проведения работ в leads to serious нередко производятся
underground непосредственной decline in the quality кустарным способом,
utilities, trees or in близости к and reliability. 4 что приводит к
dense urban areas. подземным Improper серьезному снижению
5 Immediately after коммуникациям, execution of welds качества и надежности.
screwing screw piles деревьям или в on 4 Ненадлежащее
are ready to accept the условиях плотной low-cost equipment выполнение сварных
full design городской leads to deformation соединений на
load. застройки. of the shoes or дешёвом оборудовании
6 Engineering networks 5 Винтовые сваи separation of blades приводит к деформации
can be designed сразу после when screwing into наконечников или
concurrently with завинчивания the soil. отрыву лопастей при
construction of the готовы к 5 Probability of завинчивании в грунт.
building. восприятию deviation from 5 Вероятность
7 Work can be полной проектной design calculations отклонения от
performed at any time нагрузки. in case of self- проектных расчётов в
of the year. 6 Инженерные installation of piles, случае
8 High maintainability. коммуникации or if the work is самостоятельной
9 Possibility to reuse можно performed by low- установки свай, или
screw piles. проектировать skilled team. если работы
10 No vibration when параллельно со 6 The need to производит
lowering. строительством monitor the quality низкоквалифицированн
 


 
Table 4 (continued)
Advantages Достоинства Disadvantages Недостатки
1 1 2 2
11 All work, if дома. of welds, e.g. using ая бригада.
necessary, can be 7 Работы можно ultrasound or 6 Необходимость
performed manually. выполнять в любое radiography. проведения контроля
время года. качества выполнения
8 Высокая сварных швов,
ремонтопригодность. например, при помощи
9 Возможность ультразвука или
повторного рентгенографии.
использования
винтовых свай.
10 Отсутствие
вибрации при
заглублении.
11 Все работы, при
необходимости, могут
производиться
вручную.

2. SCREW PILES IN THAWED SOILS


2.1. Types of thawed soils

Thawed soils are usually any soils at the temperature of above 0oC.
All classifications of soils at temperatures above 0oC are applicable to such
soils. Main provisions of construction in thawed soils are stipulated in SP
22.13330.2011. Calculation of foundations on bearing capacity should be made
taking into account constructional activities envisaged to prevent displacement of the
foundation being designed. In such case, there shall be reduced the amount of the
foundation deformation or the construction shall be adapted to perception of
increased deformations. There shall be taken into account not only the loads from the
construction being designed but also possible adverse impact of external environment
leading to change in stress-related characteristics of soils (e.g., under the influence of
surface or ground waters, climatic factors, various types of heat sources,
anthropogenic impacts, etc.). Collapsing, swelling and saline soils are particularly
sensitive to change in humidity, and swelling and heaving soils – to change in
temperature.

2.2. Design of a screw pile

Installation of screw piles in thawed soils is carried out using hydraulic


mechanisms of different construction machines, or in some cases – manually. A pile
is lowered into the ground like a screw get screwed into wood. If there are solid soils

10 
 
— loweriing is perrformed inn a pilot borehole.
b Correct
C m
methods off installing
g piles aree
of paramoount impoortance to ensure deesigned bearing capaacity of thhe foundation.
In order to reduce innternal corrrosion off the pile shaft, as well as for betterr
resistancee of screw w piles to
t bendinng loads in i case of
o long leength of the t shaft,,
especiallyy in loosee soils, a screw pile’s shaft shall be concreted.
c . If piles are ratherr
long, theey shall be additionnally reinfforced. Commonly used dim mensions for screw w
piles are given in Table
T 5.

Table 5
Optimall dimension
ns of screw piles
p

Naame/Назван
ние Dimmension, Figgure/Рисуноок
m/Раазмер, м
Piile length, L / 8
Длинна сваи, L
Blade diameteer, 0.4-1.2
D / Диаметр
Д
лоппасти, D
Shhaft diameteer, 0.22D
D – 0.35D
d / Диам
метр стволаа, d
Bllade pitch, a / 0,15D
D – 0,3D
Шаг вин нта лопасти и,
a
H
Height of thee 1,5dd – 2,5d
shoe tipp, h / Высотта
острия башмака, h

Prefabriccated piless, which have


h a widde range ofo applicaation in booth large and
a smalll
loads, aree most freqquently ussed in connstruction (Table
( 6).

Table 6
D
Dimensions
s of screw piles for thaw
wed soils

Pile grade Pile length,


l Shaft Pipe walll Bladee Blaade Screw
L, mmm d
diameter, thicknesss, thickkness, diaameter, pitch, h,
d mm
d, F, mm mm D, mm mm
Марка сваи
и Длинна сваи, Диаметр
Д Толщинаа Толщ
щина Диаметр Шаг винта,
L, мм
м с
ствола, d, стенки лопассти, лоп
пасти, D, h, мм
м
мм трубы, F, мм мм мм
м
СВС-031-L
L-D 2,5000…12,000 57 3 5 1500 50 ...100
СВС-033- L-D
L 2,5000…12,000 57 3 5 3000 50 ...100
СВС-043- L-D
L 2,5000…12,000 89 4 10 3000 100 … 150
СВС-044- L-D
L 2,5000…12,000 89 4 10 4500 150 … 200
СВС-053- L-D
L 2,5000…12,000 108 4.5 10 5000 100 … 150
СВС-054- L-D
L 2,5000…12,000 114 4.5 10 4500 150 … 200
СВС-12- L--D 2,5000…12,000 168 8 15 2500 150 … 200
СВС-14- L--D 2,5000…12,000 168 8 15 4500 150 … 200
СВС-16- L--D 2,5000…12,000 168 8 15 6000 200 … 250

11 
 
Table 6 (continued)

Pile grade Pile length, Shaft Pipe wall Blade Blade Screw
L, mm diameter, thickness, thickness, diameter, pitch, h,
d, mm F, mm mm D, mm mm
Марка сваи Длина сваи, Диаметр Толщина Толщина Диаметр Шаг винта,
L, мм ствола, d, стенки лопасти, лопасти, D, h, мм
мм трубы, F, мм мм мм
СВС-23- L-D 2,500…12,000 219 8 20 300 150 … 200
СВС-24- L-D 2,500…12,000 219 8 20 450 150 … 200
СВС-26- L-D 2,500…12,000 219 8 20 600 200 … 250
СВС-064- L-D 2,500…12,000 325 8 30 450 200 … 250
СВС-069- L-D 2,500…12,000 325 8 30 900 200 … 250

3. SCREW PILES IN PERMAFROST SOILS


3.1. Types of permafrost soils

Permafrost soils are those which remain frozen for many years. Such soils are in
large areas of Russia, Canada, Alaska, Antarctica and occupy about one fourth of the
entire terrestrial parts of the world. In Russia they occupy about half of the country’s
territory, mostly in the Northern and North-eastern areas of the country, where they
lie as a compact to a depth of 500 m, and in some places – deeper. To the south of
these areas thickness of permafrost soils decreases, and in certain places islands of
thawed soils appear (taliks).
In terms of their state frozen soils are divided into hard frozen, plastic frozen and
loosely frozen soils. Sand and clay soils strongly hardened by ice are called hard
frozen soils. At temperatures above 0 °C, when there are still a lot of unfrozen water
in the soil interstices, frozen soils have viscoplastic properties and markedly
deformed under the influence of loads from structures. Such soils are called plastic
frozen. If soils with subzero temperature are not hardened by ice due to low humidity,
such as the almost dry sands and very coarse soils, they are called loosely frozen
soils.

3.2. Design of a screw pile

This type of piles is a steel pipe with welded blades that provide simple
lowering into the ground. At the top of the pipe there is a head to which the object
being constructed is fastened. It is worth noting that modern piles are made also with
multiple blades that greatly increases bearing capacity thereof.
Unlike other piles screw piles for frozen soils do not have the form of a cone at
the end, but they have a pointed or jagged end.
When installing screw piles wet processes are excluded completely, which is
very important in the Far North. In the circumstances where delivery of materials is
only possible in winter, use of the mixture of sand and cement that should be

12 
 
continuously warmed up is not advisable. However, after all, when installing screw
piles, it is impossible to do without concrete.
The most common piles used in permafrost soils are those ranging from 2.5 m to
12 m, which are presented in Table 7.

Table 7
Dimensions of screw piles for permafrost soils

Pile grade Pile length, Shaft Pipe wall Blade Blade Screw
L, mm diameter, thickness, thickness, diam pitch, h,
d, mm F, mm mm eter, mm
D,
mm
Марка сваи Длина сваи, Диаметр Толщина Толщина Диам Шаг
L, мм ствола, d, стенки лопасти, етр винта, h,
мм трубы, мм лопа мм
F,мм сти,
D,
мм
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
СВСМ-035-L-D 2500...12000 57 5 5 77 50 ...100
СВСМ-037- L-D 2500...12000 57 5 5 77 50 ...100
СВСМ-048- L-D 2500...12000 89 6 10 109 100 …150
СВСМ-050- L-D 2500...12000 89 6 10 109 150 …200
СВСМ-059- L-D 2500...12000 114 6.5 10 134 100 …150
СВСМ-060- L-D 2500...12000 114 6.5 10 134 150 …200
СВСМ-18- L-D 2500...12000 168 10 15 198 150 …200
СВСМ-20- L-D 2500...12000 168 10 15 198 150 …200
СВСМ-22- L-D 2500...12000 168 10 15 198 200 …250
СВСМ-27- L-D 2500...12000 219 10 20 300 150 …200
СВСМ-28- L-D 2500...12000 219 10 20 279 150 …200
СВСМ-29- L-D 2500...12000 219 10 20 239 200 …250
СВСМ-074- L-D 2500...12000 325 10 30 400 200 …250
СВСМ-080- L-D 2500...12000 325 10 30 400 200 …250
 

4. INSTALLATION OF SCREW PILES


4.1. Types of screw-piled foundation installation

Currently, screw piles are widely used, and the following methods of mounting piles
into the ground are applied:
1) mechanical;
2) manual.
Piles are installed as follows:
1) a pilot borehole which diameter is smaller than the inner diameter of the
hollow tubular pile body is drilled by continuous flight auger in case of hard thawed
or permafrost soils;

13 
 
2) a pile is installed in the pilot borehole;
3) the impact of torque on the pile is determined prior to lowering the pile to the
design depth;
4) central hole of the piles is filled by cement and sand grout slurry, deiced drill
cuttings for permafrost soils or by other ground or cement and sand grout slurry for
thawed soils;
5) the filled slurry or ground is allowed to stand to adfreezing thereof with the
compact of permafrost soils.
Uniqueness of the screw tip design allows it to lower piles without disrupting
the natural structure of the soil, while ensuring maximum bearing capacity of the
piles. High bearing capacity of screw piles is due to the fact that when screwing inter-
turn intervals of soil are not loosened up but vice versa are compacted by the pile’s
blade. Besides, the blade allows it to distribute efforts during operation of the
foundation on the maximum area.
Design of the tip and the method of turns production vary depending on the
manufacturer of the piles. In foreign countries, there are used designs with spaced
turns welded on the pile shaft. There exists an option of a cast shoe with screw
blades. However, there are other types of the shoe design. The diameter and length of
screw piles are selected on the basis of the amount and nature of the design load and
the type of underlying soils must be also taken into account.
Range of the pile shaft diameter varies from 50 to 500 mm, length can range
from a few meters to tens of meters.
Wall thickness of the pile shaft shall be not less than 4 mm, thickness of metal
for the blades – not less than 5 mm. All this must be protected by corrosion-resistant
compound and after installation the pile shaft must be filled with concrete.
If the screw pile’s central hole is not concreted it can be reused for another
facility. This feature is very useful in construction of temporary structures, such as a
greenhouse or a temporary fencing.

a) b) c) d)

Figure 4.1. Installation of screw piles: a) preparation for the pilot borehole drilling; b) pilot
borehole drilling; c) lowering the pile in the borehole; d) screwing the pile and concreting the
central hole thereof.

14 
 
Connstruction of foundaation on sccrew piless can be conducted
c d at any tim me of thee
year, andd in doing so significcantly shoorten the tiime of ereection therreof. Thuss, cost andd
time of thhe foundattion erectiion can bee reduced.
Thatt is why currentlyy screw piles p are really a game chhanger in buildingg
technologgies. Moreeover, screew piles can
c withstaand signifficant loadds, and theeir servicee
life is nott less thann 80 years.

4.2. Ma
achines and
a equiipment fo
or screw
w piles lo
owering

In soome casess, as well as when it is impo ossible to use speciaal equipm ment, or inn
case of a small am mount of work
w to bee performeed, screw piles are screwed manually.
m
For this purpose
p thhere are used
u fixtuures for sccrewing piles
p of sm
mall dimen nsion andd
diameter,, which arre, as a rule, prefabrricated annd allow itt to screw
w the pile tot a depthh
of up to 3 meters.
To install
i piles of morre length and diam meter it is applied m mechanicaal way off
piling whhen hydraaulic machhines and equipmen nt with multiple
m deevices, lab
bor savingg
tools andd special eqquipment are used. Through such equiipment a ppile, like a screw, iss
screwed into
i the ground.
g Thhe longer the pile an nd the larrger the diiameter thhereof, thee
more com mplex equipment is required for f its insttallation.
Now w, machinnes for screewing scrrew piles area quite actively
a used in buiilding andd
constructtion workss. The moost comm mon are piile screweers, soil auugers and d poweredd
augers. They
T makke it possiible to scrrew piles with minnimal effoort, effecttively andd
quickly (FFigure 4.22).

Figuree. 4.2. Hydrraulic machine to installl screw pilees

15 
 
Thiss hydrauliic machinee is a traiiling appliiance, whiich consissts of a ro od, handlee
and someething likee an auger.
Suchh machinees are elecctric- or petrol-driv
p ven ones. Some
S mecchanisms for screw w
piles com
mbine mixxed operatiions and have h featu
ures of muultiple machines forr differentt
types of piles.
p Thrrough them m a pile iss firmly captured, securely
s hheld and sccrewed inn
any soil.
Theyy are usedd to installl piles witth a diameeter of up tot 108 mm m and leng gths of upp
to 3 meteers, they are
a portabble, easy to t assemblle, easy too operate and do no ot requiree
special skkills.
On Figure
F 4.33 it is pressented a more
m sophiisticated, vehicle-ba
v ased installlation forr
lowering screw piles. It is used u for mounting
m screw pilles with a diameterr of moree
than 108 mm and of o a lengthh exceedinng 2.5 metters.
The installatiion consissts of a platform,
p on whichh there arre located the basee
vehicle, tracked or o wheeled chassis of basicc equipmeent, anchoor jacks, hydraulicc
system, operating
o d
device, rooll and pitcch drive, levers andd control ppanel, as well
w as off
accessoryy componeents.
Usinng such ann installattion a screew pile iss retractedd inside thhe operatin ng devicee
mounted by articuulated mannner on thhe frame. Sidewalll reducers provide necessaryy
angle of the
t screw pile loweering. Theen, rotation n of the pile occurss (screwing). At thee
same tim
me, the pilee bears also axial loaad.

Figure 4.3. Installlation for sccrewing screew piles

Anoother type of installaation for mechanize


m d piling iss a capstann (Figure 4.4).
4

16 
 
It is composed of: petrol-driven hydraulic station, hydraulic rotator and reaction
arms. In this installation a pile is mounted on the excavator boom by using special
device. This installation features a reverse run and possibility, if necessary, to
dismantle the pile. Using manual controls petrol engine speed can be changed and set
up the necessary speed of lowering piles into the ground. Operation of such
installation requires special skills and caution. Since, when screwing piles working
shaft bears considerable stress. When screwing through installations, significant
stress from the working device of the installation is passed to working blades of the
pile. Therefore, in order that piled foundation turned out to be durable and of high
quality, it is better to use piles with cast shoe (Table 2, Column 3).

Figure 4.4. Capstan MZS-25: 1 — electric motors;


2 — toothed rim;3 — worm reducers; 4 — frame

Unlike labor saving tools, assembly of screw piles through installations require
special qualification, skills and adherence to basic safety rules.
Installation of screw piles using special equipment and machinery has many
advantages. Using hydraulic screwing obstacles such as stones are easily overcome.
Soil is not exposed to shaking, is not loosed but on the contrary is compacted and
becomes firmer.

4.3. Types of protective measures

In the factory and directly at the site screw piles undergo a range of corrosion-
resistant operations. Types of corrosion-resistant coatings for screw piles (Table 8).

17 
 
Table 8
Corrosion-resistant coatings for screw piles
Coating / Название Description / Описание
покрытия
1 2
Bitumen mastic / Highly-elastic coating creates a waterproof film capable of isolating metal from
Битумная мастика negative effects of moisture and oxygen. Mastic is inexpensive and easy to apply on
the surface, but also easily erased when screwing metal piles.
Bitumen leaves black spots on surfaces which contacts during transportation and
storage of products, as well as softens at high temperatures. / Высокоэластичная
пленка создает водонепроницаемую пленку, способную надежно изолировать
металл от негативных последствий воздействия влаги и кислорода. Мастика
является недорогим материалом и легко наносится на поверхность, однако,
также легко стирается при вкручивании металлической сваи.
Битум оставляет черные пятна на поверхностях, с которыми соприкасается
при транспортировке и хранении изделий, а также размягчается при высоких
температурах.
Paint and coating This segment includes enamels, special paints and varnishes. Such protection is
compositions / deemed to be reliable, the simplest and relatively inexpensive. It includes primer and
Лакокрасочные finishing coating, resulting in coating that features waterproofness, elasticity, high
hardness and chemical and electrochemical passivity. / К данному сегменту
составы относятся эмали, специальные краски и лаки. Такая защита считается
надежной, наиболее простой и сравнительно недорогой. Она включает в себя
нанесение грунтовочного и финишного слоя, в результате чего появляется
покрытие, отличающееся водонепроницаемостью, эластичностью, повышенной
твердостью и химической и электрохимической пассивностью.
Cold galvanizing / A metal surface is coated by special zinc-rich primers which contain over 94 %
Холодное of pure zinc. A coating is compacted over time, forming an impenetrable barrier and
цинкование electrochemical couple of two metals. As a result all pores are filled that facilitates
emergence of a reliable corrosion-resistant shield on the piles. / Металлическая
поверхность обрабатывается специальными цинконаполненными красками, в
составе которых содержится более 94 % чистого цинка. Покрытие со временем
уплотняется, образуя непроницаемый барьер и электрохимическую пару двух
металлов. В результате все поры заполняются, что содействует появлению на
сваях надежного щита, предотвращающего коррозию.
Polymer mixes / Corrosion protection by means of polymer mixes is a more reliable but expensive
Полимерные option of handling metal surfaсes. Защита от коррозии с помощью полимерных
смеси составов представляет собой более надежный, но дорогостоящий вариант
обработки металлических поверхностей
Heat-shrink film / It is made from materials resistant to mechanical stress and aggressive
Термоусаживаемая environments. Usually, heat-shrinkable tubing or films are applied on screw piles in
пленка the weakest parts thereof – at the metal exit from the ground. They are installed with
a margin to both sides from the planning mark in 10-15 cm.
Plastic cap is warmed up, after which it decreases in diameter densely covering
the pile. The result is additional airtight insulation. / Изготавливаются из
материалов, устойчивых к механическим воздействиям и агрессивным средам.
Как правило, термоусадочные трубки или пленки располагают на винтовых
сваях в наиболее слабом месте – на выходе металлического ствола из грунта.
Их устанавливают с запасом в обе стороны от планировочной отметки на 10-
15см.
Пластичную насадку прогревают, после чего она уменьшается в диаметре,
плотно охватывая сваю. В результате получается дополнительная герметичная
изоляция.
Combined processing Combines the possibility of partial application of different ways of screw piles
/ Комбинированная processing. / Совмещает в себе возможность частичного применения различных
обработка способов обработки винтовых свай.

18 
 
5. BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR DESIGNING SCREW PILES
5.1. General provisions

In accordance with SP 50-102-2003 ‘Design and Installation of Piled


Foundations’ design of screw piles and foundation structures of screw piles shall be
implemented based on limit analysis:
a) of the first group:
- for strength of piles and pile caps material;
- for bearing capacity of piling subsoil in terms of pressure and pulling loads;
- for bearing capacity of piled foundations subsoil (sustainability), if they are passed
significant horizontal loads including seismic, if the structure is located on a slope or
near it or if the subsoil is composed of abruptly falling soil layers;
a) of the second group:
- for pile footings and piled foundations displacement from the vertical loads;
- for displacement of piles (horizontal and of the pile head angle of slew) in
conjunction with the subsoil from action of horizontal loads and moments.
In permafrost and non-frozen heaving soils, screw piled foundations shall be
designed for sustainability and resistibility to frost heaving forces.
According to SP 50-102-2003, it is permitted not to perform design for bearing
capacity regulated by the last subparagraph of the first group of limit states (on
sustainability), if constructional measures have ensured inability of the designed
foundation displacement.
1. The depth of piling into the soil shall not be less than 5 diameters of the pile
blade. The depth of insertion into soil of piles bearing pulling or horizontal loads
must not be less than 4.0 m.
2. Loads and effects taken into account in designing piled foundations, load
effect factors, as well as possible combinations of loads should be taken into account
in accordance with the requirements of SP 20.13330.2011.
Piles and piled foundations shall be designed in terms of deformation for
unfactored loads.
Loads and effects that under SP 20.13330.2011 may be referred as to long-term
and short-term ones, according to SP 25.13330.2010, in designing permafrost
subsoils on bearing capacity must be referred to short-term, and in designing subsoils
on deformations – to long-term.
3. All designs of piles, piled foundations and subsoils thereof should be
performed using factored values of the properties of materials and soils.
Factored values of the properties of materials of piles and pile caps should be
taken in accordance with the requirements of SP 16.13330.2011 and SP 53-102-2004.

5.2. Design of screw piles in thawed soils for bearing capacity

Consider the example of design of a screw pile in thawed soils for 3 types of
bearing capacity: pressure load, pulling load and on the material.

19 
 
Parameters of the screw pile are shown in Figure 5.1.
Soil conditions are taken from Appendix 1 (Option 0, Table 1), pile’s grade
СВС-053- L-D.

Figure 5.1. Structure of screw pile СВС-108.

5.2.1. Design of the screw pile for pressure load

Bearing capacity of the screw pile, Fd kN, blade diameter d ≤ 1.2 m and length
l < 10 m, working under pressure load should be determined by the formula
Fd = γc [(α1c1 + α2γ1h1)A + ufi(h - D)], (1)
where γc,— load effect conditions factor depending on the type of the load on
the pile, and soil conditions to be determined under Appendix 2, Table 3;
α1, α2 — dimensionless factors taken under Appendix 2, Table 2 depending on
the factored value of the angle of internal friction of soil in the working area φ1,
(working area refers to the area of soil layer around the blades with layer thickness of
D);
c1 — the factored value of specific cohesion of silt-loam soil or sandy soil
linearity parameter in the working area, kPa (tf/m2);
γ1 — average factored value of specific gravity of soils occurring above the
pile’s blade (in case of water-saturated soils taking into account water uplift
pressure);
h1 — pile’s blade depth of location from the natural terrain, and in levelling the
territory with cuts — from the level of levelling, m;
A — projection of the area of blade, m2, counting on the outside diameter when
the screw pile works under pressure load, and projection of the blade working area,
i.e. after deduction of the cross-section of the shaft when the screw pile works under
pulling load;

20 
 
fi — factored soil resistance on the side of the screw pile shaft, kPa (tf/m2),
under Appendix 2, Table 1 (averaged value for all the layers within the depth of
piling);
u — pile shaft perimeter, m;
h = 3, m = length of the shaft of the pile inserted in the ground, m;
D = 0.5 m — diameter of the pile blade, m.
Notes:
1. When determining bearing capacity of screw piles under pressure loads,
characteristics of soils in Appendix 2, Table 2 refer to the soils laying under the
blade, and when working under pulling load – over the pile blade.
2. Blade depth from the level of levelling should not be less than 5d in case of
silt-loam soils and not less than 6d in case of sandy soils (where d is the blade
diameter).
3. Factored values of the internal friction angle φ1 and soil cohesion c1 of the
subsoil should be determined in accordance with Clause 3.5.
According to the source data:
A= π(D/2)2 = 3.14(0.5/2)2 =0.196 m2;
Aв = π(D/2)2- π(d/2)2 = 3.14(0.5/2)2 - 3.14(0.25/2)2 =0.147 m2
u = π·d=3.14·0.25 = 0.785 m;
ρ =1.66 t/m3
γ1 = ρ·g=1.66·10=16.6t/m3
f = 76.75 kPa (Appendix 2, Table 1)
c1= 20 kPa
φ1= 11°
Determine the bearing capacity of the pile for pressure load
Fd = 0.8 [(7.2·20 + 2.3·16.6·3)0.147 + 0.785·76.75(3 – 0.5)] = 150.9 kN
Factored allowable load on the pile:
F 150,9
            N ,      N≤
1,4
=107,8 kN. 
к

5.2.2. Design of the screw pile for pulling load

Bearing capacity of the screw pile, Fd kN, blade diameter d ≤ 1.2 m and length
l < 10 m, working under pulling load should be determined by the formula 1, with
load effect conditions factor γс = 0.7
According to the source data:
A= π(D/2)2 = 3.14(0.5/2)2 =0.196 m2;
Aв = π(D/2)2- π(d/2)2 = 3.14(0.5/2)2 - 3.14(0.25/2)2 =0.147 m2
u = π·d=3.14·0.25 = 0.785 m;
ρ =1.66 t/m3
γ1 = ρ·g=1.66·10=16.6t/m3
f = 76.75 kPa (Appendix 2, Table 1)
c1= 20 kPa

21 
 
φ1= 11°
Determine the bearing capacity of the pile for pulling load
Fd = 0.7 [(7.2·20 + 2.3·16.6·3)0.147 + 0.785·76.75(3 – 0.5)] = 132.04 kN
Factored allowable load on the pile:
,
, 94,31 .
к ,

5.2.3. Design of bearing capacity of the screw piles for the material

Bearing capacity of the screw pile for the material, Fdm kN should be
determined according to the formula:
, (2)
where is the stress reduction factor usually taken 1;
с – load effect conditions factor taken equal to 0.85;
– concrete service conditions factor taken   =1;;
Rb – factored resistance of concrete to axial compression depending on its class, for B
15 – take 8500 kPa;
A – concrete in cylinder, m2;
а – reinforcement service factor taken а =1;
Rs – factored resistance to reinforcement compression, for steel pipe – take 200000
kPa;
Aa – square of metal pipe in diameter, m2.
Concrete in cylinder, m2, shall be determined by the formula:
, (3)
where D = 0.1 m — pile shaft wall thickness, m.
A = 3.14·(0.1)2/4 = 0.00785 m2
Аа = 3.14 · (0.1082-0.1002)/4 = 0.0013 m2
Design bearing capacity of the screw pile for the material:
Fdm = 1(8500·1·1.15·0.00785 + 1· 200000 · 0.0013) = 336.74 kN.

5.3. Design of screw piles in permafrost soils for bearing capacity

In this case, design is performed for pressure and pulling load.


Design diagrams are shown in Figure 5.2.
Parameters of pile СВСМ-27-L-D are taken:
- length of screw pile 7.0 m;
- pile blade diameter (D) – 300 mm;
- pile shaft diameter (d) – 219 mm;
- pile shaft wall thickness (δ) – 8 mm;
- height of the pile’s screw part (hv) – 475 mm;
- burial depth – 5.7 m;
- data on the soil conditions are in Appendix 1, Table 2, Option 31.

22 
 
Figure 5.2. Schemes for designing screw piles for bearing capacity:
a) for pressure load; b) for pulling load

5.3.1. Design of a screw pile in permafrost soils for pulling load


(on the basis of principle I with preservation of permafrost)

Bearing capacity of a screw pile (subsoil of the screw pile) working for
pressure loads, on physical and mechanical characteristics of permafrost (everfrost)
soils, should be determined by the formula:

Fd = с [RA + RshAsh + Raf Aaf], (4)


where Fd – bearing capacity of a screw pile under the pressure force directed
perpendicular to the blade disk, kN;
с – load effect conditions factor taken equal to 1.0;
– temperature factor that takes account of the change in temperature of soils
during construction and operation of the building, to be taken in accordance with SP
[3], is taken equal to 1.1;
R – factored pressure on frost soil under the lower end of pile with factored
temperature Tz at the depth z equal to the depth of piles lowering to be counted from
the roof of permafrost soil, is taken under SP [3] in Table 1 equal to 860 kPa;
A – projection of the working area of the blade;
Rsh – factored resistance of the frost soil to the soil shear within the screw part
is taken under SP [3] in Table 4 equal to 120 kPa;
Ash – surface area of the soil shear within the screw part;
Raf, i – factored resistance of the frost soil to the soil shear on the side surface
of the pile shaft adfreezing without taking into account the screw part within the i-th
layer of the soil is taken under SP [3] in Table B.3 equal to 100 kPa;

23 
 
Aaf, i – surface area of the i-th layer of soil adfreezing with the side surface of
the screw pile shaft within the height of adfreezing, m2.
When designing for pressure load, projection of working area of blade A of the
screw pile with open (cylindrical) tip is calculated according to the outside diameter
of the blade without taking into account the pile shaft wall thickness according to the
formula:
А= , (5)
where D — diameter of the pile blade, m;
— mathematical constant, which represents the ratio of the circle
circumference to its diameter.
When designing for pressure load, projection of working area of blade A of the
pile is determined by the formula (5):
0,32
А= 3.14·   = 0.07065 m2
4
Surface area of the soil shear within the screw part Ash is calculated by the
formula:
Ash =   , (6)
where D — diameter of the pile blade, m;
— mathematical constant, which represents the ratio of the circle
circumference to its diameter.
d – pile shaft diameter, m;
Surface area of the soil shear within the screw part Ash is calculated by the
formula (6):
2
0,3 0,219
(A)sh = 3.14·   = 0.00515 m2
4
Surface area of the soil shear within the screw part Aaf is calculated by the
formula:
Aaf =   з , (7)
where з is the depth of the bladeless pile burial into the soil, m;
Design the surface area of the soil shear within the pile shaft Aaf :
Aaf = 3,14·   5,7 0,475 · , = 3,59 м2
Design the bearing capacity of the screw pile, Fd, kN, with diameter of 219 mm
and burial depth of 5.7 m (subsoil of the screw pile), working for pressure loads:
Fd = 1.0·1.1 [860 · 0.07065 +120 · 0.00515 +100 ·3.59] = 420.38 kN.

5.3.2. Design of the screw pile in permafrost soils for pulling force

Bearing capacity of a screw pile (subsoil of the screw pile) working for pulling
force, on physical and mechanical characteristics of permafrost (everfrost) soils,
should be determined by the formula:
Fdu = c t [RshAsh + Raf Aaf] (8)

24 
 
where Fdu – bearing capacity of a screw pile under the action of pulling force, multi-
directional with compressive force, kN;
с – load effect conditions factor taken equal to 1.1;
– temperature factor that takes account of the change in temperature of soils
during construction and operation of the building, to be taken in accordance with SP
25.13330.2012, is taken equal to 0.9;
Rsh – factored resistance of the frost soil to the soil shear within the screw part
is taken under SP [3] in Table 4 equal to 120 kPa;
Ash – surface area of the soil shear within the screw part to be taken equal to
0.00515 m2, similar to formula 5;
Raf, i – factored resistance of the frost soil to the soil shear on the side surface
of the pile shaft adfreezing without taking into account the screw part within the i-th
layer of the soil is taken under SP [3] in Table B.3 equal to 100 kPa;
Aaf, i – surface area of the i-th layer of soil adfreezing with the side surface of
the screw pile shaft within the height of adfreezing to be taken equal to 25.50465 m2,
according to Formula 6.
Design the bearing capacity of the screw pile, Fd, kN, with diameter of 219 mm
and burial depth of 5.7 m (subsoil of the screw pile), working for pulling load:
Fdu =1.1·0.9[120 ·0.00515 +100 ·3.59] = 356.02 kN

5.4. The task for own designing a screw pile for bearing capacity

To assess their knowledge students need to perform design of bearing capacity


of a screw pile with a length of 12 m in thawed and permafrost soils under one of 30
options (Appendix 1, Tables 1 and 2).

25 
 
GLOSSARY
Heaving force – сила пучения
Peat soils – торфяные грунты
Screw-piled foundations – свайно-винтовые фундаменты
Permafrost soils – вечномерзлые грунты
Thawed soils – талые грунты
Broad-bladed anchors – широколопастные анкеры
Narrow-bladed anchors – узколопастные анкеры
Pile shaft – ствол сваи
Cast shoe – литой наконечник
Self-tapping screw – строительный саморез
Sandy loam – супесь
Clay loam – суглинок
Pilot borehole – лидерная скважина
Soil auger – ямобур
Powered auger – мотобур
Pile screwer – сваевинт
Capstan – кабестан
Collapsing soils – просадочные грунты
Swelling soils – набухающие грунты
Saline soils – засоленные грунты
Pressure load – вдавливающая нагрузка
Pulling load – выдергивающая нагрузка

26 
 
LIST OF REFERENCES

1. СП 24.13330.2011 «Свайные фундаменты».


2. СТО 56947007- 29.120.95- 050-2010. Нормы проектирования фундаментов из
винтовых свай. 2010. 33с.
3. СП 25.13330.2012 «Основания и фундаменты на вечномерзлых грунтах»
4. Преснов О.М. Механика грунтов: учеб.-метод. пособие. Красноярск: СФУ,
2012. 66 с.
5. Преснов О.М. Основания и фундаменты: учеб.-метод. пособие для курсового
и дипломного проектирования. Красноярск: СФУ, 2012. 68 с.
6. Преснов О.М. Основания и фундаменты: учеб.-метод. пособие для
контрольных работ. Красноярск: СФУ, 2012. 47 с.
7. Преснов О.М., Семенов М.Ю. Soil Mechanics, Bases and Foundation : учеб.-
метод. пособие. Красноярск : СФУ, 2016. 32 c.
8. Ухов С.Б., Семенов В.В., Знаменский В.В., Тер-Мартиросян З.Г., Чернышев
С.Н. Механика грунтов, основания и фундаменты. М.: Высш. шк., 2002. 566 с.

27 
 
Appendix 1
Table 1
Characteristics for thawed soils

Option Soil c, kPa γ, kN/m3 φ,° Pile grade


No.

0 Clay loam 42 18 13 СВС-053- L-D


1 Sandy loam 21 17 15 СВС-033- L-D
2 Clay loam 16 18 16 СВС-043- L-D
3 Clay 40 18 18 СВС-044- L-D
4 Sandy loam 20 18 20 СВС-053- L-D
5 Clay loam 44 18 22 СВС-054- L-D
6 Clay 37 18 24 СВС-12- L-D
7 Sandy loam 19 16 26 СВС-14- L-D
8 Clay loam 47 19 28 СВС-16- L-D
9 Clay 29 18 30 СВС-23- L-D
10 Sandy loam 16 19 32 СВС-24- L-D
11 Clay loam 33 18 34 СВС-26- L-D
12 Clay 46 19 13 СВС-064- L-D
13 Sandy loam 9 20 15 СВС-069- L-D
14 Clay loam 24 14 16 СВС-031- L-D
15 Clay 33 18 18 СВС-033- L-D
Table 2
Characteristics for permafrost soils

Option
c, kPa γ, kN/m3 φ,° Pile grade
No. Soil
16 Sandy loam 12 17 13 СВСМ-035- L-D
17 Clay loam 45 18 15 СВСМ-037- L-D
18 Clay 55 20 16 СВСМ-048- L-D
19 Sandy loam 18 19 18 СВСМ-050- L-D
20 Clay loam 32 18 20 СВСМ-059- L-D
21 Clay 43 19 22 СВСМ-060- L-D
22 Sandy loam 16 15 24 СВСМ-18- L-D
23 Clay loam 21 19 26 СВСМ-20- L-D
24 Clay 45 18 28 СВСМ-22- L-D
25 Sandyloam 17 18 30 СВСМ-27- L-D
26 Clay loam 35 14 32 СВСМ-28- L-D
27 Clay 41 20 34 СВСМ-29- L-D
28 Sandy loam 21 18 13 СВСМ-074- L-D
29 Clay loam 45 20 15 СВСМ-080- L-D
30 Clay 78 20 16 СВСМ-035- L-D
31 Clay loam 53 19 18 СВСМ-27- L-D

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Appendix 2 (from SP 24.13330.2011)

Table 1
Factored resistance from side surface of driven piles and shell piles fi, kPa
(tf/m2)
Average depth of sandy soils of medium density
of the soil large and
layer, m medium fine silt - - - - - -
coarse
silt-clay soils with liquidity index IL equal to
1 35 23 15 12 8 4 4 3 2
2 42 30 21 17 12 7 5 4 4
3 28 35 25 20 14 8 7 6 5
4 53 38 27 22 16 9 8 7 5
5 56 40 29 24 17 10 8 7 6
6 58 42 31 25 18 10 8 7 6
8 62 44 33 26 19 10 8 7 6
10 65 46 34 27 19 10 8 7 6
15 72 51 38 28 20 11 8 7 6
20 79 56 41 30 20 12 8 7 6
25 86 61 44 32 20 12 8 7 6
30 93 66 47 34 21 12 9 8 7
35 100 70 50 36 22 13 9 8 7
Notes: 1. When determining under Table 1 factored resistance of soils on the side surface of piles fi layers
of soils should be subdivided into homogeneous layers with thickness not exceeding 2m.
2.Values of factored resistance of hard sandy soils on the side surface of piles fi should be increased by 30
% in comparison with the values given in Table 1.
Table 2
Factored value of the Ratios Ratios
Factored value of the angle of
angle of internal
internal friction of soil in the
friction of soil in the α1 α2 α1 α2
working area φI, deg.
working area φI, deg.
13 7.8 2.8 24 18.0 9.2
15 8.4 3.3 26 23.1 12.3
16 9.4 3.8 28 29.5 16.5
18 10.1 4.5 30 38.0 22.5
20 12.1 5,5 32 48.4 31.0
22 15.0 7.0 34 64.9 44.4
Table 3
Soils Factor of labor effort conditions of screw piles γc with the following loads
pressure pulling alternate
1. Clays and loams:
a) hard, medium-hard and tough 0.8 0.7 0.7
b) plastic 0.8 0.7 0.6
c) high plastic 0.7 0.6 0.4
2. Sands and sandy loams:
a) slightly wet sands and hard sandy loams 0.8 0.7 0.5
b) wet sands and soft sandy loams 0.7 0.6 0.4
c) water-saturated sands and silt sandy loams 0.6 0.5 0.3

29 
 
Appendix 3 (from SP 25.13330.2012)
Table 4
Soils Factor of conditions
of screw piles operation γc
For sands, excluding silt 1.0
For silt sands and clay soils in stable condition 0.9
For clay soils in unstable condition 0.85

Table 5
Soils Factored pressures Raf, kPa at the soil temperature, оС
-0.3 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5 -3 -3.5 -4
1. Clay 40 60 100 130 150 180 200 230 250
2. Sandy 50 80 130 160 200 230 260 290 330
3. Sand-lime mortar 60 90 160 200 230 260 280 300 350

Table 6
о
Soils Depth Factored pressures R, kPa at the soil temperature, С
of piles -0.3 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5 -3 -3.5 -4
burial, m
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
1. Coarse At any 2500 3000 3500 4000 4300 4500 4800 5300 580
grained depth 0
2. Large At any 1500 1800 2100 2400 2500 2700 2800 3100 340
and medium depth 0
coarse
sands
3. Fine silt 3-5 850 1300 1400 1500 1700 1900 1900 2000 210
sands 0
10 1000 1550 1650 1750 2000 2100 2200 2300 250
0
15 and 1100 1700 1800 1900 2200 2300 2400 2500 270
more 0
4. Sandy 3-5 750 850 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1700 180
loams 0
10 850 950 1250 1350 1450 1600 1700 1900 200
0
15 and 950 1050 1400 1500 1600 1800 1900 2100 220
more 0
5. Loams 3-5 650 750 850 950 1100 1200 1300 1400 150
and clays 0
10 800 850 950 1100 1250 1350 1450 1600 170
0
15 and 900 950 1100 1250 1400 1500 1600 1800 190
more 0

30 
 
Table 7
о
Soils Factored pressures Rsh, kPa at the soil temperature, С
-0.3 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5 -3 -3.5 -4
1. Sandy 80 120 170 210 240 270 300 320 340
2. Clay 50 80 120 150 170 190 210 230 250

31